keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

leukoencephalopathies

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047014/a-callosal-catastrophe-toxic-leukoencephalopathy-associated-with-thermogenic-weight-loss-supplement-use
#1
Zakraus K Mahdavi, Ram Narayan, Shraddha Mainali, Benjamin M Greenberg, Venkatesh Aiyagari, David L McDonagh
BACKGROUND: The use of weight loss drugs and dietary supplements is common, but safety profiles for these drugs are largely unknown. Reports of toxicity have been published, and the use of these agents should be considered in clinical differential diagnoses. METHODS: We report the case of a patient with toxic leukoencephalopathy and hyponatremia associated with oral consumption of a thermogenic dietary supplement and essential oils. RESULTS: A 30-year-old woman presented after 2 days of headache, blurred vision, photophobia, vomiting, and hand spasms...
October 18, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044559/discovery-and-characterization-of-novel-trans-spliced-products-of-human-polyoma-jc-virus-late-transcripts-from-pml-patients
#2
A Sami Saribas, Julia DeVoto, Akhil Golla, Hassen S Wollebo, Martyn K White, Mahmut Safak
Although the human neurotropic polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV), was isolated almost a half century ago, understanding the molecular mechanisms governing its biology remains highly elusive. JCV infects oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and causes a fatal brain disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunocompromised individuals including AIDS. It has a small circular DNA genome (∼ 5 kb) and generates two primary transcripts from its early and late coding regions, producing several predicted alternatively spliced products mainly by cis-splicing...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044417/pathologic-correlation-of-paramagnetic-white-matter-lesions-in-adult-onset-leukoencephalopathy-with-axonal-spheroids-and-pigmented-glia
#3
Minkyeong Kim, Hansol Lee, Hyung Joon Cho, Se Young Chun, Jin-Hong Shin, Eun-Joo Kim, Jae Woo Ahn, Gi Young Huh, Sun-Yong Baek, Jae-Hyeok Lee
It has been proposed that susceptibility-weighted imaging is a sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for identifying white matter (WM) pathologic changes involving demyelination and iron accumulation. We identified the tree silhouette-like configuration with a paramagnetic phase shift in the frontal subcortical WM lesions of 4 patients with adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia who underwent 3T MRI. According to our postmortem 7T MRI and histologic correlation study to investigate the origin of the susceptibility-related phase contrast, changes in the subcortical WM architecture and central WM loss with the relative preservation of iron-rich U-fibers may contribute to the paramagnetic susceptibility...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034436/natalizumab-therapy-is-associated-with-changes-in-serum-jc-virus-antibody-indices-over-time
#4
John Peters, Eric Williamson
To examine changes in anti-JC Virus (JCV) index measurements over time in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients to better understand this test, which is used in assessing risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) with natalizumab. We aim to describe and compare seroconversion rates, variability of JCV antibody index values, and changes in index values over time between patients on natalizumab therapy and patients naïve to natalizumab. Anti-JCV index values are used to help decide whether to start, continue, or stop treatment...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028736/superficial-and-deep-capillary-ischemia-as-a-presenting-sign-of-retinal-vasculopathy-with-cerebral-leukoencephalopathy-and-systemic-manifestations
#5
Aaron Nagiel, Robert A Lalane, Joanna C Jen, Allan E Kreiger
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the presenting sign of retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy and systemic manifestations, a rare autosomal dominant condition caused by mutations in the TREX1 gene, and to explore the potential efficacy of bevacizumab in preventing capillary occlusions. METHODS: Observational case report with the use of ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and optical coherence tomography angiography...
October 12, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026563/methotrexate-induced-leukoencephalopathy-presenting-as-stroke-in-the-emergency-department
#6
Maria Teresa Cruz-Carreras, Patrick Chaftari, Anna Shamsnia, Nandita Guha-Thakurta, Carmen Gonzalez
Methotrexate-induced leukoencephalopathy is to be considered as a potential etiology in any patient presenting with stroke-like symptoms after receiving methotrexate. One of our cases suggests that the method of administration of the methotrexate can be IV or intrathecal and still results in leukoencephalopathy.
October 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025774/posterior-fossa-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-first-presentation-of-an-unknown-autoimmune-disease
#7
Paulette Scholten, Peter Kralt, Bram Jacobs
We present a case of a 57-year-old man who presented with progressive cerebellar dysarthria and cerebellar ataxia. Additional investigations confirmed the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in the posterior fossa. This is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, caused by an opportunistic infection with John Cunningham virus. PML has previously been considered a lethal condition, but because of careful monitoring of patients with HIV and of patients using immunosuppressive drugs it is discovered in earlier stages and prognosis can be improved...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023856/to-do-or-not-to-do-plasma-exchange-and-timing-of-steroid-administration-in-pml
#8
Cristina Scarpazza, Luca Prosperini, Nicola De Rossi, Lucia Moiola, Maria Pia Sormani, Simonetta Gerevini, Ruggero Capra
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze the effect of plasma exchange (PLEX, yes=PLEX+, no=PLEX-) and steroids administration timing (prophylactically -proST- or therapeutically -therST-) on the longitudinal clinical course of patients with natalizumab related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and full blown immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (PML-IRIS). METHODS: Clinical and radiological data of 42 Italian patients with PML were analyzed. Patient's data are available until 12 months after PML diagnosis...
