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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434190/mixed-severity-fire-history-at-a-forest-grassland-ecotone-in-west-central-british-columbia-canada
#1
Jill E Harvey, Dan J Smith, Thomas T Veblen
This study examines spatially variable stand structure and fire-climate relationships at a low elevation forest-grassland ecotone in west central British Columbia, Canada. Fire history reconstructions were based on samples from 92 fire-scarred trees and stand demography from 27 plots collected over an area of about 7 km(2) . We documented historical chronologies of widespread fires and localized grassland fires between AD 1600 and 1900. Relationships between fire events, reconstructed values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index and annual precipitation were examined using superposed epoch and bivariate event analyses...
April 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434188/drivers-of-community-assembly-in-tropical-forest-restoration-sites-role-of-local-environment-landscape-and-space
#2
Lívia D Audino, Stephen J Murphy, Ludimila Zambaldi, Julio Louzada, Liza S Comita
There is increasing recognition that community assembly theory can offer valuable insights for ecological restoration. We studied community assembly processes following tropical forest restoration efforts, using dung beetles (Scarabaeidae) as a focal taxon to investigate taxonomic and functional patterns of biodiversity recovery. We evaluated the relative importance of the local environment (i.e., canopy cover, understory cover, tree basal area, and soil texture), landscape context (i.e., habitat patch proximity and availability and percentage of surrounding area classified as natural forest or Eucalyptus spp...
April 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431169/spa-ln-a-scoring-function-of-ligand-nucleic-acid-interactions-via-optimizing-both-specificity-and-affinity
#3
Zhiqiang Yan, Jin Wang
Nucleic acids have been widely recognized as potential targets in drug discovery and aptamer selection. Quantifying the interactions between small molecules and nucleic acids is critical to discover lead compounds and design novel aptamers. Scoring function is normally employed to quantify the interactions in structure-based virtual screening. However, the predictive power of nucleic acid-ligand scoring functions is still a challenge compared to other types of biomolecular recognition. With the rapid growth of experimentally determined nucleic acid-ligand complex structures, in this work, we develop a knowledge-based scoring function of nucleic acid-ligand interactions, namely SPA-LN...
April 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431166/landscape-genetics-of-aedes-mcintoshi-diptera-culicidae-an-important-vector-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-northeastern-kenya
#4
Lindsay P Campbell, Alana M Alexander
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a vector-borne, zoonotic disease that affects humans, wild ungulates, and domesticated livestock in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Rift Valley fever virus exhibits interepizootic and epizootic phases, the latter defined by widespread virus occurrence in domesticated livestock. Kenya appears to be particularly vulnerable to epizootics, with 11 outbreaks occurring between 1951 and 2007. The mosquito species Aedes mcintoshi (subgenus Neomelaniconion) is an important primary vector for RVFV in Kenya...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430199/control-over-differentiation-of-a-metastable-supramolecular-assembly-in-one-and-two-dimensions
#5
Tomoya Fukui, Shinnosuke Kawai, Satoko Fujinuma, Yoshitaka Matsushita, Takeshi Yasuda, Tsuneaki Sakurai, Shu Seki, Masayuki Takeuchi, Kazunori Sugiyasu
Molecular self-assembly under kinetic control is expected to yield nanostructures that are inaccessible through the spontaneous thermodynamic process. Moreover, time-dependent evolution, which is reminiscent of biomolecular systems, may occur under such out-of-equilibrium conditions, allowing the synthesis of supramolecular assemblies with enhanced complexities. Here we report on the capacity of a metastable porphyrin supramolecular assembly to differentiate into nanofibre and nanosheet structures. Mechanistic studies of the relationship between the molecular design and pathway complexity in the self-assembly unveiled the energy landscape that governs the unique kinetic behaviour...
May 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428246/key-features-of-an-hsp70-chaperone-allosteric-landscape-revealed-by-ion-mobility-native-mass-spectrometry-and-double-electron-electron-resonance
#6
Alex L Lai, Eugenia M Clerico, Mandy E Blackburn, Nisha A Patel, Carol V Robinson, Peter P Borbat, Jack H Freed, Lila M Gierasch
Proteins are dynamic entities that populate conformational ensembles, and most functions of proteins depend on their dynamic character. Allostery, in particular, relies on ligand-modulated shifts in these conformational ensembles. Hsp70s are allosteric molecular chaperones with conformational landscapes that involve large rearrangements of their two domains (viz, the nucleotide-binding domain and substrate-binding domain) in response to adenine nucleotides and substrates. However, it remains unclear how the Hsp70 conformational ensemble is populated at each point of the allosteric cycle and how ligands control these populations...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427465/the-use-of-evidence-in-english-local-public-health-decision-making-a-systematic-scoping-review
#7
REVIEW
Dylan Kneale, Antonio Rojas-García, Rosalind Raine, James Thomas
BACKGROUND: Public health decision-making structures in England have transformed since the implementation of reforms in 2013, with responsibility for public health services and planning having shifted from the "health" boundary to local authority (LA; local government) control. This transformation may have interrupted flows of research evidence use in decision-making and introduced a new political element to public health decision-making. For generators of research evidence, understanding and responding to this new landscape and decision-makers' evidence needs is essential...
