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Cryptococcus neoformans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803995/depsidones-and-an-%C3%AE-pyrone-derivative-from-simpilcillium-sp-psu-h41-an-endophytic-fungus-from-hevea-brasiliensis-leaf
#1
Praphatsorn Saetang, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Souwalak Phongpaichit, Sita Preedanon, Jariya Sakayaroj, Suparerk Borwornpinyo, Sawinee Seemakhan, Chatchai Muanprasat
Nine previously undescribed depsidones (simplicildones A-I) and one previously undescribed α-pyrone (simplicilopyrone) were isolated from the endophytic fungus Simplicillium sp. PSU-H41 along with 11 known compounds. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Simplicildone A and known botryorhodine C displayed weak antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus with equal MIC values of 32 μg/mL. Additionally, botryorhodine C was active against methicillin-resistant S. aureus with the same MIC value...
August 9, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797532/assessment-of-in-vitro-antifungal-efficacy-and-in-vivo-toxicity-of-amphotericin-b-loaded-plga-and-plga-peg-blend-nanoparticles
#2
T C Moraes Moreira Carraro, C Altmeyer, N Maissar Khalil, R Mara Mainardes
Amphotericin B (AmB) is widely applied in treatment of systemic fungal infections. However, the emergence of severe adverse effects, such as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and hemolytic anemia, can limit its clinical use. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) blend nanoparticles containing AmB were developed with the aim to decrease AmB toxicity and propose the oral route for AmB delivery. Nanoparticles were characterized by particle size, polydispersity index, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analyses...
August 7, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797489/approach-to-fungal-infections-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-pneumocystis-and-beyond
#3
REVIEW
Richard J Wang, Robert F Miller, Laurence Huang
Many fungi cause pulmonary disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pathogens include Pneumocystis jirovecii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus spp, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Talaromyces marneffei, and Emmonsia spp. Because symptoms are frequently nonspecific, a high index of suspicion for fungal infection is required for diagnosis. Clinical manifestations of fungal infection in HIV-infected patients frequently depend on the degree of immunosuppression and the CD4(+) helper T cell count...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797488/cryptococcal-lung-infections
#4
REVIEW
Kate Skolnik, Shaunna Huston, Christopher H Mody
Cryptococcus is among the most common invasive fungal pathogens globally and is one of the leading causes of acquired immunodeficiency virus-related deaths. Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the most clinically relevant species and account for most cryptococcal disease. Pulmonary manifestations can range from mild symptoms to life-threatening infection. Treatment is tailored based on the severity of pulmonary infection, the presence of disseminated or central nervous system disease, and patient immune status...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793877/subarachnoid-small-vein-occlusion-due-to-inflammatory-fibrosis-a-possible-mechanism-for-cerebellar-infarction-in-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-a-case-report
#5
Yoshiteru Shimoda, Satoru Ohtomo, Hiroaki Arai, Takashi Ohtoh, Teiji Tominaga
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) causes cerebral infarction, typically, lacunar infarction in the basal ganglia. However, massive cerebral infarction leading to death is rare and its pathophysiology is unclear. We report a case of CM causing massive cerebellar infarction, which led to cerebral herniation and death. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old man who suffered from dizziness and gait disturbance for one month was admitted to our hospital and subsequently diagnosed with a cerebellar infarction...
August 9, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793019/cryptococcus-neoformans-and-c-gattii-isolates-from-both-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-patients-antifungal-susceptibility-and-outcome-of-cryptococcal-disease
#6
Erika Nascimento, Lucia Helena Vitali, Marcia Regina von Zeska Kress, Roberto Martinez
One of the factors causing treatment failure in cryptococcosis is the resistance of Cryptococcus spp. to antifungal drugs, which has motivated the susceptibility assessment of isolates from patients with cryptococcosis, different clinical conditions and infections outcomes. Clinical isolates of Cryptococcus spp. from three different groups of patients were studied in the present investigation: 19 HIV-positive patients with relapsing and/or refractory meningitis (Group 1), 30 HIV-positive patients who experienced a single and limited episode of cryptococcosis (Group 2), and 19 HIV-negative patients with cryptococcosis (Group 3)...
2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783748/heat-shock-protein-90-localizes-to-the-surface-and-augments-virulence-factors-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#7
Sharanya Chatterjee, Utpal Tatu
BACKGROUND: Thermotolerance is an essential attribute for pathogenesis of Cryptococcus as exemplified by the fact that only two species in the genus, which can grow at 37°C, are human pathogens. Species which have other virulence factors including capsule formation and melanisation, but lack the ability to propagate at 37°C are not pathogenic. In another related fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, heat shock protein 90 has been implicated to be a central player in commanding pathogenicity by governing yeast to hyphal transition and drug resistance...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775082/disseminated-cryptococcal-infection-in-a-patient-who-had-kidney-transplant-discrepancy-between-clinical-symptoms-and-microbiological-findings
#8
Suzan Dahdal, Robert Kalicki, Niklaus Von Steiger, Parham Sendi
A 29-year-old man complained of a 2-day history of frontal headache and new-onset fever but no other symptoms. Two months prior to admission, he underwent his third kidney transplantation. Clinical and laboratory examinations were unremarkable. Brain MRI showed a meningeal irritation consistent with viral meningitis. A diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis and fungaemia was made after detection of a remarkably high and visible load of Cryptococcus neoformans in the cerebrospinal fluid.