October 10, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994146/congenital-unruptured-aneurysm-of-sinus-of-valsalva-quadricuspid-aortic-valve-and-ascending-aortic-aneurysm-associated-with-genetic-leukoencephalopathy-in-an-infant-a-new-syndrome
#9
Elaheh Malakan Rad, Hamidreza Pouraliakbar
We report a 15-month-old female with unruptured noncoronary sinus of Valsalva anreurysm (SOVA) associated with quadricuspid aortic valve, ascending aortic aneurysm (AAA), moderate aortic insufficiency, mild mitral insufficiency, genetic leukoencepaholpathy, developmental delay and mild mixed aminoaciduria. She was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur. Initial echocardiographic examination showed the aneurysm as a round cyst in the right atrium which changed in size during systole and diastole. As to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of association of SOVA, quadricuspid aortic valve, AAA and genetic leukoencephalopathy in an infant...
October 10, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991888/commonly-prescribed-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-and-incidence-of-aids-defining-neurological-conditions
#10
Ellen C Caniglia, Andrew Phillips, Kholoud Porter, Caroline A Sabin, Alan Winston, Roger Logan, John Gill, Marie-Anne Vandenhende, Diana Barger, Sara Lodi, Santiago Moreno, José Ramón Arribas, Antonio Pacheco, Sandra W Cardoso, George Chrysos, Charalabos Gogos, Sophie Abgrall, Dominique Costagliola, Laurence Meyer, Remonie Seng, Ard van Sighem, Peter Reiss, Roberto Muga, Santiago Pérez Hoyos, Dominique Braun, Christoph Hauser, Pilar Barrufet, Maria Leyes, Janet Tate, Amy Justice, Miguel A Hernán
BACKGROUND: The differential effects of commonly prescribed combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens on AIDS-defining neurological conditions (neuroAIDS) remain unknown. SETTING: Prospective cohort studies of HIV-positive individuals from Europe and the Americas included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. METHODS: Individuals who initiated a first-line cART regimen in 2004 or later containing a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone and either atazanavir, lopinavir, darunavir, or efavirenz were followed from cART initiation until death, lost to follow-up, pregnancy, the cohort-specific administrative end of follow-up, or the event of interest, whichever occurred earliest...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991708/post-cart-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-era-in-a-brazilian-center
#11
Marco A Lima, Marcus Tulius T Silva, Livia A Afonso, Beatriz J P Vaz
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is lytic infection of oligodendrocytes caused by JC virus (JCV). While PML incidence in developing countries has decreased after the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), data in developing countries is scarce and limited to few cohorts. We described the epidemiological and clinical profile of a group of Brazilian HIV infected patients with PML in the cART era. A total of 27 patients were included in the study. The median age at PML onset was 42years (range: 27-67years) and 18 (66...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989935/pathologic-findings-of-chronic-pml-iris-in-a-patient-with-prolonged-pml-survival-following-natalizumab-treatment
#12
Mai Himedan, Sandra Camelo-Piragua, Elizabeth A Mills, Avneesh Gupta, Rany Aburashed, Yang Mao-Draayer
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a common complication during treatment for natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Although severe IRIS can result in acute worsening of disability and is associated with poor prognosis, effective immune reconstitution may account for the high survival rate of this cohort of PML patients. We present pathological evidence of chronic IRIS 3.5 years after diagnosis with natalizumab-associated PML. Our case showed that the IRIS initially developed after plasma exchange therapy and resolved clinically and radiologically following a combination treatment with corticosteroids, maraviroc, and cidofovir...
July 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989857/jc-polyomavirus-attachment-and-entry-potential-sites-for-pml-therapeutics
#13
Colleen L Mayberry, Christian D S Nelson, Melissa S Maginnis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is a significant human pathogen that causes an asymptomatic infection in the kidney in the majority of the population. In immunosuppressed individuals, the virus can become reactivated and spread to the brain, causing the fatal, demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). There are currently limited treatment options for this fatal disease. Attachment to receptors and entry into host cells are the initiating events in JCPyV infection and therefore an attractive target for therapeutics to prevent or treat PML...
