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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434742/endocrine-and-metabolic-changes-in-transition-dairy-cows-are-affected-by-prepartum-infusions-of-a-serotonin-precursor
#1
Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Laura L Hernandez, Helga Sauerwein, Rupert M Bruckmaier
Serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to be involved in calcium homeostasis, modulating calcium concentration in blood. In addition, 5-HT participates in a variety of metabolic pathways, mainly through the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. The hypothesis of the present study was that the prepartum administration of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor, would affect endocrine systems related to calcium homeostasis, and interact with other endocrine and metabolic pathways during the transition period...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434739/the-effect-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-acetate-and-their-interaction-on-adipose-tissue-lipid-metabolism-in-nonlactating-cows
#2
N Urrutia, Y Ying, K J Harvatine
During biohydrogenation-induced milk fat depression, adipose tissue lipogenesis may be increased through nutrients spared from milk fat synthesis. However, the direct effect of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the indirect effect of spared nutrients on adipose tissue lipogenesis during milk fat depression is not clear. The objective of this study was to determine the direct effect of CLA, spared acetate, and their interaction on adipose tissue lipogenesis using nonlactating dairy cows as an experimental model, which allows separation of the effect of CLA and nutrient sparing...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430962/ulk1-prevents-cardiac-dysfunction-in-obesity-through-autophagy-meditated-regulation-of-lipid-metabolism
#3
Minae An, Dong-Ryeol Ryu, Jang Won Park, Ji Ha Choi, Eun-Mi Park, Kyung Eun Lee, Minna Woo, Minsuk Kim
Aims: Autophagy is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis, particularly in long-lived cells such as cardiomyocytes. Whereas many studies support the importance of autophagy in the mechanisms underlying obesity-related cardiac dysfunction, the role of autophagy in cardiac lipid metabolism remains unclear. In the heart, lipotoxicity is exacerbated by cardiac lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which mediates accumulation of fatty acids to the heart through intravascular triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis...
April 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429653/clinical-development-of-fenretinide-as-an-antineoplastic-drug-pharmacology-perspectives
#4
Jason P Cooper, C Patrick Reynolds, Hwangeui Cho, Min H Kang
Fenretinide (4-HPR) is a synthetic retinoid that has cytotoxic activity against cancer cells. Despite substantial in vitro cytotoxicity, response rates in early clinical trials with 4-HPR have been less than anticipated, likely due to the low bioavailability of the initial oral capsule formulation. Several clinical studies have shown that the oral capsule formulation at maximum tolerated dose (MTD) achieved <10 µmol/L concentrations in patients. To improve bioavailability of 4-HPR, new oral powder (LYM-X-SORB®, LXS) and intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) formulations are being tested in early-phase clinical trials...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426869/expression-profiling-of-nonpolar-lipids-in-meibum-from-patients-with-dry-eye-a-pilot-study
#5
Jianzhong Chen, Jeremy K Keirsey, Kari B Green, Kelly K Nichols
Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to characterize differentially expressed lipids in meibum samples from patients with dry eye disease (DED) in order to better understand the underlying pathologic mechanisms. Methods: Meibum samples were collected from postmenopausal women with DED (PW-DED; n = 5) and a control group of postmenopausal women without DED (n = 4). Lipid profiles were analyzed by direct infusion full-scan electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421113/chronic-hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemia-in-rats-is-accompanied-by-increased-body-weight-hyperleptinaemia-and-decreased-neuronal-glucose-transporter-levels-in-the-brain
#6
Vivi F H Jensen, Anne-Marie Mølck, Melissa Chapman, Lene Alifrangis, Lene Andersen, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Ingrid B Bøgh
The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419244/resolvin-d1-and-d2-reverse-lipopolysaccharide-induced-depression-like-behaviors-through-the-mtorc1-signaling-pathway
