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Fungi epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423802/methods-for-cpg-methylation-array-profiling-via-bisulfite-conversion
#1
Fatjon Leti, Lorida Llaci, Ivana Malenica, Johanna K DiStefano
DNA methylation is a key factor in epigenetic regulation, and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases, including various forms of cancers, and epigenetic events such X inactivation, cellular differentiation and proliferation, and embryonic development. The most conserved epigenetic modification in plants, animals, and fungi is 5-methylcytosine (5mC), which has been well characterized across a diverse range of species. Many technologies have been developed to measure modifications in methylation with respect to biological processes, and the most common method, long considered a gold standard for identifying regions of methylation, is bisulfite conversion...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414657/mechanisms-of-action-involved-in-ozone-therapy-in-skin-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Jinrong Zeng, Jianyun Lu
Ozone-therapy initially applied in medicine by an empirical approach, has now reached a new stage where most of the biological mechanisms of ozone action have been clarified, that refers to antimicrobial effects, immunoregulation, antioxidant defenses and epigenetic modification. Current ozone medical preparation in dermatology mainly classified as ozone hydrotherapy, ozonated oil externally used and ozone autohemotherapy (OAHT). Admittedly, ozone is widely used in various fields against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, viruses, and fungi...
January 29, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275836/a-cellular-and-molecular-view-of-t-helper-17%C3%A2-cell-plasticity-in-autoimmunity
#3
REVIEW
Ralph Stadhouders, Erik Lubberts, Rudi W Hendriks
Since the original identification of the T helper 17 (Th17) subset in 2005, it has become evident that these cells do not only contribute to host defence against pathogens, such as bacteria and fungi, but that they are also critically involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. In contrast to the classic Th1 and Th2 cells, which represent rather stably polarized subsets, Th17 cells display remarkable heterogeneity and plasticity. This has been attributed to the characteristics of the key transcription factor that guides Th17 differentiation, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor gamma (RORγ)...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166834/the-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-robertsii-communicates-with-the-insect-host-galleria-mellonella-during-infection
#4
Krishnendu Mukherjee, Andreas Vilcinskas
Parasitic fungi are the only pathogens that can infect insect hosts directly through their proteinaceous exoskeleton. Penetration of the cuticle requires the release of fungal enzymes, including proteinases, which act as virulence factors. Insects can sense fungal infections and activate innate immune responses, including the synthesis of antifungal peptides and proteinase inhibitors that neutralize the incoming proteinases. This well-studied host response is epigenetically regulated by histone acetylation/deacetylation...
November 23, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019143/structure-and-mechanism-of-plant-histone-mark-readers
#5
REVIEW
Rui Liu, Xueqin Li, Wei Chen, Jiamu Du
In eukaryotes, epigenetic-based mechanisms are involved in almost all the important biological processes. Amongst different epigenetic regulation pathways, the dynamic covalent modifications on histones are the most extensively investigated and characterized types. The covalent modifications on histone can be "read" by specific protein domains and then subsequently trigger downstream signaling events. Plants generally possess epigenetic regulation systems similar to animals and fungi, but also exhibit some plant-specific features...
October 9, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840234/centrochromatin-of-fungi
#6
Steven Friedman, Michael Freitag
The centromere is an essential chromosomal locus that dictates the nucleation point for assembly of the kinetochore and subsequent attachment of spindle microtubules during chromosome segregation. Research over the last decades demonstrated that centromeres are defined by a combination of genetic and epigenetic factors. Recent work showed that centromeres are quite diverse and flexible and that many types of centromere sequences and centromeric chromatin ("centrochromatin") have evolved. The kingdom of the fungi serves as an outstanding example of centromere plasticity, including organisms with centromeres as diverse as 0...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818332/antimicrobial-activity-and-acetylcholinesterase-inhibition-by-extracts-from-chromatin-modulated-fungi
#7
Matheus Thomaz Nogueira Silva Lima, Larissa Batista Dos Santos, Rafael Wesley Bastos, Jacques Robert Nicoli, Jacqueline Aparecida Takahashi
Major health challenges as the increasing number of cases of infections by antibiotic multiresistant microorganisms and cases of Alzheimer's disease have led to searching new control drugs. The present study aims to verify a new way of obtaining bioactive extracts from filamentous fungi with potential antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities, using epigenetic modulation to promote the expression of genes commonly silenced. For such finality, five filamentous fungal species (Talaromyces funiculosus, Talaromyces islandicus, Talaromyces minioluteus, Talaromyces pinophilus, Penicillium janthinellum) were grown or not with DNA methyltransferases inhibitors (procainamide or hydralazine) and/or a histone deacetylase inhibitor (suberohydroxamic acid)...
