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Lipid infusion

Mitchell R Dyer, DaShawn Hickman, Norman Luc, Shannon Haldeman, Patricia Loughran, Christa Pawlwoski, Anirban Sen Gupta, Matthew D Neal
BACKGROUND: Clinical resuscitative treatment of traumatic hemorrhage involves transfusion of RBC, platelets and plasma in controlled ratios. However, use of such blood components, especially platelets, present many challenges including availability, portability, contamination risks, and short shelf-life, which limit the use of platelet transfusions outside of large trauma centers such as remote civilian hospitals and austere pre-hospital settings. This has prompted significant research in platelet substitutes that may resolve the above issues while providing platelet-mimetic hemostatic action...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
C Vignesh, Madhan Kumar, Ramesh Venkataraman, Senthilkumar Rajagopal, Nagarajan Ramakrishnan, Babu K Abraham
Overdose of cardiovascular medications such as beta blockers and calcium channel blockers cause impaired cardiac contractility, vasoplegia, and/or rhythm disturbances. In addition to conventional management of limiting absorption, increasing elimination and hemodynamic support intravenous (IV) calcium infusion, hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia therapy, glucagon infusion, and IV lipid emulsion have been tried. Extracorporeal circulatory assist device support has been reported as a rescue therapy in overdose refractory to maximal medical therapy...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Paige V Bauer, Frank A Duca, T M Zaved Waise, Helen J Dranse, Brittany A Rasmussen, Akshita Puri, Mozhgan Rasti, Catherine A O'Brien, Tony K T Lam
Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL)-dependent upper small intestinal lipid metabolism activates pre-absorptive pathways to regulate metabolic homeostasis, but whether changes in the upper small intestinal microbiota alter specific fatty acid-dependent pathways to impact glucose homeostasis remains unknown. We here first find that upper small intestinal infusion of Intralipid, oleic acid, or linoleic acid pre-absorptively increases glucose tolerance and lowers glucose production in rodents. High-fat feeding impairs pre-absorptive fatty acid sensing and reduces upper small intestinal Lactobacillus gasseri levels and ACSL3 expression...
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Paul L Wood, Randall L Woltjer
High-resolution mass spectrometry provides the resolution required for direct infusion allowing detection and characterization of a vast array of lipids with a single injection. This chapter presents the methodology utilized for both unbiased and targeted lipidomics of cerebrospinal fluid.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
David A Osborn, Tim Schindler, Lisa J Jones, John Kh Sinn, Srinivas Bolisetty
BACKGROUND: Sick newborn and preterm infants frequently are not able to be fed enterally, necessitating parenteral fluid and nutrition. Potential benefits of higher parenteral amino acid (AA) intake for improved nitrogen balance, growth, and infant health may be outweighed by the infant's ability to utilise high intake of parenteral AA, especially in the days after birth. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to determine whether higher versus lower intake of parenteral AA is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival in newborn infants receiving parenteral nutrition...
March 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ji Yun Bae, Chang Kyung Kang, Su Jin Choi, Eunyoung Lee, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Nam Joong Kim, Eui Chong Kim, Myoung Don Oh
At an intensive care unit, four neonates died consecutively within 80 minutes. Citrobacter freundii was isolated from blood samples of the 4 patients. It was also cultured from the leftover SMOFlipid that had been infused intravenously into the patients. In this in vitro study, we evaluated the bacterial growth kinetics and change in size of fat globules in SMOFlipid contaminated with C. freundii. Following the growth of bacteria, pH of SMOFlipid decreased to < 6, and the number of fat globules larger than 5 μm increased...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Valentina Trotta, Barbara Pavan, Luca Ferraro, Sarah Beggiato, Daniela Traini, Larissa Gomes Des Reis, Santo Scalia, Alessandro Dalpiaz
Lipid microparticles (LMs) uncoated or coated with chitosan and containing the neuroprotective polyphenol, resveratrol were developed for its targeting to the brain via nasal administration. The lipid microparticles loaded with resveratrol (LMs-Res) were produced by melt emulsification, using stearic acid as lipid material and phosphatidylcholine as the surfactant. The chitosan coated particles LMs-Res-Ch (1.75% w/v chitosan solution) and LMs-Res-Ch-plus (8.75 % w/v chitosan solution) were prepared by adding a chitosan solution to the formed particles...
