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Cryptococcus neoformans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937623/antifungal-activity-of-thapsia-villosa-essential-oil-against-candida-cryptococcus-malassezia-aspergillus-and-dermatophyte-species
#1
Eugénia Pinto, Maria-José Gonçalves, Carlos Cavaleiro, Lígia Salgueiro
The composition of the essential oil (EO) of Thapsia villosa (Apiaceae), isolated by hydrodistillation from the plant's aerial parts, was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Antifungal activity of the EO and its main components, limonene (57.5%) and methyleugenol (35.9%), were evaluated against clinically relevant yeasts (Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia furfur) and moulds (Aspergillus spp. and dermatophytes). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured according to the broth macrodilution protocols by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)...
September 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936464/innate-immune-responses-to-cryptococcus
#2
Lena J Heung
Cryptococcus species are encapsulated fungi found in the environment that predominantly cause disease in immunocompromised hosts after inhalation into the lungs. Even with contemporary antifungal regimens, patients with cryptococcosis continue to have high morbidity and mortality rates. The development of more effective therapies may depend on our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the host promotes sterilizing immunity against the fungus. This review will highlight our current knowledge of how Cryptococcus, primarily the species C...
September 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934415/first-report-of-urease-activity-in-the-novel-systemic-fungal-pathogen-emergomyces-africanus-a-comparison-with-the-neurotrope-cryptococcus-neoformans
#3
Barbra Lerm, Chris Kenyon, Ilan S Schwartz, Heinrich Kroukamp, Riaan de Witt, Nelesh P Govender, G Sybren de Hoog, Alfred Botha
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for the AIDS-defining illness, cryptococcal meningitis. During the disease process, entry of cryptococcal cells into the brain is facilitated by virulence factors that include urease enzyme activity. A novel species of an Emmonsia-like fungus, recently named Emergomyces africanus, was identified as a cause of disseminated mycosis in HIV-infected persons in South Africa. However, in contrast to C. neoformans, the enzymes produced by this fungus, some of which may be involved in pathogenesis, have not been described...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931320/chemical-and-biomolecular-analyses-to-discriminate-three-taxa-of-pistacia-genus-from-sardinia-island-italy-and-their-antifungal-activity
#4
Arianna Marengo, Alessandra Piras, Danilo Falconieri, Silvia Porcedda, Pierluigi Caboni, Pierluigi Cortis, Caterina Foddis, Claudia Loi, Maria José Gonçalves, Lígia Salgueiro, Andrea Maxia
This work reports the results and the comparison concerning the chemical and biomolecular analyses and the antifungal activity of three wild Pistacia species (Anacardiaceae) from Sardinia. Volatile oils from leaves and twigs of Pistacia x saportae, Pistacia lentiscus and Pistacia terebinthus were characterised using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques and tested against some fungal strains. Two DNA nuclear regions (ITS and 5S-rRNA-NTS) were amplified through PCR technique and sequenced. The three **Pistacia have similar chemical profile, although there are some important quantitative differences...
September 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928997/neurosyphilis-with-concomitant-cryptococcal-and-tuberculous-meningitis-in-a-patient-with-aids-report-of-a-unique-case
#5
Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora, Luis Alberto Espinoza, Rita N Nwanyanwu
Meningitis in individuals living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is most frequently infectious in origin and usually due to opportunistic infections. The most common pathogens are Cryptococcus neoformans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Treponema pallidum causes neurosyphilis and can complicate HIV infections at any time after the initial infection. Simultaneous infections of the central nervous system caused by these pathogens are very uncommon even in the setting of severe immunosuppression...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927230/multi-azole-resistant-strains-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-isolated-from-a-flz-resistant-strain-by-culturing-in-medium-containing-voriconazole
#6
Rui Kano, Miki Okubo, Atsuhiko Hasegawa, Hiroshi Kamata
A Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii strain, NUBS14020, was the first fluconazole (FLZ)-resistant strain isolated from a feline cryptococcosis. Subsequent work demonstrated that multi-azole-resistant strains are readily isolated from FLZ-resistant strains by culturing in medium containing voriconazole (VRZ). The resulting clones were assessed for mutation and expression of known target genes, including the loci encoding lanosterol 14-α demethylase (ERG11), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (AFR1), or a multidrug efflux pump (MEP); mutation and/or overexpression of these genes is known to be associated with azole resistance...
