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Cryptococcus neoformans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133871/exploration-of-antifungal-and-immunomodulatory-potentials-of-a-furanone-derivative-to-rescue-disseminated-cryptococosis-in-mice
#1
Sudarshan Singh Rathore, Muthukrishnan Isravel, Sridharan Vellaisamy, David Raj Chellappan, Lalitha Cheepurupalli, Thiagarajan Raman, Jayapradha Ramakrishnan
Cryptococcus neoformans infection is quite complex with both host-pathogen interaction and host immune profile determining disease progress and therapeutic outcome. Hence in the present study, the potential utility of (E)-5-benzylidenedihydrofuran-2(3 H)-one (compound-6) was explored as an effective anticryptococcal compound with immunomodulatory potential. The efficacy of compound-6 in pulmonary cryptococosis model using H99 strain was investigated. The effective dose was found to provide 100% survival, with a significant reduction of yeast burden in lungs and brain...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129578/cryptococcosis-in-an-infectious-diseases-hospital-of-buenos-aires-argentina-revision-of-2041-cases-diagnosis-clinical-features-and-therapeutics
#2
Alicia Arechavala, Ricardo Negroni, Fernando Messina, Mercedes Romero, Emmanuel Marín, Roxana Depardo, Laura Walker, Gabriela Santiso
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is still a life-threatening mycosis that continues to be of serious concern in Latin American countries, especially among HIV+positive population. However, there is not any reliable information about the prevalence of this disease in this region. AIMS: The aim of this study is to report data of 2041 patients with cryptococcosis that were attended at the Infectious Diseases Hospital F. J. Muñiz over a 30 year-period. METHODS: Information about demographic and clinical data, survival time and the applied treatment, was taken from the Mycology Unit database...
November 9, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123908/a-case-of-disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-necrotizing-fasciitis-in-a-non-hiv-patient
#3
Tetsuya Hoshino, Kazuya Omura, Shinichi Kimura, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Katsuhiko Kamei, Misako Ohkusu
Case: Disseminated cryptococcosis is a well-recognized condition among HIV patients, but it also occurs in non-HIV patients. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by cryptococcus is rare. An 81-year-old man who had received steroid therapy presented with erythema and pain in his right thigh. After the rapid progression of symptoms and a failure to respond to antibiotic therapy, a clinical diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis was made. We performed debridement, and yeasts were detected using a Gram stain of the fascia...
October 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116307/cryptococcoma-mimicking-a-brain-tumor-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-case-report-of-an-extremely-rare-presentation
#4
Aline Lariessy Campos Paiva, Guilherme Brasileiro de Aguiar, Renan Maximilian Lovato, Arthus Vilar Deolindo Zanetti, Alexandros Theodoros Panagopoulos, José Carlos Esteves Veiga
CONTEXT: Central nervous system (CNS) infectious diseases have high prevalence in developing countries and their proper diagnosis and treatment are very important for public health planning. Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that may cause several CNS manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common type of involvement. Mass-effect lesions are uncommon: they are described as cryptococcomas and their prevalence is even lower among immunocompetent patients...
November 6, 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113016/cryptococcal-dissemination-to-the-central-nervous-system-requires-the-vacuolar-calcium-transporter-pmc1
#5
Eamim D Squizani, Natália K Oliveira, Júlia C V Reuwsaat, Bárbara M Marques, William Lopes, Alexandra L Gerber, Ana Tereza R de Vasconcelos, Sophie Lev, Julianne T Djordjevic, Augusto Schrank, Marilene H Vainstein, Charley C Staats, Lívia Kmetzsch
Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous yeast and the cause of cryptococcosis in immunocompromised individuals. The most severe form of the disease is meningoencephalitis, which is one of the leading cause of death in HIV/AIDS patients. In order to access the central nervous system (CNS), C. neoformans relies on the activity of certain virulence factors such as urease, which allows transmigration through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the present study, we demonstrate that the calcium transporter Pmc1 enables C...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109169/environmental-triazole-induces-cross-resistance-to-clinical-drugs-and-affects-morphophysiology-and-virulence-of-cryptococcus-gattii-and-c-neoformans
#6
Rafael Wesley Bastos, Hellem Cristina Silva Carneiro, Lorena Vívien Neves de Oliveira, Karen Maia Rocha, Gustavo José Cota Freitas, Marliete Carvalho Costa, Thaís Furtado Ferreira Magalhães, Vanessa Silva Dutra de Carvalho, Cláudia Emanuela Rocha, Gabriella Freitas Ferreira, Tatiane Alves de Paixão, Frédérique Moyrand, Guilhem Janbon, Daniel Assis Santos
Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans are environmental fungi that cause cryptococcosis, which is usually treated with amphotericin B and fluconazole. However, therapeutic failure is increasing because of the emergence of resistant strains. Because these species are constantly isolated from vegetal materials and the usage of agrochemicals is growing, we postulate pesticides could be responsible for the altered susceptibility of these fungi to clinical drugs. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of the pesticide tebuconazole on the susceptibility to clinical drugs, morphophysiology, and virulence of C...