#7
Satoshi Deyama, Yuka Ishikawa, Kotomi Yoshikawa, Kento Shimoda, Soichiro Ide, Masamichi Satoh, Masabumi Minami
Background: Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and D2 (RvD2) are bioactive lipid mediators that are generated from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Although recent preclinical studies suggest that these compounds have antidepressant effects, their mechanisms of action remain unclear. Methods: We investigated mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of RvD1 and RvD2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.8 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced depression model mice using a tail suspension test. Results: Intracerebroventricular (i...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419197/inhibition-of-sarcolemmal-fat-cd36-by-sulfo-n-succinimidyl-oleate-rapidly-corrects-metabolism-and-restores-function-in-the-diabetic-heart-following-hypoxia-reoxygenation
#8
Latt S Mansor, Maria da Luz Sousa Fialho, Georgina Yea, Will A Coumans, James A West, Matthew Kerr, Carolyn A Carr, Joost J F P Luiken, Jan F C Glatz, Rhys D Evans, Julian L Griffin, Damian J Tyler, Kieran Clarke, Lisa C Heather
Aims: The type 2 diabetic heart oxidizes more fat and less glucose, which can impair metabolic flexibility and function. Increased sarcolemmal fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) imports more fatty acid into the diabetic myocardium, feeding increased fatty acid oxidation and elevated lipid deposition. Unlike other metabolic modulators that target mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, we proposed that pharmacologically inhibiting fatty acid uptake, as the primary step in the pathway, would provide an alternative mechanism to rebalance metabolism and prevent lipid accumulation following hypoxic stress...
April 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413180/role-of-hormone-sensitive-lipase-in-leptin-promoted-fat-loss-and-glucose-lowering
#9
Mikio Takanashi, Yoshino Taira, Sachiko Okazaki, Satoru Takase, Takeshi Kimura, Cheng Cheng Li, Peng Fei Xu, Akari Noda, Ichiro Sakata, Hidetoshi Kumagai, Yuichi Ikeda, Yoko Iizuka, Naoya Yahagi, Hitoshi Shimano, Jun-Ichi Osuga, Shun Ishibashi, Takashi Kadowaki, Hiroaki Okazaki
AIM: Myriad biological effects of leptin may lead to broad therapeutic applications for various metabolic diseases, including diabetes and its complications; however, in contrast to its anorexic effect, the molecular mechanisms underlying adipopenic and glucose-lowering effects of leptin have not been fully understood. Here we aim to clarify the role of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in leptin's action. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) and HSL-deficient (HSLKO) mice were made hyperleptinemic by two commonly-used methods: adenovirus-mediated overexpression of leptin and continuous subcutaneous infusion of leptin by osmotic pumps...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400291/unmet-clinical-needs-in-the-treatment-of-systemic-fungal-infections-the-role-of-amphotericin-b-and-drug-targeting
#10
Raquel Fernández-García, Esther de Pablo, María Paloma Ballesteros, Dolores R Serrano
Recently an increase in both the prevalence and incidence of invasive fungal infections have been reported. The number of fungal species that can cause systemic mycoses are higher and current antifungal therapies are still far from ideal. The emergence of antifungal resistances has a major clinical impact when using azoles and echinocandins leading to possible treatment failure and ultimately putting the patient's life at risk. Amphotericin B can play a key role in treating severe invasive mycoses as the incidence of antifungal resistance is very low combined with a high efficacy against a wide range of fungi...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400260/prevention-of-the-adverse-effects-of-olanzapine-on-lipid-metabolism-with-the-antiepileptic-zonisamide
#11
Aneta Stefanidis, Matthew J Watt, Michael A Cowley, Brian J Oldfield
BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotic drugs, particularly olanzapine, represent a mainstay in the treatment of psychoses; however, their use is commonly associated with weight gain and diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether combined administration of olanzapine and zonisamide can be used to prevent olanzapine-induced metabolic disturbances. METHODS AND RESULTS: These experiments involved female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 6-8/group) that were administered olanzapine, either acutely (6 mg/kg, s...
