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Fungi epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301168/deletion-of-a-histone-acetyltransferase-leads-to-the-pleiotropic-activation-of-natural-products-in-metarhizium-robertsii
#1
Aili Fan, Wubin Mi, Zhiguo Liu, Guohong Zeng, Peng Zhang, Youcai Hu, Weiguo Fang, Wen-Bing Yin
Histone deacetylation normally decreases the gene expression in organisms. By genome-wide deletions of epigenetic regulators in entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii, unexpected activations of orphan secondary metabolite genes have been found upon the disruption of a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) gene Hat1. This led to the characterization of 11 new natural products, including eight isocoumarin derivatives meromusides A-H and two nonribosomal peptides meromutides A and B. Therefore, disruption of HAT represents a new approach to mine chemical diversity from fungi...
March 16, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238081/dna-methyltransferases-contribute-to-the-fungal-development-stress-tolerance-and-virulence-of-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-robertsii
#2
Yulong Wang, Tiantian Wang, Lintao Qiao, Jianyu Zhu, Jinrui Fan, Tingting Zhang, Zhang-Xun Wang, Wanzhen Li, Anhui Chen, Bo Huang
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark in mammals, plants, and fungi and depends on multiple genetic pathways involving de novo and maintenance DNA methyltransferases (DNMTases). Metarhizium robertsii, a model system for investigating insect-fungus interactions, has been used as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical insecticides. However, little is known concerning the molecular basis for DNA methylation. Here, we report on the roles of two DNMTases (MrRID and MrDIM-2) by characterizing ΔMrRID, ΔMrDIM-2, and ΔRID/ΔDIM-2 mutants...
February 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191457/the-copper-transport-associated-protein-ctr4-can-form-prion-like-epigenetic-determinants-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#3
Theodora Sideri, Yoko Yashiroda, David A Ellis, María Rodríguez-López, Minoru Yoshida, Mick F Tuite, Jürg Bähler
Prions are protein-based infectious entities associated with fatal brain diseases in animals, but also modify a range of host-cell phenotypes in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Many questions remain about the evolution and biology of prions. Although several functionally distinct prion-forming proteins exist in S. cerevisiae, [HET-s] of Podospora anserina is the only other known fungal prion. Here we investigated prion-like, protein-based epigenetic transmission in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
January 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034799/impact-of-biotic-and-abiotic-factors-on-the-expression-of-fungal-effector-encoding-genes-in-axenic-growth-conditions
#4
Michel Meyer, Salim Bourras, Julie Gervais, Karine Labadie, Corinne Cruaud, Marie-Hélène Balesdent, Thierry Rouxel
In phytopathogenic fungi, the expression of hundreds of small secreted protein (SSP)-encoding genes is induced upon primary infection of plants while no or a low level of expression is observed during vegetative growth. In some species such as Leptosphaeria maculans, this coordinated in-planta upregulation of SSP-encoding genes expression relies on an epigenetic control but the signals triggering gene expression in-planta are unknown. In the present study, biotic and abiotic factors that may relieve suppression of SSP-encoding gene expression during axenic growth of L...
December 26, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975876/isolation-of-metabolites-from-epigenetically-modified-mangrove-fungi-for-anti-infective-drug-discovery
#5
Acd Limon, R Fleeman, L N Shaw, B J Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924400/an-insight-into-the-secondary-metabolism-of-muscodor-yucatanensis-small-molecule-epigenetic-modifiers-induce-expression-of-secondary-metabolism-related-genes-and-production-of-new-metabolites-in-the-endophyte
#6
Masroor Qadri, Yedukondalu Nalli, Shreyans K Jain, Asha Chaubey, Asif Ali, Gary A Strobel, Ram A Vishwakarma, Syed Riyaz-Ul-Hassan
Muscodor spp. are proficient producers of bioactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with many potential applications. However, all members of this genus produce varying amounts and types of VOCs which suggests the involvement of epigenetics as a possible explanation. The members of this genus are poorly explored for the production of soluble compounds (extrolites). In this study, the polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes from an endophyte, Muscodor yucatanensis Ni30, were cloned and sequenced...
