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Lipid infusion

P D Austin, K S Hand, M Elia
BACKGROUND: As lipid in parenteral nutrition (PN) purportedly enhances microbial growth, recommendations limit infusion of lipid PN (or lipid emulsion) from a single container to 24h (48h for lipid-free PN). However, the associated evidence base is ambiguous. AIM: To examine factors affecting microbial growth in PN. METHODS: A systematic review with meta-analyses examined effects of nutrients on microbial growth in PN infusates over a 48-h period using the growth ratio {GR=log10[colony-forming units (cfu)/mL at 48h/cfu/mL at time zero]}...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Rimpi Arora, Rahul Deshmukh
Embelin, the main active constituent of Embelia ribes, has been reported to possess various pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, and neuroprotective. The present study was designed to investigate neuroprotective mechanisms and therapeutic potential of embelin against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced experimental sporadic dementia in rats. STZ was infused bilaterally at the dose of (3 mg/kg/1 μl/1 min) ICV on day first and third. Spatial and non-spatial memory was evaluated using Morris water maze and object recognition task in rats...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
C Aeberhard, C Steuer, C Saxer, A Huber, Z Stanga, S Mühlebach
BACKGROUND: Parenteral antiepileptic drugs are frequently used in critically ill patients for seizure control therapy or prevention. Many of these patients require additional parenteral nutrition (PN). Therefore, a parallel infusion of the frequently used antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV) is interesting in terms of the restricted i.v. lines (e.g., neonates). The potential interactions of the complex PN admixture with the drug product and the appropriate admixing of a drug at effective dosages require physicochemical lab assessments to obtain specific and reliable pharmaceutical documentation for the intended admixing...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
S Mudaliar, R R Henry, T P Ciaraldi, D A Armstrong, P M Burke, J H Pettus, P Garhyan, S L Choi, M P Knadler, E C Q Lam, M J Prince, N Bose, N K Porksen, V P Sinha, H Linnebjerg, S J Jacober
AIMS: Basal insulin peglispro (BIL), a novel PEGylated basal insulin with a large hydrodynamic size, has a delayed absorption and reduced clearance that prolongs the duration of action. The current study compared the effects of BIL and insulin glargine (GL) on endogenous glucose production (EGP), glucose disposal rate (GDR) and lipolysis in patients with type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomized, open-label, four-period, crossover study. Patients received intravenous infusions of BIL and GL, each at two dose levels selected for partial and maximal suppression of EGP, during an 8 to 10 h euglycemic clamp procedure with d-[3-(3) H] glucose...
October 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Jessica Hellyer, Hunter Oliver-Allen, Majid Shafiq, Alisha Tolani, Maurice Druzin, Michael Jeng, Stanley Rockson, Robert Lowsky
Introduction Gorham-Stout Disease (GSD) is a rare disorder of bony destruction due to lymphangiomatosis, and is often triggered by hormones. One complication of GSD is the development of chylothorax, which carries a high mortality rate. Very little experience has been published to guide management in GSD during pregnancy to optimize both fetal and maternal health. Case Study A 20-year-old woman with known GSD presented with shortness of breath at 18 weeks of pregnancy, due to bilateral chylothoraces which required daily drainage...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Liangjian Lu, Albert Koulman, Clive J Petry, Benjamin Jenkins, Lee Matthews, Ieuan A Hughes, Carlo L Acerini, Ken K Ong, David B Dunger
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between early second trimester serum lipidomic variation and maternal glycemic traits at 28 weeks, and to identify predictive lipid biomarkers for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective study of 817 pregnant women (discovery cohort, n = 200; validation cohort, n = 617) who provided an early second trimester serum sample, and underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 28 weeks...
October 4, 2016: Diabetes Care
Feng-Fei Li, Li-Yuan Fu, Xiao-Hua Xu, Xiao-Fei Su, Jin-Dan Wu, Lei Ye, Jian-Hua Ma
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the add-on effect of acarbose therapy in oxidative stress, and the lipid and inflammatory profiles of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with insulin. This was an open and unblended study. Patients (n=134) with T2DM (haemoglobin A1c range, 9.0-12.0%) were recruited. After continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for 7 days for initial rapid correction of hyperglycaemia, a premixed insulin titration period (duration, 4-6 days) subsequently followed...
