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Lipid infusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919304/safety-of-novel-liposomal-drugs-for-cancer-treatment-advances-and-prospects
#1
REVIEW
Keyu He, Meng Tang
Liposome is a kind of prospective abiotic drug delivery system for cancer treatment. Novel liposomes modified with PEG, cationic lipids and highly selective molecules achieve better stability, half-life and selectivity as well as less severe side effects. However, novel liposomes are still not nontoxic. PEG on the surface of liposomes interfere the combination of cancer cells and drugs. Cationic liposomes can induce oxidative damage and cytotoxicity to normal tissues. To further improve the safety of liposomal drugs, liposomal drugs must be highly selective to cancer tissues and cancer cells, at the same time, induce minimum damage to normal cells...
September 15, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916714/interleukin-6-blockade-raises-ldl-via-reduced-catabolism-rather-than-via-increased-synthesis-a-cytokine-specific-mechanism-for-cholesterol-changes-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Jamie Robertson, Duncan Porter, Naveed Sattar, Chris J Packard, Muriel Caslake, Iain McInnes, David McCarey
OBJECTIVES: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have reduced serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), which increases following therapeutic IL-6 blockade. We aimed to define the metabolic pathways underlying these lipid changes. METHODS: In the KALIBRA study, lipoprotein kinetic studies were performed on 11 patients with severe active RA at baseline and following three intravenous infusions of the IL-6R blocker tocilizumab. The primary outcome measure was the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of LDL...
September 15, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912956/cardiometabolic-effects-of-a-novel-sirt1-activator-srt2104-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Radzi M Noh, Sowmya Venkatasubramanian, Shruti Daga, Jeremy Langrish, Nicholas L Mills, Ninian N Lang, Ethan Hoffmann, Brian Waterhouse, David E Newby, Brian M Frier
BACKGROUND: The cardiometabolic effects of SRT2104, a novel SIRT1 activator, were investigated in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Fifteen adults with T2DM underwent a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial and received 28 days of oral SRT2104 (2.0 g/day) or placebo. Forearm vasodilatation (measured during intrabrachial bradykinin, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside infusions) as well as markers of glycaemic control, lipid profile, plasma fibrinolytic factors, and markers of platelet-monocyte activation, were measured at baseline and at the end of each treatment period...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911148/age-related-anabolic-resistance-of-myofibrillar-protein-synthesis-is-exacerbated-in-obese-inactive-individuals
#4
Benoit Smeuninx, James Mckendry, Daisy Wilson, Una Martin, Leigh Breen
Context: A diminished muscle anabolic response to protein nutrition may underpin age-associated muscle loss. Objective: To determine how chronological and biological aging influence myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS). Design: Cross-sectional comparison. Setting: Clinical research facility. Participants: Ten older lean [OL: 71.7 ± 6 years; body mass index (BMI) ≤25 kg ⋅ m-2], 7 older obese (OO: 69...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888833/iron-depletion-induces-hepatic-secretion-of-biliary-lipids-and-glutathione-in-rats
#5
Alena Prasnicka, Jolana Cermanova, Milos Hroch, Eva Dolezelova, Lucie Rozkydalova, Tomas Smutny, Alejandro Carazo, Jaroslav Chladek, Martin Lenicek, Petr Nachtigal, Libor Vitek, Petr Pavek, Stanislav Micuda
Iron depletion (ID) has been shown to induce the liver expression of Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme initiating conversion of cholesterol to bile acids (BA), although the effect on bile acids metabolism and bile production is unknown. Therefore, we investigated changes in bile secretion and BA synthesis during diet-induced iron depletion (ID) in rats. ID increased bile flow along with augmented biliary excretion of bile acids, glutathione, cholesterol and phospholipids. Accordingly, we found transcriptional upregulation of the Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, and Cyp27a1 BA synthetic enzymes, as well as induction of the Abcg5/8 cholesterol transporters in ID rat livers...
