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Cryptococcus neoformans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785613/neuroinfections-caused-by-fungi
#1
REVIEW
Katarzyna Góralska, Joanna Blaszkowska, Magdalena Dzikowiec
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FIs-CNS) have become significantly more common over the past 2 decades. Invasion of the CNS largely depends on the immune status of the host and the virulence of the fungal strain. Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five articles on fungal neuroinfection in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were selected for review using the following search words: "fungi and CNS mycoses", CNS fungal infections", "fungal brain infections", " fungal cerebritis", fungal meningitis", "diagnostics of fungal infections", and "treatment of CNS fungal infections"...
May 21, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784977/cryptococcus-neoformans-sexual-reproduction-is-controlled-by-a-quorum-sensing-peptide
#2
Xiuyun Tian, Guang-Jun He, Pengjie Hu, Lei Chen, Changyu Tao, Ying-Lu Cui, Lan Shen, Weixin Ke, Haijiao Xu, Youbao Zhao, Qijiang Xu, Fengyan Bai, Bian Wu, Ence Yang, Xiaorong Lin, Linqi Wang
Bacterial quorum sensing is a well-characterized communication system that governs a large variety of collective behaviours. By comparison, quorum sensing regulation in eukaryotic microbes remains poorly understood, especially its functional role in eukaryote-specific behaviours, such as sexual reproduction. Cryptococcus neoformans is a prevalent fungal pathogen that has two defined sexual cycles (bisexual and unisexual) and is a model organism for studying sexual reproduction in fungi. Here, we show that the quorum sensing peptide Qsp1 serves as an important signalling molecule for both forms of sexual reproduction...
May 21, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781185/helper-t-cell-responses-and-pulmonary-fungal-infections
#3
REVIEW
Andrew J McDermott, Bruce S Klein
The mucosal surface of the respiratory tract encounters microbes, such as fungal particles, with every inhaled breath. When pathogenic fungi breach the physical barrier and innate immune system within the lung to establish an infection, adaptive immunity is engaged often in the form of helper CD4 T-cell responses. Type 1 responses, characterized by IFNγ production from CD4 cells, promote clearance of Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Likewise, IL-17A production from Th17 cells promotes immunity to Blastomyces dermatitidis and Coccidiodes species infection by recruiting neutrophils...
May 20, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780795/a-novel-de-novo-mutation-in-the-cd40-ligand-gene-in-a-patient-with-a-mild-x-linked-hyper-igm-phenotype-initially-diagnosed-as-cvid-new-aspects-of-old-diseases
#4
Tábata T França, Luiz F B Leite, Tiago A Maximo, Christiane G Lambert, Nuria B Zurro, Wilma C N Forte, Antonio Condino-Neto
Mutations in the CD40 ligand (CD40L) gene ( CD40LG ) lead to X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (X-HIGM), which is a primary immunodeficiency (PID) characterized by decreased serum levels of IgG and IgA and normal or elevated IgM levels. Although most X-HIGM patients become symptomatic during the first or second year of life, during which they exhibit recurrent infections, some patients exhibit mild phenotypes, which are usually associated with hypomorphic mutations that do not abrogate protein expression or function...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775480/titan-cells-formation-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-is-finely-tuned-by-environmental-conditions-and-modulated-by-positive-and-negative-genetic-regulators
#5
Benjamin Hommel, Liliane Mukaremera, Radames J B Cordero, Carolina Coelho, Christopher A Desjardins, Aude Sturny-Leclère, Guilhem Janbon, John R Perfect, James A Fraser, Arturo Casadevall, Christina A Cuomo, Françoise Dromer, Kirsten Nielsen, Alexandre Alanio
The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans exhibits morphological changes in cell size during lung infection, producing both typical size 5 to 7 μm cells and large titan cells (> 10 μm and up to 100 μm). We found and optimized in vitro conditions that produce titan cells in order to identify the ancestry of titan cells, the environmental determinants, and the key gene regulators of titan cell formation. Titan cells generated in vitro harbor the main characteristics of titan cells produced in vivo including their large cell size (>10 μm), polyploidy with a single nucleus, large vacuole, dense capsule, and thick cell wall...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775477/cryptococcus-neoformans-can-form-titan-like-cells-in-vitro-in-response-to-multiple-signals
#6
