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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930628/estimation-and-inference-for-the-mediation-proportion
#1
Daniel Nevo, Xiaomei Liao, Donna Spiegelman
In epidemiology, public health and social science, mediation analysis is often undertaken to investigate the extent to which the effect of a risk factor on an outcome of interest is mediated by other covariates. A pivotal quantity of interest in such an analysis is the mediation proportion. A common method for estimating it, termed the "difference method", compares estimates from models with and without the hypothesized mediator. However, rigorous methodology for estimation and statistical inference for this quantity has not previously been available...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929992/mood-disorders-and-circulating-levels-of-inflammatory-markers-in-a-longitudinal-population-based-study
#2
J Glaus, R von Känel, A M Lasserre, M-P F Strippoli, C L Vandeleur, E Castelao, M Gholam-Rezaee, C Marangoni, E-Y N Wagner, P Marques-Vidal, G Waeber, P Vollenweider, M Preisig, K R Merikangas
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing evidence that chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with mood disorders. However, the findings have been inconsistent because of heterogeneity across studies and methodological limitations. Our aim is to prospectively evaluate the bi-directional associations between inflammatory markers including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with mood disorders. METHODS: The sample consisted of 3118 participants (53...
September 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929919/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-therapy-assisted-walking-after-chronic-motor-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-effects-on-bone-biomarkers-and-bone-strength
#3
B Catharine Craven, Lora M Giangregorio, S Mohammad Alavinia, Lindsie A Blencowe, Naaz Desai, Sander L Hitzig, Kei Masani, Milos R Popovic
To determine the efficacy of functional electrical stimulation therapy assisted walking (FES-T) compared to a conventional aerobic and resistance training (CONV) with respect to bone biomarkers and lower extremity bone strength outcomes among adults with chronic motor incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Parallel group randomized controlled trial ( www.clinicaltrials.gov - NCT0020196819). Site Tertiary academic rehabilitation centre in Canada. Methods Adults with chronic (≥18 months) motor incomplete SCI (C2-T12 AIS C-D) were consented and randomized to FES-T or CONV training for 45 minutes thrice-weekly for 4 months...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929780/characteristics-of-tables-for-disseminating-biobehavioral-results
#4
Barbara St Pierre Schneider, Ed Nagelhout, Du Feng
BACKGROUND: To report the complexity and richness of study variables within biological nursing research, authors often use tables; however, the ease with which consumers understand, synthesize, evaluate, and build upon findings depends partly upon table design. OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare table characteristics within research and review articles published in Biological Research for Nursing and Nursing Research. METHOD: A total of 10 elements in tables from 48 biobehavioral or biological research or review articles were analyzed...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929716/-developing-an-algorithm-based-on-health-and-social-sources-to-stratify-general-population-in-different-levels-of-health-socio-sanitary-frailty-and-disability
#5
Laura Andreoni, Antonio Giampiero Russo
OBJECTIVES: to describe an innovative algorithm to classify the general population, in homogeneous groups of severity and complexity of disease and real needs, by using three dimensions: health, frailty, and disability. DESIGN: retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the study includes the population covered by the Agency for health protection of Metropolitan Area of Milan (3,4 million of habitants). We identified two cohorts of residents: the first at 01...
May 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928491/freezing-of-gait-is-associated-with-cortical-thinning-in-mesial-frontal-cortex
#6
Miroslav Vastik, Pavel Hok, Jan Valosek, Petr Hlustik, Katerina Mensikova, Petr Kanovsky
AIMS: The relationship between freezing of gait (FOG) and regional brain atrophy has been intensively investigated, but it is still not clearly understood. The study objective was to test whether grey matter (GM) atrophy contributes to FOG in Parkinson´s disease (PD) using a surface-based algorithm. METHODS: We investigated 21 patients with PD, 11 with FOG and 10 without FOG. Both groups were assessed using a FOG questionnaire and Hoehn and Yahr staging. High resolution T1-weighted brain images were acquired for each subject using a 1...