October 2016: Biomedical Reports
Melvin E Klegerman, Melanie R Moody, Jermaine R Hurling, Tao Peng, Shao-Ling Huang, David D McPherson
RATIONALE: We have produced a liposomal formulation of xenon (Xe-ELIP) as a neuroprotectant for inhibition of brain damage in stroke patients. This mandates development of a reliable assay to measure the amount of dissolved xenon released from Xe-ELIP in water and blood samples. METHODS: Gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to quantify xenon gas released into the headspace of vials containing Xe-ELIP samples in water or blood. In order to determine blood concentration of xenon in vivo after Xe-ELIP administration, 6 mg Xe-ELIP lipid was infused intravenously into rats...
September 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Daniel J DelloStritto, Pritam Sinharoy, Patrick J Connell, Joseph N Fahmy, Holly C Cappelli, Charles K Thodeti, Werner J Geldenhuys, Derek S Damron, Ian N Bratz
We demonstrated previously that TRPV1-dependent regulation of coronary blood flow (CBF) is disrupted in diabetes. Further, we have shown that endothelial TRPV1 is differentially regulated, ultimately leading to the inactivation of TRPV1, when exposed to a prolonged pathophysiological oxidative environment. This environment has been shown to increase lipid peroxidation byproducts including 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). 4-HNE is notorious for producing protein post-translation modification (PTM) via reactions with the amino acids: cysteine, histidine and lysine...
September 25, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Nailliw Z Preite, Bruna P P Nascimento, Cynthia R Muller, Anna Laura V Americo, Talita S Higa, Fabiana S Evangelista, Carmen L Lancellotti, Felipe Dos Santos Henriques, Miguel Luiz Batista Júnior, Antonio C Bianco, Miriam Oliveira Ribeiro
The brown adipose tissue (BAT) mediates adaptive changes in metabolic rate by responding to the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) through β-adrenergic receptors (AR). Here we wished to define the role played by the ARβ3 isoform in this process. This study focused on the ARβ3 knockout mice (ARβ3KO), including responsiveness to cold exposure, diet-induced obesity, intolerance to glucose, dyslipidemia and lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT). ARβ3KO mice defend core temperature during cold exposure (4ºC for 5h), with faster BAT thermal response to Norepinephrine (NE) infusion when compared to wild-type (WT) mice...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Reeko Sato, Takuma Aoki, Saori Kobayashi, Naohiro Uchida, Shunsuke Simamura, Masahiro Yamasaki
Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol), being used as an intravenous sedative and anesthetic agent, influences not only upon nervous system but also for host inflammatory response through modulating neutrophil functions. This study is designed to evaluate the modulating effects of propofol and its lipid carrier administration at clinically relevant rate on canine neutrophil functions. Clinically healthy beagle dogs were received propofol (8.8 mg/kg) from cephalic vein and maintained with propofol dropping infusion (26...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Daisuke Aotani, Cheol Son, Yoshiyuki Shimizu, Hidenari Nomura, Takatoshi Hikida, Toru Kusakabe, Tomohiro Tanaka, Takashi Miyazawa, Kiminori Hosoda, Kazuwa Nakao
In this study, we evaluated the preventive effect of mazindol on the development of obesity and sought to elucidate the drug's effects on the reward system. In mice, body weight gain and hyperphagia induced by high-fat diet (HFD) were decreased by 38.6% and 13.9%, respectively, by subcutaneous infusion of mazindol (1.5mg/kg/day) for 28days. A single intraperitoneal administration of mazindol (1.5mg/kg) significantly reduced lipid preference, as assessed using the two-bottle preference paradigm (vehicle, 89...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Dawn Elizabeth Livingstone, Emma M Di Rollo, Tracy Cs Mak, Karen Sooy, Brian R Walker, Ruth Andrew
5α-reductases irreversibly catalyse A-ring reduction of pregnene steroids, including glucocorticoids and androgens. Genetic disruption of 5α-reductase 1 in male mice impairs glucocorticoid clearance and predisposes to glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis upon metabolic challenge. However it is unclear whether this is driven by changes in androgen and/or glucocorticoid action. Female mice with transgenic disruption of 5α-reductase 1 (5αR1-KO) were studied, representing a 'low androgen' state. Glucocorticoid clearance and stress responses were studied in mice aged 6m...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Thomas C Hall, Dilraj K Bilku, Christopher P Neal, Jill Cooke, Helena L Fisk, Philip C Calder, Ashley R Dennison
BACKGROUND: Death from sepsis in the intensive therapy unit (ITU) is frequently preceded by the development of multiple organ failure as a result of uncontrolled inflammation. Treatment with omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs), principally eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been demonstrated to attenuate the effects of uncontrolled inflammation and may be clinically beneficial in reducing mortality from organ dysfunction. Fish oil (FO) is a source of EPA and DHA...
