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Cryptococcus neoformans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650761/cryptococcal-osteomyelitis-of-the-first-metatarsal-head-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#1
Jae Hoon Ahn, ChanJoo Park, Choong Woo Lee, Yoon-Chung Kim
Most fungal infections primarily occur in immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of osteomyelitis involving the first metatarsal head due to Cryptococcus neoformans in a previously healthy immunocompetent patient. She was treated with surgical debridement combined with antifungal drug therapy for 6 months. At 5-year follow-up, she remained symptom free with full range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Fungal osteomyelitis should be considered as a possible cause in osteolytic lesions in the metatarsal bone...
May 2017: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643722/endogenous-endophthalmitis-caused-by-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-gattii-mimicking-choroidal-tumor-from-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-to-histopathology
#2
Chun-Ju Lin, Wen-Lu Chen, Jane-Ming Lin, Peng-Tai Tien, Yi-Yu Tsai
A 60-year-old immunocompetent female with pneumonia history about 10 years ago suffered from blurred vision overall survival for 3 weeks. Common cold with headache and unintentional body weight loss was also noted recently. Choroidal detachment simulating choroidal tumor was observed in the temporal quadrant. The 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) scan showed focal, mild to moderate FDG uptake in the left lateral orbit, and an enhanced lesion was seen on the recent CT scan...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642475/a-novel-bzip-protein-gsb1-is-required-for-oxidative-stress-response-mating-and-virulence-in-the-human-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#3
Seon Ah Cheon, Eun Jung Thak, Yong-Sun Bahn, Hyun Ah Kang
The human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, which causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals, normally faces diverse stresses in the human host. Here, we report that a novel, basic, leucine-zipper (bZIP) protein, designated Gsb1 (general stress-related bZIP protein 1), is required for its normal growth and diverse stress responses. C. neoformans gsb1Δ mutants grew slowly even under non-stressed conditions and showed increased sensitivity to high or low temperatures. The hypersensitivity of gsb1Δ to oxidative and nitrosative stresses was reversed by addition of a ROS scavenger...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638876/phytochemical-screening-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxicity-studies-of-ethanol-leaf-extract-of-aphaniasenegalensis-sapindaceae
#4
Alioune Dior Fall, Victor Patrick Bagla, Emmanuel Bassene, Jacobus Nicolaas Eloff
BACKGROUND: Aphania senegalensis (Sapindaceae) is commonly used in Senegalese traditional medicine to treat pain, inflammation, asthenia, bacterial and fungal infections. The aim of this study was to determine the type of phytochemical constituents present in the ethanol leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity against selected bacterial and fungal pathogens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ethanol leaf extract of A. senegalensis was evaluated for its cytotoxic effect in the MTT assay against Vero cells...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633410/cryptococcus-neoformans-and-gattii-promote-dna-damage-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#5
Jéssica Cristina Bilizario Noguerol Andrade, Mariana Gatto, Daniela Ramos Rodrigues, Ângela Maria Victoriano de Campos Soares, Sueli Aparecida Calvi
Cryptococcosis, a systemic mycosis capable of disseminating to the central nervous system with frequent lethal effects, is caused by the species Cryptococus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Several infectious agents such as virus, bacteria, and parasites may be associated to DNA damage and carcinogenesis in humans. Products of the oxidative metabolism, such as NO, produced as a host defense mechanism to destroy these pathogens, have been implicated in this damage process, due to excessive production related to an established chronic inflammatory response...
June 15, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631642/sporadic-occurrence-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-hiv-seronegative-patients-uncommon-etiology
#6
Shukla Das, Shyama Datt, Priyamvada Roy, Rumpa Saha, Immaculata Xess
Cryptococcosis in HIV-seronegative patients is rarely reported from India. This prospective study was conducted to look for cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals and compare their laboratory features to cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seropositive patients. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected from 153 suspected cases of meningitis and subjected to India ink preparation, antigen detection, and culture. Nineteen samples tested positive for Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Seventeen and two patients were HIV reactive and nonreactive, respectively...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630940/fluconazole-induced-ploidy-change-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-results-from-the-uncoupling-of-cell-growth-and-nuclear-division
#7
Sophie Altamirano, Diana Fang, Charles Simmons, Shreyas Sridhar, Peipei Wu, Kaustuv Sanyal, Lukasz Kozubowski
Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes lethal cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. One of the challenges in treating cryptococcosis is the development of resistance to azole antifungals. Previous studies linked azole resistance to elevated numbers of copies of critical resistance genes in aneuploid cells. However, how aneuploidy is formed in the presence of azole drugs remains unclear. This study showed that treatment with inhibitory concentrations of an azole drug, fluconazole (FLC), resulted in a significant population of cells with increased DNA content, through the following defects: inhibition of budding, premature mitosis, and inhibition of cytokinesis followed by replication in the mother cell...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622118/imaging-spectrum-of-invasive-fungal-and-fungal-like-infections
#8
Hilary L P Orlowski, Sebastian McWilliams, Vincent M Mellnick, Sanjeev Bhalla, Meghan G Lubner, Perry J Pickhardt, Christine O Menias
Invasive fungal and fungal-like infections contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. The incidence of these infections is increasing-largely because of rising numbers of immunocompromised patients, including those with neutropenia, human immunodeficiency virus, chronic immunosuppression, indwelling prostheses, burns, and diabetes mellitus, and those taking broad-spectrum antibiotics. Invasive fungal pathogens include primary mycotic organisms such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which are true pathogens and inherently virulent...
