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industrial carcinogens

W Michael Peden
Revision of the International Council for Harmonization (ICH) S1 guidance for rat carcinogenicity studies to be more selective of compounds requiring a 2-year rat carcinogenicity study has been proposed following extensive evaluation of rat carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity studies by industry and drug regulatory authorities. To inform the ICH S1 expert working group in their potential revision of ICH S1, a prospective evaluation study was initiated in 2013, in which sponsors would assess the pharmacologic and toxicologic findings present in the chronic toxicity studies and predict a positive or negative carcinogenicity outcome using a weight of evidence argument (a carcinogenicity assessment document [CAD])...
October 17, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Ian Litchfield, Martie van Tongeren, Tom Sorahan
Little is known about personal exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields amongst employees in the telecommunications industry responsible for installing and maintaining transmitters. IARC classified RF exposure as a possible carcinogen, although evidence from occupational studies was judged to be inadequate. Hence, there is a need for improved evidence of any potentially adverse health effects amongst the workforce occupationally exposed to RF radiation. In this study, results are presented from an exposure survey using data from personal monitors used by employees in the broadcasting and telecommunication industries of the UK...
October 13, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Tatsuya Kasai, Yumi Umeda, Makoto Ohnishi, Takashi Mine, Hitomi Kondo, Tetsuya Takeuchi, Michiharu Matsumoto, Shoji Fukushima
BACKGROUND: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) constitute one of the most promising types of nanomaterials in industry today. With their increasing use, the potential toxicity and carcinogenicity of MWCNT needs to be evaluated in bioassay studies using rodents. Since humans are mainly exposed to MWCNT by inhalation, we performed a 104-week carcinogenicity study using whole-body inhalation exposure chambers with a fibrous straight type of MWCNT at concentrations of 0, 0.02, 0.2, and 2 mg/m(3) using male and female F344 rats...
October 13, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Wen Xu, Xi Ma, Yang Wang
Squalene, a naturally occurring linear triterpene formed via MVA or MEP biosynthetic pathway, is widely distributed in microorganisms, plants and animals. At present, squalene is used extensively in the food, cosmetic and medicine industries because of its antioxidant, antistatic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Increased consumer demand has led to the development of microbial bioprocesses for the commercial production of squalene, in addition to the traditional methods of isolating squalene from the liver oils of deep-sea sharks and plant seed oils...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Sara Mostafalou, Mohammad Abdollahi
Pesticides are a family of compounds which have brought many benefits to mankind in the agricultural, industrial, and health areas, but their toxicities in both humans and animals have always been a concern. Regardless of acute poisonings which are common for some classes of pesticides like organophosphoruses, the association of chronic and sub-lethal exposure to pesticides with a prevalence of some persistent diseases is going to be a phenomenon to which global attention has been attracted. In this review, incidence of various malignant, neurodegenerative, respiratory, reproductive, developmental, and metabolic diseases in relation to different routes of human exposure to pesticides such as occupational, environmental, residential, parental, maternal, and paternal has been systematically criticized in different categories of pesticide toxicities like carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, pulmonotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, and metabolic toxicity...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Jian Guo Wen, Xin Jian Liu, Zhi Min Wang, Tian Fang Li, Mark L Wahlqvist
The melamine contaminated milk powder contamination scandal occurred in China in 2008. Its main consequences so far have been urinary stone formation in children with associated renal damage and increased child mortality. Eight years have passed, but food safety issues still remain of concern in the daily lives of millions of Chinese. Vigilance is required to ensure no recurrence of such food safety problems. Ongoing studies focus on the early detection of food industry malpractice, mechanisms whereby these toxic substances induce disease and how its advent may be prevented and better managed...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Varun K Kasaraneni, Vinka Oyanedel-Craver
Exposure to high concentrations of carcinogenic pollutants in soils and sediments can result in increased health risks. Determining the levels and sources of contamination in developing communities is important for helping to reduce pollution and mitigate the risk of exposure. In the Mayan community of San Mateo Ixtatán, Guatemala, 24 samples of topsoil from urban, peri-urban, and agricultural sites and six samples of river sediment were collected and analyzed for 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Miriam Hernández-Zamora, Fernando Martínez-Jerónimo, Eliseo Cristiani-Urbina, Rosa Olivia Cañizares-Villanueva
Nearly 7 00000 tons of dyes are produced annually throughout the world. Azo dyes are widely used in the textile and paper industries due to their low cost and ease of application. Their extensive use results in large volumes of wastewater being discharged into aquatic ecosystems. Large volume discharges constitute a health risk since many of these dyes, such as Congo Red, are elaborated with benzidine, a known carcinogenic compound. Information regarding dye toxicity in aquatic ecosystems is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Congo Red on survival and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia...
