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industrial carcinogens

Claudia Bolognesi, Micheline Kirsch-Volders
1,3-Butadiene (BD), an important industrial chemical used in the production of synthetic rubber and resins and a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, was classified as a human carcinogen by IARC. BD requires metabolic activation to different epoxides that are known to bind to DNA, inducing also DNA-DNA and DNA-protein crosslinks. The DNA damage leading to mutations has been identified as the mode of action of BD. Experimental studies in rodents revealed widely different BD carcinogenic/mutagenic potency in rat and mice, associated to differences in BD metabolism...
October 2016: Mutation Research
Luca Piemontese
Wine by-products, in particular grape pomace, can be an important source of polyphenols and dietary fibers and are increasingly being used as a starting material in the industrial production of plant food supplements, such as other matrices containing biomolecules, with antioxidant properties. The risk associated with the consumption of these products was recently analyzed through a study of potential genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds that can be found in the marketed products. In particular, occurrence data about contamination with the mycotoxin ochratoxin A were also reported...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Rohi Jan, Ritwika Roy, Suman Yadav, P Gursumeeran Satsangi
The present study deals with the assessment of sequential extraction of particulate matter (PM)-bound metals and the potential health risks associated with them in a growing metropolitan city (Pune) of India. The average mass concentration of both PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Significant seasonal variation in mass concentration was found for both size fractions of PM with higher values in winter season and lower in monsoon. Chemical species of the studied trace metals in PM exhibited significant differences, due to difference in sources of pollution...
November 26, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Raquel Martín-Folgar, José-Luis Martínez-Guitarte
Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread and highly toxic heavy metal of particular ecotoxicological relevance for aquatic ecosystems. It occurs naturally in the environment but is also an industrial pollutant with extensively researched carcinogenic potentials. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are chaperones that play an important role in maintaining protein homeostasis under stress conditions. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) comprise the most diverse group of the HSPs family. They are expressed both constitutively and by stress-induction...
November 24, 2016: Chemosphere
Xin Cheng, Yi Huang, Zhijie Long, Shijun Ni, Zeming Shi, Chengjiang Zhang
Ambient PM10 air samples were collected at two industrial sites and one urban residential site in the mining city of Panzhihua, China, from April, 2014, to January, 2015. Mass concentrations of ten trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in PM10 were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The results showed Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn and V were the most abundant elements from the industrial sites. Concentrations for Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Mn and Cu at industrial sites greatly exceeded the air quality standards of the World Health Organization and the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection...
November 21, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Raymond Proudlock, Kristie Evans
"Ames" bacterial mutation tests are widely performed for evaluation and registration of new materials including industrial chemicals, agrochemicals, medical devices, pharmaceuticals, pharmaceutical impurities and other materials. Tests are used to predict their potential long-term adverse health effects (including carcinogenicity). Given their importance, pre-screening 'miniaturized' versions have been developed which allow higher throughput and use less test material, including the widely-employed 24-well micro-Ames (µAmes) test which uses 20 times less material...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Sock Yin Tan, Sarva Mangala Praveena, Emilia Zainal Abidin, Manraj Singh Cheema
Indoor dust acts as a media for heavy metal deposition. Past studies have shown that heavy metal concentration in indoor dust is affected by local human activities and atmospheric transport can have harmful effects on human health. Additionally, children are more sensitive to heavy metals due to their hand-to-mouth behaviour and rapid body development. However, limited information on health risks were found in past dust studies as these studies aimed to identify heavy metal concentrations and sources of indoor dust...
December 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Jin Mao, Bing He, Liangxiao Zhang, Peiwu Li, Qi Zhang, Xiaoxia Ding, Wen Zhang
Aflatoxins, a group of extremely hazardous compounds because of their genotoxicity and carcinogenicity to human and animals, are commonly found in many tropical and subtropical regions. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is proven to be an effective method to reduce or detoxify aflatoxins. However, the degradation products of aflatoxins under UV irradiation and their safety or toxicity have not been clear in practical production such as edible oil industry. In this study, the degradation products of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) in peanut oil were analyzed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatograph-Thermo Quadrupole Exactive Focus mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQEF-MS/MS)...