August 1, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798740/smrt-sequencing-revealed-mitogenome-characteristics-and-mitogenome-wide-dna-modification-pattern-in-ophiocordyceps-sinensis
#8
Xincong Kang, Liqin Hu, Pengyuan Shen, Rui Li, Dongbo Liu
Single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing was used to characterize mitochondrial (mt) genome of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and to analyze the mt genome-wide pattern of epigenetic DNA modification. The complete mt genome of O. sinensis, with a size of 157,539 bp, is the fourth largest Ascomycota mt genome sequenced to date. It contained 14 conserved protein-coding genes (PCGs), 1 intronic protein rps3, 27 tRNAs and 2 rRNA subunits, which are common characteristics of the known mt genomes in Hypocreales. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 14 PCGs in Pezizomycotina fungi supports O...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777319/identification-and-biological-evaluation-of-secondary-metabolites-from-marine-derived-fungi-aspergillus-sp-scsiow3-cultivated-in-the-presence-of-epigenetic-modifying-agents
#9
Xiaofan Li, Zhenyao Xia, Jianqiang Tang, Jiahui Wu, Jing Tong, Mengjie Li, Jianhua Ju, Huirong Chen, Liyan Wang
Chemical epigenetic manipulation was applied to a deep marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIOW3, resulting in significant changes of the secondary metabolites. One new diphenylether-O-glycoside (diorcinol 3-O-α-D-ribofuranoside), along with seven known compounds, were isolated from the culture treated with a combination of histone deacetylase inhibitor (suberohydroxamic acid) and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (5-azacytidine). Compounds 2 and 4 exhibited significant biomembrane protective effect of erythrocytes...
August 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671256/genome-wide-analysis-of-salinity-stress-induced-dna-methylation-alterations-in-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l-using-the-me-dip-sequencing-technology
#10
X K Lu, N Shu, J J Wang, X G Chen, D L Wang, S Wang, W L Fan, X N Guo, L X Guo, W W Ye
Cytosine DNA methylation is a significant form of DNA modification closely associated with gene expression in eukaryotes, fungi, animals, and plants. Although the reference genomes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) have been publically available, the salinity-stress-induced DNA methylome alterations in cotton are not well understood. Here, we constructed a map of genome-wide DNA methylation characteristics of cotton leaves under salt stress using the methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing method. The results showed that the methylation reads on chromosome 9 were most comparable with those on the other chromosomes, but the greatest changes occurred on chromosome 8 under salt stress...
June 29, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655890/high-throughput-format-for-the-phenotyping-of-fungi-on-solid-substrates
#11
David Cánovas, Lena Studt, Ana T Marcos, Joseph Strauss
Filamentous fungi naturally grow on solid surfaces, yet most genetic and biochemical analyses are still performed in liquid cultures. Here, we report a multiplexing platform using high-throughput photometric continuous reading that allows parallel quantification of hyphal growth and reporter gene expression directly on solid medium, thereby mimicking natural environmental conditions. Using this system, we have quantified fungal growth and expression of secondary metabolite GFP-based reporter genes in saprophytic Aspergillus and phytopathogenic Fusarium species in response to different nutrients, stress conditions and epigenetic modifiers...
June 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530797/unexpected-biotransformation-of-the-hdac-inhibitor-vorinostat-yields-aniline-containing-fungal-metabolites
#12
Donovon A Adpressa, Kayla J Stalheim, Philip J Proteau, Sandra Loesgen
The diversity of genetically encoded small molecules produced by filamentous fungi remains largely unexplored, which makes these fungi an attractive source for the discovery of new compounds. However, accessing their full chemical repertoire under common laboratory culture conditions is a challenge. Epigenetic manipulation of gene expression has become a well-established tool for overcoming this obstacle. Here, we report that perturbation of the endophytic ascomycete Chalara sp. 6661, producer of the isofusidienol class of antibiotics, with the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat resulted in the production of four new modified xanthones...
May 31, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367075/anticancer-natural-compounds-as-epigenetic-modulators-of-gene-expression
#13
REVIEW
Edward A Ratovitski
Accumulating evidence shows that hallmarks of cancer include: "genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to inactivation of cancer suppressors, overexpression of oncogenes, deregulation of intracellular signaling cascades, alterations of cancer cell metabolism, failure to undergo cancer cell death, induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, invasiveness, metastasis, deregulation of immune response and changes in cancer microenvironment, which underpin cancer development". Natural compounds as bioactive ingredients isolated from natural sources (plants, fungi, marine life forms) have revolutionized the field of anticancer therapeutics and rapid developments in preclinical studies are encouraging...