Nuria Trevijano-Contador, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Rocío García-Rodas, Suélen Andreia Rossi, Irene Llorente, Ángel Zaballos, Guilhem Janbon, Joaquín Ariño, Óscar Zaragoza
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated pathogenic yeast that can change the size of the cells during infection. In particular, this process can occur by enlarging the size of the capsule without modifying the size of the cell body, or by increasing the diameter of the cell body, which is normally accompanied by an increase of the capsule too. This last process leads to the formation of cells of an abnormal enlarged size denominated titan cells. Previous works characterized titan cell formation during pulmonary infection but research on this topic has been hampered due to the difficulty to obtain them in vitro...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775474/the-cryptococcus-neoformans-titan-cell-is-an-inducible-and-regulated-morphotype-underlying-pathogenesis
#7
Ivy M Dambuza, Thomas Drake, Ambre Chapuis, Xin Zhou, Joao Correia, Leanne Taylor-Smith, Nathalie LeGrave, Tim Rasmussen, Matthew C Fisher, Tihana Bicanic, Thomas S Harrison, Marcel Jaspars, Robin C May, Gordon D Brown, Raif Yuecel, Donna M MacCallum, Elizabeth R Ballou
Fungal cells change shape in response to environmental stimuli, and these morphogenic transitions drive pathogenesis and niche adaptation. For example, dimorphic fungi switch between yeast and hyphae in response to changing temperature. The basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans undergoes an unusual morphogenetic transition in the host lung from haploid yeast to large, highly polyploid cells termed Titan cells. Titan cells influence fungal interaction with host cells, including through increased drug resistance, altered cell size, and altered Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern exposure...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769315/characterization-of-additional-components-of-the-environmental-ph-sensing-complex-in-the-pathogenic-fungus-cryptococcus-neoformans
#8
Kaila M Pianalto, Kyla S Ost, Hannah E Brown, J Andrew Alspaugh
Pathogenic microorganisms must adapt to changes in their immediate surroundings, including alterations in pH, to survive the shift from the external environment to that of the infected host. In the basidiomycete fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans , these pH changes are primarily sensed by the fungal-specific, alkaline pH-sensing Rim/Pal pathway. The C. neoformans Rim pathway has diverged significantly from that described in ascomycete fungi. We recently identified the C. neoformans putative pH sensor Rra1, which activates the Rim pathway in response to elevated pH...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762748/molecular-type-specific-multiplex-pcr-produces-a-distinct-vnii-pcr-pattern-among-cryptococcus-neoformans-species-complex
#9
Massimo Cogliati, Mala Rakoto Andrianarivelo, Mohamed Ellabib, Emmanuel N Nnadi, Muriel Cornet
Prevalence of molecular type VNII among Cryptococcus neoformans species complex is probably underestimated since it can be distinguished from VNI only using molecular typing methods such as URA5-RFLP, AFLP, MLST, or whole genome sequencing. Previously, we described a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method able to identify VNI, VNIV, and VNIII hybrids, but, at that time, VNII molecular type was not described yet. In this study, 16 VNII global isolates were analyzed by our multiplex PCR method, and results showed that it was able to produce a specific pattern for all the studied VNII isolates, which was different from those of VNI, VNIV, and VNIII...
May 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762695/development-and-validation-of-an-extended-database-for-yeast-identification-by-maldi-tof-ms-in-argentina
#10
Constanza Giselle Taverna, Mariana Mazza, Nadia Soledad Bueno, Christian Alvarez, Susana Amigot, Mariana Andreani, Natalia Azula, Rubén Barrios, Norma Fernández, Barbara Fox, Liliana Guelfand, Ivana Maldonado, Omar Alejandro Murisengo, Silvia Relloso, Matias Vivot, Graciela Davel
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has revolutionized the identification of microorganisms in clinical laboratories because it is rapid, relatively simple to use, accurate, and can be used for a wide number of microorganisms. Several studies have demonstrated the utility of this technique in the identification of yeasts; however, its performance is usually improved by the extension of the database. Here we developed an in-house database of 143 strains belonging to 42 yeast species in the MALDI Biotyper platform, and we validated the extended database with 388 regional strains and 15 reference strains belonging to 55 yeast species...
