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Emerging Infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471605/-emerging-therapies-what-are-promising-in-the-near-future
#1
REVIEW
Geom Seog Seo, Sung Hee Lee
The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease has evolved with the development of anti-TNF agents. In spite of long-term effectiveness, many patients do not respond or no longer responds to these drugs. Therefore, the development of new drugs that act on different inflammatory pathways has become necessary. Vedolizumab, a gut-specific biological agent, inhibits interaction α4β7 integrin with mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 without inhibiting systemic immune responses. Long-term vedolizumab therapy in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis was safe and effective...
February 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471266/genetic-characterization-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-highlights-a-new-ba-genotype-and-emergence-of-the-on1-genotype-in-lyon-france-between-2010-and-2014
#2
Alexandre Gaymard, Maude Bouscambert-Duchamp, Maxime Pichon, Emilie Frobert, Julien Vallee, Bruno Lina, Jean-Sébastien Casalegno, Florence Morfin
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a well-recognized cause of respiratory tract infections. Based on G gene variations, 11 RSV-A and 36 RSV-B genotypes have been described to date. The ON1 genotype was detected in Ontario in 2010 and subsequently reported in several countries. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to investigate for the first time the RSV epidemiology and genotype diversity in France between 2010 and 2014. STUDY DESIGN: All respiratory samples received from patients with influenza-like illness or respiratory tract infection were screened for RSV infection by RT-PCR...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471150/comprehensive-virome-analysis-reveals-the-complexity-and-diversity-of-the-viral-spectrum-in-pediatric-patients-diagnosed-with-severe-and-mild-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#3
Chunhua Wang, Shuaifeng Zhou, Wanhua Xue, Liang Shen, Wei Huang, Yi Zhang, Xuguang Li, Junzhi Wang, Hong Zhang, Xuejun Ma
The management of hand-foot-and-mouth disease(HFMD) epidemic is difficult due to the frequent emergence of non-EV71 and non-CVA16 enteroviruses and some cases testing negative for HFMD-associated causative agents. To clarify the virus spectrum of mild and severe HFMD, a comprehensive virome analysis of 238 samples was performed using next-generation sequencing (NGS). The data revealed total thirteen mammalian- and plant- virus families and diverse viral populations including enteroviruses, common respiratory viruses, diarrhea-related viruses, plant viruses and anelloviruses...
February 19, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471116/genetic-populations-and-virulence-factors-of-helicobacter-pylori
#4
REVIEW
Evariste Tshibangu Kabamba, Vo Phuoc Tuan, Yoshio Yamaoka
Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that has infected more than half of the human population worldwide. This bacterium is closely associated with serious human diseases, such as gastric cancer, and identifying and understanding factors that predict bacterial virulence is a priority. In addition, this pathogen shows high genetic diversity and co-evolution with human hosts. H. pylori population genetics, therefore, has emerged as a tool to track human demographic history. As the number of genome sequences available is increasing, studies on the evolution and virulence of H...
February 19, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470994/a-virus-like-particle-vaccine-protects-mice-against-coxsackievirus-a10-lethal-infection
#5
Yu Zhou, Chao Zhang, Qingwei Liu, Sitang Gong, Lanlan Geng, Zhong Huang
Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) has emerged worldwide as one of the main pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in recent years. However, there is currently no commercial vaccine available to prevent CVA10 infection. Here we report the development of a recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) based candidate vaccine for CVA10. Co-expression of the capsid protein precursor P1 and the protease 3CD of CVA10 in Pichia pastoris resulted in cleavage of P1 into three capsid subunit proteins VP0, VP1, and VP3. These three subunit proteins co-assembled into CVA10 VLPs, which were visualized as spherical particles with a diameter of ∼30 nm under electron microscope...
February 19, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470920/long-term-microevolution-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-differs-between-mildly-and-severely-affected-cystic-fibrosis-lungs
#6
Jens Klockgether, Nina Cramer, Sebastian Fischer, Lutz Wiehlmann, Burkhard Tümmler
RATIONALE: The chronic airway infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa determine morbidity in most individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). P. aeruginosa may persist for decades in CF lungs which provides the rare opportunity to study the long-term within-host evolution of a bacterial airway pathogen. OBJECTIVES: To resolve the genetic adaptation of P. aeruginosa in CF lungs from the onset of colonization until the patient's death or permanent replacement by another P...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470628/bladder-debris-on-ultrasound-in-the-emergency-department-correlation-with-urinalysis
#7
Ghaneh Fananapazir, Behrad Golshani, Ling-Xin Chen, John P McGahan, Angelo M de Mattos, Michael T Corwin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between the presence of bladder debris on ultrasound and urinalysis results in the emergency department setting. METHODS: Adult patients presenting to the emergency department with an ultrasound of the bladder and a urinalysis performed within 24 h of the ultrasound were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists in consensus evaluated for the presence or absence of debris within the bladder. Urinalysis results were recorded including continuous variables (specific gravity and pH) and categorical variables (presence of occult blood, bilirubin, ketones, glucose, protein, urobilinogen, nitrite, leukocyte esterase, white blood cells, and red blood cells)...