September 11, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920786/cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-associated-renal-amyloidosis-causing-protein-losing-nephropathy-in-a-red-kangaroo-macropus-rufus
#7
Mary Irene Thurber, Jenessa Gjeltema, Matthew Sheley, Ray F Wack
A 10-year-old male castrated red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented with mandibular swelling. Examination findings included pitting edema with no dental disease evident on examination or radiographs. The results of blood work were moderate azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, and severely elevated urine protein:creatinine ratio (9.9). Radiographs showed an interstitial pattern of the caudal right lung, and an abdominal ultrasound demonstrated scant effusion. Symptomatic and empirical therapy with antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor did not resolve clinical signs...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919893/ripk3-fas-associated-death-domain-axis-regulates-pulmonary-immunopathology-to-cryptococcal-infection-independent-of-necroptosis
#8
Zhenzong Fa, Qun Xie, Wei Fang, Haibing Zhang, Haiwei Zhang, Jintao Xu, Weihua Pan, Jinhua Xu, Michal A Olszewski, Xiaoming Deng, Wanqing Liao
Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) are multifunctional regulators of cell death and immune response. Using a mouse model of cryptococcal infection, the roles of FADD and RIPK3 in anti-cryptococcal defense were investigated. Deletion of RIPK3 alone led to increased inflammatory cytokine production in the Cryptococcus neoformans-infected lungs, but in combination with FADD deletion, it led to a robust Th1-biased response with M1-biased macrophage activation. Rather than being protective, these responses led to paradoxical C...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919350/crystal-structure-of-inositol-1-3-4-5-6-pentakisphosphate-2-kinase-from-cryptococcus-neoformans
#9
Juntaek Oh, Dong-Gi Lee, Yong-Sun Bahn, Sangkee Rhee
The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a causative agent of meningoencephalitis in humans. For its pathogenicity, the inositol polyphosphate biosynthetic pathway plays critical roles. Recently, Ipk1 from C. neoformans (CnIpk1) was identified as an inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of IP5 to form IP6, a substrate for subsequent reaction to produce inositol pyrophosphates, such as PP-IP5/IP7. Furthermore, it was shown that deletion of IPK1 significantly reduces the virulence of C...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906280/both-coinfections-of-penicillium-marneffei-and-cryptococcus-neoformans-in-aids-patient-a-report-of-rare-case
#10
Yu-Ye Li, Ummair Saeed, Sha-Sha Wei, Li Wang, Yi-Qun Kuang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898238/glucosamine-stimulates-pheromone-independent-dimorphic-transition-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-by-promoting-crz1-nuclear-translocation
#11
Xinping Xu, Jianfeng Lin, Youbao Zhao, Elyssa Kirkman, Yee-Seul So, Yong-Sun Bahn, Xiaorong Lin
Morphotype switch is a cellular response to external and internal cues. The Cryptococcus neoformans species complex can undergo morphological transitions between the yeast and the hypha form, and such morphological changes profoundly affect cryptococcal interaction with various hosts. Filamentation in Cryptococcus was historically considered a mating response towards pheromone. Recent studies indicate the existence of pheromone-independent signaling pathways but their identity or the effectors remain unknown...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892309/fundamental-niche-prediction-of-the-pathogenic-yeasts-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-gattii-in-europe
#12
Massimo Cogliati, Erika Puccianti, Maria Teresa Montagna, Antonella De Donno, Serdar Susever, Cagri Ergin, Aristea Velegraki, Mohamed S Ellabib, Simona Nardoni, Cristina Macci, Laura Trovato, Ludovico Dipineto, Volker Rickerts, Sevim Akcaglar, Emilija Mlinaric-Missoni, Sebastien Bertout, Ana C F Vencà, Ana C Sampaio, Giuseppe Criseo, Stéphane Ranque, Nilgun Cerikcioglu, Anna Marchese, Luigi Vezzulli, Macit Ilkit, Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Vincenzo Pasquale, Itzhack Polacheck, Antonio Scopa, Wieland Meyer, Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Ferry Hagen, Teun Boekhout, Françoise Dromer, Ashok Varma, Kyung J Kwon-Chung, Joäo Inácio, Maria F Colom
