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Cryptococcus neoformans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542452/the-role-of-aspartyl-aminopeptidase-ape4-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-virulence-and-authophagy
#1
Fabiano de Assis Gontijo, Amanda Teixeira de Melo, Renata C Pascon, Larissa Fernandes, Hugo Costa Paes, J Andrew Alspaugh, Marcelo A Vallim
In order to survive and cause disease, microbial pathogens must be able to proliferate at the temperature of their infected host. We identified novel microbial features associated with thermotolerance in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans using a random insertional mutagenesis strategy, screening for mutants with defective growth at 37°C. Among several thermosensitive mutants, we identified one bearing a disruption in a gene predicted to encode the Ape4 aspartyl aminopeptidase protein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536555/novel-antifungal-activity-for-the-lectin-scytovirin-inhibition-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-gattii
#2
Tyler H Jones, Erin E McClelland, Hana McFeeters, Robert L McFeeters
Pathogenic cryptococci are encapsulated yeast that can cause severe meningoencephalitis. Existing therapeutic options are dated and there is a growing need for new alternative antifungal agents for these fungi. Here we report novel inhibition of pathogenic cryptococci by the antimicrobial lectin Scytovirin. Inhibition was most potent against Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans and C. gattii, with MFC values of 500 nM. Scytovirin binding was localized to the cell wall and shown to affect capsule size and release...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533240/heterocycle-thiazole-compounds-exhibit-antifungal-activity-through-increase-in-the-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-cryptococcus-gattii-species-complex
#3
Nívea Pereira de Sá, Caroline Miranda de Lima, Cleudiomar Inácio Lino, Paulo Jorge Sanches Barbeira, Ludmila de Matos Baltazar, Daniel Assis Santos, Renata Barbosa de Oliveira, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Susana Johann
Human cryptococcosis can occur as a primary or opportunistic infection and develops as an acute, sub-acute, or chronic systemic infection, involving different organs of the host. Given the limited therapeutic options and the occasional resistance to fluconazole, there is a need to develop novel drugs for the treatment of cryptococcosis. In this report, we describe promising thiazoles 1, 2, 3, and 4 and explore their possible modes of action against Cryptococcus. To this end, we show evidence of interference in the Cryptococcus antioxidant system...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528250/antifungal-toxicity-of-linear-geranylphenol-influence-of-oxigenate-substituents
#4
Lautaro Taborga, Maximiliano Sortino, Carrasco Héctor, Estefanía Butassi, Susana Zacchino, Luis Espinoza
Twenty four linear geranylphenols were evaluated for their antifungal properties against ATCC and clinical isolates of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. For the analysis of their antifungal behavior the compounds were grouped into two series: (i) compounds with only one geranyl substituent on the benzene ring and (ii) compounds with two geranyl moieties on the benzene ring. Results showed that compounds of series (i) present better antifungal activities than those of series (ii). In addition, within group (i) all compounds showed better activities against C...
May 17, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524625/mrna-decay-an-adaptation-tool-for-the-environmental-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#5
REVIEW
Amanda L M Bloom, Jay Leipheimer, John C Panepinto
Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment and humans constantly encounter them in the soil, air, water, and food. The vast majority of these interactions are inconsequential. However, in the context of immunodeficiency precipitated by HIV infection, hematologic malignancy, or transplantation, a small subset of fungi can cause devastating, systemic infection. The most deadly of the opportunistic environmental fungi, Cryptococcus neoformans, is estimated to cause hundreds of thousands of deaths per year, mostly in the context of HIV co-infection...