September 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884566/effects-on-cognitive-function-of-propofol-medium-and-long-chain-lipid-emulsion-in-patients-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#6
Shenghui Yu, Jianlei Hu, Li Ding, Da Yu
BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to investigate the effects of propofol medium and long chain lipid emulsion on cognitive function of the patients with hepatic encephalopathy undergoing hemofiltration treatment. METHODS: A total of 87 patients diagnosed with hepatic encephalopathy from January 2014 to January 2016 were continuously selected, and randomly (Using Random number method) divided into an observation group (45 cases) and a control group (42 cases). All patients were treated with persistent hemofiltration; the patients in control group were not given any sedative measures, while the patients in observation group were given a propofol medium-long chain lipid emulsion injection with a dose determined by each individual's degree of restlessness and tolerance to hemofiltration (Intravenous injection was performed with the first dose of 100mg, and then patients are subjected to micro-infusion pump with a dose of 0...
September 7, 2017: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878768/natural-igm-and-tlr-agonists-switch-murine-splenic-pan-b-to-regulatory-cells-that-suppress-ischemia-induced-innate-inflammation-via-regulating-nkt-1-cells
#7
Peter I Lobo, Kailo H Schlegel, Amandeep Bajwa, Liping Huang, Mark D Okusa
Natural IgM anti-leukocyte autoantibodies (IgM-ALAs) inhibit inflammation by several mechanisms. Here, we show that pan-B cells and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) are switched to regulatory cells when pretreated ex vivo with IgM. B cells are also switched to regulatory cells when pretreated ex vivo with CpG but not with LPS. Pre-emptive infusion of such ex vivo induced regulatory cells protects C57BL/6 mice from ischemia-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) via regulation of in vivo NKT-1 cells, which normally amplify the innate inflammatory response to DAMPS released after reperfusion of the ischemic kidney...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877036/recovery-from-ropivacaine-induced-or-levobupivacaine-induced-cardiac-arrest-in-rats-comparison-of-lipid-emulsion-effects
#8
Masashi Yoshimoto, Takashi Horiguchi, Tetsu Kimura, Toshiaki Nishikawa
BACKGROUND: Lipid emulsion treatment appears to have application in the treatment of local anesthetic-induced cardiac arrest. To examine whether the efficacy of lipid resuscitation in the treatment of local anesthetic-induced cardiac arrest is affected by lipophilicity, the effects of lipid infusions were compared between levobupivacaine-induced (high lipophilicity) and ropivacaine-induced (lower lipophilicity) rat cardiac arrest model. METHODS: A total of 28 female Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized using sevoflurane, which subsequently underwent tracheostomy, followed by femoral artery and vein cannulation...
September 2, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873741/hibiscus-sabdariffa-l-as-a-source-of-nutrients-bioactive-compounds-and-colouring-agents
#9
Inès Jabeur, Eliana Pereira, Lillian Barros, Ricardo C Calhelha, Marina Soković, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Isabel C F R Ferreira
The nutritional and bioactive composition of plants have aroused much interest not only among scientists, but also in people's daily lives. Apart from the health benefits, plants are a source of pigments that can be used as natural food colorants. In this work, the nutritional composition of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. was analysed, as well as its bioactive compounds and natural pigments. Glucose (sugar), malic acid (organic acid), α-tocopherol (tocopherol) and linoleic acid (fatty acid) were the major constituents in the corresponding classes...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866823/neuroprotective-effects-of-baicalein-on-acrolein-induced-neurotoxicity-in-the-nigrostriatal-dopaminergic-system-of-rat-brain
#10
Wei-Zhong Zhao, Hsiang-Tsui Wang, Hui-Ju Huang, Yu-Li Lo, Anya Maan-Yuh Lin
Elevated levels of acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde are detected in the brain of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of baicalein (a phenolic flavonoid in the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) on acrolein-induced neurodegeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system was investigated using local infusion of acrolein in the substantia nigra (SN) of rat brain. Systemic administration of baicalein (30 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly attenuated acrolein-induced elevations in 4-hydroxy-2-noneal (a product of lipid peroxidation), N-(3-formyl-3,4-dehydropiperidino)lysine (a biomarker of acrolein-conjugated proteins), and heme-oxygenase-1 levels (a redox-regulated protein) in the infused SN, indicating that baicalein inhibited acrolein-induced oxidative stress and protein conjugation...
