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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346442/comparative-metabolic-ecology-of-tropical-herbivorous-echinoids-on-a-coral-reef
#1
Levi S Lewis, Jennifer E Smith, Yoan Eynaud
BACKGROUND: The metabolic rate of consumers is a key driver of ecosystem dynamics. On coral reefs, herbivorous echinoids consume fleshy algae, facilitating the growth of reef-building calcified organisms; however, little is known about differences among species in their metabolic and functional ecology. Here, we used log-linear (log-log) regression models to examine the allometric scaling of mass and routine metabolic rate for five common herbivorous echinoids on a Hawaiian coral reef: Echinothrix calamaris, E...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346423/the-association-of-estimated-salt-intake-with-blood-pressure-in-a-viet-nam-national-survey
#2
Paul N Jensen, Tran Quoc Bao, Tran Thi Thanh Huong, Susan R Heckbert, Annette L Fitzpatrick, James P LoGerfo, Truong Le Van Ngoc, Ali H Mokdad
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of salt consumption with blood pressure in Viet Nam, a developing country with a high level of salt consumption. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analysis of a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese adults 25-65 years of age who were surveyed using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to Surveillance protocol. Participants who reported acute illness, pregnancy, or current use of antihypertensive medications were excluded...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346105/automated-detection-of-postictal-generalized-eeg-suppression
#3
Wanchat Theeranaew, James McDonald, Bilal Zonjy, Farhad Kaffashi, Brian D Moseley, Daniel Friedman, Elson So, James Tao, Maromi Nei, Philippe Ryvlin, Rainer Surges, Roland Thijs, Stephan Schuele, Samden Lhatoo, Kenneth A Loparo
Although there is no strict consensus, some studies have reported that Postictal generalized EEG suppression (PGES) is a potential electroencephalographic (EEG) biomarker for risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). PGES is an epoch of EEG inactivity after a seizure, and the detection of PGES in clinical data is extremely difficult due to artifacts from breathing, movement and muscle activity that can adversely affect the quality of the recorded EEG data. Even clinical experts visually interpreting the EEG will have diverse opinions on the start and end of PGES for a given patient...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345938/pso-method-for-fitting-analytic-potential-energy-functions-application-to-i-h2o
#4
Hum N Bandari, Xinyou Ma, Amit Kumar Paul, Philip Smith, William Louis Hase
In this work a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm was used to fit an analytic potential energy function to I-(H2O) intermolecular potential energy curves calculated with DFT/B97-1 theory. The analytic function is a sum of two-body terms, each written as a generalized sum of Buckingham and Lennard-Jones terms with only six parameters. Two models were used to describe the two-body terms between I- and H2O: a 3-site model H2O; and a 4-site model including a ghost atom. The fits are compared with those obtained with a genetic/non-linear least-squares algorithm...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343909/decline-in-semen-parameters-from-2000-to-2016-among-bangladeshi-men-attending-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#5
Nusrat Mahmud, Eshita Sharmin, Md Arif Mamun, Zayan Shamayeen, Natalie Rivadeneira, Roger Rochat, Akanksha Mehta
Introduction: The objective of this study was to analyze longitudinal changes in sperm parameters of Bangladeshi men. We hypothesized that semen parameters declined for this population. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed semen data from men aged 18-64 years who sought care for general sperm quality or updates on fertility status at an infertility clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh, from January 2000 to June 2016 (n = 13,953). Samples with incomplete data were excluded (n = 143)...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343279/spatial-distribution-and-habitat-characterization-of-mosquito-species-during-the-dry-season-along-the-mara-river-and-its-tributaries-in-kenya-and-tanzania
#6
Gabriel O Dida, Douglas N Anyona, Paul O Abuom, Daniel Akoko, Samson O Adoka, Ally-Said Matano, Philip O Owuor, Collins Ouma
BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases are increasingly becoming a major health problem among communities living along the major rivers of Africa. Although larger water bodies such as lakes and dams have been extensively researched, rivers and their tributaries have largely been ignored. This study sought to establish the spatial distribution of mosquito species during the dry season and further characterize their habitats along the Mara River and its tributaries. METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey, mosquito larvae were sampled along the Mara River, its two perennial tributaries (Amala and Nyangores), drying streams, and adjacent aquatic habitats (e...