April 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381352/intraduodenal-infusion-of-cyanidin-3-glucoside-transiently-promotes-triglyceride-excretion-into-bile-in-rats
#12
Naoto Hashimoto, Kyu-Ho Han, Michihiro Fukushima
Flavonoids purportedly have a role in improving lipid metabolism. In our preliminary study, highly concentrated flavonoid metabolites appeared in bile juice in rats, which also contains various lipids. Biliary flavonoid metabolites generally have amphiphilic properties, may influence lipid solubility, and possibly contribute to the improvement of dyslipidemia. However, the influence of biliary flavonoid metabolites on the biliary lipid profile is not well known. Therefore, we hypothesized that the amphiphilic property of biliary flavonoid metabolites alters biliary lipid profiles...
February 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365054/lipid-metabolism-and-emerging-targets-for-lipid-lowering-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Daniel Gaudet, Jean-Philippe Drouin-Chartier, Patrick Couture
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and dyslipidemia constitutes a major risk factor for CVD and premature atherosclerosis. Therapies to reduce the plasma levels of atherogenic lipoproteins are well established interventions that decrease CVD risk. However, treatment of dyslipidemia with the most widely used lipid-lowering drugs (ie, statins and ezetimibe) often fails to protect a significant proportion of patients from cardiovascular risk. The development of several novel therapies to treat lipid-related disorders and their associated risks is ongoing and includes the following: (1) reducing plasma levels of atherogenic lipoproteins using proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors, antisense inhibitors of Apolipoprotein (Apo)(a), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotides of ApoB for inhibiting very low-density lipoprotein production, and inhibitors of angiopoietin-like protein 3 or ApoC-III for triglyceride-rich lipoprotein management upstream of low-density lipoprotein production as well as gene replacement therapy to improve low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein clearance; and (2) emerging therapies that target high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and reverse cholesterol transport using cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, HDL peptide mimetics, and autologous infusion of pre-β HDLs...
January 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363566/encapsulation-of-the-antioxidant-ascorbyl-palmitate-in-v-type-granular-cold-water-swelling-starch-affects-the-properties-of-both
#14
D M Dries, L Knaepen, B Goderis, J A Delcour
This study reports on the functionality of V-type crystalline granular cold-water swelling starch (GCWSS) in complex with lipid (functionalized) molecules. Maize and potato GCWSS contain (empty) single helical amylose (AM) crystals which can serve as lipid complexing matrices. Different concentrations of ascorbyl palmitate (AscP) were inserted in the hydrophobic cavities of the GCWSS AM helices by a low temperature infusion method. Volumetric particle size distributions of the ensuing products in water were determined using laser light scattering...
June 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362362/combined-intravital-microscopy-and-contrast-enhanced-ultrasonography-of-the-mouse-hindlimb-to-study-insulin-induced-vasodilation-and-muscle-perfusion
#15
Alexander H Turaihi, Erik M van Poelgeest, Victor W M van Hinsbergh, Erik H Serné, Yvo M Smulders, Etto C Eringa
It has been demonstrated that insulin's vascular actions contribute to regulation of insulin sensitivity. Insulin's effects on muscle perfusion regulate postprandial delivery of nutrients and hormones to insulin-sensitive tissues. We here describe a technique for combining intravital microscopy (IVM) and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) of the adductor compartment of the mouse hindlimb to simultaneously visualize muscle resistance arteries and perfusion of the microcirculation in vivo. Simultaneously assessing insulin's effect at multiple levels of the vascular tree is important to study relationships between insulin's multiple vasoactive effects and muscle perfusion...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361877/unacylated-ghrelin-promotes-adipogenesis-in-rodent-bone-marrow-via-ghrelin-o-acyl-transferase-and-ghs-r1a-activity-evidence-for-target-cell-induced-acylation