September 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Birgitta W van der Kolk, Gijs H Goossens, Johan W Jocken, Ellen E Blaak
INTRODUCTION/HYPOTHESIS: Disturbances in skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) handling may contribute to the development and progression of whole-body insulin resistance (IR). In this study, we compared fasting and postprandial skeletal muscle FA handling in individuals with varying degrees of IR. METHODS: Seventy-four overweight/obese participants (62 men) were divided into two groups based on the HOMA-IR median (3.35). Fasting and postprandial skeletal muscle FA handling were determined by combining the forearm muscle balance technique with stable isotopes...
September 15, 2016: Diabetologia
Maria Chondronikola, Rabia Asghar, Xiaojun Zhang, Edgar L Dillon, William J Durham, Zhanpin Wu, Craig Porter, Maria Camacho-Hughes, Yingxin Zhao, Allan R Brasier, Elena Volpi, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, Nicola Abate, Labros Sidossis, Demidmaa Tuvdendorj
BACKGROUND: Circulating acyl-carnitines (acyl-CNTs) are associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in both rodents and humans. However, the mechanisms whereby circulating acyl-CNTs are increased in these conditions and their role in whole-body metabolism remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if, in humans, blood cells contribute in production of circulating acyl-CNTs and associate with whole-body fat metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight non-diabetic healthy women (age: 47 ± 19 y; BMI: 26 ± 1 kg·m(-2)) underwent stable isotope tracer infusion and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study to determine in vivo whole-body fatty acid flux and insulin sensitivity...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Gudrun Schober, Kylie Lange, Robert E Steinert, Amy T Hutchison, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Maria F Landrock, Michael Horowitz, Radhika V Seimon, Christine Feinle-Bisset
We have previously identified pyloric pressures and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations as independent determinants of energy intake following administration of intraduodenal lipid and intravenous CCK. We evaluated in healthy men whether these parameters also determine energy intake in response to intraduodenal protein, and whether, across the nutrients, any predominant gastrointestinal (GI) factors exist, or many factors make small contributions. Data from nine published studies, in which antropyloroduodenal pressures, GI hormones, and GI /appetite perceptions were measured during intraduodenal lipid or protein infusions, were pooled...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
Daniel J Wilkinson, Matthew S Brook, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton
Stable isotope tracers have been invaluable assets in physiological research for over 80 years. The application of substrate-specific stable isotope tracers has permitted exquisite insight into amino acid, fatty-acid and carbohydrate metabolic regulation (i.e. incorporation, flux, and oxidation, in a tissue-specific and whole-body fashion) in health, disease and response to acute and chronic exercise. Yet, despite many breakthroughs, there are limitations to 'substrate-specific' stable isotope tracers, which limit physiological insight, e...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Liang Zhao, Yong Wang, Jia Liu, Kai Wang, Xiaoxuan Guo, Baoping Ji, Wei Wu, Feng Zhou
This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of genistein or puerarin on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in vivo and to explore the underlying mechanisms of hepatoprotective effects. Mice were administered genistein or puerarin (0.3 mmol kg(-1) body weight) and gastrically infused with 50% alcohol once per day for 5 weeks. Levels of serum transaminases, serum and hepatic lipids, hepatic antioxidant capacities, inflammation, apoptosis, and histopathological sections were analyzed. Results showed that genistein and puerarin exhibited similar effects in ameliorating alcohol-induced liver injury...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sophie Gosselin, Lotte C G Hoegberg, Robert S Hoffman, Andis Graudins, Christine M Stork, Simon H L Thomas, Samuel J Stellpflug, Bryan D Hayes, Michael Levine, Martin Morris, Andrea Nesbitt-Miller, Alexis F Turgeon, Benoit Bailey, Diane P Calello, Ryan Chuang, Theodore C Bania, Bruno Mégarbane, Ashish Bhalla, Valéry Lavergne
BACKGROUND: Although intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) was first used to treat life-threatening local anesthetic (LA) toxicity, its use has expanded to include both non-local anesthetic (non-LA) poisoning and less severe manifestations of toxicity. A collaborative workgroup appraised the literature and provides evidence-based recommendations for the use of ILE in poisoning. METHODS: Following a systematic review of the literature, data were summarized in four publications: LA and non-LA poisoning efficacy, adverse effects, and analytical interferences...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
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