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Cryptococcus neoformans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354779/first-case-of-superficial-infection-due-to-naganishia-albida-formerly-cryptococcus-albidus-in-iran-a-review-of-the-literature
#1
S Aghaei Gharehbolagh, M Nasimi, S Agha Kuchak Afshari, Z Ghasemi, S Rezaie
Background and Purpose: Naganishia albida (formerly Cryptococcus albidus) is a non-neoformans cryptococcal species rarely isolated as a human pathogen. Case report: Herein, we present the case of a 26-year-old Iranian man with a superficial cutaneous lesion in the axilla. The initial treatment for pityriasis versicolor by clotrimazole was unsuccessful. We performed skin sampling based on the standard protocol and conducted further investigations by the conventional laboratory tests and molecular analysis of the skin samples...
June 2017: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354777/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-cryptococcus-species-isolated-from-pigeon-nests-and-eucalyptus-trees
#2
A Kamari, A Sepahvand, R Mohammadi
Background and Purpose: Cryptococcus species are pathogenic and non-pathogenic basidiomycete yeasts that are found widely in the environment. Based on phenotypic methods, this genus has many species; however, its taxonomy is presently being re-evaluated by modern techniques. The Cryptococcus species complex includes two sibling taxa of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. We aimed to investigate the possible distribution of Cryptococcus species in pigeon nests and Eucalyptus trees in Ilam, Iran, using molecular techniques...
June 2017: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354657/antibody-and-b-cell-subset-perturbations-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-uninfected-patients-with-cryptococcosis
#3
Soma Rohatgi, Antonio Nakouzi, Leandro J Carreño, Magdalena Slosar-Cheah, Mark H Kuniholm, Tao Wang, Peter G Pappas, Liise-Anne Pirofski
The importance of antibody immunity in protection against Cryptococcus neoformans remains unresolved. We measured serum C neoformans-specific and total antibody levels and peripheral blood B cell subsets of 12 previously healthy patients with cryptococcosis (cases) and 21 controls. Before and after adjustment for age, sex, and race, cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide immunoglobulin G was higher in cases than controls, whereas total B and memory B cell levels were lower. These associations parallel previous findings in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated cryptococcosis and suggest that B cell subset perturbations may also associate with disease in previously normal individuals with cryptococcosis...
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346417/xylose-donor-transport-is-critical-for-fungal-virulence
#4
Lucy X Li, Carsten Rautengarten, Joshua L Heazlewood, Tamara L Doering
Cryptococcus neoformans, an AIDS-defining opportunistic pathogen, is the leading cause of fungal meningitis worldwide and is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths annually. Cryptococcal glycans are required for fungal survival in the host and for pathogenesis. Most glycans are made in the secretory pathway, although the activated precursors for their synthesis, nucleotide sugars, are made primarily in the cytosol. Nucleotide sugar transporters are membrane proteins that solve this topological problem, by exchanging nucleotide sugars for the corresponding nucleoside phosphates...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339081/disorder-to-order-transitions-in-the-molten-globule-like-golgi-reassembly-and-stacking-protein
#5
Luís F S Mendes, Luis G M Basso, Patricia S Kumagai, Raquel Fonseca-Maldonado, Antonio J Costa-Filho
BACKGROUND: Golgi Reassembly and Stacking Proteins (GRASPs) are widely spread among eukaryotic cells (except plants) and are considered as key components in both the stacking of the Golgi cisternae and its lateral connection. Furthermore, GRASPs were also proved essential in the unconventional secretion pathway of several proteins, even though the mechanism remains obscure. It was previously observed that the GRASP homolog in Cryptococcus neoformans has a molten globule-like behavior in solution...
January 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338603/emerging-roles-of-inositol-pyrophosphates-as-key-modulators-of-fungal-pathogenicity
#6
Hyun Ah Kang
Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs) are energy-rich small molecules that are omnipresent in eukaryotic cells, from yeast to mammals, playing central roles in overall cellular homeostasis as a diverse and multifaceted class of intracellular messengers. Recent studies of the metabolic pathways and physiological roles of PP-IPs in the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans have revealed that the PP-IP5 (IP7) is a key metabolite essential for fungal metabolic adaptation to the host environment, immune recognition, and pathogenicity...
January 17, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338542/the-novel-microtubule-associated-cap-glycine-protein-cgp1-governs-growth-differentiation-and-virulence-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#7
Li Li Wang, Kyung-Tae Lee, Kwang-Woo Jung, Dong-Gi Lee, Yong-Sun Bahn
Microtubules are involved in mechanical support, cytoplasmic organization, and several cellular processes by interacting with diverse microtubule-associated proteins such as plus-end tracking proteins, motor proteins, and tubulin-folding cofactors. A number of the cytoskeleton-associated proteins (CAPs) contain the CAP-glycine-rich (CAP-Gly) domain, which is evolutionarily conserved and generally considered to bind to α-tubulin to regulate the function of microtubules. However, there has been a dearth of research on CAP-Gly proteins in fungal pathogens, including Cryptococcus neoformans, which is a global cause of fatal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients...