Fundamental niche prediction of Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii in Europe is an important tool to understand where these yeasts have a high probability to survive in the environment and therefore to identify the areas with high risk of infection. In the present study occurrence data for C. neoformans and C. gattii were compared by MaxEnt software with several bioclimatic conditions as well as with soil characteristics and land use. The results showed that C. gattii distribution can be predicted with high probability along the Mediterranean coast...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889911/fpd-a-comprehensive-phosphorylation-database-in-fungi
#13
Youhuang Bai, Bin Chen, Mingzhu Li, Yincong Zhou, Silin Ren, Qin Xu, Ming Chen, Shihua Wang
Protein phosphorylation, one of the most classic post-translational modification, plays a critical role in diverse cellular processes including cell cycle, growth, and signal transduction pathways. However, the available information about phosphorylation in fungi is limited. Here, we provided a Fungi Phosphorylation Database (FPD) that comprises high-confidence in vivo phosphosites identified by MS-based proteomics in various fungal species. This comprehensive phosphorylation database contains 62 272 non-redundant phosphorylation sites in 11 222 proteins across eight organisms, including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nidulans, Fusarium graminearum, Magnaporthe oryzae, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Cryptococcus neoformans...
October 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886681/molecular-evolution-of-antifungal-drug-resistance
#14
Nicole Robbins, Tavia Caplan, Leah E Cowen
The fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus have transitioned from a rare curiosity to a leading cause of human mortality. The management of infections caused by these organisms is intimately dependent on the efficacy of antifungal agents; however, fungi that are resistant to these treatments are regularly isolated in the clinic, impeding our ability to control infections. Given the significant impact fungal pathogens have on human health, it is imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms that govern antifungal drug resistance...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875175/importance-of-resolving-fungal-nomenclature-the-case-of-multiple-pathogenic-species-in-the-cryptococcus-genus
#15
Ferry Hagen, H Thorsten Lumbsch, Valentina Arsic Arsenijevic, Hamid Badali, Sebastien Bertout, R Blake Billmyre, M Rosa Bragulat, F Javier Cabañes, Mauricio Carbia, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Sudha Chaturvedi, Vishnu Chaturvedi, Min Chen, Anuradha Chowdhary, Maria-Francisca Colom, Oliver A Cornely, Pedro W Crous, Maria S Cuétara, Mara R Diaz, Ana Espinel-Ingroff, Hamed Fakhim, Rama Falk, Wenjie Fang, Patricia F Herkert, Consuelo Ferrer Rodríguez, James A Fraser, Josepa Gené, Josep Guarro, Alexander Idnurm, María-Teresa Illnait-Zaragozi, Ziauddin Khan, Kantarawee Khayhan, Anna Kolecka, Cletus P Kurtzman, Katrien Lagrou, Wanqing Liao, Carlos Linares, Jacques F Meis, Kirsten Nielsen, Tinashe K Nyazika, Weihua Pan, Marina Pekmezovic, Itzhack Polacheck, Brunella Posteraro, Flavio de Queiroz Telles, Orazio Romeo, Manuel Sánchez, Ana Sampaio, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Pojana Sriburee, Takashi Sugita, Saad J Taj-Aldeen, Masako Takashima, John W Taylor, Bart Theelen, Rok Tomazin, Paul E Verweij, Retno Wahyuningsih, Ping Wang, Teun Boekhout
Cryptococcosis is a major fungal disease caused by members of the Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans species complexes. After more than 15 years of molecular genetic and phenotypic studies and much debate, a proposal for a taxonomic revision was made. The two varieties within C. neoformans were raised to species level, and the same was done for five genotypes within C. gattii. In a recent perspective (K. J. Kwon-Chung et al., mSphere 2:e00357-16, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00357-16), it was argued that this taxonomic proposal was premature and without consensus in the community...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870343/solvent-solvent-fractionations-of-combretum-erythrophyllum-burch-leave-extract-studies-of-their-antibacterial-antifungal-antioxidant-and-cytotoxicity-potentials
#16
Fanyana M Mtunzi, Ikechukwu P Ejidike, Imelda Ledwaba, Aroke Ahmed, Vusumzi E Pakade, Michael J Klink, Sekomeng J Modise
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biological activities of Combretum erythrophyllum (C. erythrophyllum) leaf extracts against infectious diseases' pathogenesis and their cytotoxicity potentials. METHODS: Powdered leaf material (300 g) of C. erythrophyllum was extracted (1:10 w/v) using acetone to obtain the crude extract. Liquid-liquid fractionation was performed on the crude acetone extract (30 g) using solvents of different polarity. The bioautographic method was used to detect the inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth by active compounds present in the crude and fractions...