May 11, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760698/mechanisms-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-mediated-host-damage
#11
REVIEW
Arturo Casadevall, Carolina Coelho, Alexandre Alanio
Cryptococcus neoformans is not usually considered a cytotoxic fungal pathogen but there is considerable evidence that this microbe can damage host cells and tissues. In this essay, we review the evidence that C. neoformans damages host cells and note that the mechanisms involved are diverse. We consider C. neoformans -mediated host damage at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism level. Direct mechanisms of cytotoxicity include lytic exocytosis, organelle dysfunction, phagolysosomal membrane damage, and cytoskeletal alterations...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754135/disseminated-cryptococcosis-in-hiv-negative-patient
#12
Ali Hassoun, Neha Mehrotra
A 52-year-old white diabetic male with 4-weeks history of persistent cough followed by headache, drenching night sweats, low-grade fever, worsening photophobia, nausea and vomiting was presented. Examination was significant for photophobia and diminution of vision. His spinal fluid and blood cultures were positive for Cryptococcus neoformans Intravenous fluconazole were given for 2 weeks followed by oral fluconazole. There was significant improvement in systemic and ocular symptoms. HIV serology was negative, but his CD4 counts were low with inverted CD4:CD8 ratio...
May 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749873/fatal-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-an-aids-patient-complicated-with-immune-reconstitution-syndrome-refractory-to-prolonged-amphotericin-b-treatment
#13
Thilinie D Bandaranayake, Onyema E Ogbuagu, Amit Mahajan, Alexander O Vortmeyer, Merceditas S Villanueva
Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous encapsulated environmental yeast that can cause severe central nervous system disease, primarily in immune compromised hosts. In patients with AIDS, the spectrum of cryptococcal central nervous system disease includes meningitis, cystic lesions, and mass-like cryptococcomas. We report a fatal case of meningitis and cerebritis caused by C. neoformans in an AIDS patient refractory to multiple courses of liposomal amphotericin B despite immune recovery with antiretroviral therapy...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742198/peeling-the-onion-the-outer-layers-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#14
Daniel P Agustinho, Liza C Miller, Lucy X Li, Tamara L Doering
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that is ubiquitous in the environment. It causes a deadly meningitis that is responsible for over 180,000 deaths worldwide each year, including 15% of all AIDS-related deaths. The high mortality rates for this infection, even with treatment, suggest a need for improved therapy. Unique characteristics of C. neoformans may suggest directions for drug discovery. These include features of three structures that surround the cell: the plasma membrane, the cell wall around it, and the outermost polysaccharide capsule...
2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740480/estimating-the-intra-taxa-diversity-population-genetic-structure-and-evolutionary-pathways-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-gattii
#15
Marina Muñoz, Milena Camargo, Juan D Ramírez
Members of the Cryptococcus complex, includes Cryptococcus neoformans (most common fungal infection of the brain) and Cryptococcus gattii (high-impact emerging pathogen worldwide). Currently, the fungal multilocus sequence typing database (Fungal MLST Database) constitutes a valuable data repository of the genes used for molecular typing of these pathogens. We analyzed the data available in the Fungal MLST Database for seven housekeeping genes, with the aim to evaluate its contribution in the description of intra-taxa diversity, population genetic structure, and evolutionary patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737452/comparison-of-clinical-features-and-prognostic-factors-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-caused-by-cryptococcus-neoformans-in-patients-with-and-without-pulmonary-nodules
#16
Wenhao Cao, Cui Jian, Huojun Zhang, Shuyun Xu
Whether the clinical features of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) patients vary with the coexistence of pulmonary nodules is not clear. This study aimed to compare the clinical features of CM in patients with and without pulmonary nodules detected by chest computed tomography (CT). The medical records of CM patients hospitalized in Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2016, were retrospectively reviewed. Baseline demographics, laboratory and radiographic findings, clinical managements, and outcomes were analyzed...