May 19, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507958/bifocal-cryptococcal-osteomyelitis-in-an-immunocompetent-male
#6
Rohit Delat, Vinodchandra Laheri
INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcus neoformans commonly affects lungs and central nervous system that to in immunocompromised individual. Bony involvement is extremely rare and most common site is vertebrae and usual presentation is monofocal. CASE REPORT: We present 18-year-old male with bifocal osteomyelitis of scapula and tibia in immunocompetent male. CONCLUSION: Cryptococcal osteomyelitis should be kept as a differential diagnosis in a patient as a primary diagnosis to avoid diagnostic delay and morbidity associated with it...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494245/global-reprogramming-of-host-kinase-signaling-in-response-to-fungal-infection
#7
Aseem Pandey, Sheng Li Ding, Qing-Ming Qin, Rahul Gupta, Gabriel Gomez, Furong Lin, Xuehuan Feng, Luciana Fachini da Costa, Sankar P Chaki, Madhu Katepalli, Elizabeth D Case, Erin J van Schaik, Tabasum Sidiq, Omar Khalaf, Angela Arenas, Koichi S Kobayashi, James E Samuel, Gonzalo M Rivera, Robert C Alaniz, Sing-Hoi Sze, Xiaoning Qian, William J Brown, Allison Rice-Ficht, William K Russell, Thomas A Ficht, Paul de Figueiredo
Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) is a deadly fungal pathogen whose intracellular lifestyle is important for virulence. Host mechanisms controlling fungal phagocytosis and replication remain obscure. Here, we perform a global phosphoproteomic analysis of the host response to Cryptococcus infection. Our analysis reveals numerous and diverse host proteins that are differentially phosphorylated following fungal ingestion by macrophages, thereby indicating global reprogramming of host kinase signaling. Notably, phagocytosis of the pathogen activates the host autophagy initiation complex (AIC) and the upstream regulatory components LKB1 and AMPKα, which regulate autophagy induction through their kinase activities...
May 10, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492340/alterations-of-zinc-homeostasis-in-response-to-cryptococcus-neoformans-in-a-murine-macrophage-cell-line
#8
Francine Melise Dos Santos, Alícia Corbellini Piffer, Rafael de Oliveira Schneider, Nicole Sartori Ribeiro, Ane Wichine Acosta Garcia, Augusto Schrank, Lívia Kmetzsch, Marilene Henning Vainstein, Charley Christian Staats
AIM: To evaluate alterations of zinc homeostasis in macrophages exposed to Cryptococcus neoformans. Materials & methods: Using a fluorescent zinc probe-based flow cytometry and atomic absorption spectrometry, zinc levels were evaluated in J774.A1 cell lines exposed to C. neoformans H99 cells. The transcription profile of macrophage zinc related homeostasis genes - metallothioneins and zinc transporters (ZnTs) of the SLC30 and SLC39 (Zrt-Irt-protein) families - was analyzed by quantitative PCR...
May 11, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490578/investigating-clinical-issues-by-genotyping-of-medically-important-fungi-why-and-how
#9
REVIEW
Alexandre Alanio, Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Dea Garcia-Hermoso, Stéphane Bretagne
Genotyping studies of medically important fungi have addressed elucidation of outbreaks, nosocomial transmissions, infection routes, and genotype-phenotype correlations, of which secondary resistance has been most intensively investigated. Two methods have emerged because of their high discriminatory power and reproducibility: multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) using short tandem repeat (STR) markers. MLST relies on single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the coding regions of housekeeping genes...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486489/cytokine-patterns-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-hiv-infected-patients-with-cryptococcal-meningitis-following-initiation-of-antifungal-and-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Delio José Mora, Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Leonardo Eurípedes Andrade-Silva, Thatiane Bragine, Ivonete Helena Rocha, Barbara de Melo Ribeiro, Guilherme Henrique Machado, Virmondes Rodrigues Junior, David Nascimento Silva-Teixeira, Wieland Meyer, Mario León Silva-Vergara
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a life-threatening infection in HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited settings. Cytokine patterns in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and sera may be related to clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate cytokine patterns in the CSF and sera of HIV-infected patients with CM as well as the cytokines produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) when stimulated with LPS and cryptococcal GXM. CSF and serum levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-17A, INF-γ, TNF-α and CXCL-10 were measured in HIV-infected patients with CM (CM+ HIV+) at various time points...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483963/influence-of-experimental-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-wistar-rats-on-voriconazole-brain-penetration-assessed-by-microdialysis