November 12, 2016: Toxins
Iman Al-Saleh, Rola Elkhatib, Tahreer Al-Rajoudi, Ghofran Al-Qudaihi
Plasticizers such as phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are highly persistent organic pollutants that tend to bio-accumulate in humans through the soil-plant-animal food chain. Some studies have reported the potential carcinogenic and teratogenic effects in addition to their estrogenic activities. Water resources are scarce in Saudi Arabia, and several wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) have been constructed for agricultural and industrial use. This study was designed to: (1) measure the concentrations of BPA and six PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP), in secondary- and tertiary-treated wastewater collected from five WTPs in three Saudi cities for four to five weeks and (2) test their potential genotoxicity...
November 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Yang Yu, Junhua Ma, Ningning Song, Xi Wang, Tong Wei, Zhifeng Yang, Yingxia Li
Urban dust in cities is a useful indicator of ambient environmental conditions and a sink for pollutants emitted through various natural and human activities. In this study, metal distributions in urban dust samples collected in 2007, using vacuuming, and 2012, using brushing, were compared. Experiments comparing the vacuuming and brushing methods were performed and translation equations were developed to correct the vacuuming results so that they could be compared with the brushing results. Cadmium concentrations were lower in 2012 than 2007; this could be because many industries moved out of the Beijing region after 2007...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
(no author information available yet)
The purpose of SENTIERI-ReNaM Project is to describe mesothelioma incidence in the Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs). The present report deals with 39 NPCSs (20 in Northern Italy, 8 in Central Italy and 11 in Southern Italy). Asbestos is specifically mentioned in the regulatory acts of recognition for 10 NPCSs and it is the only agent that has determined environmental contamination in 3 of them (Casale Monferrato, Broni, and Bari). The timeframe of the study is 2000-2011 for 34 out of 39 sites...
September 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Satiavani Poinen-Rughooputh, Mahesh Shumsher Rughooputh, Yanjun Guo, Yi Rong, Weihong Chen
BACKGROUND: Crystalline silica is considered as one of the most common and serious occupational hazards to workers' health. Although its association with lung cancer has been studied for many decades, the conclusion remains somewhat controversial. Our objectives are to review and summarize the epidemiological evidence on the relationship between occupational silica exposure and risk of lung cancer and to provide an update on this major occupational health concern. METHODS: Eligible studies up to 29 April 2016 were identified...
November 4, 2016: BMC Public Health
L Daniel Maxim, Ron Niebo, Ernest E McConnell
Bentonite, a clay with numerous industrial and consumer applications, is mined and processed in many countries of the world. Its many beneficial uses also create the potential for widespread occupational and consumer exposure. The available studies on toxicity and epidemiology indicate that the principal exposure pathway of concern is inhalation of respirable dust by occupationally exposed cohorts. Bentonite itself is probably not more toxic than any other particulate not otherwise regulated and is not classified as a carcinogen by any regulatory or advisory body, but some bentonite may contain variable amounts of respirable crystalline silica, a recognized human carcinogen...
November 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Mark P Purdue, Patricia A Stewart, Melissa C Friesen, Joanne S Colt, Sarah J Locke, Misty J Hein, Martha A Waters, Barry I Graubard, Faith Davis, Julie Ruterbusch, Kendra Schwartz, Wong-Ho Chow, Nathaniel Rothman, Jonathan N Hofmann
OBJECTIVES: Trichloroethylene, a chlorinated solvent widely used for metal degreasing, is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a kidney carcinogen. Other chlorinated solvents are suspected carcinogens, most notably the cleaning solvent perchloroethylene, although it is unclear whether they are associated with kidney cancer. We investigated kidney cancer associations with occupational exposure to 6 chlorinated solvents (trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and methylene chloride) within a case-control study using detailed exposure assessment methods...