January 17, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327953/multicentric-cryptococcosis-in-a-congo-african-grey-parrot-psittacus-erithacus-erithacus
#8
Raina S K Schunk, Nicholas E Sitinas, Katherine E Quesenberry, Jessica L Grodio
An approximately 10-year-old, female Congo African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus erithacus) developed progressive, unilateral exophthalmos and buphthalmos. Survey radiographs revealed a large, coelomic, soft tissue mass, which was confirmed on computed tomography scan. Aspirates of both the contents of the buphthalmic globe and coelomic mass were consistent with Cryptococcus species. Initial results were later confirmed with serum antigen latex agglutination and polymerase chain reaction testing, and the organism was then identified as Cryptococcus neoformans with DNA sequencing...
December 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317510/the-f-box-protein-fbp1-shapes-the-immunogenic-potential-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#9
Jorge Masso-Silva, Vanessa Espinosa, Tong-Bao Liu, Yina Wang, Chaoyang Xue, Amariliz Rivera
Cryptococcus neoformans is the main etiologic agent of cryptococcal meningitis and causes a significant number of deadly infections per year. Although it is well appreciated that host immune responses are crucial for defense against cryptococcosis, our understanding of factors that control the development of effective immunity to this fungus remains incomplete. In previous studies, we identified the F-box protein Fbp1 as a novel determinant of C. neoformans virulence. In this study, we found that the hypovirulence of the fbp1Δ mutant is linked to the development of a robust host immune response...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311092/pharmacodynamics-of-flubendazole-for-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-repurposing-and-reformulation-of-an-anti-parasitic-agent-for-a-neglected-fungal-disease
#10
Gemma L Nixon, Laura McEntee, Adam Johnson, Nikki Farrington, Sarah Whalley, Joanne Livermore, Cristien Natal, Gina Washbourn, Jaclyn Bibby, Neil Berry, Jodi Lestner, Megan Truong, Andrew Owen, David Lalloo, Ian Charles, William Hope
Current therapeutic options for cryptococcal meningitis are limited by toxicity, global supply and emergence of resistance. There is an urgent need to develop additional antifungal agents that are fungicidal within the central nervous system and preferably orally bioavailable. The benzimidazoles have broad-spectrum anti-parasitic activity, but also have in vitro antifungal activity that includes Cryptococcus neoformans Flubendazole (a benzimidazole) has been reformulated by Janssen Pharmaceutica as an amorphous solid drug nanodispersion to develop an orally bioavailable medicine for the treatment of neglected tropical diseases such as onchocerciasis...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305388/unintended-side-effects-of-transformation-are-very-rare-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#11
Ryan Friedman, Stacey R Gish, Holly Brown, Lindsey Brier, Nicole Howard, Tamara L Doering, Michael R Brent
Received wisdom in the field of fungal biology holds that the process of editing a genome by transformation and homologous recombination is inherently mutagenic. However, that belief is based on circumstantial evidence. We provide the first direct measurement of the effects of transformation on a fungal genome by sequencing the genomes of 29 transformants and 30 untransformed controls to high coverage. Contrary to the received wisdom, our results show that transformation of DNA segments flanked by long targeting sequences, followed by homologous recombination and selection for a drug marker, is extremely safe...
January 5, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305296/one-step-synthesis-of-carbohydrate-esters-as-antibacterial-and-antifungal-agents
#12
Madher N AlFindee, Qian Zhang, Yagya Prasad Subedi, Jaya P Shrestha, Yukie Kawasaki, Michelle Grilley, Jon Y Takemoto, Cheng-Wei Tom Chang
Carbohydrate esters are biodegradable, and the degraded adducts are naturally occurring carbohydrates and fatty acids which are environmentally friendly and non-toxic to human. A simple one-step regioselective acylation of mono-carbohydrates has been developed that leads to the synthesis of a wide range of carbohydrate esters. Screening of these acylated carbohydrates revealed that several compounds were active against a panel of bacteria and fungi, including Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum...
December 26, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302151/cryptococcal-meningitis-masquerading-as-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-in-an-immune-competent-adult
#13
Hitesh Raheja, Ankur Sinha, Pavan Kumar Irukulla, Yizhak Kupfer
We report a case of acute cryptococcal meningitis (CM) masquerading as normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) in an immune-competent female. An 85-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-negative female presented to the emergency room for altered mental status and difficulty walking. She was increasingly lethargic, with urinary incontinence and gait instability. A previous computed tomography was reported to have ventricular dilatation out of proportion to the degree of cortical atrophy. Magnetic resonance scan of the brain revealed ventricular dilatation and subtle debris layering the occipital horns of the lateral ventricles...
October 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299844/vacuolar-zinc-transporter-zrc1-is-required-for-detoxification-of-excess-intracellular-zinc-in-the-human-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#14
Minsu Cho, Guanggan Hu, Mélissa Caza, Linda C Horianopoulos, James W Kronstad, Won Hee Jung
Zinc is an important transition metal in all living organisms and is required for numerous biological processes. However, excess zinc can also be toxic to cells and cause cellular stress. In the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a vacuolar zinc transporter, Zrc1, plays important roles in the storage and detoxification of excess intracellular zinc to protect the cell. In this study, we identified an ortholog of the S. cerevisiae ZRC1 gene in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Zrc1 was localized in the vacuolar membrane in C...