September 26, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Kerry L Dearfield, B Bhaskar Gollapudi, Jeffrey C Bemis, R Daniel Benz, George R Douglas, Rosalie K Elespuru, George E Johnson, David J Kirkland, Matthew J LeBaron, Albert P Li, Francesco Marchetti, Lynn H Pottenger, Emiel Rorije, Jennifer Y Tanir, Veronique Thybaud, Jan van Benthem, Carole L Yauk, Errol Zeiger, Mirjam Luijten
For several decades, regulatory testing schemes for genetic damage have been standardized where the tests being utilized examined mutations and structural and numerical chromosomal damage. This has served the genetic toxicity community well when most of the substances being tested were amenable to such assays. The outcome from this testing is usually a dichotomous (yes/no) evaluation of test results, and in many instances, the information is only used to determine whether a substance has carcinogenic potential or not...
September 21, 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Seockmo Ku, Myeong Soo Park, Geun Eog Ji, Hyun Ju You
Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 is a probiotic strain that has been used as a major ingredient to produce nutraceutical products and as a dairy starter since 2000. The various bio-functional effects and potential for industrial application of B. bifidum BGN4 has been characterized and proven by in vitro (i.e., phytochemical bio-catalysis, cell adhesion and anti-carcinogenic effects on cell lines, and immunomodulatory effects on immune cells), in vivo (i.e., suppressed allergic responses in mouse model and anti-inflammatory bowel disease), and clinical studies (eczema in infants and adults with irritable bowel syndrome)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zohre Berizi, Seyed Yaser Hashemi, Mahdi Hadi, Ali Azari, Amir Hosein Mahvi
Azo dyes are widely used in various industries. These substances produce toxic byproducts in aquatic environments in addition to their mutagenic and carcinogenic potential effects. In this study, the effect of magnetite nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles modified by sodium alginate in batch systems and nonlinear kinetic and adsorption isotherm models were investigated. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and then modified and used as adsorbent to adsorb Acid Red 18...
September 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Olushola Sunday Ayanda, Godwin Oladele Olutona, Emmanuel G Olumayede, Cecilia O Akintayo, Bhekumusa J Ximba
Organic pollutants in water and wastewater have been causing serious environmental problems. The arbitrary discharge of wastewater by industries, and handling, use, and disposal constitute a means by which phenols, flame retardants (FRs), phthalates (PAEs) and other toxic organic pollutants enter the ecosystem. Moreover, these organic pollutants are not completely removed during treatment processes and might be degraded into highly toxic derivatives, which has led to their occurrence in the environment. Phenols, FRs and PAEs are thus highly toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic, and are capable of disrupting the endocrine system...
September 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
King-Thom Chung
Synthetic azo dyes are widely used in industries. Gerhardt Domagk discovered that the antimicrobial effect of red azo dye Prontosil was due to the reductively cleaved (azo reduction) product sulfanilamine. The significance of azo reduction is thus revealed. Azo reduction can be accomplished by human intestinal microflora, skin microflora, environmental microorganisms, to a lesser extent by human liver azoreductase, and by non-biological means. Some azo dyes can be carcinogenic without being cleaved into aromatic amines...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
Gisela De Aragao Umbuzeiro, Minne Heringa, Errol Zeiger
There is ongoing concern about the consequences of mutations in humans and biota arising from environmental exposures to industrial and other chemicals. Genetic toxicity tests have been used to analyze chemicals, foods, drugs, and environmental matrices such as air, water, soil, and wastewaters. This is because the mutagenicity of a substance is highly correlated with its carcinogenicity. However, no less important are the germ cell mutations, because the adverse outcome is related not only to an individual but also to population levels...