April 20, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426665/oncodomains-a-protein-domain-centric-framework-for-analyzing-rare-variants-in-tumor-samples
#8
Thomas A Peterson, Iris Ivy M Gauran, Junyong Park, DoHwan Park, Maricel G Kann
The fight against cancer is hindered by its highly heterogeneous nature. Genome-wide sequencing studies have shown that individual malignancies contain many mutations that range from those commonly found in tumor genomes to rare somatic variants present only in a small fraction of lesions. Such rare somatic variants dominate the landscape of genomic mutations in cancer, yet efforts to correlate somatic mutations found in one or few individuals with functional roles have been largely unsuccessful. Traditional methods for identifying somatic variants that drive cancer are 'gene-centric' in that they consider only somatic variants within a particular gene and make no comparison to other similar genes in the same family that may play a similar role in cancer...
April 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426097/landscape-of-rna-polyadenylation-in-e-coli
#9
Alexandre Maes, Céline Gracia, Nicolas Innocenti, Kaiyang Zhang, Erik Aurell, Eliane Hajnsdorf
Polyadenylation is thought to be involved in the degradation and quality control of bacterial RNAs but relatively few examples have been investigated. We used a combination of 5΄-tagRACE and RNA-seq to analyze the total RNA content from a wild-type strain and from a poly(A)polymerase deleted mutant. A total of 178 transcripts were either up- or down-regulated in the mutant when compared to the wild-type strain. Poly(A)polymerase up-regulates the expression of all genes related to the FliA regulon and several previously unknown transcripts, including numerous transporters...
March 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425866/recent-development-of-oridonin-derivatives-with-diverse-pharmacological-activities
#10
Weiyan Cheng, Chuanhui Huang, Weifeng Ma, Xin Tian, Xiaojian Zhang
Oridonin is one of the major components isolated from Isodon rubescens, a traditional Chinese medicine, and it has been confirmed to exhibit many kinds of biological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammation, antibacterial and so on. However, the poor pharmaceutical property limits the clinical applications of oridonin. So many strategies have been explored in the purpose of improving the potencies of oridonin, and structure modification is one thus way. This review outlines the landscape of recent development of oridonin derivatives with diverse pharmacological activities, mainly focusing on the biological properties, structure-activity relationships, and mechanism of actions...
April 17, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424728/landscape-population-genomics-of-forsythia-forsythia-suspensa-reveal-that-ecological-habitats-determine-the-adaptive-evolution-of-species
#11
Jie Yang, Cai-Yun Miao, Run-Li Mao, Yong Li
Understanding the genetic mechanisms of adaptation to environmental variables is a key concern in molecular ecology and evolutionary biology. Determining the adaptive evolutionary direction and evaluating the adaptation status of species can improve our understanding of these mechanisms. In this study, we sampled 20 populations of Forsythia suspensa to infer the relationship between environmental variables and adaptive genetic variations. Population structure analysis revealed that four genetic groups of F...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423062/filamentous-fungal-carbon-catabolite-repression-supports-metabolic-plasticity-and-stress-responses-essential-for-disease-progression
#12
Sarah R Beattie, Kenneth M K Mark, Arsa Thammahong, Laure Nicolas Annick Ries, Sourabh Dhingra, Alayna K Caffrey-Carr, Chao Cheng, Candice C Black, Paul Bowyer, Michael J Bromley, Joshua J Obar, Gustavo H Goldman, Robert A Cramer
Aspergillus fumigatus is responsible for a disproportionate number of invasive mycosis cases relative to other common filamentous fungi. While many fungal factors critical for infection establishment are known, genes essential for disease persistence and progression are ill defined. We propose that fungal factors that promote navigation of the rapidly changing nutrient and structural landscape characteristic of disease progression represent untapped clinically relevant therapeutic targets. To this end, we find that A...
April 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422217/increased-substrate-affinity-in-the-escherichia-coli-l28r-dihydrofolate-reductase-mutant-causes-trimethoprim-resistance
#13
Haleh Abdizadeh, Yusuf Talha Tamer, Omer Acar, Erdal Toprak, Ali Rana Atilgan, Canan Atilgan
Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a ubiquitous enzyme with an essential role in cell metabolism. DHFR catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate, which is a precursor for purine and thymidylate synthesis. Several DHFR targeting antifolate drugs including trimethoprim, a competitive antibacterial inhibitor, have therefore been developed and are clinically used. Evolution of resistance against antifolates is a common public health problem rendering these drugs ineffective. To combat the resistance problem, it is important to understand resistance-conferring changes in the DHFR structure and accordingly develop alternative strategies...