August 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774701/fungal-infections-in-hiv-aids
#9
REVIEW
Andrew H Limper, Antoine Adenis, Thuy Le, Thomas S Harrison
Fungi are major contributors to the opportunistic infections that affect patients with HIV/AIDS. Systemic infections are mainly with Pneumocystis jirovecii (pneumocystosis), Cryptococcus neoformans (cryptococcosis), Histoplasma capsulatum (histoplasmosis), and Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei (talaromycosis). The incidence of systemic fungal infections has decreased in people with HIV in high-income countries because of the widespread availability of antiretroviral drugs and early testing for HIV. However, in many areas with high HIV prevalence, patients present to care with advanced HIV infection and with a low CD4 cell count or re-present with persistent low CD4 cell counts because of poor adherence, resistance to antiretroviral drugs, or both...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756537/atypical-morphology-and-disparate-speciation-in-a-case-of-feline-cryptococcosis
#10
S J M Evans, K Jones, A R Moore
A 6-year-old, spayed female cat was presented with acute respiratory signs and pleural effusion. Computed tomography scan revealed a large, lobulated mass effect in the ventral right hemithorax with concurrent sternal lymphadenopathy. A cytologic sample of the mass contained pyogranulomatous inflammation, necrotic material, and abundant yeast structures that lacked a distinct capsule and demonstrated rare pseudohyphal forms. Fungal culture and biochemical testing identified the yeast as Cryptococcus albidus, with susceptibility to all antifungal agents tested...
July 29, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753024/thiocarbonyl-ylide-chemistry-enables-a-concise-synthesis-of-%C3%A2-hippolachnin-a
#11
Nils Winter, Dirk Trauner
Hippolachnin A (1) is an antifungal polyketide that bristles with ethyl groups mounted onto a caged heterotricyclic core. It has shown potent activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, a yeast that can affect immunocompromised patients as an opportunistic pathogen. Herein we describe a concise, diversifiable, and scalable synthesis of (±)-hippolachnin A (1). It features a powerful photochemical opening step, a diastereoselective addition of an ethyl cuprate and an unusual strategy to install two additional ethyl groups that makes use of a thiocarbonyl ylide generated in situ...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747366/cross-reacting-ustilago-maydis-causing-false-positive-cryptococcal-antigen-tests
#12
Matthew P Cheng, Tien T Nguyen, Leighanne O Parkes, Philippe J Dufresne, Donald C Sheppard
Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast within the division Basidiomycota that may cause pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) disease.….
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744276/differential-antifungal-activity-of-human-and-cryptococcal-melanins-with-structural-discrepancies
#13
Néstor Correa, Cristian Covarrubias, Paula I Rodas, Germán Hermosilla, Verónica R Olate, Cristián Valdés, Wieland Meyer, Fabien Magne, Cecilia V Tapia
Melanin is a pigment found in all biological kingdoms, and plays a key role in protection against ultraviolet radiation, oxidizing agents, and ionizing radiation damage. Melanin exerts an antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We demonstrated an antifungal activity of synthetic and human melanin against Candida sp. The members of the Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii species complexes are capsulated yeasts, which cause cryptococcosis. For both species melanin is an important virulence factor...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740223/dual-functional-phi29-dna-polymerase-triggered-exponential-rolling-circle-amplification-for-sequence-specific-detection-of-target-dna-embedded-in-long-stranded-genomic-dna
#14
Xiao-Yu Li, Yi-Chen Du, Yu-Peng Zhang, De-Ming Kong
An exonucleolytic digestion-assisted exponential rolling circle amplification (RCA) strategy was developed for sensitive and sequence-specific detection of target DNA embedded in long-stranded genomic DNA. Herein, Phi29 DNA polymerase plays two important roles as exonuclease and polymerase. Long-stranded genomic DNAs can be broken into small DNA fragments after ultrasonication. The fragments that contain target DNA, hybridize with a linear padlock probe to trigger the formation of a circular RCA template. The tails protruding from the 3'-end of the target DNA sequences are then digested by the 3' → 5' exonuclease activity of Phi29 DNA polymerase even if they fold into a double-stranded structure...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720316/pigeons-and-their-droppings-as-reservoirs-of-candida-and-other-zoonotic-yeasts
#15
Inmaculada Rosario Medina, Lorena Román Fuentes, Miguel Batista Arteaga, Fernando Real Valcárcel, Félix Acosta Arbelo, Daniel Padilla Del Castillo, Soraya Déniz Suárez, Otilia Ferrer Quintana, Belinda Vega Gutiérrez, Freddy Silva Sergent, Begoña Acosta-Hernández
BACKGROUND: The importance of pigeons as reservoirs and carriers of Cryptococcus neoformans and other species of this genus is well-known; however, less is known about their role as reservoirs and carriers of other yeasts that impact public health. AIMS: The present study was performed on Gran Canaria Island to define yeasts other than Cryptococcus spp. that have been reported to impact public health and which could be carried by pigeons. METHODS: Samples were obtained from 83 pigeon lofts (Columba livia); moreover, 331 crop samples, 331 cloacal samples and 174 dropping samples were collected...
