keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Fungi epigenetics

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906649/a-common-bacterial-metabolite-elicits-prion-based-bypass-of-glucose-repression
#1
David M Garcia, David Dietrich, Jon Clardy, Daniel F Jarosz
Robust preference for fermentative glucose metabolism has motivated domestication of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This program can be circumvented by a protein-based genetic element, the [GAR(+)] prion, permitting simultaneous metabolism of glucose and other carbon sources. Diverse bacteria can elicit yeast cells to acquire [GAR(+)], although the molecular details of this interaction remain unknown. Here we identify the common bacterial metabolite lactic acid as a strong [GAR(+)] inducer. Transient exposure to lactic acid caused yeast cells to heritably circumvent glucose repression...
November 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826839/structure-and-mechanism-of-plant-dna-methyltransferases
#2
Jiamu Du
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark that functions in eukaryotes from fungi to animals and plants, where it plays a crucial role in the regulation of epigenetic silencing. Once the methylation mark is established by the de novo DNA methyltransferase (MTase), it requires specific regulatory mechanisms to maintain the methylation state during chromatin replication, both during meiosis and mitosis. Plants have distinct DNA methylation patterns that are both established and maintained by unique DNA MTases and are regulated by plant-specific pathways...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820941/functions-of-exosomes-and-microbial-extracellular-vesicles-in-allergy-and-contact-and-delayed-type-hypersensitivity
#3
Katarzyna Nazimek, Krzysztof Bryniarski, Philip W Askenase
Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are newly recognized intercellular conveyors of functional molecular mechanisms. Notably, they transfer RNAs and proteins between different cells that can then participate in the complex pathogenesis of allergic and related hypersensitivity responses and disease mechanisms, as described herein. This review highlights this important new appreciation of the in vivo participation of such extracellular vesicles in the interactions between allergy-mediating cells. We take into account paracrine epigenetic exchanges mediated by surrounding stromal cells and the endocrine receipt of exosomes from distant cells via the circulation...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761936/epigenetic-treatment-of-persistent-viral-infections
#4
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732794/regulation-and-role-of-fungal-secondary-metabolites
#5
Juliane Macheleidt, Derek J Mattern, Juliane Fischer, Tina Netzker, Jakob Weber, Volker Schroeckh, Vito Valiante, Axel A Brakhage
Fungi have the capability to produce a tremendous number of so-called secondary metabolites, which possess a multitude of functions, e.g., communication signals during coexistence with other microorganisms, virulence factors during pathogenic interactions with plants and animals, and in medical applications. Therefore, research on this topic has intensified significantly during the past 10 years and thus knowledge of regulatory mechanisms and the understanding of the role of secondary metabolites have drastically increased...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711197/a-multistate-toggle-switch-defines-fungal-cell-fates-and-is-regulated-by-synergistic-genetic-cues
#6
Matthew Z Anderson, Allison M Porman, Na Wang, Eugenio Mancera, Denis Huang, Christina A Cuomo, Richard J Bennett
Heritable epigenetic changes underlie the ability of cells to differentiate into distinct cell types. Here, we demonstrate that the fungal pathogen Candida tropicalis exhibits multipotency, undergoing stochastic and reversible switching between three cellular states. The three cell states exhibit unique cellular morphologies, growth rates, and global gene expression profiles. Genetic analysis identified six transcription factors that play key roles in regulating cell differentiation. In particular, we show that forced expression of Wor1 or Efg1 transcription factors can be used to manipulate transitions between all three cell states...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600920/melatonin-suppresses-tpa-induced-metastasis-by-downregulating-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-expression-through-jnk-sp-1-signaling-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#7
Hsin-Yu Ho, Chiao-Wen Lin, Ming-Hsien Chien, Russel J Reiter, Shih-Chi Su, Yi-Hsien Hsieh, Shun-Fa Yang
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a disease common in the South-East Asian population, has high lymph node metastatic ability. Melatonin, an endogenously produced substance present in animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria, has oncotstatic activity via several mechanisms. The molecular mechanisms involved in melatonin-mediated tumor inhibitory potential are not completely defined. Here, we show that melatonin treatment inhibits TPA-induced cell motility by regulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in NPC...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592717/enteric-ecosystem-disruption-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-can-the-microbiota-and-macrobiota-be-restored
#8
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Stephen G Kahler, Richard E Frye
BACKGROUND: Many lines of scientific research suggest that Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) may be associated with alterations in the enteric ecosystem, including alterations of the enteric macrobiome (i.e. helminthes and fungi) and changes in predominant microbiome species, particularly a reduction in microbiome diversity. METHODS: We performed and comprehensive review of the literature and summarized the major findings. RESULTS: These alterations are believed to be due to a variety of factors including changes in the post-industrial society related to decreased exposure to symbiotic organisms, increased human migration, overuse of antibiotics and changes in dietary habits...