December 6, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906649/a-common-bacterial-metabolite-elicits-prion-based-bypass-of-glucose-repression
#7
David M Garcia, David Dietrich, Jon Clardy, Daniel F Jarosz
Robust preference for fermentative glucose metabolism has motivated domestication of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This program can be circumvented by a protein-based genetic element, the [GAR(+)] prion, permitting simultaneous metabolism of glucose and other carbon sources. Diverse bacteria can elicit yeast cells to acquire [GAR(+)], although the molecular details of this interaction remain unknown. Here we identify the common bacterial metabolite lactic acid as a strong [GAR(+)] inducer. Transient exposure to lactic acid caused yeast cells to heritably circumvent glucose repression...
November 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826839/structure-and-mechanism-of-plant-dna-methyltransferases
#8
Jiamu Du
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark that functions in eukaryotes from fungi to animals and plants, where it plays a crucial role in the regulation of epigenetic silencing. Once the methylation mark is established by the de novo DNA methyltransferase (MTase), it requires specific regulatory mechanisms to maintain the methylation state during chromatin replication, both during meiosis and mitosis. Plants have distinct DNA methylation patterns that are both established and maintained by unique DNA MTases and are regulated by plant-specific pathways...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820941/functions-of-exosomes-and-microbial-extracellular-vesicles-in-allergy-and-contact-and-delayed-type-hypersensitivity
#9
REVIEW
Katarzyna Nazimek, Krzysztof Bryniarski, Philip W Askenase
Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are newly recognized intercellular conveyors of functional molecular mechanisms. Notably, they transfer RNAs and proteins between different cells that can then participate in the complex pathogenesis of allergic and related hypersensitivity responses and disease mechanisms, as described herein. This review highlights this important new appreciation of the in vivo participation of such extracellular vesicles in the interactions between allergy-mediating cells. We take into account paracrine epigenetic exchanges mediated by surrounding stromal cells and the endocrine receipt of exosomes from distant cells via the circulation...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761936/epigenetic-treatment-of-persistent-viral-infections
#10
REVIEW
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732794/regulation-and-role-of-fungal-secondary-metabolites
#11
Juliane Macheleidt, Derek J Mattern, Juliane Fischer, Tina Netzker, Jakob Weber, Volker Schroeckh, Vito Valiante, Axel A Brakhage
Fungi have the capability to produce a tremendous number of so-called secondary metabolites, which possess a multitude of functions, e.g., communication signals during coexistence with other microorganisms, virulence factors during pathogenic interactions with plants and animals, and in medical applications. Therefore, research on this topic has intensified significantly during the past 10 years and thus knowledge of regulatory mechanisms and the understanding of the role of secondary metabolites have drastically increased...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711197/a-multistate-toggle-switch-defines-fungal-cell-fates-and-is-regulated-by-synergistic-genetic-cues
#12
Matthew Z Anderson, Allison M Porman, Na Wang, Eugenio Mancera, Denis Huang, Christina A Cuomo, Richard J Bennett
Heritable epigenetic changes underlie the ability of cells to differentiate into distinct cell types. Here, we demonstrate that the fungal pathogen Candida tropicalis exhibits multipotency, undergoing stochastic and reversible switching between three cellular states. The three cell states exhibit unique cellular morphologies, growth rates, and global gene expression profiles. Genetic analysis identified six transcription factors that play key roles in regulating cell differentiation. In particular, we show that forced expression of Wor1 or Efg1 transcription factors can be used to manipulate transitions between all three cell states...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600920/melatonin-suppresses-tpa-induced-metastasis-by-downregulating-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-expression-through-jnk-sp-1-signaling-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#13
Hsin-Yu Ho, Chiao-Wen Lin, Ming-Hsien Chien, Russel J Reiter, Shih-Chi Su, Yi-Hsien Hsieh, Shun-Fa Yang
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a disease common in the South-East Asian population, has high lymph node metastatic ability. Melatonin, an endogenously produced substance present in animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria, has oncostatic activity via several mechanisms. The molecular mechanisms involved in melatonin-mediated tumor inhibitory potential are not completely defined. Here, we show that melatonin treatment inhibits TPA-induced cell motility by regulating the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in NPC...
November 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592717/enteric-ecosystem-disruption-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-can-the-microbiota-and-macrobiota-be-restored
#14
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Stephen G Kahler, Richard E Frye
BACKGROUND: Many lines of scientific research suggest that Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) may be associated with alterations in the enteric ecosystem, including alterations of the enteric macrobiome (i.e. helminthes and fungi) and changes in predominant microbiome species, particularly a reduction in microbiome diversity. METHODS: We performed and comprehensive review of the literature and summarized the major findings. RESULTS: These alterations are believed to be due to a variety of factors including changes in the post-industrial society related to decreased exposure to symbiotic organisms, increased human migration, overuse of antibiotics and changes in dietary habits...
