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industrial carcinogens

Neelam Verma, Rajni Sharma
BACKGROUND: The global industrialization is fulfilling the demands of modern population at the cost of environmental exposure to various contaminants including heavy metals. These heavy metals affect water and soil quality. Moreover these enter into the food chain and exhibit their lethal effects on the human health even when present at slightly higher concentration than required for normal metabolism. To the worst of their part, the heavy metals may become carcinogenic. Henceforth, the efficient removal of heavy metals is the demand of sustainable development...
January 11, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Carolyn A Raymond, Noel W Davies, Tony Larkman
Tea tree oil distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia has widespread use in the cosmetic industry as an antimicrobial as well as for other functions in topical products. Concerns were first raised by the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Products in 2004 about the level of the potentially carcinogenic phenylpropanoid compound methyl eugenol in tea tree oil. Limits on oil content in different types of cosmetic products were set based on a reported upper level of 0.9% methyl eugenol in the oil...
January 11, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Kai Yang, Jianwei Yu, Qingyuan Guo, Chunmiao Wang, Min Yang, Yu Zhang, Ping Xia, Dong Zhang, Zhiyong Yu
Despite the strong oxidizing ability of ozone, pre-ozonation has seldom been employed for the purpose of micropollutant removal in drinking water utilities. In this paper, the possibility of using pre-ozonation instead of post-ozonation for the removal of micropollutants was explored because of the lower risk of forming carcinogenic bromate. A 1.0 m(3)/h pilot system was utilized to compare the efficacy of pre- and post-ozonation in the removal of bulk organic pollutants as well as micropollutants, including typical odor-causing compounds, pharmaceuticals, and typical pesticides, from one source water (Huangpu River) characterized by the occurrence of various micropollutants...
December 27, 2016: Water Research
Amparo Ferrero, Ana Esplugues, Marisa Estarlich, Sabrina Llop, Amparo Cases, Enrique Mantilla, Ferran Ballester, Carmen Iñiguez
Benzene exposure represents a potential risk for children's health. Apart from being a known carcinogen for humans (group 1 according to IARC), there is scientific evidence suggesting a relationship between benzene exposure and respiratory problems in children. But results are still inconclusive and inconsistent. This study aims to assess the determinants of exposure to indoor and outdoor residential benzene levels and its relationship with respiratory health in infants. Participants were 1-year-old infants (N = 352) from the INMA cohort from Valencia (Spain)...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
John E Casida
Originally, organophosphorus (OP) toxicology consisted of acetylcholinesterase inhibition by insecticides and chemical threat agents acting as phosphorylating agents for serine in the catalytic triad, but this is no longer the case. Other serine hydrolases can be secondary OP targets, depending on the OP structure, and include neuropathy target esterase, lipases, and endocannabinoid hydrolases. The major OP herbicides are glyphosate and glufosinate, which act in plants but not animals to block aromatic amino acid and glutamine biosynthesis, respectively, with safety for crops conferred by their expression of herbicide-tolerant targets and detoxifying enzymes from bacteria...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Y Lu, J S Huang, Y L Zhou, P Sun
Objective: To investigate the exposure to benzene, methylbenzene, and dimethylbenzene in workers in a petrochemical enterprise in Shanghai, China, and to conduct occupational hazard risk assessment. Methods: The environmental monitoring data on benzene series in the workplace of this petrochemical enterprise from 2010 to 2014 were collected, as well as workers' general status. The inhalation risk assessment model developed by United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was used for risk assessment to determine the occupational hazard risk level of benzene, methylbenzene, and dimethylbenzene...