#16
Anna L Hopkins, Timothy A S Nelson, Irina A Guschina, Lydia C Parsons, Charlotte L Lewis, Richard C Brown, Helen C Christian, Jeffrey S Davies, Timothy Wells
Despite being unable to activate the cognate ghrelin receptor (GHS-R), unacylated ghrelin (UAG) possesses a unique activity spectrum that includes promoting bone marrow adipogenesis. Since a receptor mediating this action has not been identified, we re-appraised the potential interaction of UAG with GHS-R in the regulation of bone marrow adiposity. Surprisingly, the adipogenic effects of intra-bone marrow (ibm)-infused acylated ghrelin (AG) and UAG were abolished in male GHS-R-null mice. Gas chromatography showed that isolated tibial marrow adipocytes contain the medium-chain fatty acids utilised in the acylation of UAG, including octanoic acid...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357482/immunoassay-quantification-of-human-insulin-added-to-ternary-parenteral-nutrition-containers-comparison-of-two-methods
#17
Héloïse Henry, Damien Lannoy, Nicolas Simon, David Seguy, Michèle D'Herbomez, Christine Barthélémy, Bertrand Décaudin, Thierry Dine, Pascal Odou
Adding insulin directly into infusion bags seems to be a useful method for controlling hyperglycemia in patients under ternary parenteral nutrition (TPN). Its efficacy is assessed by glycemic monitoring but few data are available on insulin stability in this situation. Among the various methods for quantifying insulin levels in human serum, the immunoassay ones seemed potentially appropriate for a TPN admixture containing high lipid concentrations. We sought to identify and validate which of two immunoassay methods was the better to quantify human insulin and consequently be adapted to studying its stability in a TPN admixture...
March 29, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341344/propofol-affinity-to-mitochondrial-membranes-does-not-alter-mitochondrial-function
#18
Luís M Félix, Fernando Correia, Pedro A Pinto, Sónia P Campos, Telma Fernandes, Romeu Videira, M M Oliveira, Francisco P Peixoto, Luís M Antunes
The molecular mechanisms of hepatotoxicity after propofol anaesthesia have not been fully elucidated, although there is a relation with mitochondrial dysfunction. The action of propofol on mitochondrial hepatic functions in a rat model was evaluated by infusion for 4h with 25 and 62.5mg/kg/h propofol or 3.125ml/kg/h (vehicle). Liver mitochondrial respiratory rates were evaluated as well as mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨ), calcium fluxes, mitochondrial enzymatic activities (Complex I-V) and oxidative stress biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, lipid peroxidation and the oxidised/reduced glutathione ratio)...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339575/histaminergic-neurotransmission-as-a-gateway-for-the-cognitive-effect-of-oleoylethanolamide-in-contextual-fear-conditioning
#19
Gustavo Provensi, Roberta Fabbri, Leonardo Munari, Alessia Costa, Elisabetta Baldi, Corrado Bucherelli, Patrizio Blandina, Maria Beatrice Passani
Background: The integrity of the brain histaminergic system is necessary for the unfolding of homeostatic and cognitive processes through the recruitment of alternative circuits with distinct temporal patterns. We recently demonstrated that the fat-sensing lipid mediator oleoylethanolamide indirectly activates histaminergic neurons to exerts its hypophagic effects. The present experiments investigated whether histaminergic neurotransmission is necessary also for the modulation of emotional memory induced by oleoylethanolamide in a contextual fear conditioning paradigm...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331053/acetate-dose-dependently-stimulates-milk-fat-synthesis-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#20
Natalie L Urrutia, Kevin J Harvatine
Background: Acetate is a short-chain fatty acid (FA) that is especially important to cows because it is the major substrate for de novo FA synthesis. However, the effect of acetate supply on mammary lipid synthesis is not clear.Objective: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increasing acetate supply on milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows.Methods: Six multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated design to investigate the effect of acetate supply on milk fat synthesis...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
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