September 5, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497317/centromeres-of-the-yeast-komagataella-phaffii-pichia-pastoris-have-a-simple-inverted-repeat-structure
#15
Aisling Y Coughlan, Sara J Hanson, Kevin P Byrne, Kenneth H Wolfe
Centromere organization has evolved dramatically in one clade of fungi, the Saccharomycotina. These yeasts have lost the ability to make normal eukaryotic heterochromatin with histone H3K9 methylation, which is a major component of pericentromeric regions in other eukaryotes. Following this loss, several different types of centromere emerged, including two types of sequence-defined ("point") centromeres, and the epigenetically defined "small regional" centromeres of Candida albicans Here we report that centromeres of the methylotrophic yeast Komagataella phaffii (formerly called Pichia pastoris) are structurally defined...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400176/a-b-type-histone-acetyltransferase-hat1-regulates-secondary-metabolism-conidiation-and-cell-wall-integrity-in-the-taxol-producing-fungus-pestalotiopsis-microspora
#16
Qian Zhang, Longfei Chen, Xi Yu, Heng Liu, Oren Akhberdi, Jiao Pan, Xudong Zhu
In filamentous fungi, many gene clusters for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites often stay silent under laboratory culture conditions because of the absence of communication with its natural environment. Epigenetic processes have been demonstrated to be critical in the expression of the genes or gene clusters. Here, we report the identification of a B-type histone acetyltransferase, Hat1, and demonstrate its significant roles in secondary metabolism, conidiation, and the cell wall integrity in the fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora...
December 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358654/profiling-genome-wide-dna-methylation
#17
REVIEW
Wai-Shin Yong, Fei-Man Hsu, Pao-Yang Chen
DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays an important role in regulating gene expression and therefore a broad range of biological processes and diseases. DNA methylation is tissue-specific, dynamic, sequence-context-dependent and trans-generationally heritable, and these complex patterns of methylation highlight the significance of profiling DNA methylation to answer biological questions. In this review, we surveyed major methylation assays, along with comparisons and biological examples, to provide an overview of DNA methylation profiling techniques...
2016: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121330/moonlighting-transcriptional-activation-function-of-a-fungal-sulfur-metabolism-enzyme
#18
Elisabetta Levati, Sara Sartini, Angelo Bolchi, Simone Ottonello, Barbara Montanini
Moonlighting proteins, including metabolic enzymes acting as transcription factors (TF), are present in a variety of organisms but have not been described in higher fungi so far. In a previous genome-wide analysis of the TF repertoire of the plant-symbiotic fungus Tuber melanosporum, we identified various enzymes, including the sulfur-assimilation enzyme phosphoadenosine-phosphosulfate reductase (PAPS-red), as potential transcriptional activators. A functional analysis performed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, now demonstrates that a specific variant of this enzyme, PAPS-red A, localizes to the nucleus and is capable of transcriptional activation...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118591/deletion-of-a-yci1-domain-protein-of-candida-albicans-allows-homothallic-mating-in-mtl-heterozygous-cells
#19
Yuan Sun, Christine Gadoury, Matthew P Hirakawa, Richard J Bennett, Doreen Harcus, Anne Marcil, Malcolm Whiteway
UNLABELLED: It has been proposed that the ancestral fungus was mating competent and homothallic. However, many mating-competent fungi were initially classified as asexual because their mating capacity was hidden behind layers of regulation. For efficient in vitro mating, the essentially obligate diploid ascomycete pathogen Candida albicans has to change its mating type locus from heterozygous MTLa/α to homozygous MTLa/a or MTLα/α and then undergo an environmentally controlled epigenetic switch to the mating-competent opaque form...
April 26, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27031711/ribonucleases-possible-new-approach-in-cancer-therapy
#20
REVIEW
V O Shlyakhovenko
In the review, the use of the ribonucleases for cancer therapy is discussed. Using of epigenetic mechanisms of regulation--blocking protein synthesis without affecting the DNA structure--is a promising direction in the therapy. The ribonucleases isolated from different sources, despite of similar mechanism of enzymatic reactions, have different biological effects. The use of enzymes isolated from new sources, particularly from plants and fungi, shows promising results. In this article we discuss the new approach for the use of enzymes resistant to inhibitors and ribozymes, that is aimed at the destruction of the oncogene specific mRNA and the induction of apoptosis...
March 2016: Experimental Oncology
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