January 18, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343216/an-appraisal-how-notifiable-infectious-diseases-are-reported-by-hungarian-family-physicians
#7
Katalin Vraukó, Zoltán Jancsó, László Kalabay, Andrea Lukács, Gabriella Maráczi, Lajos Mester, Anna Nánási, József Rinfel, Tamás Sárosi, Ferenc Tamás, Albert Varga, József Vitrai, Imre Rurik
BACKGROUND: Within the frame of National Epidemiological Surveillance System, family physicians have an obligation to report infections and suspicions cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, daily practice and the reporting activities of Hungarian family physicians regarding to infectious diseases. METHODS: A self-administered survey was developed, validated and used. The survey was completed by family physicians who had taken part in continuous medical educational programmes of all Hungarian medical faculties...
January 17, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343064/generalized-theory-for-the-timescale-of-molecular-electronic-decoherence-in-condensed-phase
#8
Bing Gu, Ignacio Franco
We introduce a general theory of electronic decoherence for molecules in condensed phase that captures contributions coming from pure dephasing effects, electronic transitions among diabatic states and their interference. The theory is constructed by taking advantage of a recently developed [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2017, 8, 4289-4294] general expression for decoherence times that is based on an early-time expansion of the purity dynamics, and extends early electronic decoherence models based on pure dephasing ideas...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342453/fine-particulate-air-pollution-and-the-expression-of-micrornas-and-circulating-cytokines-relevant-to-inflammation-coagulation-and-vasoconstriction
#9
Renjie Chen, Huichu Li, Jing Cai, Cuicui Wang, Zhijing Lin, Cong Liu, Yue Niu, Zhuohui Zhao, Weihua Li, Haidong Kan
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a key factor in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, but miRNA responses to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and their potential contribution to cardiovascular effects of PM2.5 are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We explored the potential influence of PM2.5 on the expression of selected cytokines relevant to systemic inflammation, coagulation, and vasoconstriction, and on miRNAs that may regulate their expression. METHODS: We designed a double-blind, randomized crossover study in which true and sham air purifiers were used to expose 55 healthy young adult students in Shanghai, China, to reduced or ambient levels of indoor PM2...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342400/a-unifying-framework-of-synaptic-and-intrinsic-plasticity-in-neural-populations
#10
Johannes Leugering, Gordon Pipa
A neuronal population is a computational unit that receives a multivariate, time-varying input signal and creates a related multivariate output. These neural signals are modeled as stochastic processes that transmit information in real time, subject to stochastic noise. In a stationary environment, where the input signals can be characterized by constant statistical properties, the systematic relationship between its input and output processes determines the computation carried out by a population. When these statistical characteristics unexpectedly change, the population needs to adapt to its new environment if it is to maintain stable operation...
January 17, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342394/identification-of-linear-and-nonlinear-sensory-processing-circuits-from-spiking-neuron-data
#11
Dorian Florescu, Daniel Coca
Inferring mathematical models of sensory processing systems directly from input-output observations, while making the fewest assumptions about the model equations and the types of measurements available, is still a major issue in computational neuroscience. This letter introduces two new approaches for identifying sensory circuit models consisting of linear and nonlinear filters in series with spiking neuron models, based only on the sampled analog input to the filter and the recorded spike train output of the spiking neuron...
January 17, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340855/the-relationship-between-target-joints-and-direct-resource-use-in-severe-haemophilia
#12
Jamie O'Hara, Shaun Walsh, Charlotte Camp, Giuseppe Mazza, Liz Carroll, Christina Hoxer, Lars Wilkinson
OBJECTIVES: Target joints are a common complication of severe haemophilia. While factor replacement therapy constitutes the majority of costs in haemophilia, the relationship between target joints and non drug-related direct costs (NDDCs) has not been studied. METHODS: Data on haemophilia patients without inhibitors was drawn from the 'Cost of Haemophilia across Europe - a Socioeconomic Survey' (CHESS) study, a cost assessment in severe haemophilia A and B across five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom) in which 139 haemophilia specialists provided demographic and clinical information for 1285 adult patients...
January 16, 2018: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340755/multiple-invasion-speeds-in-a-two-species-integro-difference-competition-model
#13
Bingtuan Li
We study an integro-difference competition model for the case that two species consecutively invade a habitat. We show that if a species spreads into a traveling wave of its rival, or if two species expand their spatial ranges in both directions, in a direction where open space is available, the species with larger invasion speed can always establish a wave moving into open space with its own speed. We demonstrate that when one species is stronger in competition, under appropriate conditions, the speeds at which the boundaries between two species move can be analytically determined...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340584/long-interval-intracortical-inhibition-as-biomarker-for-epilepsy-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#14
Prisca R Bauer, Annika A de Goede, William M Stern, Adam D Pawley, Fahmida A Chowdhury, Robert M Helling, Romain Bouet, Stiliyan N Kalitzin, Gerhard H Visser, Sanjay M Sisodiya, John C Rothwell, Mark P Richardson, Michel J A M van Putten, Josemir W Sander
Cortical excitability, as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electromyography, is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and follow-up of epilepsy. We report on long-interval intracortical inhibition data measured in four different centres in healthy controls (n = 95), subjects with refractory genetic generalized epilepsy (n = 40) and with refractory focal epilepsy (n = 69). Long-interval intracortical inhibition was measured by applying two supra-threshold stimuli with an interstimulus interval of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ms and calculating the ratio between the response to the second (test stimulus) and to the first (conditioning stimulus)...
