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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432928/a-humanized-mouse-based-hiv-1-viral-outgrowth-assay-with-higher-sensitivity-than-in-vitro-qvoa-in-detecting-latently-infected-cells-from-individuals-on-art-with-undetectable-viral-loads
#1
Paige Charlins, Kimberly Schmitt, Leila Remling-Mulder, Louise E Hogan, Emily Hanhauser, Kristen S Hobbs, Frederick Hecht, Steven G Deeks, Timothy J Henrich, Ramesh Akkina
Assays that can verify full viral eradication are essential in the context of achieving a cure for HIV/AIDS. In vitro quantitative viral out growth assays (qVOA) are currently the gold standard for measuring latent HIV-1 but these assays often fail to detect very low levels of replication-competent virus. Here we investigated an alternative in vivo approach for sensitive viral detection using humanized mice (hmVOA). Peripheral blood CD4+ T cell samples from HIV subjects on stable ART with undetectable viral loads by RT-PCR were first assayed by in vitro qVOA...
April 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432094/the-use-of-synthetic-hybrid-strains-to-determine-the-role-of-replicon-3-in-virulence-of-the-burkholderia-cepacia-complex
#2
Kirsty Agnoli, Roman Freitag, Margarida C Gomes, Christian Jenul, Angela Suppiger, Olga Mannweiler, Carmen Frauenknecht, Daniel Janser, Annette C Vergunst, Leo Eberl
The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) displays a wealth of metabolic diversity with great biotechnological potential, but the utilisation of these bacteria is limited by their opportunistic pathogenicity to humans. The third replicon of the Bcc, megaplasmid pC3 (0.5 to 1.4 Mb, previously chromosome 3), is important for various phenotypes, including virulence, antifungal and proteolytic activities, and the utilization of certain substrates. Approximately half of plasmid pC3 is well-conserved throughout sequenced Bcc members, while the other half is not...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429679/mycobacterium-avium-complex-disease
#3
Charles L Daley
Despite the ubiqitous nature of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms in the environment, relatively few of those who are infected develop disease. Thus, some degree of susceptibility due to either underlying lung disease or immunosuppression is required. The frequency of pulmonary MAC disease is increasing in many areas, and the exact reasons are unknown. Isolation of MAC from a respiratory specimen does not necessarily mean that treatment is required, as the decision to treatment requires the synthesis of clinical, radiographic, and microbiologic information as well as a weighing of the risks and benefits for the individual patient...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418987/the-roles-of-behavioral-and-social-science-research-in-the-fight-against-hiv-aids-a-functional-framework
#4
Paul Gaist, Michael J Stirratt
Landmark advances have been made in HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. These include proof-of-concept and public health implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and "treatment as prevention" (TasP) to reduce HIV transmission as well as definitive evidence of the clinical gain from early antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Significant progress has been made in understanding and addressing the social contexts and behavioral factors that impact HIV prevention, care, and treatment interventions...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417477/a-flexible-family-of-transformation-cure-rate-models
#5
M V Koutras, F S Milienos
In this paper, we introduce a flexible family of cure rate models, mainly motivated by the biological derivation of the classical promotion time cure rate model and assuming that a metastasis-competent tumor cell produces a detectable-tumor mass only when a specific number of distinct biological factors affect the cell. Special cases of the new model are, among others, the promotion time (proportional hazards), the geometric (proportional odds), and the negative binomial cure rate model. In addition, our model generalizes specific families of transformation cure rate models and some well-studied destructive cure rate models...
April 17, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413739/genetic-modulation-therapy-through-stem-cell-transplantation-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection
#6
REVIEW
Varshil Mehta, Divya Chandramohan, Shivika Agarwal
Highly active anti-retroviral treatment has changed the dimensions of the outcomes for patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, HIV infection is still an ailment which is spreading throughout the world extensively. Given the confinements of the present restorative methodologies and the non-availability of any strategic vaccination against HIV, there is a squeezing need to build a therapeutic treatment. Viral tropism for HIV includes CD4+ cells, macrophages, and microglial cells, and it is through binding with co-receptors C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)...
March 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406033/the-impact-of-hiv-antiretroviral-treatment-perception-on-risky-sexual-behaviour-in-botswana-a-short-report
#7
Gobopamang Letamo, Mpho Keetile, Kannan Navaneetham
The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of ART perception on risky sexual behaviours in Botswana. Using binary logistic regression analysis controlling for individual characteristics, the results tend to support the hypothesis that ART misconceptions do not necessarily increase risky sexual behaviours. In particular, the study findings suggest the belief that ARVs cure HIV and AIDS and that people on ARVs should not always use condoms do not necessarily lead to increased risky sexual behaviours, particularly among women...