September 2, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859868/albumin-counteracts-immune-suppressive-effects-of-lipid-mediators-in-patients-with-advanced-liver-disease
#11
Louise China, Alexander Maini, Simon S Skene, Zainib Shabir, Yvonne Sylvestre, Romain A Colas, Lucy Ly, Natalia Becares Salles, Vittorio Belloti, Jesmond Dalli, Derek W Gilroy, Alastair O'Brien
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with acute decompensation and acute on chronic liver failure (AD/ACLF) have immune dysfunction, which increases their risk for infections; however there are no effective treatments to restore their immune function. We investigated whether the potentially immune-restorative effects of albumin are mediated by its effects on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and other lipids. METHODS: We analyzed bloods samples from 45 of 79 patients with AD/ACLF and serum levels of albumin less than 30g/L for whom infusion of 20% human albumin solution (HAS) increased serum levels of albumin 30 g/L or more in a feasibility study of effects of 20% HAS...
August 28, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856220/frequency-and-causes-of-lipemia-interference-of-clinical-chemistry-laboratory-tests
#12
Sandhya Mainali, Scott R Davis, Matthew D Krasowski
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to identify the causes of severe lipemia in an academic medical center patient population and to determine the relationship between lipemia and hemolysis. DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done on the data from the core clinical laboratory at an academic medical center. Lipemic indices were available for all chemistry specimens analyzed over a 16-month period (n=552,029 specimens) and for serum/plasma triglycerides concentrations ordered for clinical purposes over a 16-year period (n=393,085 specimens)...
August 2017: Pract Lab Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843695/effect-of-hormonal-and-energy-related-factors-on-plasma-adiponectin-in-transition-dairy-cows
#13
C S Krumm, S L Giesy, L S Caixeta, W R Butler, H Sauerwein, J W Kim, Y R Boisclair
In transition dairy cows, plasma levels of the insulin-sensitizing hormone adiponectin fall to a nadir at parturition and recover in early lactation. The transition period is also characterized by rapid changes in metabolic and hormonal factors implicated in other species as positive regulators of adiponectin production (i.e., negative energy balance, lipid mobilization) and others as negative regulators (i.e., reduced leptin and insulin and increased growth hormone and plasma fatty acids). To assess the role of onset of negative energy balance and lipid mobilization after parturition, dairy cows were either milked thrice daily (lactating) or never milked (nonlactating) for up to 4 wk after parturition...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827671/muscle-and-adipose-tissue-morphology-insulin-sensitivity-and-beta-cell-function-in-diabetic-and-nondiabetic-obese-patients-effects-of-bariatric-surgery
#14
Stefania Camastra, Alessandra Vitali, Marco Anselmino, Amalia Gastaldelli, Rosario Bellini, Rossana Berta, Ilenia Severi, Simona Baldi, Brenno Astiarraga, Giorgio Barbatelli, Saverio Cinti, Ele Ferrannini
Obesity is characterized by insulin-resistance (IR), enhanced lipolysis, and ectopic, inflamed fat. We related the histology of subcutaneous (SAT), visceral fat (VAT), and skeletal muscle to the metabolic abnormalities, and tested their mutual changes after bariatric surgery in type 2 diabetic (T2D) and weight-matched non-diabetic (ND) patients. We measured IR (insulin clamp), lipolysis ((2)H5-glycerol infusion), ß-cell glucose-sensitivity (ß-GS, mathematical modeling), and VAT, SAT, and rectus abdominis histology (light and electron microscopy)...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827046/%C3%AE-estradiol-3-benzoate-confers-neuroprotection-in-parkinson-mpp-rat-model-through-inhibition-of-lipid-peroxidation
#15
Yoshajandith Aguirre-Vidal, Antonio Monroy-Noyola, Laura Anaya-Ramos, Marcela Arteaga-Silva, Marisela Mendez-Armenta, Pedro Ostoa-Saloma, Mariana Díaz-Zaragoza, Jorge Morales-Montor, Camilo Ríos, Sergio Montes
Estradiol (E2), in addition to its known hormone function, is a neuroactive steroid that has shown neuroprotective profile in several models of neurological diseases. The present study explores the antioxidant effect of β-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB) on the neurotoxicity elicited by MPP(+) in rat striatum. Male Wistar rats, that were gonadectomized 30days prior to EB, were given 100µgEB per rat every 48h for 11days and animals were infused with MPP(+) via intrastriatal at day six after beginning EB treatment...