October 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Narottam Saha, M Safiur Rahman, Mohammad Boshir Ahmed, John L Zhou, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo
Concentration of eight heavy metals in surface and groundwater around Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ) industrial area were investigated, and the health risk posed to local children and adult residents via ingestion and dermal contact was evaluated using deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Metal concentrations (except Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn) in Bangshi River water were above the drinking water quality guidelines, while in groundwater were less than the recommended limits. Concentration of metals in surface water decreased as a function of distance...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Zhenwu Tang, Miao Chai, Jiali Cheng, Jing Jin, Yufei Yang, Zhiqiang Nie, Qifei Huang, Yanhua Li
We collected street dust from Huainan, a typical coal-mining city in China, to investigate the contamination features and health risks of heavy metals. Concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, As, and Sb were generally low to moderate, while pollution levels of Cd and Hg were moderate to high. Concentrations of Cd and Hg were associated with considerable health risks at 64.3% and 58.6% of sites, respectively. In particular, about a fifth of samples had associated high risks as a result of Hg contamination levels. Relative to other urban areas, the street dust from the mining area had no more severe metal pollution, which might be partly attributed to the deposition of coal dust onto street dusts...
December 21, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Fabio Galeotti, Laura Crimaldi, Francesca Maccari, Vincenzo Zaccaria, Alfredo Fachini, Nicola Volpi
The adverse effects on health and environment caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are critical problems. EFSA has defined 16 priority PAHs that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic, and identified eight (PAH8) priority PAHs as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence in food. Food supplements containing propolis were also found to contain relatively high quantities of PAHs. We report about an extractive procedure which is able to purify propolis from a high content of PAHs using a balanced mixture of ethanol and water solvents...
December 23, 2016: Natural Product Research
Van Ngoc Bui, Thi Thu Huyen Nguyen, Chi Thanh Mai, Yvan Bettarel, Thi Yen Hoang, Thi Thuy Linh Trinh, Nam Hai Truong, Hoang Ha Chu, Vu Thanh Thanh Nguyen, Huu Duc Nguyen, Stefan Wölfl
In Vietnam, a great number of toxic substances, including carcinogens and procarcinogens, from industrial and agricultural activities, food production, and healthcare services are daily released into the environment. In the present study, we report the development of novel yeast-based biosensor systems to determine both genotoxic carcinogens and procarcinogens by cotransformation with two plasmids. One plasmid is carrying human CPR and CYP (CYP3A4, CYP2B6, or CYP2D6) genes, while the other contains the RAD54-GFP reporter construct...
2016: PloS One
Jessica Leigh, Shaun MacMahon
This work presents occurrence data for fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol in 98 infant formula samples purchased in the United States. These contaminants, which result from the industrial processing of edible oils, are considered potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in refined oils and foods containing these oils a potential health risk. Because refined oils serve as the primary fat source in infant formula, particular attention has focused on developing methodology to extract and quantify MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula in order to produce occurrence data for risk assessment purposes...
December 22, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Raúl Harari, Florencia Harari, Francesco Forastiere
INTRODUCTION: Nickel is a strong skin and respiratory sensitizer and a recognized carcinogen. Oil refineries are important sources of atmospheric emissions of toxic pollutants, including nickel. Populations residing close to oil refineries are at potential risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to nickel in a population living close to the largest oil refinery in Ecuador, located in the city of Esmeraldas. METHODOLOGY: We recruited 47 workers from the oil refinery as well as 195 students from 4 different schools close to the plant and 94 students from another school 25 km far from the industry...
October 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Dewakar Sangaraju, Emily J Boldry, Yesha M Patel, Vernon Walker, Irina Stepanov, Daniel O Stram, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Natalia Y Tretyakova
1,3-Butadiene (BD) is an important industrial and environmental chemical classified as a known human carcinogen. Occupational exposure to BD in the polymer and monomer industries is associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. BD is present in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and forest fires, raising concern about potential exposure of general population to this carcinogen. Following inhalation exposure, BD is bioactivated to 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB). If not detoxified, EB is capable of modifying guanine and adenine bases of DNA to form nucleobase adducts, which interfere with accurate DNA replication and cause cancer-initiating mutations...