January 11, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339664/cenesthopathy-and-subjective-cognitive-complaints-an-exploratory-study-in-schizophrenia
#15
Natalia Jimeno, Martin L Vargas
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cenesthopathy is mainly associated with schizophrenia; however, its neurobiological basis is nowadays unclear. The general objective was to explore clinical correlates of cenesthopathy and subjective cognitive complaints in schizophrenia. METHODS: Participants (n = 30) meeting DSM-IV criteria for psychotic disorder were recruited from a psychiatry unit and assessed with: Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) system, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ), and the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS)...
January 16, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339109/bitter-gourd-reduces-elevated-fasting-plasma-glucose-levels-in-an-intervention-study-among-prediabetics-in-tanzania
#16
Michael B Krawinkel, Christine Ludwig, Mark E Swai, Ray-Yu Yang, Kwok Pan Chun, Sandra D Habicht
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus have become major health issues even in non-industrialized countries. As access to clinical management is often poor, dietary interventions and alternative medicines are required. For bitter gourd, Momordica charantia L., antidiabetic properties have been claimed. AIM OF THE STUDY: The main objective of the intervention study was to assess antidiabetic effects of daily bitter gourd consumption of 2...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338950/sugar-sweetened-beverage-and-water-intake-in-relation-to-diet-quality-in-u-s-children
#17
Cindy W Leung, S Gemma DiMatteo, Wendi A Gosliner, Lorrene D Ritchie
INTRODUCTION: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major contributor to children's added sugar consumption. This study examines whether children's SSB and water intakes are associated with diet quality and total energy intake. METHODS: Using data on children aged 2-18 years from the 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, linear regression models were used to analyze SSB and water intake in relation to Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) scores and total energy intake...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337915/comparing-classic-and-interval-analytical-hierarchy-process-methodologies-for-measuring-area-level-deprivation-to-analyze-health-inequalities
#18
Pablo Cabrera-Barona, Omid Ghorbanzadeh
Deprivation indices are useful measures to study health inequalities. Different techniques are commonly applied to construct deprivation indices, including multi-criteria decision methods such as the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The multi-criteria deprivation index for the city of Quito is an index in which indicators are weighted by applying the AHP. In this research, a variation of this index is introduced that is calculated using interval AHP methodology. Both indices are compared by applying logistic generalized linear models and multilevel models, considering self-reported health as the dependent variable and deprivation and self-reported quality of life as the independent variables...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337903/use-of-accelerometer-activity-monitors-to-detect-changes-in-pruritic-behaviors-interim-clinical-data-on-6-dogs
#19
Susan M Wernimont, Robin J Thompson, Scott L Mickelsen, Spencer C Smith, Isabella C Alvarenga, Kathy L Gross
Veterinarians and pet owners have limited ability to assess pruritic behaviors in dogs. This pilot study assessed the capacity of the Vetrax® triaxial accelerometer to measure these behaviors in six dogs with pruritus likely due to environmental allergens. Dogs wore the activity monitor for two weeks while consuming their usual pet food (baseline), then for eight weeks while consuming a veterinary-exclusive pet food for dogs with suspected non-food-related skin conditions (Hill's Prescription Diet® Derm DefenseTM Canine dry food)...
January 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337562/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-in-lead-optimization-ii-rational-bioavailability-design-by-global-sensitivity-analysis-to-identify-properties-affecting-bioavailability
#20
Pankaj R Daga, Michael B Bolger, Ian Haworth, Robert Daniel Clark, Eric J Martin
When medicinal chemists need to improve oral bioavailability (%F) during lead optimization, they systematically modify compound properties mainly based on their own experience and general rules of thumb. However, at least a dozen properties can influence %F, and the difficulty of multi-parameter optimization for such complex non-linear processes grows combinatorially with the number of variables. Furthermore, strategies can be in conflict. For example, adding a polar or charged group will generally increase solubility but decrease permeability...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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