#11
Izabel Almeida Alves, Keli Jaqueline Staudt, Carolina de Miranda Silva, Graziela de Araujo Lock, Teresa Dalla Costa, Bibiana Verlindo de Araujo
To advance in the treatment of cryptococcal meningites is crucial to know the drug's free fraction that reaches the biophase. In the present study we applied the microdialysis (μD) as a tool to determine the free levels reached by voriconazole (VRC) in the brain of healthy and Cryptococcus neoformans infected rats. The infection was induced by the i.v. administration of 1⋅10(5) CFU of yeast. The dose administered was 5 mg/kg i.v. of VRC. Plasma and microdialysate samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and LC-UV methods...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479098/synthesis-cytotoxicity-and-antifungal-activity-of-5-nitro-thiophene-thiosemicarbazones-derivatives
#12
Luiz Nascimento de Araújo Neto, Maria do Carmo Alves de Lima, Jamerson Ferreira de Oliveira, Edson Rubhens de Souza, Maria Daniela Silva Buonafina, Mayara Nunes Vitor Anjos, Fábio André Brayner, Luiz Carlos Alves, Rejane Pereira Neves, Francisco Jaime Bezerra Mendonça-Junior
In the present work, twelve N-substituted 2-(5-nitro-thiophene)-thiosemicarbazones derivatives (L1-12) were synthesized, characterized and their cytotoxic and antifungal activity in vitro were evaluated against Candida sp., and Cryptococcus neoformans. The probable mechanisms of action have been investigated in cell walls (Sorbitol 0.8 M) and in the binding to ergosterol in the fungal membrane. Additionally, ultrastructural study by Scanning Electron Microscopy was performed. All compounds were obtained in good yield and their chemical structures were characterized on basis of their physico-chemical and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance - NMR, Spectrophotometric Absorption in the Infrared - IR and High-resolution Mass Spectrometry - HRMS data...
May 4, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470426/the-yeasts-phosphorelay-systems-a-comparative-view
#13
REVIEW
Griselda Salas-Delgado, Laura Ongay-Larios, Laura Kawasaki-Watanabe, Imelda López-Villaseñor, Roberto Coria
Cells contain signal transduction pathways that mediate communication between the extracellular environment and the cell interior. These pathways control transcriptional programs and posttranscriptional processes that modify cell metabolism in order to maintain homeostasis. One type of these signal transduction systems are the so-called Two Component Systems (TCS), which conduct the transfer of phosphate groups between specific and conserved histidine and aspartate residues present in at least two proteins; the first protein is a sensor kinase which autophosphorylates a histidine residue in response to a stimulus, this phosphate is then transferred to an aspartic residue located in a response regulator protein...
June 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467481/pheromone-independent-unisexual-development-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#14
Rachana Gyawali, Youbao Zhao, Jianfeng Lin, Yumeng Fan, Xinping Xu, Srijana Upadhyay, Xiaorong Lin
The fungus Cryptococcus neoformans can undergo a-α bisexual and unisexual reproduction. Completion of both sexual reproduction modes requires similar cellular differentiation processes and meiosis. Although bisexual reproduction generates equal number of a and α progeny and is far more efficient than unisexual reproduction under mating-inducing laboratory conditions, the α mating type dominates in nature. Population genetic studies suggest that unisexual reproduction by α isolates might have contributed to this sharply skewed distribution of the mating types...
May 3, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450771/in-vitro-antifungal-susceptibility-of-environmental-isolates-of-cryptococcus-spp-from-the-west-region-of-cameroon
#15
William Dongmo, Frederick Kechia, Roland Tchuenguem, Claude Nangwat, Iwewe Yves, Jules-Roger Kuiate, Jean Paul Dzoyem
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus neoformans is responsible of cryptococcosis, a life-threatening infection that affects healthy and immunocompromised individuals. It is the first cause of adult acute meningitis in some sub-Saharan African countries with a mortality rate of about 100% in cases of inappropriate therapy. This study aimed at examining the occurrence and the antifungal patterns of Cryptococcus isolates from pigeon droppings and bat guanos in the west region of Cameroon. METHODS: A total of 350 samples were randomly collected from three selected localities of west region of Cameroon...