June 16, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615417/t-cell-restricted-notch-signaling-contributes-to-pulmonary-th1-and-th2-immunity-during-cryptococcus-neoformans-infection
#9
Lori M Neal, Yafeng Qiu, Jooho Chung, Enze Xing, Woosung Cho, Antoni N Malachowski, Ashley R Sandy-Sloat, John J Osterholzer, Ivan Maillard, Michal A Olszewski
Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous, opportunistic fungal pathogen but the cell signaling pathways that drive T cell responses regulating antifungal immunity are incompletely understood. Notch is a key signaling pathway regulating T cell development, and differentiation and functional responses of mature T cells in the periphery. The targeting of Notch signaling within T cells has been proposed as a potential treatment for alloimmune and autoimmune disorders, but it is unknown whether disturbances to T cell immunity may render these patients vulnerable to fungal infections...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614360/comparative-genomics-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-associated-with-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-patients-in-vietnam
#10
Jeremy N Day, Seet Qihui, Lam Tuan Thanh, Phan Hai Trieu, Anh Duong Van, Nha Hoang Thu, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Nguyen P H Lan, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Philip M Ashton, Guy E Thwaites, Maciej F Boni, Marcel Wolbers, Niranjan Nagarajan, Patrick B O Tan, Stephen Baker
The vast burden of cryptococcal meningitis occurs in immunosuppressed patients, driven by HIV, and is caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. We previously reported cryptococcal meningitis in Vietnam arising atypically in HIV uninfected, apparently immunocompetent patients, caused by a single amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) cluster of C. neoformans var. grubii (VNIγ). This variant was less common in HIV infected individuals; it remains unclear why this lineage is associated with apparently immunocompetent patients...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611159/population-genomics-and-the-evolution-of-virulence-in-the-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#11
Christopher A Desjardins, Charles Giamberardino, Sean M Sykes, Chen-Hsin Yu, Jennifer L Tenor, Yuan Chen, Timothy Yang, Alexander M Jones, Sheng Sun, Miriam R Haverkamp, Joseph Heitman, Anastasia P Litvintseva, John R Perfect, Christina A Cuomo
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes approximately 625,000 deaths per year from nervous system infections. Here, we leveraged a unique, genetically diverse population of C. neoformans from sub-Saharan Africa, commonly isolated from mopane trees, to determine how selective pressures in the environment coincidentally adapted C. neoformans for human virulence. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 387 isolates, representing the global VNI and African VNB lineages, highlighted a deep, nonrecombining split in VNB (herein, VNBI and VNBII)...
June 13, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606355/analysis-of-multiple-components-involved-in-the-interaction-between-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-acanthamoeba-castellanii
#12
Juliana Rizzo, Priscila C Albuquerque, Julie M Wolf, Renata Nascimento, Marcos D Pereira, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Marcio L Rodrigues
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental fungus that can cause lethal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. The mechanisms by which environmental microbes become pathogenic to mammals are still obscure, but different studies suggest that fungal virulence evolved from selection imposed by environmental predators. The soil-living Acanthamoeba castellanii is a well-known predator of C. neoformans. In this work, we evaluated the participation of C. neoformans virulence-associated structures in the interaction of fungal cells with A...
June 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594372/purine-acquisition-and-synthesis-by-human-fungal-pathogens
#13
REVIEW
Jessica L Chitty, James A Fraser
While members of the Kingdom Fungi are found across many of the world's most hostile environments, only a limited number of species can thrive within the human host. The causative agents of the most common invasive fungal infections are Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Cryptococcus neoformans. During the infection process, these fungi must not only combat the host immune system while adapting to dramatic changes in temperature and pH, but also acquire sufficient nutrients to enable growth and dissemination in the host...