November 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102684/overview-of-selected-virulence-attributes-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-candida-albicans-cryptococcus-neoformans-trichophyton-rubrum-and-exophiala-dermatitidis
#7
REVIEW
Hazal Boral, Banu Metin, Aylin Döğen, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Macit Ilkit
The incidence of fungal diseases has been increasing since 1980, and is associated with excessive morbidity and mortality, particularly among immunosuppressed patients. Of the known 625 pathogenic fungal species, infections caused by the genera Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, and Trichophyton are responsible for more than 300 million estimated episodes of acute or chronic infections worldwide. In addition, a rather neglected group of opportunistic fungi known as black yeasts and their filamentous relatives cause a wide variety of recalcitrant infections in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts...
November 1, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095556/antibacterial-and-antifungal-activity-activity-of-pyroligneous-acid-from-wood-of-eucalyptus-urograndis-and-mimosa-tenuiflora
#8
Eduardo de Souza Araújo, Alexandre Santos Pimenta, Francisco M C Feijó, Renato Vinicius Oliveira Castro, Maíra Fasciotti, Thays V C Monteiro, Kássio Michel Gomes de Lima
AIMS: The present work aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of two types of pyroligneous acid (PA) obtained from slow pyrolysis of wood of Mimosa tenuiflora and of a hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wood wedges were carbonized on a heating rate of 1.25°C/min until 450°C. Pyrolysis smoke was trapped and condensed to yield liquid products. Crude pyrolysis liquids were bi-distilled under 5 mmHg vacuum yielding purified PA...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091142/-retracted-article-distribution-and-association-between-environmental-and-clinical-isolates-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-in-bogot%C3%A3-colombia-2012-2015
#9
(no author information available yet)
[This retracts the article doi: 10.1590/0074-02760160201].
November 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089435/cryptococcus-neoformans-iron-sulfur-protein-biogenesis-machinery-is-a-novel-layer-of-protection-against-cu-stress
#10
Sarela Garcia-Santamarina, Marta A Uzarska, Richard A Festa, Roland Lill, Dennis J Thiele
Copper (Cu) ions serve as catalytic cofactors to drive key biochemical processes, and yet Cu levels that exceed cellular homeostatic control capacity are toxic. The underlying mechanisms for Cu toxicity are poorly understood. During pulmonary infection by the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, host alveolar macrophages compartmentalize Cu to the phagosome, and the ability to detoxify Cu is critical for its survival and virulence. Here, we report that iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are critical targets of Cu toxicity in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C...
October 31, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081438/two-spotted-cricket-as-an-animal-infection-model-of-human-pathogenic-fungi
#11
Yuto Kochi, Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu, Chikara Kaito
Invertebrate infection models that can be evaluated at human body temperature are limited. In this study, we utilized the two-spotted cricket, a heat-tolerant insect, as an animal infection model of human pathogenic fungi. Injection of human pathogenic fungi, including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Cryptococcus neoformans killed crickets within 48 h at both 27˚C and 37˚C. The median lethal dose values (LD50 values) of C. albicans and C. glabrata against crickets were decreased at 37˚C compared to that at 27˚C, whereas the LD50 value of C...
October 29, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070785/asymptomatic-meningitis-and-lung-cavity-in-a-case-of-cryptococcosis
#12
Aixin Li, Qunhui Li, Caiping Guo, Yulin Zhang
BACKGROUND Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) infection is one of the most common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. C. neoformans usually infects the central nervous system (CNS) and/or lungs with typical clinical manifestation. CASE REPORT Here, we report the case of a 52-year-old HIV-1-infected man with disseminated cryptococcosis, including subacute meningitis, pulmonary, and cutaneous cryptococcosis, but only skin lesion served as the chief complaint. Moreover, the results of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests and lung computed tomography (CT) scan were atypical...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069886/liquid-based-cytology-of-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-a-case-of-cryptococcal-meningitis
#13
Jiwoon Choi, Se Hoon Kim
Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common microorganism found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised hosts. Although its cytomorphologic features in conventional smear cytology have been well described, those in liquid-based cytology have rarely been. A 73-year-old woman with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presented with mental confusion and a spiking fever. To rule out infectious conditions, CSF examination was performed. A cytology slide that was prepared using the ThinPrep method showed numerous spherical yeast-form organisms with diameters of 4-11 μm and thick capsules...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069410/protein-kinase-c-in-fungi-more-than-just-cell-wall-integrity
#14
Jürgen J Heinisch, Rosaura Rodicio
Human protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms have been implicated in diseases such as Alzheimer's, diabetes, and cancers. In contrast to mammals, which have at least 9 genes, fungi have only one or two. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces only a single Pkc1 and is employed in the study of specific human isozymes, including their susceptibility to pharmacological drugs. Vice versa , the domain structure and regulation of yeast and other fungal PKCs yield insights into the function of human isozymes. Therefore, human PKCs are briefly reviewed herein and related to the yeast enzyme...