May 8, 2018: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732967/polysorbate-surfactants-as-drug-carriers-tween-20-amphotericin-b-conjugates-as-anti-fungal-and-anti-leishmanial-agents
#17
Vasanthan Ravichandran, Venkitasamy Kesavan, Sandrine Cojean, Philippe M Loiseau, Athipettah Jayakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Amphotericin B (AmB), a polyene antibiotic used for the treatment of fungal and leishmanial infections is virtually insoluble in water and exhibits severe toxicity. AmB has been conjugated to various soluble polymers for improving its solubility and reducing its toxicity. Conjugating AmB to a polysorbate surfactant such as polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20), was examined to improve its solubility and reduce its toxicity. METHODS: AmB was coupled to Tween 20 via carbamate linkage at 15 and 30 wt% concentrations in high yield by activating the hydroxyl groups of the surfactant using p- nitrophenyl chloroformate...
May 3, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724221/use-of-pinus-sylvestris-l-pinaceae-origanum-vulgare-l-lamiaceae-and-thymus-vulgaris-l-lamiaceae-essential-oils-and-their-main-components-to-enhance-itraconazole-activity-against-azole-susceptible-not-susceptible-cryptococcus-neoformans-strains
#18
Daniela Scalas, Narcisa Mandras, Janira Roana, Roberta Tardugno, Anna Maria Cuffini, Valeria Ghisetti, Stefania Benvenuti, Vivian Tullio
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal infections, besides being a problem for immunocompromised patients, are occasionally being a problem for immunocompetent patients. In addition, the lower susceptibility of this yeast to azoles is a growing problem in health care. To date, there are very few molecules with any activity towards Cryptococcus neoformans, leading to heightened interest in finding new alternatives or adjuvants to conventional drugs for the treatment of mycosis caused by this yeast. Since the essential oils (EOs) are considered as a potential rich source of bioactive antimicrobial compounds, we evaluated the antifungal activity of Origanum vulgare (oregano), Pinus sylvestris (pine), and Thymus vulgaris (thyme red) EOs, and their components (α-pinene, carvacrol, thymol) compared with fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole, against C...
May 3, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712729/conservation-of-intracellular-pathogenic-strategy-among-distantly-related-cryptococcal-species
#19
Joudeh B Freij, Man Shun Fu, Carlos M De Leon Rodriguez, Amanda Dziedzic, Anne E Jedlicka, Quigly Dragotakes, Diego C P Rossi, Eric H Jung, Carolina Coelho, Arturo Casadevall
The genus Cryptococcus includes several pathogenic species for humans. Until recently, the two major pathogenic species were recognized as C. neoformans (Cn) and C. gattii (Cg). We compared the interaction of murine macrophages with three Cg species complex strains (WM179, R265, and WM161, representing molecular types VGI, VGIIa, and VGIII, respectively) and one Cn species complex strain (H99, molecular type VNI) to ascertain similarities and differences in the yeast intracellular pathogenic strategy. Parameters analyzed include non-lytic exocytosis frequency, phagolysosomal pH, intracellular capsular growth, phagolysosomal membrane permeabilization, and macrophage transcriptional response, assessed using time-lapse microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and gene expression microarray analysis...
April 30, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710329/chronic-meningitis-investigated-via-metagenomic-next-generation-sequencing
#20
Michael R Wilson, Brian D O'Donovan, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Hannah A Sample, Felicia C Chow, John P Betjemann, Maulik P Shah, Megan B Richie, Mark P Gorman, Rula A Hajj-Ali, Leonard H Calabrese, Kelsey C Zorn, Eric D Chow, John E Greenlee, Jonathan H Blum, Gary Green, Lillian M Khan, Debarko Banerji, Charles Langelier, Chloe Bryson-Cahn, Whitney Harrington, Jairam R Lingappa, Niraj M Shanbhag, Ari J Green, Bruce J Brew, Ariane Soldatos, Luke Strnad, Sarah B Doernberg, Cheryl A Jay, Vanja Douglas, S Andrew Josephson, Joseph L DeRisi
Importance: Identifying infectious causes of subacute or chronic meningitis can be challenging. Enhanced, unbiased diagnostic approaches are needed. Objective: To present a case series of patients with diagnostically challenging subacute or chronic meningitis using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) supported by a statistical framework generated from mNGS of control samples from the environment and from patients who were noninfectious...
April 16, 2018: JAMA Neurology
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