July 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866163/synergistic-effects-of-woodfordia-fruticosa-gold-nanoparticles-in-preventing-microbial-adhesion-and-accelerating-wound-healing-in-wistar-albino-rats-in-vivo
#17
Navdeep Raghuwanshi, Poonam Kumari, Amit Kumar Srivastava, Priya Vashisth, Tara Chand Yadav, Ramasare Prasad, Vikas Pruthi
Therapeutic effectiveness of biogenically synthesized Woodfordia fruticosa nano-gold particles (WfAuNPs) has been claimed in this study which prevents microbial adhesion and enhanced wound healing potential on Wistar albino rats. The synthesized WfAuNPs were characterized using several biophysical techniques such as UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-vis), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Zeta Potential, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis...
November 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865794/changes-in-glucosylceramide-structure-affect-virulence-and-membrane-biophysical-properties-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#18
Shriya Raj, Saeed Nazemidashtarjandi, Jihyun Kim, Luna Joffe, Xiaoxue Zhang, Ashutosh Singh, Visesato Mor, Desmarini Desmarini, Julianne Djordjevic, Daniel P Raleigh, Marcio L Rodrigues, Erwin London, Maurizio Del Poeta, Amir M Farnoud
Fungal glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is a plasma membrane sphingolipid in which the sphingosine backbone is unsaturated in carbon position 8 (C8) and methylated in carbon position 9 (C9). Studies in the fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, have shown that loss of GlcCer synthase activity results in complete loss of virulence in the mouse model. However, whether the loss of virulence is due to the lack of the enzyme or to the loss of the sphingolipid is not known. In this study, we used genetic engineering to alter the chemical structure of fungal GlcCer and studied its effect on fungal growth and pathogenicity...
September 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857298/cryptococcosis-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-ii-in-mainland-china-1993-2015
#19
Yingfang Li, Wenjie Fang, Weiwei Jiang, Ferry Hagen, Jia Liu, Lei Zhang, Nan Hong, Yu Zhu, Xiaoguang Xu, Xia Lei, Danqi Deng, Jianping Xu, Wanqing Liao, Teun Boekhout, Min Chen, Weihua Pan
Diabetes mellitus II (DM II) is a newly defined independent factor contributing to the morbidity and mortality of cryptococcosis. This retrospective case analysis aims to explore the epidemiology, clinical profile and strain characteristics of cryptococcosis in Chinese DM II patients. This study included 30 cases of cryptococcosis with DM II occurring from 1993 to 2015 in mainland China. The hospital-based prevalence of cryptococcosis in DM II was 0.21%. The mean age of the patients was 56.1 years (95% confidence interval: 51...
August 30, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855484/recognition-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-by-pattern-recognition-receptors-and-its-role-in-host-defense-to-this-infection
#20
Ko Sato, Kazuyoshi Kawakami
Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast-type opportunistic fungal pathogen with a capsule structure consisting of polysaccharides, such as glucuronoxylomannan and galactoxylomannan, and infects the lungs via an air-borne route. Most healthy individuals undergo asymptomatic infection with granulomatous lesions in the lungs caused by C. neoformans. However, immunocompromised hosts with severely impaired cellular immunity, such as those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), often suffer from disseminated infection into the central nervous system, leading to life-threatening meningoencephalitis...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
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