April 13, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404854/autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-disrupts-adaptive-immune-responses-during-rebound-shiv-viremia
#8
Daniel B Reeves, Christopher W Peterson, Hans-Peter Kiem, Joshua T Schiffer
Primary HIV-1 infection induces a virus-specific adaptive/cytolytic immune response that impacts plasma viral load setpoint and rate of progression to AIDS. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppresses plasma viremia to undetectable levels that rebound upon cART treatment interruption. Following cART withdrawal, the memory component of the virus-specific adaptive immune response may improve viral control compared to primary infection. Here, using primary infection and treatment interruption data from macaques infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), we observe lower peak viral load but unchanged viral setpoint during viral rebound...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392467/predicted-coreceptor-usage-at-end-stage-hiv-disease-in-tissues-derived-from-subjects-on-antiretroviral-therapy-with-an-undetectable-plasma-viral-load
#9
S L Lamers, G B Fogel, E S Liu, D J Nolan, M Salemi, A E Barbier, R Rose, E J Singer, M S McGrath
HIV cure research is increasingly focused on anatomical tissues as sites for residual HIV replication during combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Tissue-based HIV could contribute to low-level immune activation and viral rebound over the course of infection and could also influence the development of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, neurological disorders and cancers. cART-treated subjects have a decreased and irregular presence of HIV among tissues, which has resulted in a paucity of actual evidence concerning how or if HIV persists, replicates and evolves in various anatomical sites during therapy...
April 6, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380207/tuberculosis-control-program-in-the-municipal-context-performance-evaluation
#10
Tiemi Arakawa, Gabriela Tavares Magnabosco, Rubia Laine de Paula Andrade, Maria Eugenia Firmino Brunello, Aline Aparecida Monroe, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Lucia Marina Scatena, Tereza Cristina Scatena Villa
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the Tuberculosis Control Program in municipalities of the State of São Paulo. METHODS: This is a program evaluation research, with ecological design, which uses three non-hierarchical groups of the municipalities of the State of São Paulo according to their performance in relation to operational indicators. We have selected 195 municipalities with at least five new cases of tuberculosis notified in the Notification System of the State of São Paulo and with 20,000 inhabitants or more in 2010...
March 30, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366764/in%C3%A2-vivo-excision-of-hiv-1-provirus-by-sacas9-and-multiplex-single-guide-rnas-in-animal-models
#11
Chaoran Yin, Ting Zhang, Xiying Qu, Yonggang Zhang, Raj Putatunda, Xiao Xiao, Fang Li, Weidong Xiao, Huaqing Zhao, Shen Dai, Xuebin Qin, Xianming Mo, Won-Bin Young, Kamel Khalili, Wenhui Hu
CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated genome editing provides a promising cure for HIV-1/AIDS; however, gene delivery efficiency in vivo remains an obstacle to overcome. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of excising the HIV-1 provirus in three different animal models using an all-in-one adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to deliver multiplex single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) plus Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (saCas9). The quadruplex sgRNAs/saCas9 vector outperformed the duplex vector in excising the integrated HIV-1 genome in cultured neural stem/progenitor cells from HIV-1 Tg26 transgenic mice...
March 30, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361837/early-squamous-neoplasia-of-the-esophagus-the-endoscopic-approach-to-diagnosis-and-management
#12
REVIEW
Kesavan Kandiah, Fergus J Q Chedgy, Sharmila Subramaniam, Sreedhari Thayalasekaran, Arun Kurup, Pradeep Bhandari
Considerable focus has been placed on esophageal adenocarcinoma in the last 10 years because of its rising incidence in the West. However, squamous cell cancer (SCC) continues to be the most common type of esophageal cancer in the rest of the world. The detection of esophageal SCC (ESCC) in its early stages can lead to early endoscopic resection and cure. The increased incidence of ESCC in high-risk groups, such as patients with head and neck squamous cancers, highlights the need for screening programs. Lugol's iodine chromoendoscopy remains the gold standard technique in detecting early ESCC, however, safer techniques such as electronic enhancement or virtual chromoendoscopy would be ideal...