September 13, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928462/total-and-specific-dietary-polyphenol-intakes-and-6-year-anthropometric-changes-in-a-middle-aged-general-population-cohort
#7
S Adriouch, E Kesse-Guyot, T Feuillet, M Touvier, V Olié, V Andreeva, S Hercberg, P Galan, L Fezeu
BACKGROUND: Dietary polyphenols are suggested anti-obesogenic agents. Prospective evidence in general populations of an association between polyphenol intakes and anthropometry is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between dietary polyphenol intakes and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) over a 6-year period. METHODS: Individual intakes of 264 different polyphenols (mg/day) were estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database and the mean of 6-17 24-h dietary records collected in 1994-1996...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928189/disability-acquisition-and-mental-health-effect-modification-by-demographic-and-socioeconomic-characteristics-using-data-from-an-australian-longitudinal-study
#8
Zoe Aitken, Julie Anne Simpson, Rebecca Bentley, Anne Marie Kavanagh
OBJECTIVES: There is evidence of a causal relationship between disability acquisition and poor mental health, but the substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect is poorly understood and may be aetiologically informative. This study aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic factors that modify the effect of disability acquisition on mental health. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of Australian households that has been conducted annually since 2001...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927811/postinduction-apnoea-in-dogs-premedicated-with-acepromazine-or-dexmedetomidine-and-anaesthetized-with-alfaxalone-or-propofol
#9
Sarah E Bigby, Thierry Beths, Sébastien Bauquier, Jennifer E Carter
OBJECTIVE: To compare incidence and duration of postinduction apnoea in dogs after premedication with methadone and acepromazine (MA) or methadone and dexmedetomidine (MD) followed by induction with propofol (P) or alfaxalone (A). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical trial. ANIMALS: A total of 32 American Society of Anesthesiologists class I dogs (15 females, 17 males), aged between 4 months and 4 years, weighing between 3 and 46 kg...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927238/factor-v-leiden-is-associated-with-increased-sperm-count
#10
T E van Mens, U N Joensen, Z Bochdanovits, A Takizawa, J Peter, N Jørgensen, P B Szecsi, J C M Meijers, H Weiler, E Rajpert-De Meyts, S Repping, S Middeldorp
STUDY QUESTION: Is the thrombophilia mutation factor V Leiden (FVL) associated with an increased total sperm count? SUMMARY ANSWER: Carriers of FVL have a higher total sperm count than non-FVL-carriers, which could not be explained by genetic linkage or by observations in a FVL-mouse model. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: FVL has a high prevalence in Caucasians despite detrimental health effects. Carriers have been shown to have higher fecundity, which might partly explain this evolutionary paradox...
September 12, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926373/exposure-to-mobile-source-air-pollution-in-early-life-and-childhood-asthma-incidence-the-kaiser-air-pollution-and-pediatric-asthma-study
#11
Audrey Flak Pennington, Matthew J Strickland, Mitchel Klein, Xinxin Zhai, Josephine T Bates, Carolyn Drews-Botsch, Craig Hansen, Armistead G Russell, Paige E Tolbert, Lyndsey A Darrow
BACKGROUND: Early-life exposure to traffic-related air pollution exacerbates childhood asthma, but it is unclear what role it plays in asthma development. METHODS: The association between exposure to primary mobile source pollutants during pregnancy and during infancy and asthma incidence by ages 2 through 6 was examined in the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, a racially diverse birth cohort of 24,608 children born between 2000 and 2010 and insured by Kaiser Permanente Georgia...
September 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926205/prevalence-and-correlates-of-sleep-disturbance-among-older-women-in-vietnam
#12
Tiet-Hanh Dao-Tran, Charrlotte Seib
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore prevalence and correlates of sleep disturbance among women aged 60 and over in Vietnam. BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance can negatively influence human's health. Sleep disturbance is likely to increase with age, and women appear to be more likely to experience sleep disturbance than men. Knowledge about sleep disturbance in women aged 60 and over in Vietnam is under-researched. DESIGN: The study presents results from a cross-sectional survey of 440 women aged 60 and over from 16 rural and urban suburbs in Vietnam from 8/2014 to 1/2015...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925799/factors-associated-with-marijuana-use-and-problems-among-college-students-in-colorado
#13
Kristina T Phillips, Michael M Phillips, Kerry D Duck
BACKGROUND: Past studies have shown that heavy marijuana use can impact student outcomes. Frequent use and misuse of marijuana have been associated with a range of psychological and personality factors in young adults, but there has been limited research focused on the college environment in states where marijuana has been legalized for recreational purposes. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether marijuana use and problems were associated with a range of demographic, personality, and psychological variables among college students at a midsized Colorado university...