November 2016: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448954/copper-complexes-containing-thiosemicarbazones-derived-from-6-nitropiperonal-antimicrobial-and-biophysical-properties
#16
Floyd A Beckford, Kelsey R Webb
A series of four thiosemicarbazones from 6-nitropiperonal along with the corresponding copper complexes were synthesized. The biophysical characteristics of the complexes were investigated by the binding to DNA and human serum albumin. The binding to DNA is moderate; the binding constants run from (0.49-7.50)×10(4)M(-1). In relation to HSA, the complexes interact strongly with binding constants on the order of 10(5)M(-1). The complexes also display antioxidant behavior as determined by the ability to scavenge diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (dpph) and nitric oxide radicals...
April 20, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447469/two-pairs-of-rare-naturally-occurring-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-5-heptanedione-derivatives-from-the-red-alga-chondria-crassicaulis
#17
Lin Tong, Yi Zhang, Ai-Hong Liu, Li-Gong Yao, Yue-Wei Guo, Shui-Chun Mao, Bin Wang
Two pairs of rare naturally occurring racemic lipids, (±)-4,7-dihydroxy-4-methyl-2,5-heptanedione (1), and (±)-7-butoxy-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2,5-heptanedione (2) were isolated from the red alga Chondria crassicaulis Harv. The structures of the racemic mixtures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H and (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) as well as mass spectrometry and optical rotation experiments, and by comparison with data for related known analogs...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446137/progressive-cutaneous-cryptococcosis-complicated-with-meningitis-in-a-myasthenia-gravis-patient-on-long-term-immunosuppressive-therapy-a-case-report
#18
Nguyen Thi Cam Huong, Ahmed M A Altibi, Nguyen My Hoa, Le Anh Tuan, Samar Salman, Sara Morsy, Nguyen Thi Bich Lien, Nguyen Thanh Truong, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Pham Thi Le Hoa, Nguyen Ba Thang, Van The Trung
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans and most remarkably manifests in HIV-infected individuals, especially in the settings of very low CD4 count. Development of cryptococcosis in HIV-uninfected individuals is exceedingly rare and usually signifies a marked immunodeficiency. Cryptococcosis in association with myasthenia gravis or thymoma has been previously documented in only very few cases in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We reported a complicated case of severe cutaneous cryptococcosis in a 39-year-old Vietnamese male patient with myasthenia gravis on long-term immunosuppressive therapy...
April 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440395/microrna-mediated-inflammatory-responses-induced-by-cryptococcus-neoformans-are-dependent-on-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-human-monocytes
#19
Hong Chen, Yi Jin, Huan Chen, Ningxin Liao, Yan Wang, Jianghan Chen
Cryptococcosis is a significant invasive fungal infection with noteworthy morbidity and mortality that is usually caused by either Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) or Cryptococcus gattii (C. gattii). Epidemiological studies have indicated that C. neoformans are more often reported in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. It has been well established that the cytokine profile of the host markedly affects the outcome of cryptococcal disease, and the negative regulators of microRNAs(miRs or miRNAs) are critically important for immunomodulation...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440301/the-environmental-yeast-cryptococcus-liquefaciens-produces-capsular-and-secreted-polysaccharides-with-similar-pathogenic-properties-to-those-of-c-neoformans
#20
Glauber R de S Araújo, Gustavo J C Freitas, Fernanda L Fonseca, Paulo Emilio C Leite, Gustavo Miranda Rocha, Wanderley de Souza, Daniel A Santos, Susana Frases
Invasive fungal infections, including cryptococcosis, are a growing threat to immunocompromised patients. Although Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main agents of human cryptococcosis, opportunistic infections by environmental species, such as C. liquefaciens, have been observed recently. The main Cryptococcus virulence factor is the production and secretion of polysaccharides (PS). Previously, we showed that both species produce PS of similar composition. Here, we examined the ultrastructure and biological activity of capsular and secreted PS from C...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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