September 5, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497317/centromeres-of-the-yeast-komagataella-phaffii-pichia-pastoris-have-a-simple-inverted-repeat-structure
#9
Aisling Y Coughlan, Sara J Hanson, Kevin P Byrne, Kenneth H Wolfe
Centromere organization has evolved dramatically in one clade of fungi, the Saccharomycotina. These yeasts have lost the ability to make normal eukaryotic heterochromatin with histone H3K9 methylation, which is a major component of pericentromeric regions in other eukaryotes. Following this loss, several different types of centromere emerged, including two types of sequence-defined ("point") centromeres, and the epigenetically defined "small regional" centromeres of Candida albicans Here we report that centromeres of the methylotrophic yeast Komagataella phaffii (formerly called Pichia pastoris) are structurally defined...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400176/a-b-type-histone-acetyltransferase-hat1-regulates-secondary-metabolism-conidiation-and-cell-wall-integrity-in-the-taxol-producing-fungus-pestalotiopsis-microspora
#10
Qian Zhang, Longfei Chen, Xi Yu, Heng Liu, Oren Akhberdi, Jiao Pan, Xudong Zhu
In filamentous fungi, many gene clusters for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites often stay silent under laboratory culture conditions because of the absence of communication with its natural environment. Epigenetic processes have been demonstrated to be critical in the expression of the genes or gene clusters. Here, we report the identification of a B-type histone acetyltransferase, Hat1, and demonstrate its significant roles in secondary metabolism, conidiation, and the cell wall integrity in the fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora...
December 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358654/profiling-genome-wide-dna-methylation
#11
REVIEW
Wai-Shin Yong, Fei-Man Hsu, Pao-Yang Chen
DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays an important role in regulating gene expression and therefore a broad range of biological processes and diseases. DNA methylation is tissue-specific, dynamic, sequence-context-dependent and trans-generationally heritable, and these complex patterns of methylation highlight the significance of profiling DNA methylation to answer biological questions. In this review, we surveyed major methylation assays, along with comparisons and biological examples, to provide an overview of DNA methylation profiling techniques...
2016: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121330/moonlighting-transcriptional-activation-function-of-a-fungal-sulfur-metabolism-enzyme
#12
Elisabetta Levati, Sara Sartini, Angelo Bolchi, Simone Ottonello, Barbara Montanini
Moonlighting proteins, including metabolic enzymes acting as transcription factors (TF), are present in a variety of organisms but have not been described in higher fungi so far. In a previous genome-wide analysis of the TF repertoire of the plant-symbiotic fungus Tuber melanosporum, we identified various enzymes, including the sulfur-assimilation enzyme phosphoadenosine-phosphosulfate reductase (PAPS-red), as potential transcriptional activators. A functional analysis performed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, now demonstrates that a specific variant of this enzyme, PAPS-red A, localizes to the nucleus and is capable of transcriptional activation...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118591/deletion-of-a-yci1-domain-protein-of-candida-albicans-allows-homothallic-mating-in-mtl-heterozygous-cells
#13
Yuan Sun, Christine Gadoury, Matthew P Hirakawa, Richard J Bennett, Doreen Harcus, Anne Marcil, Malcolm Whiteway
UNLABELLED: It has been proposed that the ancestral fungus was mating competent and homothallic. However, many mating-competent fungi were initially classified as asexual because their mating capacity was hidden behind layers of regulation. For efficient in vitro mating, the essentially obligate diploid ascomycete pathogen Candida albicans has to change its mating type locus from heterozygous MTLa/α to homozygous MTLa/a or MTLα/α and then undergo an environmentally controlled epigenetic switch to the mating-competent opaque form...
2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27031711/ribonucleases-possible-new-approach-in-cancer-therapy
#14
V O Shlyakhovenko
In the review, the use of the ribonucleases for cancer therapy is discussed. Using of epigenetic mechanisms of regulation--blocking protein synthesis without affecting the DNA structure--is a promising direction in the therapy. The ribonucleases isolated from different sources, despite of similar mechanism of enzymatic reactions, have different biological effects. The use of enzymes isolated from new sources, particularly from plants and fungi, shows promising results. In this article we discuss the new approach for the use of enzymes resistant to inhibitors and ribozymes, that is aimed at the destruction of the oncogene specific mRNA and the induction of apoptosis...