July 15, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713781/the-metalloprotease-mpr1-engages-annexina2-to-promote-the-transcytosis-of-fungal-cells-across-the-blood-brain-barrier
#16
Sarisa Na Pombejra, Michelle Salemi, Brett S Phinney, Angie Gelli
Eukaryotic pathogens display multiple mechanisms for breaching the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and invading the central nervous system (CNS). Of the fungal spp., that cause disease in mammals, only some cross brain microvascular endothelial cells which constitute the BBB, and invade the brain. Cryptococcus neoformans, the leading cause of fungal meningoencephalitis, crosses the BBB directly by transcytosis or by co-opting monocytes. We previously determined that Mpr1, a secreted fungal metalloprotease, facilitates association of fungal cells to brain microvascular endothelial cells and we confirmed that the sole expression of CnMPR1 endowed S...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700464/cryptococcal-meningitis-after-transnasal-transsphenoidal-pituitary-microsurgery-of-acth-secreting-pituitary-adenoma-a-case-report
#17
Yang Liu, Ming Feng, Yong Yao, Kan Deng, Xinjie Bao, Xiaohai Liu, Renzhi Wang
RATIONALE: Microbial infection should be regarded in the differential diagnosis of neurosurgical complications after transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery, albeit cryptococcal meningitis is rare. This article will discuss the risk factors of cryptococcal meningitis in patients underwent transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery, and summary the potential origins of infection. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: Here, we report a case of 37-year-old male who had cryptococcal meningitis after transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery of a relapsing ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699287/an-alternative-method-for-the-analysis-of-melanin-production-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-sensu-lato-and-cryptococcus-gattii-sensu-lato
#18
Raimunda S N Brilhante, Jaime D A España, Lucas P de Alencar, Vandbergue S Pereira, Débora de S C M Castelo-Branco, Waldemiro de A Pereira-Neto, Rossana de A Cordeiro, José J C Sidrim, Marcos F G Rocha
Melanin is an important virulence factor for several microorganisms, including Cryptococcus neoformans sensu lato and Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato, thus, the assessment of melanin production and its quantification may contribute to the understanding of microbial pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to standardise an alternative method for the production and indirect quantification of melanin in C. neoformans sensu lato and C. gattii sensu lato. Eight C. neoformans sensu lato and three C. gattii sensu lato, identified through URA5 methodology, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 (negative control) and one Hortaea werneckii (positive control) were inoculated on minimal medium agar with or without L-DOPA, in duplicate, and incubated at 35°C, for 7 days...
July 12, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697301/discovery-of-a-membrane-active-ring-modified-histidine-containing-ultrashort-amphiphilic-peptide-that-exhibits-potent-inhibition-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#19
Krishna K Sharma, Indresh Kumar Maurya, Shabana I Khan, Melissa R Jacob, Vinod Kumar, Kulbhushan Tikoo, Rahul Jain
The new structural classes of ultrashort peptides that exhibit potent microbicidal action have potential as future drugs. Herein, we report that C-2 arylated histidines containing tripeptides His(2-Ar)-Trp-His(2-Ar) exhibit potent antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with high selectivity. The most potent peptide 12f [His(2-biphenyl)-Trp-His(2-biphenyl)] displayed high in vitro activity against C. neoformans (IC50 = 0.35 μg/mL, MIC = MFC = 0.63 μg/mL) with a selectivity index of >28 and 2 times higher potency compared to amphotericin B...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686685/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-gib2-validating-its-adaptor-function-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#20
Gillian O Bruni, Blake Battle, Ben Kelly, Zhengguang Zhang, Ping Wang
Cryptococcus neoformans causes often-fatal fungal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. While the exact disease mechanisms remain elusive, signal transduction pathways mediated by key elements such as G-protein α subunit Gpa1, small GTPase Ras1, and atypical Gβ-like/RACK1 protein Gib2 are known to play important roles in C. neoformans virulence. Gib2 is important for normal growth, differentiation, and pathogenicity, and it also positively regulates cAMP levels in conjunction with Gpa1. Interestingly, Gib2 displays a scaffold protein property by interacting with a wide variety of cellular proteins...
2017: PloS One
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