February 24, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Michael Przybylski
Alpha-galactosidase (αGal) is a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyses the alphagalactosyl moiety from glycosphingo-lipids. Mutations in the αGal genes lead to defect enzyme resulting in substrate accumulation and pathophysiology. The deficiency of αGal, called Fabry's Disease (FD), belongs to the lysosomal storage diseases. Effective treatment of FD has been developed by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) by infusion of recombinant enzyme to increase enzyme levels and reduce accumulated substrate. Immuno-reactivity and IgG antibody formation are major, therapy-limiting complications of ERT...
February 23, 2018: ChemMedChem
Patrick Tso, Mustafa Vurma, Chih-Wei Ko, Dana M Lee, Stephen DeMichele
Breastmilk lutein is better absorbed by infants than lutein delivered in infant formula. Therefore, we wish to better understand the possible absorption differences of lutein in breast milk versus infant formula by determining its bioavailability after gastric administration and whether the intestinal absorption of lutein can be improved by using new delivery vehicles. STUDY ONE compared the intestinal uptake, and the lymphatic and portal transport of lutein in conscious lymph fistula rats. Four groups of lymph and portal vein cannulated rats (n = 8-10/group) were randomized to receive via the gastric tube increasing doses (10,20,40,or 80mg/kg) of 20% lutein in safflower oil (SO) suspension to assess whether there was a saturable level of lutein that can be absorbed and transported in lymph...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Mariza G Prado Lima, Helen L Schimidt, Alexandre Garcia, Letícia R Daré, Felipe P Carpes, Ivan Izquierdo, Pâmela B Mello-Carpes
Recently, nongenetic animal models to study the onset and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have appeared, such as the intrahippocampal infusion of peptides present in Alzheimer amyloid plaques [i.e., amyloid-β (Aβ)]. Nonpharmacological approaches to AD treatment also have been advanced recently, which involve combinations of behavioral interventions whose specific effects are often difficult to determine. Here we isolate the neuroprotective effects of three of these interventions-environmental enrichment (EE), anaerobic physical exercise (AnPE), and social enrichment (SE)-on Aβ-induced oxidative stress and on impairments in learning and memory induced by Aβ...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ana Paula Brigatto Simões Golucci, André Moreno Morcillo, Taís Daiene Russo Hortencio, Antônio Fernando Ribeiro, Roberto José Negrão Nogueira
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic dysfunction, due to parenteral nutrition, may become severe and lead to cirrhosis and hepatic failure, especially in newborns and infants. This study aimed to evaluate the association between the exclusive use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and changes in the hepatic profile, and to investigate the relationship between age, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia, and the occurrence of laboratory liver dysfunction. METHODS: A descriptive and historical cohort study was conducted, evaluating 195 pediatric patients (age: 1 month to 19 years) who received TPN...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
E Ren, X Chen, S Yu, J Xu, Y Su, W Zhu
Previous studies showed that butyrate played benefit roles in the health and metabolism of animals. However, little information on the effects of butyrate on the metabolism of piglets at the extraintestinal level is available. The present study investigated transcriptomic and metabolomic responses in the livers of pigs to evaluate the effects of intravenous sodium butyrate (SB) on the body's metabolism at the extraintestinal level. A total of 12 Duroc×Landrace×Large White growing barrows (60 days of age) fitted with jugular vein cannula were randomly allocated to either the SB group or the control (CO) group...
February 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
E H Taniguti, Y S Ferreira, I J V Stupp, E B Fraga-Junior, C B Mendonça, F L Rossi, H N Ynoue, D L Doneda, L Lopes, E Lima, Z S Buss, S Vandresen-Filho
Accumulating evidence indicates an interaction between inflammation and depression since increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with depression-related symptoms. Melatonin is a hormone synthesized and secreted by the pineal gland with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant-like effects. In this way, it would be interesting to evaluate the putative antidepressant-like effect of melatonin treatment in an acute inflammation mice model of depression. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin treatment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced depressive-like behavior, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and alteration on brain-derived neurotrophic fator (BDNF) levels...
