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Lipid infusion

Xiao-Fang Huang, Song-Zhao Zhang, Ya-Yu You, Na Zhang, Hong Lu, Alan Daugherty, Xiao-Jie Xie
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a chronic vascular disease characterized by pathological luminal dilation. Aortic rupture is the fatal consequence of AAAs. Ginkgo biloba extracts (GBEs), a natural herb extract widely used as food supplements, drugs, and cosmetics, has been reported to suppress development of calcium chloride-induced AAAs in mice. Calcium chloride-induced AAAs do not rupture, while angiotensin II (AngII)-induced AAAs in mice have high rate of aortic rupture, implicating potentially different mechanisms from calcium chloride-induced AAAs...
May 18, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Chao He, Wei Zhang, Suobei Li, Wei Ruan, Junmei Xu, Feng Xiao
Septic myocardial dysfunction remains prevalent and raises mortality rate in patients with sepsis. During sepsis, tissues undergo tremendous oxidative stress which contributes critically to organ dysfunction. Edaravone, a potent radical scavenger, has been proved beneficial in ischemic injuries involving hypoxia-inducible factor- (HIF-) 1, a key regulator of a prominent antioxidative protein heme oxygenase- (HO-) 1. However, its effect in septic myocardial dysfunction remains unclarified. We hypothesized that edaravone may prevent septic myocardial dysfunction by inducing the HIF-1/HO-1 pathway...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Ximei Zhang, Feng Huang, Weixuan Li, Jun-Long Dang, Jia Yuan, Julie Wang, Dong-Lan Zeng, Can-Xing Sun, Yan-Ying Liu, Qian Ao, Hongmei Tan, Wenru Su, Xiaoxian Qian, Nancy Olsen, Song Guo Zheng
Atherosclerosis is the major cause of cardiovascular diseases. Current evidences indicate that inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSC) have shown anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects on autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, the function of GMSC in controlling atherosclerosis is far from clear. The present study is aimed to elucidate the role of GMSC in atherosclerosis, examining the inhibition of GMSC on macrophage foam cell formation, and further determining whether GMSC could affect the polarization and activation of macrophages under different conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Fan Zhang, Sirkka B Stephan, Chibawanye I Ene, Tyrel T Smith, Eric C Holland, Matthias T Stephan
A major obstacle to the success rate of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-) T cell therapy against solid tumors is the microenvironment antagonistic to T cells that solid tumors create. Conventional checkpoint blockade can silence lymphocyte anti-survival pathways activated by tumors, but because they are systemic, these treatments disrupt immune homeostasis and induce autoimmune side effects. Thus, new technologies are required to remodel the tumor milieu without causing systemic toxicities. Here we demonstrate that targeted nanocarriers that deliver a combination of immune-modulatory agents can remove pro-tumor cell populations and simultaneously stimulate anti-tumor effector cells...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Research
Meena Asmar, Ali Asmar, Lene Simonsen, Jens Juul Holst, Jens Bülow
Context and objektive: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in combination with hyperinsulinemia increase blood flow and triglyceride clearance in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in lean humans. The present experiments were performed to determine whether the increase may involve capillary recruitment. Design: Eight lean healthy volunteers were studied before and after 1-h infusion of GIP or saline during a hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, raising plasma glucose and insulin to postprandial levels...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Karim G Kheniser, Carmen M Polanco Santos, Sangeeta R Kashyap
The effects of diabetes and diabetes therapy on bone are less known among clinicians. Traditionally, the emphasis of diabetes therapy has been on reducing cardiovascular risk by facilitating reductions in weight, blood pressure, blood sugar, systemic inflammation, and lipid levels. Now, with ample research demonstrating that patients with diabetes are more susceptible to bone fractures relative to controls, there has been a greater or renewed interest in studying the effects of diabetes therapy on bone. Interestingly, the majority of antidiabetic agents positively affect bone, but a few have detrimental effects...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Piotr Zabielski, Hady Razak Hady, Marta Chacinska, Kamila Roszczyc, Jan Gorski, Agnieszka U Blachnio-Zabielska