October 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065840/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-2-pyridinyl-methylene-1-tetralone-chalcones-for-anticancer-and-antimicrobial-activity
#15
Maya Z Gibson, Minh A Nguyen, Sarah K Zingales
BACKGROUND: Chalcones, natural products produced by plants as a natural defense mechanisms against various pathogens, are molecules with structures that include two aromatic rings joined by an α, β unsaturated carbonyl system. Previous research has demonstrated that chalcones exhibit a wide variety of biological activities, including anticancer, antifungal, and antibiotic properties. OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to synthesize novel heterocyclic-containing chalcones and have their biological activities evaluated...
October 20, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064061/molecular-characterization-and-antifungal-susceptibility-testing-of-sequentially-obtained-clinical-cryptococcus-deneoformans-and-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolates-from-ljubljana-slovenia
#16
Rok Tomazin, Tadeja Matos, Jacques F Meis, Ferry Hagen
AIM: To retrospectively investigate the epidemiology of cryptococcosis in Ljubljana, Slovenia. METHODOLOGY: Forty-six sequentially obtained isolates from 19 patients were subjected to amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping, microsatellite typing, mating- and serotype PCRs and antifungal susceptibility testing. RESULTS: Majority of the isolates were Cryptococcus deneoformans (n = 29/46; 63%) followed by Cryptococcus neoformans (n = 16/46; 34...
October 24, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055116/inhaled-cryptococcus-neoformans-elicits-allergic-airway-inflammation-independent-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#17
Andrew J McDermott, Tyler A Tumey, Mingwei Huang, Christina M Hull, Bruce S Klein
Pulmonary challenge with the ubiquitous fungus Cryptococcus neoformans results in allergic airway inflammation (AAI) characterized by robust recruitment of eosinophils and T-cells producing type 2 cytokines to the lungs. Previous studies have demonstrated a critical role for NFκB activation within lung epithelial cells (LECs) in driving AAI in response to protein allergens, yet the role of LEC-intrinsic NFκB in promoting AAI following exposure to C. neoformans is poorly understood. To investigate the role of LEC-intrinsic NFκB in promoting AAI following C...
October 20, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054089/molecular-characterization-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-gattii-from-environmental-sources-and-genetic-comparison-with-clinical-isolates-in-apulia-italy
#18
Maria Teresa Montagna, Antonella De Donno, Giuseppina Caggiano, Francesca Serio, Osvalda De Giglio, Francesco Bagordo, R D'Amicis, Shawn R Lockhart, Massimo Cogliati
The present study investigated the environmental distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii species complex molecular types, mating types and sequence types in Apulia, a region of Southern Italy. A total of 2078 specimens from arboreal and animal sources were analyzed. The percentage of positive samples was similar among both arboreal and animal specimens: 4.2% vs. 5.1% for C. neoformans species complex and 0.6% vs. 1.4% for C. gattii species complex. Molecular typing identified 78 isolates as VNI (76 αA and two aA), one as AD-hybrid αADa, and 16 as VGI aB...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046746/perspectives-on-non-neoformans-cryptococcal-opportunistic-infections
#19
REVIEW
Nichole Smith, Matthew Sehring, Jefferson Chambers, Preeti Patel
Non-neoformans Cryptococcus species, including C. laurentii and C. albidus, have historically been classified as exclusively saprophytic. However, recent studies have increasingly implicated these organisms as the causative agent of opportunistic infections in humans. Herein, the case is presented of C. laurentii meningitis in a critically ill patient receiving corticosteroids. C. laurentii has been implicated in an additional 18 cases of opportunistic infection, predominantly of the skin, bloodstream, and central nervous system...
October 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043954/n-acetylglucosamine-affects-cryptococcus-neoformans-cell-wall-composition-and-melanin-architecture
#20
Emma Camacho, Christine Chrissian, Radames J B Cordero, Livia Liporagi-Lopes, Ruth E Stark, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental fungus that belongs to the phylum Basidiomycetes and is a major pathogen in immunocompromised patients. The ability of C. neoformans to produce melanin pigments represents its second most important virulence factor, after the presence of a polysaccharide capsule. Both the capsule and melanin are closely associated with the fungal cell wall, a complex structure that is essential for maintaining cell morphology and viability under conditions of stress. The amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is a key constituent of the cell-wall chitin and is used for both N-linked glycosylation and GPI anchor synthesis...
October 18, 2017: Microbiology
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