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Emerging Infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913535/thrombocytopenia-and-platelet-dysfunction-in-acute-tropical-infectious-diseases
#1
Indri Hapsari Putri, Rahajeng N Tunjungputri, Philip G De Groot, Andre J van der Ven, Quirijn de Mast
Thrombocytopenia is a well-known manifestation of acute tropical infectious diseases. The role of platelets in infections has received much attention recently because of their emerging activities in modulation of inflammatory responses, host defense, and vascular integrity. However, while many studies have addressed thrombocytopenia in tropical infections, abnormalities in platelet function have been largely overlooked. This is an important research gap, as platelet dysfunction may contribute to the bleeding tendency that characterizes some tropical infections...
June 18, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913017/safety-and-tolerability-of-multiple-ascending-doses-of-prx002-rg7935-an-anti-%C3%AE-synuclein-monoclonal-antibody-in-patients-with-parkinson-disease-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Joseph Jankovic, Ira Goodman, Beth Safirstein, Tonya K Marmon, Dale B Schenk, Martin Koller, Wagner Zago, Daniel K Ness, Sue G Griffith, Michael Grundman, Jay Soto, Susanne Ostrowitzki, Frank G Boess, Meret Martin-Facklam, Joseph F Quinn, Stuart H Isaacson, Omid Omidvar, Aaron Ellenbogen, Gene G Kinney
Importance: Aggregated α-synuclein is believed to be central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). PRX002/RG7935 (PRX002) is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed to target aggregated forms of α-synuclein, thereby inhibiting neuron-to-neuron transfer of presumed pathogenic forms of α-synuclein, potentially resulting in neuronal protection and slowing disease progression. Objective: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of multiple intravenous infusions of PRX002 in patients with idiopathic PD...
June 18, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912868/the-protective-capacity-of-high-payload-fmdv-a22-irq-vaccine-in-sheep-against-direct-contact-challenge-with-a-heterologous-contemporary-fmdv-a-strain-from-south-east-asia
#3
Jacquelyn Horsington, Charles Nfon, Hilary Bittner, Peter A Durr, Nagendrakumar Singanallur, Soren Alexandersen, Wilna Vosloo
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals, caused by FMD virus (FMDV). An FMD outbreak can cause major production losses and have significant implications for trade. Vaccination can assist in controlling the disease, and emergency vaccination using high antigen payload vaccines (>6 PD50/dose) is considered an important control approach in the event of an outbreak. In recent years there has been a divergence of serotype A viruses in South East Asia (SEA) into several distinct genetic and antigenic clusters...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912846/dissemination-of-the-methicillin-resistance-staphylococcus-aureus-pediatric-clone-st5-t002-iv-pvl-as-a-major-cause-of-community-associated-staphylococcal-infections-in-bedouin-children-southern-israel
#4
Assaf Rokney, Moti Baum, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Orli Sagi, Einav Anuka, Vered Agmon, David Greenberg, Lea Valinsky, Dana Danino
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are emerging worldwide. High CA-MRSA carriage rates were previously described in healthy Bedouin children. We assessed demographic, clinical and molecular characteristics of pediatric MRSA infections in southern Israel. METHODS: The Soroka University Medical Center laboratory serves the entire population of southern Israel, divided into two ethnic groups, Bedouins and Jews...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912733/a-paradigm-shift-toward-terminally-sterilized-devices
#5
Aakash Agarwal, Adam MacMillan, Vijay Goel, Anand K Agarwal, Chris Karas
Given the complexity of the sterilization process, and the risk involved in absence of strict adherence to the protocol described by the medical device manufacturers, terminally sterilized devices are emerging and being promoted in the field of medical practices. The characteristics associated with conventional reprocessing are demanding logistics, costs of delay, operations and adverse events, and unacceptable liability. Demanding logistics were a result of decoupled staff between the operating room and sterilize processing department, understaffed and high-volume processing with an additional burden due to inventory management and inefficient training...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912682/effects-of-sexual-network-connectivity-and-antimicrobial-drug-use-on-antimicrobial-resistance-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#6
Chris R Kenyon, Ilan S Schwartz
Contemporary strategies to curtail the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae include screening for and treating asymptomatic infections in high-prevalence populations in whom antimicrobial drug-resistant infections have typically emerged. We argue that antimicrobial resistance in these groups is driven by a combination of dense sexual network connectivity and antimicrobial drug exposure (for example, through screen-and-treat strategies for asymptomatic N. gonorrhoeae infection). Sexual network connectivity sustains a high-equilibrium prevalence of N...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912453/induction-of-cross-clade-antibody-and-t-cell-responses-by-an-mva-based-influenza-h5n1-vaccine-in-a-randomized-phase-i-iia-clinical-trial
#7
Rory D de Vries, Arwen F Altenburg, Nella J Nieuwkoop, Erwin de Bruin, Stella E van Trierum, Mark R Pronk, Mart M Lamers, Mathilde Richard, David F Nieuwenhuijse, Marion P G Koopmans, Joost H C M Kreijtz, Ron A M Fouchier, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Gerd Sutter, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Background: Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses continue to circulate in poultry and wild birds and occasionally infect humans, sometimes with fatal outcome. Development of vaccines is a priority to prepare for potential pandemics, however complicated by antigenic variation of the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin. We report the immunological profile induced by human immunization with Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin gene of H5N1 virus A/Vietnam/1194/04 (rMVA-H5)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912305/decreasing-incidence-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-at-86-u-s-emergency-departments-2009-2014