March 2016: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26979781/the-dmta-methyltransferase-contributes-to-aspergillus-flavus-conidiation-sclerotial-production-aflatoxin-biosynthesis-and-virulence
#15
Kunlong Yang, Linlin Liang, Fanlei Ran, Yinghang Liu, Zhenguo Li, Huahui Lan, Peili Gao, Zhenhong Zhuang, Feng Zhang, Xinyi Nie, Shimuye Kalayu Yirga, Shihua Wang
DNA methylation is essential for epigenetic regulation of gene transcription and development in many animals, plants and fungi. We investigated whether DNA methylation plays a role in the development and secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, identified the DmtA methyltransferase from A. flavus, and produced a dmtA knock-out mutant by replacing the dmtA coding sequence with the pyrG selectable marker. The A. flavus dmtA null mutant lines produced white fluffy mycelium in liquid medium, and displayed a slightly flavescent conidial pigmentation compared with the normal yellow of the wild-type strain when grown on agar...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26908646/the-kinetochore-interaction-network-kin-of-ascomycetes
#16
REVIEW
Michael Freitag
Chromosome segregation relies on coordinated activity of a large assembly of proteins, the kinetochore interaction network (KIN). How conserved the underlying mechanisms driving the epigenetic phenomenon of centromere and kinetochore assembly and maintenance are remains unclear, even though various eukaryotic models have been studied. More than 50 different proteins, many in multiple copies, comprise the KIN or are associated with fungal centromeres and kinetochores. Proteins isolated from immune sera recognized centromeric regions on chromosomes and thus were named centromere proteins (CENPs)...
May 2016: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26901184/multicomponent-analysis-of-the-differential-induction-of-secondary-metabolite-profiles-in-fungal-endophytes
#17
Víctor González-Menéndez, Mercedes Pérez-Bonilla, Ignacio Pérez-Victoria, Jesús Martín, Francisca Muñoz, Fernando Reyes, José R Tormo, Olga Genilloud
Small molecule histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors are commonly used to perturb the production of fungal metabolites leading to the induction of the expression of silent biosynthetic pathways. Several reports have described the variable effects observed in natural product profiles in fungi treated with HDAC and DNMT inhibitors, such as enhanced chemical diversity and/or the induction of new molecules previously unknown to be produced by the strain. Fungal endophytes are known to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites (SMs) involved in their adaptation and survival within higher plants...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26811095/solamargine-production-by-a-fungal-endophyte-of-solanum-nigrum
#18
S S El-Hawary, R Mohammed, S F AbouZid, W Bakeer, R Ebel, A M Sayed, M E Rateb
AIMS: The aim was to isolate, identify and characterize endophytes from Solanum nigrum L. as a new source of the cytotoxic steroidal alkaloid solamargine. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three endophytic fungi; SNFSt, SNFL and SNFF were isolated from S. nigrum and identified by molecular methods. Preliminary TLC screening showed a common metabolite between the plant and one of these fungi, SNFSt which was identified as Aspergillus flavus based on the phylogenetic analysis of its ITS sequence...
April 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26727463/epigenetic-segregation-of-microbial-genomes-from-complex-samples-using-restriction-endonucleases-hpaii-and-mcrb
#19
Guohong Liu, Christopher Q Weston, Long K Pham, Shannon Waltz, Helen Barnes, Paula King, Dan Sphar, Robert T Yamamoto, R Allyn Forsyth
We describe continuing work to develop restriction endonucleases as tools to enrich targeted genomes of interest from diverse populations. Two approaches were developed in parallel to segregate genomic DNA based on cytosine methylation. First, the methyl-sensitive endonuclease HpaII was used to bind non-CG methylated DNA. Second, a truncated fragment of McrB was used to bind CpG methylated DNA. Enrichment levels of microbial genomes can exceed 100-fold with HpaII allowing improved genomic detection and coverage of otherwise trace microbial genomes from sputum...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26615747/genome-wide-analysis-of-dna-methylation-in-the-sexual-stage-of-the-insect-pathogenic-fungus-cordyceps-militaris
#20
Yu-long Wang, Zhang-xun Wang, Chun Liu, Si-bao Wang, Bo Huang
DNA methylation is a basic epigenetic mechanism found in eukaryotes, but its patterns and roles vary significantly among diverse taxa. In fungi, DNA methylation has various effects on diverse biological processes. However, its function in the sexual development of fungi remains unclear. Cordyceps militaris, readily performs sexual reproduction and thus provides a remarkably rich model for understanding epigenetic processes in sexual development. Here, we surveyed the methylome of C. militaris at single-base resolution to assess DNA methylation patterns during sexual development using genomic bisulfite sequencing (BS-Seq)...
December 2015: Fungal Biology
keyword
keyword
72190
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"