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Emerging Infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040989/hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-achievement-of-sustained-viral-response-with-daclatasvir-and-asunaprevir-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#1
Hiroshi Ida, Satoru Hagiwara, Masashi Kono, Tomohiro Minami, Hirokazu Chishina, Tadaaki Arizumi, Masahiro Takita, Norihisa Yada, Yasunori Minami, Kazuomi Ueshima, Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo
BACKGROUND: Interferon-based antiviral therapies against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been shown to reduce the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with sustained viral response (SVR). Recently, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been proven to be much more effective in achieving SVR than interferon-based therapies. However, whether DAAs can efficiently prevent the occurrence of HCC after SVR remains controversial. To clarify this issue, we analyzed the clinical features of patients in whom HCC developed after achievement of SVR with DAAs for chronic HCV infection...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040867/long-term-follow-up-of-anterior-thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-in-epilepsy-a-11-year-single-center-experience
#2
Seong Hoon Kim, Sung Chul Lim, Jiyeon Kim, Byung-Chul Son, Kyung Jin Lee, Young-Min Shon
PURPOSE: Anterior thalamic deep brain stimulation (ATN DBS) is an emerging, effective treatment for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, but long-term results on its efficacy and safety are lacking. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of ATN DBS treatment, as well as predictors of its success, in patients with drug-refractory epilepsy (DRE). METHOD: We retrospectively studied clinical outcomes in 29 consecutive refractory epilepsy patients treated by a single DBS team (two neurosurgeons, four neurologists) over an 11-year period, for whom follow-up was performed for up to 137 months (mean, 74...
October 14, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040730/diurnal-temperature-range-and-chikungunya-virus-infection-in-invasive-mosquito-vectors
#3
Barry W Alto, Keenan Wiggins, Bradley Eastmond, Sara Ortiz, Kylie Zirbel, L Philip Lounibos
Climate strongly influences the geographic distribution and timing of mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. Environmental temperature affects phenotypic traits of mosquitoes including vector competence for arboviruses mediated by changes in infection, extrinsic incubation period and in rates of transmission. Most experiments, however, are done at constant temperatures. In nature, mosquitoes are more likely to experience daily fluctuations in temperature. Here we compare disseminated infection (leg infection) and saliva infection of Aedes aegypti (L...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040428/understanding-the-promises-and-hurdles-of-metagenomic-next-generation-sequencing-as-a-diagnostic-tool-for-infectious-diseases
#4
Patricia J Simner, Steven Miller, Karen C Carroll
Agnostic metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has emerged as a promising single, universal pathogen detection method for infectious diseases diagnostics. This methodology allows for identification and genomic characterization of bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses without the need for a priori knowledge of a specific pathogen directly from clinical specimens. Although there are increasing reports of mNGS successes, several hurdles need to be addressed, such as differentiation of colonization from infection, extraneous sources of nucleic acid, method standardization, and data storage, protection, analysis, and interpretation...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040419/high-rates-of-human-fecal-carriage-of-mcr-1-positive-multi-drug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-isolates-emerge-in-china-in-association-with-successful-plasmid-families
#5
Lan-Lan Zhong, Hang T T Phan, Cong Shen, Karina Doris-Vihta, Anna E Sheppard, Xi Huang, Kun-Jiao Zeng, Hong-Yu Li, Xue-Fei Zhang, Sandip Patil, Derrick W Crook, A Sarah Walker, Yong Xing, Jia-Lin Lin, Lian-Qiang Feng, Yohei Doi, Yong Xia, Nicole Stoesser, Guo-Bao Tian
Objectives: mcr-1-mediated colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is concerning, as colistin is used in treating multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections. Rates of human mcr-1 gastrointestinal carriage have historically been low. We identified trends in human fecal mcr-1-positivity rates and colonization with mcr-1-positive+third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC-R) Enterobacteriaceae in Guangzhou, China, and investigated the genetic contexts of mcr-1 in a subset of mcr-1-positive+3GC-R strains...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040262/serological-and-spatial-analysis-of-alphavirus-and-flavivirus-prevalence-and-risk-factors-in-a-rural-community-in-western-kenya
#6
Elysse N Grossi-Soyster, Elizabeth A J Cook, William A de Glanville, Lian F Thomas, Amy R Krystosik, Justin Lee, C Njeri Wamae, Samuel Kariuki, Eric M Fèvre, A Desiree LaBeaud
Alphaviruses, such as chikungunya virus, and flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, are (re)-emerging arboviruses that are endemic in tropical environments. In Africa, arbovirus infections are often undiagnosed and unreported, with febrile illnesses often assumed to be malaria. This cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the seroprevalence of alphaviruses and flaviviruses among children (ages 5-14, n = 250) and adults (ages 15 ≥ 75, n = 250) in western Kenya. Risk factors for seropositivity were explored using Lasso regression...