#8
Ethan Morgan, Sam Hohmann, Jessica Ridgeway, Robert Daum, Michael Z David
Introduction: The incidence of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), for which HIV is a significant risk factor, in United States emergency departments (EDs) increased dramatically after 2000 with the emergence of CA-MRSA. Few studies have examined SSTI incidence among U.S. HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected patients after 2010. Methods: Data were obtained for patient encounters at all academic medical center EDs affiliated with the Vizient clinical data warehouse who had an SSTI-associated ICD-9 code between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912161/recent-advances-in-the-treatment-of-scedosporiosis-and-fusariosis
#9
REVIEW
Matthew W McCarthy, Aspasia Katragkou, Elias Iosifidis, Emmanuel Roilides, Thomas J Walsh
Species of Scedosporium and Fusarium are considered emerging opportunistic pathogens, causing invasive fungal diseases in humans that are known as scedosporiosis and fusariosis, respectively. These mold infections typically affect patients with immune impairment; however, cases have been reported in otherwise healthy individuals. Clinical manifestations vary considerably, ranging from isolated superficial infection to deep-seated invasive infection—affecting multiple organs—which is often lethal...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912006/zika-virus-infection-and-differential-diagnosis-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-patients
#10
Guilherme Amaral Calvet, Patricia Brasil, Andre Machado Siqueira, Heruza Einsfeld Zogbi, Bianca de Santis Gonçalves, Aline da Silva Santos, Otilia Lupi, Rogerio Valls de Souza, Cintia Damasceno Dos Santos Rodrigues, Clarisse da Silveira Bressan, Mauymi Duarte Wakimoto, Eliane Saraiva de Araújo, Ingrid Cardoso Dos Santos, Ingebourg Georg, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Valdilea Gonçalves Veloso, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis
BackgroundZika virus (ZIKV) emergence in South America revealed the lack of knowledge regarding clinical manifestations in HIV-infected individuals. OBJECTIVES: We described the clinical characteristics, laboratory manifestations, differential diagnosis, and outcome of ZIKV infection in a large, single-center cohort of HIV-infected patients.MethodsHIV-infected patients aged ≥ 18 years with clinical suspected arboviral disease from an ongoing cohort were followed from February through December 2015...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911144/emergence-of-dengue-in-nepal
#11
REVIEW
Birendra Prasad Gupta, Mahesh Lamsal, Sudhikshya Chaulagain, Ramanuj Rauniyar, Rajani Malla, Smita Shrestha, Roshan Kurmi, Krishna Das Manandhar
Dengue virus is a major health problem in Nepal. The endogenous dengue appeared in 2006 in the country with reported outbreaks in 2010, 2013 and 2016. Eleven years vertical data show there were sporadic cases in all the years and mostly adults between 25 and 40 years of age were infected with dengue virus. Compared with primary infections, secondary infections were observed in relatively larger numbers during the period of 2008-2016. Most of the cases had symptoms of dengue fever; while 7 and 19 cases demonstrated dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome in 2010 and 2013 respectively...
June 2018: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910833/cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-in-patients-with-mantle-cell-lymphoma-on-ibrutinib
#12
Kai Sun, Saro Kasparian, Swaminathan Iyer, Sai Ravi Pingali
Ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been increasingly widely used in relapsed and refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia [1, 2]. With its use becoming more common, there have been emerging case reports of opportunistic infections like cryptococcal infections [3-8]. These infections in patients receiving ibrutinib were mostly reported in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, who have poor immune reconstitution. Here, we report two cases of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in patients with MCL on ibrutinib...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910799/changing-priorities-in-vaccinology-antibiotic-resistance-moving-to-the-top
#13
REVIEW
Aldo Tagliabue, Rino Rappuoli
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently the most alarming issue for human health. AMR already causes 700,000 deaths/year. It is estimated that 10 million deaths due to AMR will occur every year after 2050. This equals the number of people dying of cancer every year in present times. International institutions such as G20, World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO), UN General Assembly, European Union, and the UK and USA governments are calling for new antibiotics. To underline this emergency, a list of antibiotic-resistant "priority pathogens" has been published by WHO...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910563/diagnostic-accuracy-of-cd64-for-sepsis-in-emergency-department
#14
Silvana Teixeira Dal Ponte, Ana Paula Alegretti, Diogo André Pilger, Gabriela Petitot Rezende, Giordanna Andrioli, Helena Cocolichio Ludwig, Luciano Diogo, Luciano Zubaran Goldani, Melina Loreto, Pauline Simas Machado, Renato Seligman
Introduction: Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to suspected or confirmed infection. Clinical evaluations are essential for its early detection and treatment. Blood cultures may take as long as 2 days to yield a result and are not always reliable. However, recent studies have suggested that neutrophil CD64 expression may be a sensitive and specific alternative for the diagnosis of systemic infection. Objective: The objective of the study was to analyze the difference in CD64 values between subjects with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), suspected or confirmed sepsis, who meet diagnostic criteria for SIRS upon arriving at an emergency department...