October 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821754/discovery-of-potential-biomarkers-in-human-melanoma-cells-with-different-metastatic-potential-by-metabolic-and-lipidomic-profiling
#16
Hye-Youn Kim, Hwanhui Lee, So-Hyun Kim, Hanyong Jin, Jeehyeon Bae, Hyung-Kyoon Choi
Malignant melanoma, characterized by its ability to metastasize to other organs, is responsible for 90% of skin cancer mortality. To investigate alterations in the cellular metabolome and lipidome related to melanoma metastasis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and direct infusion-mass spectrometry (DI-MS)-based metabolic and lipidomic profiling were performed on extracts of normal human melanocyte (HEMn-LP), low metastatic melanoma (A375, G361), and highly metastatic melanoma (A2058, SK-MEL-28) cell lines...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821438/effect-of-lipid-emulsion-infusion-on-paliperidone-pharmacokinetics-in-the-acute-overdose-rat-model-a-potential-emergency-treatment-for-paliperidone-intoxication
#17
Tomoyuki Enokiya, Erquan Zhang, Kenji Ikemura, Yuichi Muraki, Yoshiaki Iwashita, Takuya Iwamoto, Hiroshi Imai, Kazuo Maruyama, Masahiro Okuda
Paliperidone prolongs cardiac repolarization in a concentration-dependent manner. Meanwhile, continuous infusion of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been established as a detoxification therapy for lipophilic drugs. However, this change in pharmacokinetics of various drugs following ILE administration remains to be clarified. Our objective is to clarify the effect of continuous infusion of ILE on the pharmacokinetics of overdosed paliperidone in rats. Paliperidone (20mg/kg) was administered orally to free-moving male Wistar rats...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817248/attenuated-suppression-of-lipolysis-explains-increases-in-triglyceride-secretion-and-concentration-with-basal-insulin-peglispro-bil-relative-to-insulin-glargine-treatment-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#18
Rakel Fuglsang Johansen, Esben Søndergaard, Helle Linnebjerg, Parag Garhyan, Eric Chen Quin Lam, Niels Porksen, Scott J Jacober, Søren Nielsen
AIMS: In patients with type 1 diabetes, basal insulin peglispro (BIL) lowers weight and increases plasma triglycerides (TG) and hepatic fat relative to insulin glargine (GL). To explain this, we hypothesised that BIL's attenuated peripheral effects may include increased free fatty acid flux to the liver, causing increased VLDL-TG secretion and lipid oxidation, and decreased TG adipose tissue deposition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, 2-period crossover study, 14 patients with type 1 diabetes received once-daily, individualised, stable BIL or GL doses for 3 weeks...
August 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794103/effect-of-circulating-glucagon-and-free-fatty-acids-on-hepatic-fgf21-production-in-dairy-cows
#19
Luciano S Caixeta, Sarah L Giesy, Christopher S Krumm, James W Perfield, Anthony Butterfield, Katie M Schoenberg, Donald Clarence Beitz, Yves R Boisclair
Modern dairy cows meet the energy demand of early lactation by calling on hormonally-driven mechanisms to increase the use of lipid reserves. In this context, we recently reported that fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), a hormone required for efficient use of lipid reserves in rodents, is upregulated in periparturient dairy cows. Increased plasma FGF21 in early lactation coincides with elevated circulating concentrations of glucagon (GCG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). To assess the relative contribution of these factors in regulating FGF21, two experiments were performed in energy sufficient, non-pregnant, non-lactating dairy cows...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783608/the-effect-of-applying-a-rinse-and-chill-procedure-to-lamb-carcases-immediately-post-death-on-meat-quality
#20
S M Fowler, J M Claus, D L Hopkins
The current study examined the effect of vascular rinsing lamb carcases (Rinse & Chill®) with a commercially available isotonic substrate solution (98.5% water; balance: glucose, polyphosphates, and maltose) at 14°C. Thirty, lamb carcases were randomly allocated to receive either the solution (n=15) 25 min post slaughter on a slaughter line or no solution (n=15). There was no apparent effect on the rate of pH decline due to infusion or muscle shortening of the M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL), but there was a more than 50% reduction in toughness (lower shear force) of the LL due to infusion...
July 22, 2017: Meat Science
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