October 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040079/identification-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-isolated-from-hospital-water-by-sequence-analysis-of-the-hsp65-and-16s-rrna-genes
#7
Mehdi Roshdi Maleki, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Naser Harzandi, Seyyed Reza Moaddab
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have emerged as an important cause of opportunistic nosocomial infections. NTM has frequently been isolated from hospital water distribution systems. The aim of this study was to survey the risk of NTM infections and determine the prevalence of NTM species in the hospital water distribution systems in Tabriz, Iran. One hundred and twenty samples of water from different sources of Tabriz hospitals were collected. The samples were filtered through 0.45-µm pore size membranes and decontaminated with 0...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040071/prevalence-and-direct-costs-of-emergency-department-visits-and-hospitalizations-for-selected-diseases-that-can-be-transmitted-by-water-united-states
#8
E A Adam, S A Collier, K E Fullerton, J W Gargano, M J Beach
National emergency department (ED) visit prevalence and costs for selected diseases that can be transmitted by water were estimated using large healthcare databases (acute otitis externa, campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis, Escherichia coli infection, free-living ameba infection, giardiasis, hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, Legionnaires' disease, nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection, Pseudomonas-related pneumonia or septicemia, salmonellosis, shigellosis, and vibriosis or cholera). An estimated 477,000 annual ED visits (95% CI: 459,000-494,000) were documented, with 21% (n = 101,000, 95% CI: 97,000-105,000) resulting in immediate hospital admission...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040020/first-report-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-tuberculosis-patients-in-china
#9
Yun-Jiao Zhao, Yun-Hong Zhao, Xiang-Yan Zhang, Xue-Juan Sun, Yu-Qin Liu, Yan-Jie Hou, Jing-Qiu Wu, Hui Jia, Yi-Nan Han, Wei Dong, Shi-Ming Yan, Ai-Dong Qian
In recent years, coinfection of tuberculosis (TB) and parasitosis in humans is an emerging problem in coendemic areas, which has been increasingly highlighted in developing countries. However, there is limited information about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in TB patients. Therefore, through a case-control study, 924 TB patients hospitalized for diacrisis or treatment in northeastern and eastern China, and 924 control subjects from the general population of the same region matched with gender, age, and residence were examined for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies to T...
October 17, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036705/chalcogenozidovudine-derivatives-with-antitumor-activity-comparative-toxicities-in-cultured-human-mononuclear-cells
#10
Assis Ecker, Pauline Christ Ledur, Rafael S da Silva, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa Leal, Oscar E D Rodrigues, Daniel Ardisson-Araújo, Emily Pansera Waczuk, João Batista Teixeira da Rocha, Nilda Vargas Barbosa
Considering a novel series of zidovudine (AZT) derivatives encompassing selenoaryl moieties promising candidates as therapeutics, we examined the toxicities elicited by AZT and derivatives 5'-(4-Chlorophenylseleno)zidovudine (SZ1); 5'-(Phenylseleno)zidovudine (SZ2); and 5'-(4-Methylphenylseleno)zidovudine (SZ3) in healthy cells and in mice. Resting and stimulated cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated with the compounds at concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 µM for 24 and/or 72 h...
July 28, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036374/gating-mass-cytometry-data-by-deep-learning
#11
Huamin Li, Uri Shaham, Kelly P Stanton, Yi Yao, Ruth R Montgomery, Yuval Kluger
Motivation: Mass cytometry or CyTOF is an emerging technology for high-dimensional multiparameter single cell analysis that overcomes many limitations of fluorescence-based flow cytometry. New methods for analyzing CyTOF data attempt to improve automation, scalability, performance and interpretation of data generated in large studies. Assigning individual cells into discrete groups of cell types (gating) involves time-consuming sequential manual steps, untenable for larger studies. Results: We introduce DeepCyTOF, a standardization approach for gating, based on deep learning techniques...