We sought to determine whether metformin treatment reverses a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic insulin resistance (IRes) and to identify lipid intermediates involved in induction of liver IRes. The experiments were conducted on male Wistar rats divided into three groups: 1. Control, 2. fed HFD and 3. fed HFD and treated with metformin. The animals were infused with a [U-13 C]palmitate to measure fractional lipid synthesis rate. This allowed for the calculation of fractional synthesis rate of signaling lipids (FSR) through the estimation of their isotopic enrichment...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gianni Biolo, Filippo Giorgio Di Girolamo, Martina Heer, Mariella Sturma, Sara Mazzucco, Francesco Agostini, Roberta Situlin, Pierandrea Vinci, Mauro Giordano, Judith Buehlmeier, Petra Frings-Meuthen, Filippo Mearelli, Nicola Fiotti
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Physical inactivity is associated with lean body mass wasting, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory changes of cell membrane lipids. Alkalinization may potentially counteract these alterations. We evaluated the effects of potassium bicarbonate supplementation on protein kinetics, glutathione status and pro- and anti-inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in erythrocyte membranes in humans, during experimental bed rest. METHODS: Healthy, young, male volunteers were investigated at the end of two 21-day bed rest periods, one with, and the other without, daily potassium bicarbonate supplementation (90 mmol × d-1 ), according to a cross-over design...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Ulla Kampmann, Lene Ring Madsen, Lasse Bjerg, Daniel R Witte, Kjeld Hasselstrøm, Torben Østergård, Kirsten Alstrup, Marianne Kleis Møller, Dorrit Dylmer, Klavs Würgler Hansen
AIMS: Insulin treatment in type 1 diabetes encompasses multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Both population-based studies and comparative studies regarding CSII use are sparse. The aim of the current study was to describe the prevalence and distribution of CSII use among adults with type 1 diabetes in the Central Denmark Region and to compare metabolic control in CSII-treated patients to those treated with MDI. METHODS: A database was constructed using the Danish Adult Diabetes Registry in 2014/2015 in combination with an audit of the patients' medical records...
May 4, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Brenno Astiarraga, Valéria B Chueire, Aglécio L Souza, Ricardo Pereira-Moreira, Sarah Monte Alegre, Andrea Natali, Andrea Tura, Andrea Mari, Ele Ferrannini, Elza Muscelli
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Incretin effect-the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin release induced by the oral vs the i.v. route-is impaired in dysglycaemic states. Despite evidence from human islet studies that NEFA interfere with incretin function, little information is available about the effect in humans. We tested the impact of acute bidirectional NEFA manipulation on the incretin effect in humans. METHODS: Thirteen individuals with type 2 diabetes and ten non-diabetic volunteers had a 3 h OGTT, and, a week later, an i...
May 7, 2018: Diabetologia
A R Jiao, H Diao, B Yu, J He, J Yu, P Zheng, Z Q Huang, Y H Luo, J Q Luo, X B Mao, D W Chen
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the main products of indigestible carbohydrates that are fermented by microbiota in the hindgut. This study was designed to investigate the effects of oral SCFAs administration on the lipid metabolism of weaned pigs. A total of 21 barrows were randomly allocated into three groups, including control group (orally infused with 200 mL physiological saline per day), low dose SCFAs group (orally infused with 200 mL SCFAs containing acetic acid 20.04 mM, propionic acid 7.71 mM and butyric acid 4...
2018: PloS One
Wen Jin, Bing Cui, Pingping Li, Fang Hua, Xiaoxi Lv, Jichao Zhou, Zhuowei Hu, Xiaowei Zhang
Vitamin D3 has been found to produce therapeutic effects on obesity-associated insulin resistance and dyslipidemia through its potent anti-inflammatory activity, but the precise immunomodulatory mechanism remains poorly understood. In the present study we found that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2 D3 ], the biologically active form of vitamin D3 , significantly attenuated monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity and insulin resistance as indicated by body weight reduction, oral glucose tolerance improvement, and a glucose infusion rate increase as detected with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp...
March 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Jiewei Deng, Wenying Li, Qiuxia Yang, Yaohui Liu, Ling Fang, Yunhua Guo, Peng-Ran Guo, Li Lin, Yunyun Yang, Tiangang Luan
Lipidomics is a significant way to understand the structural and functional roles that lipids play in biological systems. Although many mass spectrometry (MS)-based lipidomics strategies have recently achieve remarkable results, in vivo, in situ, and microscale lipidomics for small biological organisms and cells have not yet been obtained. In this article, we report a novel lipidomics methodology for in vivo, in situ, and microscale investigation of small biological organisms and cells using biocompatible surface-coated probe nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (BSCP-nanoESI-MS)...