June 8, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592745/clinicopathological-features-of-cryptococcal-lymphadenitis-and-a-review-of-literature
#14
Keisuke Kawamoto, Hiroaki Miyoshi, Takaharu Suzuki, Reiji Muto, Kyohei Yamada, Eriko Yanagida, Mayuko Koshino, Yuya Sasaki, Jun Takizawa, Hirohito Sone, Yasuo Sugita, Masao Seto, Koichi Ohshima
Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised patients. The clinicopathological characteristics of cryptococcal lymphadenitis are not well known. We analyzed three cases of cryptococcal lymphadenitis and compared their characteristics with those in previous reports. Two patients were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) carriers, and one patient was a human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) carrier. The age of the HTLV-1 carrier with cryptococcosis was much higher than that of the HIV-1 carriers...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology: JCEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591262/fatal-cryptococcus-gattii-genotype-vgi-infection-in-an-hiv-positive-patient-in-barranquilla-colombia
#15
María Clara Noguera, Patricia Escandón, Elizabeth Castañeda
Cryptococcosis is a major invasive fungal disease related worldwide with the AIDS population. New reports of HIV/AIDS cases to the national public health surveillance system (SIVIGILA) in Colombia have shown that there is a growing community at risk of contracting cryptococcosis throughout the country who do not have access to ART. Even though the most prevalent species Cryptococcus neoformans is mainly associated with the HIV population, we report a fatal case of cryptococcosis in an AIDS patient in Barranquilla, associated with Cryptococcus gattii VGI, isolated from blood culture...
June 1, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584988/methodology-for-anti-cryptococcal-vaccine-development
#16
Ashok K Chaturvedi, Floyd L Wormley
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, the predominant etiological agents of cryptococcosis, are fungal pathogens that cause disease ranging from a mild pneumonia to life-threatening infections of the central nervous system (CNS). C. neoformans is widely considered an opportunistic fungal pathogen which targets individuals with impaired immune systems, while C. gattii is predominantly associated with fungal infections in immunocompetent individuals. However, C. neoformans and C. gattii have certainly been identified as the causative agent of cryptococcosis in both immune compromised and immune competent individuals...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576330/first-report-of-two-cases-of-cryptococcosis-in-tripoli-libya-infected-with-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolates-present-in-the-urban-area
#17
M S Ellabib, Z A Krema, A A Allafi, M Cogliati
Cryptococcosis is a potentially fatal fungal disease caused by the basidiomycetes yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii with high predilection to invade the central nervous system mainly in immunocompromised hosts. Skin can be secondarily involved in disseminated infection or be exceptionally involved as primary cutaneous infection by inoculation with contaminated materials. We report the first two Libyan cases of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV patients, in which one of them presented a secondary cutaneous involvement due to systemic dissemination...
May 30, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560585/creation-characterization-and-utilization-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-mutants-sensitive-to-micafungin
#18
Akio Toh-E, Misako Ohkusu, Kiminori Shimizu, Masashi Yamaguchi, Naruhiko Ishiwada, Akira Watanabe, Katsuhiko Kamei
We constructed deletion mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans (serotype D) genes encoding late ergosterol biosynthetic pathway enzymes and found that the mutations enhanced susceptibility to various drugs including micafungin, one of the echinocandins, to which wild-type Cryptococcus strains show no susceptibility. Furthermore, through isolation of a mutant resistant to micafungin from a micafungin-sensitive erg mutant and genetic analysis of it, we found that the responsible mutation occurred in the hotspot 2 of FKS1 encoding β-1, 3-glucan synthase, indicating that micafungin inhibited the growth of the erg mutant via inhibiting Fks1 activity...
May 30, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559486/mismatch-repair-of-dna-replication-errors-contributes-to-microevolution-in-the-pathogenic-fungus-cryptococcus-neoformans
#19
Kylie J Boyce, Yina Wang, Surbhi Verma, Viplendra P S Shakya, Chaoyang Xue, Alexander Idnurm
The ability to adapt to a changing environment provides a selective advantage to microorganisms. In the case of many pathogens, a large change in their environment occurs when they move from a natural setting to a setting within a human host and then during the course of disease development to various locations within that host. Two clinical isolates of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans were identified from a collection of environmental and clinical strains that exhibited a mutator phenotype, which is a phenotype which provides the ability to change rapidly due to the accumulation of DNA mutations at high frequency...
May 30, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559277/cryptococcus-neoformans-ads-lyase-in-an-enzyme-essential-for-virulence-whose-crystal-structure-reveals-features-exploitable-in-antifungal-drug-design
#20
Jessica L Chitty, Kirsten L Blake, Ross D Blundell, Y Q Andre E Koh, Merinda Thompson, Avril A B Robertson, Mark S Butler, Matthew A Cooper, Ulrike Kappler, Simon J Williams, Bostjan Kobe, James A Fraser
There is significant clinical need for new antifungal agents to manage infections with pathogenic species such as Cryptococcus neoformans Because the purine biosynthesis pathway is essential for many metabolic processes, such as synthesis of DNA and RNA and energy generation, it may represent a potential target for developing new antifungals. Within this pathway, the bifunctional enzyme adenylosuccinate (ADS) lyase plays a role in the formation of the key intermediates inosine monophosphate and AMP involved in the synthesis of ATP and GTP, prompting us to investigate ADS lyase in C...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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