July 13, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035946/role-of-the-lung-microbiome-in-hiv-pathogenesis
#12
Meera K Shenoy, Susan V Lynch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on the lung microbiome in HIV-infected patients and associated pulmonary diseases, and the relationship of airway microbial communities to metabolic and immune signatures within this patient population. RECENT FINDINGS: The lung microbiome in HIV infection is a relatively new and rapidly developing field; early studies in the field produced inconclusive evidence as to whether HIV-infection changes the lower airway microbiome...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035909/dysregulated-myelopoiesis-and-hematopoietic-function-following-acute-physiologic-insult
#13
Tyler J Loftus, Alicia M Mohr, Lyle L Moldawer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe recent findings in the context of previous work regarding dysregulated myelopoiesis and hematopoietic function following an acute physiologic insult, focusing on the expansion and persistence of myeloid-deriver suppressor cells, the deterioration of lymphocyte number and function, and the inadequacy of stress erythropoiesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Persistent myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) expansion among critically ill septic patients is associated with T-cell suppression, vulnerability to nosocomial infection, chronic critical illness, and poor long-term functional status...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035862/first-report-of-pneumonia-caused-by-angiostrongylus-vasorum-in-a-golden-jackal
#14
Pavle Gavrilović, Darko Marinković, Igor Todorović, Aleksandra Gavrilović
Angiostrongylosis caused by metastrongyloid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum is an emerging parasitic disease in Europe and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered as a main reservoir species for this parasite. Little is known about the role of other wild canids in the epidemiology of angiostrongylosis. The present paper provides the first description of pathomorphological lesions caused by A. vasorum in a golden jackal (Canis aureus). The paper describes a case of co-infection with A. vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis in a one-year-old female golden jackal, legally hunted near the City of Kovin, South Banat, Serbia...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035729/pre-clinical-in-vitro-infection-models
#15
REVIEW
George L Drusano
Given the current magnitude of the problem of antimicrobial resistance, particularly in the hospital setting, getting new agents to patients at the right dose and schedule is incredibly important. In vitro systems such as the 1-compartment model and the hollow fiber infection model (HFIM) can provide valuable information that allows rational decisions to be made which will drive the best choices of dose and schedule. Studies identifying the dynamically-linked index (dose fractionation studies) and the size of the index to obtain a specific amount of bacterial kill can be performed in both systems...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035673/extracellular-pyridine-nucleotides-as-immune-elicitors-in-arabidopsis
#16
Zhonglin Mou
The pyridine nucleotides nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and NAD phosphate (NADP) are coenzymes that function in both metabolic reactions and intracellular signaling. Emerging evidence from animal research indicates that NAD(P) also acts in the extracellular space (ECS). We have shown in the model plant Arabidopsis that (1) exogenous NAD(P) induces immune responses, (2) pathogen infection causes leakage of intracellular NAD(P) into the extracellular fluid at concentrations sufficient to induce immune responses, and (3) removal of extracellular NAD(P) [eNAD(P)] by expressing the human NAD(P)-metabolizing ectoenzyme CD38 partially compromises systemic acquired resistance...
October 16, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035384/effect-of-anthelmintic-treatment-on-leptin-adiponectin-and-leptin-to-adiponectin-ratio-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
D L Tahapary, K de Ruiter, I Martin, E A T Brienen, L van Lieshout, Y Djuardi, C C Djimandjaja, J J Houwing-Duistermaat, P Soewondo, E Sartono, T Supali, J W A Smit, M Yazdanbakhsh
Emerging evidence suggests that helminths might confer protection against the development of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the role of adipokines in mediating the effect of helminths on insulin resistance. Serum samples were obtained from a randomized-controlled trial of anthelmintic treatment in an area endemic for soil-transmitted helminths (STH), Flores Island, Indonesia. In STH-infected subjects, anthelmintic treatment significantly increased the ratio of leptin to adiponectin (treatment effect factor (95% confidence interval (CI)), P-value for interaction: 1...
October 16, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035003/hepatitis-b-core-related-antigen-hbcrag-an-emerging-marker-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#18
REVIEW
L-Y Mak, D K-H Wong, K-S Cheung, W-K Seto, C-L Lai, M-F Yuen
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cannot be completely eradicated due to the presence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nuclei of infected hepatocytes. While quantification of intrahepatic cccDNA requires liver biopsies, serological markers can be non-invasive alternatives to reflect intrahepatic viral replicative activity. Recently, hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has been advocated as a novel serum marker for disease monitoring and prognostication of CHB...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034850/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-variants-obtained-from-veterinary-clinical-samples-reveal-a-role-for-cyclic-di-gmp-in-biofilm-formation-and-colony-morphology
#19
Maria T Brock, Galya C Fedderly, Grace I Borlee, Michael M Russell, Liliana K Filipowska, Doreene R Hyatt, Ryan A Ferris, Bradley R Borlee
Overuse of antibiotics is contributing to an emerging antimicrobial resistance crisis. To better understand how bacteria adapt tolerance and resist antibiotic treatment, Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates obtained from infection sites sampled from companion animals were collected and evaluated for phenotypic differences. Selected pairs of clonal isolates were obtained from individual infection samples and were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, cyclic di-GMP levels, biofilm production, motility and genetic-relatedness...
October 16, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034414/occurrence-and-zoonotic-potential-of-endoparasites-in-cats-of-cyprus-and-a-new-distribution-area-for-troglostrongylus-brevior
#20
Anastasia Diakou, Dimitra Sofroniou, Angela Di Cesare, Panagiotis Kokkinos, Donato Traversa
The present study investigated for the first time the occurrence of pulmonary and intestinal parasites of cats in Cyprus. Cats from five districts of Cyprus (Lefkosia, Lemesos, Larnaka, Pafos and Ammochostos) were examined by classical parasitological methods and the identity of lungworm larvae, whenever present, was confirmed by PCR-coupled sequencing. A total of 185 cats, 48 living exclusively indoors and 137 with outdoor access, were included in the study. Parasites were found in 66 (35.7%) of the examined cats, i...
October 16, 2017: Parasitology Research
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