April 30, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Julia Otten, Andreas Stomby, Maria Waling, Andreas Isaksson, Ingegerd Söderström, Mats Ryberg, Michael Svensson, Jón Hauksson, Tommy Olsson
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to investigate ectopic fat deposition and insulin sensitivity, in a parallel single-blinded randomised controlled trial, comparing Paleolithic diet alone with the combination of Paleolithic diet and exercise in individuals with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Thirty-two individuals with type 2 diabetes with BMI 25-40 kg/m2 and 30-70 years of age followed a Paleolithic diet ad libitum for 12 weeks. In addition, study participants were randomised by computer program to either supervised combined exercise training (PD-EX group) or standard care exercise recommendations (PD group)...
April 26, 2018: Diabetologia
Juthamard Surapongchai, Yupaporn Rattanavichit, Jariya Buniam, Vitoon Saengsirisuwan
Objectives: The present study investigated the impact of voluntary exercise on insulin-stimulated glucose transport and the protein expression and phosphorylation status of the signaling molecules known to be involved in the glucose transport process in the soleus muscle as well as other cardiometabolic risks in a rat model with insulin resistance syndrome induced by chronic angiotensin II (ANGII) infusion. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to sedentary or voluntary wheel running (VWR) groups...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Olena Yakymenko, Ida Schoultz, Elisabeth Gullberg, Magnus Ström, Sven Almer, Conny Wallon, Arthur Wang, Åsa V Keita, Barry J Campbell, Derek M McKay, Johan D Söderholm
OBJECTIVE: Infliximab is important in the therapeutic arsenal of Crohn's disease (CD). However, its effect on mucosal barrier function is not fully understood. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are important in CD pathophysiology, but the transmucosal uptake routes are partly unknown. We investigated effects of infliximab on uptake of colon-specific AIEC HM427 across CD colonic mucosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Endoscopic biopsies from non-inflamed colon of seven patients with CD, before and after two infliximab infusions, and eight non-inflammation controls, were mounted in Ussing chambers...
April 24, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Hanyu Liang, Helen Lum, Andrea Alvarez, Jose de Jesus Garduno-Garcia, Benjamin J Daniel, Nicolas Musi
OBJECTIVE: The root cause behind the low-grade inflammatory state seen in insulin resistant (obesity and type 2 diabetes) states is unclear. Insulin resistant subjects have elevations in plasma free fatty acids (FFA), which are ligands for the pro-inflammatory toll-like receptor (TLR)4 pathway. We tested the hypothesis that an experimental elevation in plasma FFA (within physiological levels) in lean individuals would upregulate TLR4 and activate downstream pathways (e.g., MAPK) in circulating monocytes...
2018: PloS One
Ingride Rita, Carla Pereira, Lillian Barros, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Given the increasing consumers demand for novelty, tea companies have been presenting new added value products such as reserve lots of aromatic plants. Herein, infusions from different lots of three aromatic plants were assessed in terms of phenolic composition (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) and antioxidant properties (reducing power, free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity). Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus; main compound 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) and Aloysia citrodora (A. citrodora; prevalence of verbascoside) reserve lots revealed higher phenolic compounds concentration than the respective standard lots...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Thomas Hegyi, Alan Kleinfeld, Andrew Huber, Barry Weinberger, Naureen Memon, Weichung Joe Shih, Mary Carayannopoulos, William Oh
OBJECTIVE: To determine the plasma triglyceride (TG) and unbound free fatty acid (FFAu) levels in infants treated with increasing dosages of soybean lipid, intralipid (IL), infusion. STUDY DESIGN: TG and FFAu levels were measured in 78 preterm infants (BW 500-2000 g; GA 23-34 weeks) using the fluorescent probe ADIFAB2 and enzymatic method. RESULTS: The infants' BW was 1266.2 ± 440.7 g and GA 28.8 ± 3.1 weeks. TG levels were 77.4 ± 50 mg/dL, 140...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Rasool Haddadi, Maryam Poursina, Fatemeh Zeraati, Forough Nadi
PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH: In this study, we appraised the effect of pre-treatment with intra-cerebro ventricular (i.c.v) microinjection of gastrodin (Gst) on catalepsy, motor imbalance, substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation levels, nitric oxide (NO) production and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rats model of PD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with i.c.v microinjections of Gst (20, 40 and 80 μg/3 μl/rat) for five consecutive days...
April 3, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
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