September 9, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Md Aynul Bari, Warren B Kindzierski
To design effective PM2.5 control strategies in urban centers, there is a need to better understand local and remote sources influencing PM2.5 levels and associated risk to public health. An investigation of PM2.5 levels, sources and potential human health risk associated with trace elements in the PM2.5 was undertaken in Edmonton over a 6-year period (September 2009-August 2015). The geometric mean PM2.5 concentration of was 7.11 μg/m(3) (interquartile range, IQR = 4.83-10.08 μg/m(3)). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor modeling identified secondary organic aerosol (SOA) as the major contributor (2...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Wanhyung Lee, Yeon-Soon Ahn, Seunghyun Lee, Bo Mi Song, Seri Hong, Jin-Ha Yoon
Crystalline silica is a widely used industrial material that is readily available worldwide, and is one of the most common types of particulate mineral pollutants. It has been classified as a group 1 human carcinogen of the respiratory system; however, whether it is linked to gastric cancer remains uncertain. We conducted a systemic review and meta-analyses to search for evidence of the relationship between gastric cancer and occupational exposure to crystalline silica. We searched for articles on occupations involving silica exposure and gastric cancer studies up to December 2014...
November 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Jie Zhang, Peng Wang, Jingyi Li, Pauline Mendola, Seth Sherman, Qi Ying
A revised Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was developed to simulate the emission, reactions, transport, deposition and gas-to-particle partitioning processes of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as described in Part I of the two-part series. The updated CMAQ model was applied in this study to quantify the contributions of different emission sources to the predicted PAH concentrations and excess cancer risk in the United States (US) in 2011. The cancer risk in the continental US due to inhalation exposure of outdoor naphthalene (NAPH) and seven larger carcinogenic PAHs (cPAHs) was predicted to be significant...
September 6, 2016: Environment International
Tanur Sinha, M Ahmaruzzaman
The present article depicts a green, facile and environmentally friendly biosynthetic methodology for the fabrication of Cu nanoparticles (Cu NPs) using an aqueous extract of Anas platyrhynchos egg shells. This method is free from the use of any external reducing agents, stabilizing agents, solvents and templates. The Cu NPs were characterized by UV-Vis, TEM, SAED, FTIR, XRD and SEM-EDX. The synthesized Cu NPs were predominantly spherical in nature with an average size of 5-18 nm. The EDX pattern revealed the presence of elemental copper in the Cu NPs...
October 5, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Marco H Schulze, Fabian M Völker, Raimond Lugert, Paul Cooper, Kai Hasenclever, Uwe Groß, Herbert Pfister, Steffi Silling
Data about the prevalence of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in African women with normal and abnormal cervical cytology are still scarce. Current HPV vaccines contain HPV types, which mainly represent the HPV epidemiology of industrial countries. As further developments of HPV vaccines are going on, it is necessary to regard regional differences in HPV type prevalence to ensure optimal protection by the vaccine. Vaginal swabs of Ghanaian pregnant women, routinely collected before delivery to rule out bacterial infections causing early onset sepsis, were screened for 12 high-risk (HR), 13 probably/possibly (pHR), and 18 low-risk (LR) HPV types...
September 6, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Hui Zhang, Zhi-Xing Cao, Meng Li, Yu-Zhi Li, Cheng Peng
The carcinogenicity prediction has become a significant issue for the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a novel prediction model of carcinogenicity of chemicals by using a naïve Bayes classifier. The established model was validated by the internal 5-fold cross validation and external test set. The naïve Bayes classifier gave an average overall prediction accuracy of 90 ± 0.8% for the training set and 68 ± 1.9% for the external test set. Moreover, five simple molecular descriptors (e...
September 3, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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