September 2017: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989805/migraine-and-stroke
#14
REVIEW
Yonghua Zhang, Aasheeta Parikh, Shuo Qian
Migraines are generally considered a relatively benign neurological condition. However, research has shown an association between migraines and stroke, and especially between migraine with aura and ischaemic stroke. Patients can also suffer from migrainous infarction, a subset of ischaemic stroke that often occurs in the posterior circulation of younger women. The exact pathogenesis of migrainous infarct is not known, but it is theorised that the duration and local neuronal energy level from cortical spreading depression may be a key factor...
September 2017: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987197/neuropathology-of-cerebrovascular-diseases
#15
Isidro Ferrer, Noemi Vidal
The chapter describes the epidemiology of cerebrovascular diseases, anatomy of the cerebral blood vessels, pathophysiology of ischemia, hypoxia, hypoxemia, anemic hypoxia, histotoxic hypoxia, carbon monoxide damage, hyperoxid brain damage and decompression sickness, and selective cell and regional vulnerability; diseases of the blood vessels including atherosclerosis, hypertensive angiopathy, small vessel disease, inflammatory vascular diseases, cerebral amyloid angiopathies, CADASIL, CARASIL and other diseases that can lead to cerebrovascular occlusion; intracranial and intraspinal aneurysms and vascular malformations; hematologic disorders that can cause cerebral infarct or hemorrhage; brain ischemic damage; and spontaneous intracranial bleeding...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987169/neurotoxicology-and-drug-related-disorders
#16
Serge Weis, Andreas Büttner
Neuropsychiatric disorders caused by toxic substances pose a great diagnostic challenge due to the large variety of changes caused in the central and peripheral nervous system. The pathogenetic mechanisms at work are multifaceted and partly not solved. In human drug abusers (cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamine and "designer drugs"), a broad spectrum of central nervous system alterations are observed including infarction, intracerebral and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic leukoencephalopathy, infections, neuronal loss, specific astroglial and microglial reaction patterns, and vascular changes, including the endothelial cell as well as the basal lamina...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985337/dars2-protects-against-neuroinflammation-and-apoptotic-neuronal-loss-but-is-dispensable-for-myelin-producing-cells
#17
Marijana Aradjanski, Sukru Anil Dogan, Stephan Lotter, Shuaiyu Wang, Steffen Hermans, Rolf Wibom, Elena Rugarli, Aleksandra Trifunovic
Although mitochondria are ubiquitous, each mitochondrial disease has surprisingly distinctly different pattern of tissue and organ involvement. Congruently, mutations in genes encoding for different mitochondrial tRNA synthetases result in the development of a very flamboyant group of diseases. Mutations in some of these genes, including aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (DARS2), lead to the onset of a white matter disease-leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement, and lactate elevation (LBSL) characterized by progressive spastic ataxia and characteristic leukoencephalopathy signature with multiple long-tract involvements...
August 3, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975841/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-and-monoclonal-antibodies-a-review
#18
Chandrashekar Bohra, Lubomir Sokol, Samir Dalia
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a viral infection predominantly seen in patients with HIV infection. However, with the increased use of monoclonal antibodies (MAB) for various lymphoproliferative disorders, we are now seeing this infection in non-HIV patients on drugs such as natalizumab, rituximab, and so on. The aim of this article is to review the relationship between the occurrence of PML and MAB used in the treatment of hematological malignancies and autoimmune diseases. Review of articles from PubMed-indexed journals which study PML in relation to the use of MAB...
October 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974941/multidisciplinary-rehabilitation-is-efficacious-and-induces-neural-plasticity-in-multiple-sclerosis-even-when-complicated-by-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#19
Elisabetta Groppo, Francesca Baglio, Davide Cattaneo, Eleonora Tavazzi, Niels Bergsland, Sonia Di Tella, Riccardo Parelli, Ilaria Carpinella, Cristina Grosso, Ruggero Capra, Marco Rovaris
A 48-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis (MS), treated with natalizumab for more than one year without clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs of disease activity, was diagnosed with definite progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). She presented with subacute motor deficit of the right upper limb (UL), followed by involvement of the homolateral leg and urinary urgency. The patient was treated with steroids and plasma exchange. On follow-up MRI scans, the PML lesion remained stable and no MS rebounds were observed, but the patient complained of a progressive worsening of the right UL motor impairment, becoming dependent in most activities of daily living...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969984/risk-of-natalizumab-associated-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-retrospective-analysis-of-data-from-four-clinical-studies
#20
Pei-Ran Ho, Harold Koendgen, Nolan Campbell, Bill Haddock, Sandra Richman, Ih Chang
BACKGROUND: Previous estimates of risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients with multiple sclerosis receiving natalizumab were stratified by three risk factors: anti-John Cunningham virus (JCV) antibodies in serum, previous immunosuppressant use, and treatment duration, which were estimated using population-based assumptions. We aimed to calculate PML risk estimates from patient-level risk-factor data and to stratify risk by concentrations of anti-JCV antibody in serum (anti-JCV antibody index)...
November 2017: Lancet Neurology
keyword
keyword
72206
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"