February 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Vladimír Vrkoslav, Barbora Rumlová, Timotej Strmeň, Pavlína Nekvasilová, Miloslav Šulc, Josef Cvačka
RATIONALE: Mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) or photoionization (APPI) is widely used for neutral lipids involved in many fundamental processes in living organisms. Commercial APCI and APPI sources operate at high flow rates compatible with conventional HPLC. However, lipid analysis is often limited by a small amount of sample, which requires low-flow rate separations like capillary or micro-HPLC. Therefore, APCI and APPI suitable for microliter-per-minute flow rates need to be developed and applied for neutral lipids...
February 18, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Tanya J Little, Nada Cvijanovic, Nicholas V DiPatrizio, Donovan A Argueta, Christopher K Rayner, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Richard L Young
INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Intestinal production of endocannabinoid and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is impaired in high-fat diet/obese rodents, leading to reduced satiety. Such diets also alter the intestinal microbiome in association with enhanced intestinal permeability and inflammation, however little is known of these effects in humans. This study aimed to: (i) evaluate effects of lipid on plasma anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and OEA in humans, and (ii) examine relationships with intestinal permeability, inflammation markers and incretin hormone secretion...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kohji Ohki, Hiromichi Wakui, Nozomu Kishio, Kengo Azushima, Kazushi Uneda, Sona Haku, Ryu Kobayashi, Kotaro Haruhara, Sho Kinguchi, Takahiro Yamaji, Takayuki Yamada, Shintaro Minegishi, Tomoaki Ishigami, Yoshiyuki Toya, Akio Yamashita, Kento Imajo, Atsushi Nakajima, Ikuma Kato, Kenichi Ohashi, Kouichi Tamura
Enhancement of AT1 receptor-associated protein (ATRAP) in adipose tissue improves high fat diet (HFD)-induced visceral obesity and insulin resistance, and suppresses adipose oxidative stress. However, HFD loading is not a direct stimulatory factor for AT1 receptor. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chronic, low-dose angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulation on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice and functional role of ATRAP. ATRAP expression was higher in adipose tissue (5-10-fold) and skeletal muscle tissue (approximately 1...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Theodosios D Filippatos, Angelos Liontos, Eliza C Christopoulou, Moses S Elisaf
Over the last 3 decades, hypolipidaemic treatment has significantly reduced both cardiovascular (CV) risk and events, with statins being the cornerstone of this achievement. Nevertheless, residual CV risk and unmet goals in hypolipidaemic treatment make novel options necessary. Recently marketed monoclonal antibodies against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have shown the way towards innovation, while other ways of PCSK9 inhibition like small interfering RNA (Inclisiran) are already being tested...
February 8, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Richard W Chapman, Zhili Li, Michel R Corboz, Helena Gauani, Adam J Plaunt, Donna M Konicek, Franziska G Leifer, Charles E Laurent, Han Yin, Dany Salvail, Chad Dziak, Walter R Perkins, Vladimir Malinin
INS1009 is a long acting pulmonary vasodilator prodrug of treprostinil (TRE) that is formulated in a lipid nanoparticle for inhaled delivery by nebulization. This study examined the ability of INS1009 to inhibit vasoconstriction in the pulmonary vasculature of rats and dogs and the extent to which local activity within the lung contributes to its activity. Rats received a single dose of INS1009 by nose-only inhalation or were given a continuous intravenous (i.v.) infusion of TRE, followed by an i.v. challenge of the thromboxane mimetic pulmonary vasoconstrictor U46619 and the increase in pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) was measured...
February 5, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Magdalena Stefanowicz, Agnieszka Nikołajuk, Natalia Matulewicz, Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska
PURPOSE: Sirtuin 1 may regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. We aimed to assess adipose tissue and skeletal muscle sirtuin 1 expression in relation to insulin sensitivity, the expression of proinflammatory and metabolic genes, and to study the regulation of sirtuin 1 expression by hyperinsulinemia and circulating free fatty acids elevation. METHODS: We examined 60 normal-weight, 42 overweight and 15 obese young subjects. The hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique was applied throughout to measure insulin sensitivity...
February 7, 2018: Endocrine
Murat Uysal, Serhat Karaman
Malathion can be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin, but acute toxicity is maximized when administered orally. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) treatment is used as a new therapeutic method in cases of systemic toxicity caused by some lipid soluble agents. This study aimed to examine the potential treatment effect of ILE on rat lung tissue in a toxicokinetic model of malathion exposure. Twenty-one adult Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three equal groups. The groups were organized as group I (control), group II (malathion), and group III (malathion + ILE treatment)...
February 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
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