November 1, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Nikolas C Zetouni, Arno G Siraki, Michael Weinfeld, Alberto Dos Santos Pereira, Jonathan W Martin
Large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) are produced by the oil sands surface mining industry during hot-water extraction of the bitumen. It is well documented that the acid extractable organics (AEOs) in OSPW, a highly complex mixture of acidic and polar neutral substances, are acutely toxic, but few studies have examined the genotoxicity or mutagenicity of this mixture. Here, the in vitro SOS-Chromotest and Ames tests (TA98 and TA100 strains) were used to evaluate genotoxicity and mutagenicity for whole OSPW-AEOs in the presence and absence of biotransformation by rat S9 liver enzymes...
November 1, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Sadegh Khodavaisy, Sassan Rezaie, Fatemeh Noorbakhsh, Elham Baghdadi, Somayeh Sharifynia, Farzad Aala
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus parasiticus. This species can contaminate a wide range of agricultural commodities, including cereals, peanuts, and crops in the field. In recent years, research on medicinal herbs, such as Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica, have led to reduced microbial growth, and these herbs also have a particular effect on the production of aflatoxins as carcinogenic compounds. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we to examine P...
July 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Manli Lin, Herong Gui, Yao Wang, Weihua Peng
To analyze the pollution characteristics, source apportionment, and health risk of heavy metals (HMs) in street dust of Suzhou, China, 23 sampling sites were selected and periodically sampled for 12 months. A total of 276 samples were collected, and the concentrations of selected HMs (e.g., Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn) were examined with an X-ray fluorescence spectrum analyzer. Results showed that the mean concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn in the street dust of Suzhou were 112.9, 27.5, 19941...
October 31, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nenad Grba, Dejan Krčmar, Snežana Maletić, Milena Bečelić-Tomin, Marko Grgić, Gordana Pucar, Božo Dalmacija
For the first time, long-term monitoring (from 2002 to 2014) was carried out of surface sediments in Ludaš Lake, a Ramsar site in northern Serbia. Organic (16 EPA PAHs, mineral oils, selected pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) and inorganic substances (eight heavy metals: Ni, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, As and Hg) were continually investigated. Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DahA) and fluorene (Flo) were found at levels indicative of causing adverse effects to biota. Diagnostic ratios of specific PAHs were dominated by high molecular weight components, particularly DahA, which contributed 81...
October 31, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
R Vigneri, P Malandrino, F Gianì, M Russo, P Vigneri
In the last two decades thyroid cancer incidence has increased worldwide more than any other cancer. Overdiagnosis of subclinical microcarcinomas has certainly contributed to this increase but many evidences indicate that a true increase, possibly due to environmental factors, has also occurred. Thyroid cancer incidence is markedly increased in volcanic areas. Thus, the volcanic environment is a good model to investigate the possible factors favoring thyroid cancer. In the volcanic area of Mt. Etna in Sicily, as well as in other volcanic areas, a non-anthropogenic pollution with heavy metals has been documented, a consequence of gas, ash and lava emission...
October 26, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Guiping Hu, Jiaxing Liu, Yongming Zhang, Pai Zheng, Lele Wang, Lin Zhao, Huadong Xu, Zhangjian Chen, Tiancheng Wang, Guang Jia
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are widely used in industry and agriculture and are also ubiquitous environmental contaminant which are recognized as one kind of carcinogen, mutagen and teratogen towards humans and animals. To determined the Cr(VI) toxicity effects, gene expression profile can be meaningful for discovering underlying mechanisms of toxicity, and identifying potential specific genetic markers of Cr(VI) exposure and effects. In the current study, gene expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis in 16HBE cells treated by chromium(VI) compound were performed...
October 26, 2016: Toxicology Letters
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