April 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422131/variants-in-cplx1-in-two-families-with-autosomal-recessive-severe-infantile-myoclonic-epilepsy-and-id
#14
Silke Redler, Tim M Strom, Thomas Wieland, Kirsten Cremer, Hartmut Engels, Felix Distelmaier, Jörg Schaper, Alma Küchler, Johannes R Lemke, Stephanie Jeschke, Nicole Schreyer, Heinrich Sticht, Margarete Koch, Hermann-Josef Lüdecke, Dagmar Wieczorek
For a large number of individuals with intellectual disability (ID), the molecular basis of the disorder is still unknown. However, whole-exome sequencing (WES) is providing more and more insights into the genetic landscape of ID. In the present study, we performed trio-based WES in 311 patients with unsolved ID and additional clinical features, and identified homozygous CPLX1 variants in three patients with ID from two unrelated families. All displayed marked developmental delay and migrating myoclonic epilepsy, and one showed a cerebellar cleft in addition...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421706/generative-topographic-mapping-of-conformational-space
#15
Dragos Horvath, Igor Baskin, Gilles Marcou, Alexandre Varnek
Herein, Generative Topographic Mapping (GTM) was challenged to produce planar projections of the high-dimensional conformational space of complex molecules (the 1LE1 peptide). GTM is a probability-based mapping strategy, and its capacity to support property prediction models serves to objectively assess map quality (in terms of regression statistics). The properties to predict were total, non-bonded and contact energies, surface area and fingerprint darkness. Map building and selection was controlled by a previously introduced evolutionary strategy allowed to choose the best-suited conformational descriptors, options including classical terms and novel atom-centric autocorrellograms...
April 19, 2017: Molecular Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421698/historical-harvests-reduce-neighboring-old-growth-basal-area-across-a-forest-landscape
#16
David M Bell, Thomas A Spies, Robert Pabst
While advances in remote sensing have made stand, landscape, and regional assessments of the direct impacts of disturbance on forests quite common, the edge influence of timber harvesting on the structure of neighboring unharvested forests has not been examined extensively. In this study, we examine the impact of historical timber harvests on basal area patterns of neighboring old-growth forests to assess the magnitude and scale of harvest edge influence in a forest landscape of western Oregon, USA. We used lidar data and forest plot measurements to construct 30-m resolution live tree basal area maps in lower and middle elevation mature and old-growth forests...
April 19, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421267/potential-distribution-of-mountain-cloud-forest-in-michoac%C3%A3-n-mexico-prioritization-for-conservation-in-the-context-of-landscape-connectivity
#17
Camilo A Correa Ayram, Manuel E Mendoza, Andrés Etter, Diego R Pérez Salicrup
Landscape connectivity is essential in biodiversity conservation because of its ability to reduce the effect of habitat fragmentation; furthermore is a key property in adapting to climate change. Potential distribution models and landscape connectivity studies have increased with regard to their utility to prioritizing areas for conservation. The objective of this study was to model the potential distribution of Mountain cloud forests in the Transversal Volcanic System, Michoacán and to analyze the role of these areas in maintaining landscape connectivity...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420341/genetic-sequence-based-prediction-of-long-range-chromatin-interactions-suggests-a-potential-role-of-short-tandem-repeat-sequences-in-genome-organization
#18
Sarvesh Nikumbh, Nico Pfeifer
BACKGROUND: Knowing the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the chromatin is important for obtaining a complete picture of the regulatory landscape. Changes in the 3D structure have been implicated in diseases. While there exist approaches that attempt to predict the long-range chromatin interactions, they focus only on interactions between specific genomic regions - the promoters and enhancers, neglecting other possibilities, for instance, the so-called structural interactions involving intervening chromatin...
April 18, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418987/the-roles-of-behavioral-and-social-science-research-in-the-fight-against-hiv-aids-a-functional-framework
#19
Paul Gaist, Michael J Stirratt
Landmark advances have been made in HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. These include proof-of-concept and public health implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and "treatment as prevention" (TasP) to reduce HIV transmission as well as definitive evidence of the clinical gain from early antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Significant progress has been made in understanding and addressing the social contexts and behavioral factors that impact HIV prevention, care, and treatment interventions...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418714/more-than-a-physical-burden-women-s-mental-and-emotional-work-in-preventing-pregnancy
#20
Katrina Kimport
In the United States, responsibility for preventing pregnancy in heterosexual relationships disproportionately falls on women. While the biotechnological landscape of available methods may explain the assignment of the physical burden for contraception to women, this does not mean the concomitant time, attention, and stress that preventing pregnancy requires must also be primarily assumed by women. Building on work identifying health care providers as contributors to the construction of normative ideas about reproduction, this study analyzed 52 contraceptive counseling visits with women who reported they did not want future children for the construction of responsibility for the mental and emotional aspects of contraception...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
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