January 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289430/design-synthesis-and-structure-activity-relationship-studies-of-novel-tetrazole-antifungal-agents-with-potent-activity-broad-antifungal-spectrum-and-high-selectivity
#15
Anran Qian, Yazhou Zheng, Ruilian Wang, Jianhai Wei, Yongmei Cui, Xufeng Cao, Yushe Yang
In this letter, we report our efforts to design, synthesize and evaluate biological activities of a series of novel hybridized compounds containing 1-tetrazole and 4-pyridinyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-one. An analysis of structure-activity data indicates that the target compounds with bulky and hydrophobic side chains exhibited stronger activities against the Candida spp and Cryptococcus neoformans tested than those of fluconazole and racemic VT-1161. Furthermore, 13k and 13ad were active against Microsporum gypseum, which was resistant to racemic VT-1161...
December 20, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285049/innate-immune-evasion-strategies-against-cryptococcal-meningitis-caused-by-cryptococcus-neoformans
#16
Cheng-Liang Yang, Jun Wang, Li-Li Zou
As an infectious fungus that affects the respiratory tract, Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) commonly causes asymptomatic pulmonary infection. C. neoformans may target the brain instead of the lungs and cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the early phase of infection; however, this is dependent on successful evasion of the host innate immune system. During the initial stage of fungal infection, a complex network of innate immune factors are activated. C. neoformans utilizes a number of strategies to overcome the anti-fungal mechanisms of the host innate immune system and cross the BBB...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280202/environmental-distribution-of-cryptococcus-species-and-some-other-yeast-like-fungi-in-india
#17
Anupam Prakash, Harbans Singh Randhawa, Zia Uddin Khan, Suhail Ahmad, Ferry Hagen, Jacques F Meis, Anuradha Chowdhary
A study of environmental distribution revealed the occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii in 9% and 3%, respectively, of 611 samples investigated. C. neoformans showed the highest isolation frequency from tree trunk hollows in Delhi (31%), whereas, C. gattii occurred in 12% of the samples in Delhi and 5% in Rajasthan. In addition, Cryptococcus laurentii (=Papiliotrema laurentii), C. rajasthanensis (=Papiliotrema rajasthanensis), C. podzolicus (=Saitozyma podzolica) and C. flavescens (=Papiliotrema flavescens), occurred in 0...
December 27, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280197/fulminant-cryptococcus-neoformans-infection-with-fatal-pericardial-tamponade-in-a-patient-with-chronic-myelomonocytic-leukemia-who-was-treated-with-ruxolitinib-case-report-and-review-of-fungal-pericarditis
#18
Jing Liu, Elie Mouhayar, Jeffrey J Tarrand, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
Cryptococcus neoformans is a saprophytic fungal pathogen that can cause serious illness in immune-compromised hosts and it presents with a wide variety of clinical symptoms. We present a fatal case of fulminant C. neoformans infection presenting as pericardial tamponade in a 71-year-old male with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy with the JAK-STAT inhibitor ruxolitinib. We also review the published cases of fungal pericarditis/tamponade. In addition to illustrating an atypical presentation of C...
December 27, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243387/investigation-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-magnesium-transporters-reveals-important-role-of-vacuolar-magnesium-transporter-in-regulating-fungal-virulence-factors
#19
Chen-Hao Suo, Lan-Jing Ma, Hai-Long Li, Jian-Fang Sun, Chao Li, Ming-Hui Lin, Tian-Shu Sun, Wei Du, Yan-Jian Li, Xin-Di Gao, Yang Meng, Si-Xiang Sai, Chen Ding
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen in humans. Recent studies have demonstrated that metals are critical factors for the regulation of fungal virulence in hosts. In this study, we systemically investigated the function of C. neoformans magnesium transporters in controlling the intracellular Mg balance and virulence-associated factors. We identified three Mg transporters in C. neoformans: Mgt1, Mgt2, and Mgt3. While we could not detect a Mg2+ -related growth phenotype in mgt1 and mgt3 knockout strains, a GAL7p-Mgt2 strain showed significant Mg-dependent growth defects in the presence of glucose...
December 15, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234588/emerging-fluconazole-resistance-implications-for-the-management-of-cryptococcal-meningitis
#20
Edward Mpoza, Joshua Rhein, Mahsa Abassi
We present the case of an HIV-seropositive individual with cryptococcal meningitis who was found to have a fluconazole resistant strain of Cryptococcus neoformans. The individual required multiple rounds of amphotericin and fluconazole 800-1200 mg after several episodes of clinical relapse. Cerebrospinal fluid sterilization was achieved and maintained with high doses of fluconazole. This case demonstrates the emerging dilemma of increasing rates of fluconazole resistance in Cryptococcus and the clinical difficulties in meningitis management...
March 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
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