March 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342803/antigen-specific-ctls-to-produce-autologous-cells-product-for-adoptive-cellular-therapy
#13
Sai Liu, Yi Shao, Jie Xu, Na Jiang, Yanchao Dai, Yu Wang, Huanqing Sun, Jianping Sun, Yonghong Zhang
As antiretroviral therapy provides long term viral suppression but no cure, alternative therapies such as adoptive cellular therapy have thus been investigated in the anti-AIDS field. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to establish a HLA-A02 specific CTL cell culture method with comparison of the effects of different cytokines used in CTL cultivation to decide the best cultivation environment. In order to produce CTLs with targeted HLA-A02 restricted antigen specificity for adoptive cellular therapy, we evaluated autologous PBMC cultivation in different cytokine environment to select a better expansion condition to produce qualified CTL production...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335247/hydrothermal-fabrication-of-silver-nanowires-silver-nanoparticles-graphene-nanosheets-composites-in-enhancing-electrical-conductive-performance-of-electrically-conductive-adhesives
#14
Hongru Ma, Jinfeng Zeng, Steven Harrington, Lei Ma, Mingze Ma, Xuhong Guo, Yanqing Ma
Silver nanowires-silver nanoparticles-graphene nanosheets (AgNWs-AgNPs-GN) hybrid nanomaterials were fabricated through a hydrothermal method by using glucose as a green reducing agent. The charge carriers of AgNWs-AgNPs-GN passed through defect regions in the GNs rapidly with the aid of the AgNW and AgNP building blocks, leading to high electrical conductivity of electrically conductive adhesives (ECA) filled with AgNWs-AgNPs-GN. The morphologies of synthesized AgNWs-AgNPs-GN hybrid nanomaterials were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)...
June 21, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291956/physical-activity-motivation-and-benefits-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Kimberly S Fasczewski, Diane L Gill, Sara M Rothberger
PURPOSE: Multiple sclerosis is a degenerative neurological disease that affects 2.1 million people worldwide. There is no cure, but an expanding body of research supports the positive impact of physical activity and suggests physical activity has benefits for the individual's psychological and physical well-being. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using Self-Determination Theory as a framework, mixed methods with a focus on qualitative interviews were used to explore physical activity motivation and benefits with a sample of highly active people with multiple sclerosis (n = 15)...
March 14, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279118/insight-into-binding-mechanisms-of-inhibitors-mkp56-mkp73-mkp86-and-mkp97-to-hiv-1-protease-by-using-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#16
Shuhua Shi, Shaolong Zhang, Qinggang Zhang
HIV-1 protease (PR) has been a significant target for design of potent inhibitors curing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations coupled with molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method were performed to study interaction modes of four inhibitors MKP56, MKP73, MKP86 and MKP97 with PR. The results suggest that the main force controlling interactions of inhibitors with PR should be contributed by van der Waals interactions between inhibitors and PR...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275462/highlights-from-the-third-biennial-strategies-for-an-hiv-cure-meeting-14-16-november-2016-bethesda-md-usa
#17
EDITORIAL
Diane Lawrence, Lillian Kuo, Elizabeth Church, Betty Poon, Stephen Smiley, Brigitte Sanders-Beer, Liza Dawson, Karl Salzwedel
Since the first Strategies for an HIV Cure Meeting organised by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) in 2012, one of the primary purposes of the meeting has been to facilitate communication and foster collaboration across the NIAID-funded Martin Delaney Collaboratories for HIV cure research (MDC), the broader HIV cure-related research field, and industry and community stakeholders. This year's meeting agenda reflected NIAID's increasing investment over the last 5 years in research to identify strategies for eradicating or achieving long-term remission of HIV infection...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275453/insight-into-hiv-2-latency-may-disclose-strategies-for-a-cure-for-hiv-1-infection
#18
EDITORIAL
Suha Saleh, Lenard Vranckx, Rik Gijsbers, Frauke Christ, Zeger Debyser
HIV-1 and HIV-2 originate from two distinct zoonotic transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from primate to human. Although both share similar modes of transmission and can result in the development of AIDS with similar clinical manifestations, HIV-2 infection is generally milder and less likely to progress to AIDS. HIV is currently incurable due to the presence of HIV provirus integrated into the host DNA of long-lived memory cells of the immune system without active replication. As such, the latent virus is immunologically inert and remains insensitive to the administered antiviral drugs targeting active viral replication steps...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257608/research-and-primary-evaluation-of-an-automatic-fusion-method-for-multi-source-tooth-crown-data
#19
Ning Dai, Dawei Li, Xu Yang, Cheng Cheng, Yuchun Sun
BACKGROUND: With the development of 3D scanning technologies in dentistry, high accuracy optical scanning data from the crown and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data from the root can be acquired easily. In many dental fields, especially in digital orthodontics, it is useful to fuse the data from the crown and the root. However, the manual fusion method is complex and difficult. A novel automatic fusion method for two-source data from the crown and the root was researched and its accuracy was evaluated in this study...
March 3, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218266/crystal-nephropathies-mechanisms-of-crystal-induced-kidney-injury
#20
REVIEW
Shrikant R Mulay, Hans-Joachim Anders
Crystals can trigger a wide range of kidney injuries that can lead to acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, renal colic or nephrocalcinosis, depending on the localization and dynamics of crystal deposition. Studies of the biology of crystal handling by the kidney have shown that the formation of different crystals and other microparticles and the associated mechanisms of renal damage share molecular mechanisms, such as stimulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome or direct cytotoxicity through activation of the necroptosis signalling pathway...
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
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