April 2018: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910543/clinicohematological-profile-of-febrile-neutropenia-in-childhood-acute-leukemia-and-utility-of-serum-procalcitonin-levels-in-neutropenic-patients
#15
Rajan Kapoor, Ashish K Simalti, Shuvendu Roy, Pulkit Agarwal
Introduction: This study was planned to explore the clinical and hematological profile of febrile neutropenia (FN) in Indian children with focus on correlation of degree of neutropenia with fever and procalcitonin (PCT) level and the utility of serum PCT levels in cases of FN. Materials and Methods: Children below 12 years, receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancy having oral temperature more than 100°F and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) below 500/mm3 were included...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909693/a-decade-of-experience-with-rotavirus-vaccination-in-the-united-states-vaccine-uptake-effectiveness-and-impact
#16
Talia Pindyck, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
Prior to 2006, nearly every U.S child was infected with rotavirus by 5 years of age, and rotavirus was the leading cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis. In February 2006 and June 2008, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended a live attenuated pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) and a monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1), respectively, for routine vaccination of infants in the U.S. Areas covered: We reviewed U.S. data on coverage, vaccine effectiveness (VE), and vaccine impact from 2006-2017...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909243/uncommon-g9p-4-group-a-rotavirus-strains-causing-dehydrating-diarrhea-in-young-children-in-italy
#17
Giovanni Ianiro, Claudia Recanatini, Marcello M D'Errico, Marina Monini
Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are one of the major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children, being responsible for up to 250.000 deaths worldwide, mostly in developing countries. The two outer capsid proteins VP7 (glycoprotein, G-genotype) and VP4 (protease-sensitive protein, P-genotype) are the basis for the binary RVA nomenclature. Although at least 36 G-types and 51 P-types of rotavirus are presently known, most RVA infections in humans, worldwide as well as in Italy, are related to six major G/P combinations: G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8] and G12P[8]...
June 14, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909151/hematogones-predict-better-outcome-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-irrespective-of-graft-sources
#18
Takashi Ishio, Junichi Sugita, Takahiro Tateno, Daisuke Hidaka, Eiko Hayase, Souichi Shiratori, Kohei Okada, Hideki Goto, Masahiro Onozawa, Masao Nakagawa, Daigo Hashimoto, Kaoru Kahata, Katsuya Fujimoto, Tomoyuki Endo, Takeshi Kondo, Takanori Teshima
Benign precursors of B lymphocytes, termed hematogones, are observed in the regenerative state of hematopoiesis following chemotherapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Previous studies have demonstrated that expansion of hematogones correlates with better clinical outcomes after allo-HSCT. We retrospectively analyzed the association between hematogones and clinical outcomes in 309 consecutive patients undergone allo-HSCT, which was the largest population-based cohort reported so far...
June 14, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909042/close-encounters-of-three-kinds-bacteriophages-commensal-bacteria-and-host-immunity
#19
REVIEW
Eric C Keen, Gautam Dantas
Recent years have witnessed an explosion of interest in the human microbiota. Although commensal bacteria have dominated research efforts to date, mounting evidence suggests that endogenous viral populations (the 'virome') play key roles in basic human physiology. The most numerous constituents of the human virome are not eukaryotic viruses but rather bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria. Here, we review phages' interactions with their immediate (prokaryotic) and extended (eukaryotic) hosts and with each other, with a particular emphasis on the temperate phages and prophages which dominate the human virome...
June 13, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908812/short-communication-lack-of-intramammary-niche-recolonization-during-a-sanitation-program-for-the-contagious-mastitis-pathogen-staphylococcus-aureus-genotype-b
#20
C Sartori, V Perreten, I Ivanovic, M C Härdi-Landerer, H U Graber
In Switzerland, sanitation programs of dairy herds infected with the contagious mastitis pathogen Staphylococcus aureus genotype B (GTB) have been established for several years. In recent years, Streptococcus uberis and non-aureus staphylococci have emerged as the bacteria most frequently isolated from bovine milk samples. The latter cause subclinical mastitis, and some species are more persistent or pathogenic than others. The present study aimed to investigate the developments in the intramammary colonization spectrum of 5 dairy herds undergoing a sanitation program for Staph...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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