September 19, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925406/abdominal-fat-deposits-determined-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-relation-to-leptin-and-vaspin-levels-as-well-as-insulin-resistance-in-the-general-adult-population
#14
F Genske, J-P Kühn, M Pietzner, G Homuth, W Rathmann, H J Grabe, H Völzke, H Wallaschofski, N Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Various fat depots including visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) or liver fat content (LFC) were supposed to have different influences on various entities including adipokine levels as well as insulin resistance/sensitivity. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the associations of SAT, VAT and LFC with the levels of leptin and vaspin as well as insulin resistance in a general non-diabetic population. METHODS: In total, 1825 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania were characterized according to body fat compartments and LFC determined by magnetic resonance imaging...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924564/signal-processing-of-functional-nirs-data-acquired-during-overt-speaking
#15
Xian Zhang, Jack Adam Noah, Swethasri Dravida, Joy Hirsch
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) offers an advantage over traditional functional imaging methods [such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)] by allowing participants to move and speak relatively freely. However, neuroimaging while actively speaking has proven to be particularly challenging due to the systemic artifacts that tend to be located in the critical brain areas. To overcome these limitations and enhance the utility of fNIRS, we describe methods for investigating cortical activity during spoken language tasks through refinement of deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb) signals with principal component analysis (PCA) spatial filtering to remove global components...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924555/early-changes-in-brain-structure-correlate-with-language-outcomes-in-children-with-neonatal-encephalopathy
#16
Kevin A Shapiro, Hosung Kim, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Elizabeth E Rogers, Dawn Gano, Donna M Ferriero, A James Barkovich, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Hannah C Glass, Duan Xu
Global patterns of brain injury correlate with motor, cognitive, and language outcomes in survivors of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). However, it is still unclear whether local changes in brain structure predict specific deficits. We therefore examined whether differences in brain structure at 6 months of age are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population. We enrolled 32 children with NE, performed structural brain MR imaging at 6 months, and assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes at 30 months...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924268/predictors-of-pulmonary-function-test-values-for-pakistani-children-aged-5-14-years
#17
Muhammad Asif, Ghulam Mustafa, Muhammad Aslam, Saima Altaf
OBJECTIVE: To predict pulmonary function test values in children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Nishtar Medical College, Multan, Pakistan, from August 2014 to March 2015, and comprised school-going children aged 5-14 years. After noting their gender, age, height and weight, the pulmonary function test measures, force vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow rate were taken. Simple and multiple regression models were used for the prediction of pulmonary function test values...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922422/psychological-effects-of-the-intensified-follow-up-of-the-ceawatch-trial-after-treatment-for-colorectal-cancer
#18
Zhuozhao Zhan, Charlotte J Verberne, Edwin R van den Heuvel, Irene Grossmann, Adelita V Ranchor, Theo Wiggers, Geertruida H de Bock
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate psychological effects of the state-of-art intensified follow-up protocol for colorectal cancer patients in the CEAwatch trial. METHOD: At two time points during the CEAwatch trial questionnaires regarding patients' attitude towards follow-up, patients' psychological functioning and patients' experiences and expectations were sent to participants by post. Linear mixed models were fitted to assess the influences and secular trends of the intensified follow-up on patients' attitude towards follow-up and psychological functioning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922296/trajectories-of-glycemic-change-in-a-national-cohort-of-adults-with-previously-controlled-type-2-diabetes
#19
Rozalina G McCoy, Che Ngufor, Holly K Van Houten, Brian Caffo, Nilay D Shah
BACKGROUND: Individualized diabetes management would benefit from prospectively identifying well-controlled patients at risk of losing glycemic control. OBJECTIVES: To identify patterns of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) change among patients with stable controlled diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cohort study using OptumLabs Data Warehouse, 2001-2013. We develop and apply a machine learning framework that uses a Bayesian estimation of the mixture of generalized linear mixed effect models to discover glycemic trajectories, and a random forest feature contribution method to identify patient characteristics predictive of their future glycemic trajectories...
September 15, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922020/seasonal-and-weather-variation-of-sleep-and-physical-activity-in-12-14-year-old-children
#20
Mirja Quante, Rui Wang, Jia Weng, Emily R Kaplan, Michael Rueschman, Elsie M Taveras, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Matthew W Gillman, Susan Redline
BACKGROUND: Understanding variation in physical activity (PA) and sleep is necessary to develop novel intervention strategies targeting adolescents' health behaviors. We examined the extent to which PA and sleep vary by aspects of the physical environment. PARTICIPANTS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 669 adolescents in the Project Viva cohort. METHODS: We estimated total PA, sleep duration, sleep efficiency and sleep midpoint timing from wrist accelerometers...
September 18, 2017: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
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