February 22, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470620/dengue-viruses-and-promising-envelope-protein-domain-iii-based-vaccines
#8
REVIEW
Hossein Fahimi, Mahshid Mohammadipour, Hamed Haddad Kashani, Farshid Parvini, Majid Sadeghizadeh
Dengue viruses are emerging mosquito-borne pathogens belonging to Flaviviridae family which are transmitted to humans via the bites of infected mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Because of the wide distribution of these mosquito vectors, more than 2.5 billion people are approximately at risk of dengue infection. Dengue viruses cause dengue fever and severe life-threatening illnesses as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. All four serotypes of dengue virus can cause dengue diseases, but the manifestations are nearly different depending on type of the virus in consequent infections...
February 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470532/psychosocial-health-and-suicidal-ideation-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-a-cross-sectional-study-in-nanjing-china
#9
Wei Wang, Chenchang Xiao, Xing Yao, Yinmei Yang, Hong Yan, Shiyue Li
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed the prevalence and verified the syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions on suicidal ideation among PLWHA in China. METHODS: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2016 in Nanjing, China, using a self-report questionnaire...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470509/co-circulation-of-all-the-four-dengue-virus-serotypes-and-detection-of-a-novel-clade-of-denv-4-genotype-i-virus-in-pune-india-during-2016-season
#10
Shubham Shrivastava, Divya Tiraki, Arundhati Diwan, Sanjay K Lalwani, Meera Modak, Akhilesh Chandra Mishra, Vidya A Arankalle
Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection in tropical and sub-tropical countries. In recent years, India has reported increased incidences of concurrent infection with multiple serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV). In the present study, we have characterized DENV circulating during a single season of 2016 in Pune, India. A total of 64 serum samples from NS1 ELISA positive dengue patients were used for PCR amplification of CprM region of the viral genome and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis documented circulation of all the four DENV serotypes with predominance of DENV-2 (40...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470491/emergence-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-subspecies-pneumoniae-as-a-cause-of-septicaemia-in-pigs-in-england
#11
Cornelia A Bidewell, Susanna M Williamson, Jon Rogers, Yue Tang, Richard J Ellis, Liljana Petrovska, Manal AbuOun
Between 2011 and 2014 outbreaks of septicaemia due to Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies pneumoniae (Kpp) were diagnosed on thirteen English pig farms. The most consistent features were rapid deaths of pigs from ten-days-old to weaning, seasonal occurrence (May to September), affected farms being outdoor breeding herds and the location of all but one of the outbreaks in the East Anglia region in Eastern England. Molecular characterisation of the outbreak Kpp isolates showed that by multilocus sequencing all were sequence type 25 (ST25) of K2 capsular type with a combination of a 4...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470490/neutralization-of-cholera-toxin-with-nanoparticle-decoys-for-treatment-of-cholera
#12
Soumita Das, Pavimol Angsantikul, Christine Le, Denny Bao, Yukiko Miyamoto, Weiwei Gao, Liangfang Zhang, Lars Eckmann
Diarrheal diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In many cases, antibiotic therapy is either ineffective or not recommended due to concerns about emergence of resistance. The pathogenesis of several of the most prevalent infections, including cholera and enteroxigenic Escherichia coli, is dominated by enterotoxins produced by lumen-dwelling pathogens before clearance by intestinal defenses. Toxins gain access to the host through critical host receptors, making these receptors attractive targets for alternative antimicrobial strategies that do not rely on conventional antibiotics...
February 22, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470397/the-alphavirus-exit-pathway-what-we-know-and-what-we-wish-we-knew
#13
REVIEW
Rebecca S Brown, Judy J Wan, Margaret Kielian
Alphaviruses are enveloped positive sense RNA viruses and include serious human pathogens, such as the encephalitic alphaviruses and Chikungunya virus. Alphaviruses are transmitted to humans primarily by mosquito vectors and include species that are classified as emerging pathogens. Alphaviruses assemble highly organized, spherical particles that bud from the plasma membrane. In this review, we discuss what is known about the alphavirus exit pathway during a cellular infection. We describe the viral protein interactions that are critical for virus assembly/budding and the host factors that are involved, and we highlight the recent discovery of cell-to-cell transmission of alphavirus particles via intercellular extensions...
February 22, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470107/leptospira-genomospecies-and-sequence-type-prevalence-in-small-mammal-populations-in-germany
#14
Stefan Fischer, Anne Mayer-Scholl, Christian Imholt, Nastasja G Spierling, Elisa Heuser, Sabrina Schmidt, Daniela Reil, Ulrike M Rosenfeld, Jens Jacob, Karsten Nöckler, Rainer G Ulrich
Leptospirosis is a worldwide emerging infectious disease caused by zoonotic bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Numerous mammals, including domestic and companion animals, can be infected by Leptospira spp., but rodents and other small mammals are considered the main reservoir. The annual number of recorded human leptospirosis cases in Germany (2001-2016) was 25-166. Field fever outbreaks in strawberry pickers, due to infection with Leptospira kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, were reported in 2007 and 2014. To identify the most commonly occurring Leptospira genomospecies, sequence types (STs), and their small mammal host specificity, a monitoring study was performed during 2010-2014 in four federal states of Germany...