April 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301168/deletion-of-a-histone-acetyltransferase-leads-to-the-pleiotropic-activation-of-natural-products-in-metarhizium-robertsii
#14
Aili Fan, Wubin Mi, Zhiguo Liu, Guohong Zeng, Peng Zhang, Youcai Hu, Weiguo Fang, Wen-Bing Yin
Histone deacetylation normally decreases the gene expression in organisms. By genome-wide deletions of epigenetic regulators in entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii, unexpected activations of orphan secondary metabolite genes have been found upon the disruption of a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) gene Hat1. This led to the characterization of 11 new natural products, including eight isocoumarin derivatives meromusides A-H and two nonribosomal peptides meromutides A and B. Therefore, disruption of HAT represents a new approach to mine chemical diversity from fungi...
April 7, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238081/dna-methyltransferases-contribute-to-the-fungal-development-stress-tolerance-and-virulence-of-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-robertsii
#15
Yulong Wang, Tiantian Wang, Lintao Qiao, Jianyu Zhu, Jinrui Fan, Tingting Zhang, Zhang-Xun Wang, Wanzhen Li, Anhui Chen, Bo Huang
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark in mammals, plants, and fungi and depends on multiple genetic pathways involving de novo and maintenance DNA methyltransferases (DNMTases). Metarhizium robertsii, a model system for investigating insect-fungus interactions, has been used as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical insecticides. However, little is known concerning the molecular basis for DNA methylation. Here, we report on the roles of two DNMTases (MrRID and MrDIM-2) by characterizing ΔMrRID, ΔMrDIM-2, and ΔRID/ΔDIM-2 mutants...
February 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191457/the-copper-transport-associated-protein-ctr4-can-form-prion-like-epigenetic-determinants-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#16
Theodora Sideri, Yoko Yashiroda, David A Ellis, María Rodríguez-López, Minoru Yoshida, Mick F Tuite, Jürg Bähler
Prions are protein-based infectious entities associated with fatal brain diseases in animals, but also modify a range of host-cell phenotypes in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Many questions remain about the evolution and biology of prions. Although several functionally distinct prion-forming proteins exist in S. cerevisiae, [HET-s] of Podospora anserina is the only other known fungal prion. Here we investigated prion-like, protein-based epigenetic transmission in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
January 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034799/impact-of-biotic-and-abiotic-factors-on-the-expression-of-fungal-effector-encoding-genes-in-axenic-growth-conditions
#17
Michel Meyer, Salim Bourras, Julie Gervais, Karine Labadie, Corinne Cruaud, Marie-Hélène Balesdent, Thierry Rouxel
In phytopathogenic fungi, the expression of hundreds of small secreted protein (SSP)-encoding genes is induced upon primary infection of plants while no or a low level of expression is observed during vegetative growth. In some species such as Leptosphaeria maculans, this coordinated in-planta upregulation of SSP-encoding genes expression relies on an epigenetic control but the signals triggering gene expression in-planta are unknown. In the present study, biotic and abiotic factors that may relieve suppression of SSP-encoding gene expression during axenic growth of L...
December 26, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975876/isolation-of-metabolites-from-epigenetically-modified-mangrove-fungi-for-anti-infective-drug-discovery
#18
Acd Limon, R Fleeman, L N Shaw, B J Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924400/an-insight-into-the-secondary-metabolism-of-muscodor-yucatanensis-small-molecule-epigenetic-modifiers-induce-expression-of-secondary-metabolism-related-genes-and-production-of-new-metabolites-in-the-endophyte
#19
Masroor Qadri, Yedukondalu Nalli, Shreyans K Jain, Asha Chaubey, Asif Ali, Gary A Strobel, Ram A Vishwakarma, Syed Riyaz-Ul-Hassan
Muscodor spp. are proficient producers of bioactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with many potential applications. However, all members of this genus produce varying amounts and types of VOCs which suggests the involvement of epigenetics as a possible explanation. The members of this genus are poorly explored for the production of soluble compounds (extrolites). In this study, the polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes from an endophyte, Muscodor yucatanensis Ni30, were cloned and sequenced...
May 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906649/a-common-bacterial-metabolite-elicits-prion-based-bypass-of-glucose-repression
#20
David M Garcia, David Dietrich, Jon Clardy, Daniel F Jarosz
Robust preference for fermentative glucose metabolism has motivated domestication of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This program can be circumvented by a protein-based genetic element, the [GAR(+)] prion, permitting simultaneous metabolism of glucose and other carbon sources. Diverse bacteria can elicit yeast cells to acquire [GAR(+)], although the molecular details of this interaction remain unknown. Here we identify the common bacterial metabolite lactic acid as a strong [GAR(+)] inducer. Transient exposure to lactic acid caused yeast cells to heritably circumvent glucose repression...
November 29, 2016: ELife
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