December 20, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Mette Skovgaard Christensen, Johnni Hansen, Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen, Gunnar Toft, Henrik Kolstad
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to styrene is widespread and has been suggested to be carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational exposure to styrene increases the risk of cancer, in particular lymphohematopoietic cancers. METHODS: We established a study population of 72,292 workers employed in 443 small and medium-sized companies producing reinforced plastics 1964-2007 by utilizing several national registries, expert assessment, and worker survey data...
December 12, 2016: Epidemiology
M Semla, Z Goc, M Martinikova, R Omelka, G Formicki
Acrylamide (AA) is a highly reactive organic compound capable of polimeryzation to form polyacrylamide, which is commonly used throughout a variety of industries. Given its toxic effect on humans and animals, the last 20 years have seen an increased interest in research devoted to the AA. One of the main sources of AA is food. AA appears in heated food following the reaction between aminoacids and reduced sugars. Large concentrations of AA can be found in popular staples such as coffee, bread or potato products...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
Laura Y McGirt
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a rare but increasing malignancy whose protean manifestations necessarily present in the integument, but can also spread to involve blood, lymph nodes and internal organs. We have developed efficacious and varied therapies to treat early and advanced stage disease, but there are still many who suffer tremendously from this disease. Although the pathogenesis of this cancer remains frustratingly elusive, over the last 200 years we have generated a robust body of evidence that points toward possible singular as well as multifactorial etiologies...
December 16, 2016: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Vítězslav Jiřík, Andrea Dalecká, Veronika Vašendová, Jana Janoutová, Vladimír Janout
BACKGROUND: The long-term exposure to pollutants in ambient air is associated with higher mortality and occurrence of respiratory and cardiopulmonary diseases. The longitudinal cross-section study focuses on the associations between long-term exposures to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic pollutants and the prevalence and incidence of such specific diseases including immunodeficiencies. METHODS: The data on health status from industrial and non-industrial regions were obtained from health documentation for a 5-year period from 2007 to 2011 and represent the whole population living in polluted (1,249,323 inhabitants) and unpolluted (631,387 inhabitants) regions...
December 15, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
David Kriebel, Polly J Hoppin, Molly M Jacobs, Richard W Clapp
This article summarizes the evidence for environmental toxic exposures contributing to cancers in early life, focusing on the most common cancer sites in this age group. It provides examples of widespread avoidable exposures to human carcinogens through air, water, and food and then describes recent examples of successful initiatives to reduce exposure to chemicals linked to these cancer sites, through government policy, industry initiatives, and consumer activism. State government initiatives to reduce toxic chemical exposures have made important gains; the Toxics Use Reduction Act of Massachusetts is now 25 years old and has been a major success story...
November 2016: Pediatrics
Yetkin Dumanoglu, Eftade O Gaga, Elif Gungormus, Sait C Sofuoglu, Mustafa Odabasi
Atmospheric and concurrent soil samples were collected during winter and summer of 2014 at 41 sites in Kutahya, Turkey to investigate spatial and seasonal variations, sources, air-soil exchange, and associated carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The highest atmospheric and soil concentrations were observed near power plants and residential areas, and the wintertime concentrations were generally higher than ones measured in summer. Spatial distribution of measured ambient concentrations and results of the factor analysis showed that the major contributing PAH sources in Kutahya region were the coal combustion for power generation and residential heating (48...
December 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Yanxue Jiang, Sihong Chao, Jianwei Liu, Yue Yang, Yanjiao Chen, Aichen Zhang, Hongbin Cao
Human activities contribute greatly to heavy metal pollution in soils. Concentrations of 15 metal elements were detected in 105 soil samples collected from a typical rural-industrial town in southern Jiangsu, China. Among them, 7 heavy metals-lead, copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, and nickel-were considered in the health risk assessment for residents via soil inhalation, dermal contact, and/or direct/indirect ingestion. Their potential sources were quantitatively apportioned by positive matrix factorization using the data set of all metal elements, in combination with geostatistical analysis, land use investigation, and industrial composition analysis...
February 2017: Chemosphere
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