February 22, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469213/exosomes-enter-vaccine-development-strategies-meeting-global-challenges-of-emerging-infections
#15
Alois Jungbauer
New approaches for vaccination must be developed in order to meet the grand challenges for emerging infectious diseases. Exosomes now enter vaccine development and these are strategies are meeting these global challenges, as demonstrated by Anticoli et al, in this issue of Biotechnology Journal [1] Using exosome vaccines has been now been demonstrated in-vivo for several viruses such as Ebola Virus VP24, VP40 and NP, Influenza Virus NP, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever NP, West Nile Virus NS3, and Hepatitis C Virus NS3...
February 22, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468746/surveillance-for-azoles-resistance-in-aspergillus-spp-highlights-a-high-number-of-amphotericin-b-resistant-isolates
#16
Franqueline Reichert Lima, Luzia Lyra, Lais Pontes, Maria Luiza Moretti, Cau D Pham, Shawn R Lockhart, Angélica Zaninelli Schreiber
Aspergillus spp. are the most common invasive mold infection and are responsible for high mortality. A. fumigatus is currently of interest because resistance to azole antifungals has emerged. The Campinas University Hospital (HC-UNICAMP) receives high-risk patients susceptible to opportunistic infections but there have been no reports of resistant A. fumigatus. This study aimed to assess the susceptibility profile of Aspergillus isolates, specifically looking for azole resistance. ITS and β-tubulin DNA sequencing was performed on 228 sequential clinical isolates...
February 22, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468698/systematic-review-non-a-e-seronegative-or-indeterminate-hepatitis-what-is-this-deadly-disease
#17
REVIEW
P N Brennan, M C Donnelly, K J Simpson
BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of cases of acute liver failure (ALF) do not have an identifiable cause; so called "non A-E," "non A, non B, non C," "seronegative" or "indeterminate" hepatitis. However, this entity is clinically not well described. AIM: To collate the known incidence and outcomes in indeterminate hepatitis. This systematic review sought to identify potential aetiologies that ought to be considered, and identify likely future objectives in classification and treatment strategies for indeterminate hepatitis...
February 21, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468000/an-accurate-diagnostic-pathway-helps-to-correctly-distinguish-between-the-possible-causes-of-acute-scrotum
#18
Beat Roth, Ioannis Giannakis, Meret Elisabeth Ricklin, George Niklaus Thalmann, Aristomenis Konstantinos Exadaktylos
Objectives: We sought to identify a simplified approach for the rapid differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute scrotum. Methods: A total of 440 patients referred to the emergency department of the University Hospital of Bern, Switzerland, with acute scrotum between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Simple and multiple binary logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate clinical and laboratory parameters that may help to distinguish between genital/paragenital infection and acute testicular torsion...
January 2018: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467722/high-incidence-of-pathogenic-streptococcus-agalactiae-st485-strain-in-pregnant-puerperal-women-and-isolation-of-hyper-virulent-human-cc67-strain
#19
Liping Li, Rui Wang, Yan Huang, Ting Huang, Fuguang Luo, Weiyi Huang, Xiuying Yang, Aiying Lei, Ming Chen, Xi Gan
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the major pathogen causing diseases in neonates, pregnant/puerperal women, cows and fish. Recent studies have shown that GBS may be infectious across hosts and some fish GBS strain might originate from human. The purpose of this study is to investigate the genetic relationship of CC103 strains that recently emerged in cows and humans, and explore the pathogenicity of clinical GBS isolates from human to tilapia. Ninety-two pathogenic GBS isolates were identified from 19 patients with different diseases and their evolution and pathogenicity to tilapia were analyzed...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467349/targeting-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-virus-structural-proteins-to-the-ergic-endoplasmic-reticulum-golgi-intermediate-compartment-and-golgi-complex
#20
Tapiwa Lundu, Yoshimi Tsuda, Ryo Ito, Kenta Shimizu, Shintaro Kobayashi, Kentaro Yoshii, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Jiro Arikawa, Hiroaki Kariwa
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome phlebovirus (SFTSV) is a newly emerged phlebovirus identified in China, Japan, and South Korea. Phlebovirus glycoproteins (GP) play a key role in targeting viral structural components to the budding compartments in the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and Golgi complex. However, the role of SFTSV GP in targeting structural proteins to the ERGIC and Golgi complex remains unresolved. In this study, we show that SFTSV GP plays a significant role in targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) to the budding sites...
2018: Biomedical Research
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