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cure for AIDS

Sheikh Arslan Sehgal, Mirza A Hammad, Rana Adnan Tahir, Hafiza Nisha Akram, Faheem Ahmad
BACKGROUND: As the number of elderly persons increases, neurodegenerative diseases are becoming ubiquitous. There is currently a great need for knowledge concerning management of old-age neurodegenerative diseases; the most important of which are: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the potential of computationally predicted molecules and targets against neurodegenerative diseases...
March 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Xiaoyan Pan, Jian Lin, Xiaoyun Zeng, Wenjuan Li, Wenjiao Wu, Wan Zhen Lu, Jing Liu, Shuwen Liu
The persistent inflammation aggravated by a disordered immune response is considered to be the major cause of CD4+ T cell depletion in lymphoid tissue, which impels the progression of AIDS. Here, we report that heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) works as an innate repressor of HIV-induced inflammation. The activation of HSF1 was found to accompany inflammation during HIV infection. Further research uncovered that HSF1 activation inhibited HIV-induced inflammation. In addition, HSF1 overexpression suppressed the inflammatory response induced by HIV, while HSF1 deficiency exacerbated that inflammation...
January 31, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Jasper V Smit, Bart J Pielkenrood, Remo A G J Arts, Miranda L Janssen, Yasin Temel, Robert J Stokroos
Purpose: The field of neuromodulation is currently seeking to treat a wide range of disorders with various types of invasive devices. In recent years, several preclinical trials and case reports in humans have been published on their potential for chronic tinnitus. However, studies to obtain insight into patients' willingness to undergo these treatments are scarce. The aim of this survey study was to find out whether tinnitus patients are willing to undergo invasive neuromodulation when taking its risks, costs, and potential benefits into account...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Audiology
Eileen P Scully
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will outline the multilevel effects of biological sex on HIV acquisition, pathogenesis, treatment response, and prospects for cure. Potential mechanisms will be discussed along with future research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV acquisition risk is modified by sex hormones and the vaginal microbiome, with the latter acting through both inflammation and local metabolism of pre-exposure prophylaxis drugs. Female sex associates with enhanced risk for non-AIDS morbidities including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting different inflammatory profiles in men and women...
March 5, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Chen Huan, Zhaolong Li, Shanshan Ning, Hong Wang, Xiao-Fang Yu, Wenyan Zhang
The HIV-1 reservoir is a major obstacle to complete eradication of the virus. Although many proteins and RNAs have been characterized as regulators in HIV-1/AIDS pathogenesis and latency, only a few long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to be closely associated with HIV-1 replication and latency. Here, we demonstrated that lncRNA uc002yug.2 plays a key role in HIV-1 viral replication and latency. uc002yug.2 potentially enhances HIV-1 viral replication, LTR activity as well as the activation of latent HIV-1 in both cell lines and CD4+ T cells from patients...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
José M Benito, María C Ortiz, Agathe León, Luis A Sarabia, José M Ligos, María Montoya, Marcial Garcia, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Rosario Palacios, Alfonso Cabello, Clara Restrepo, Carmen Rodriguez, Jorge Del Romero, Manuel Leal, María A Muñoz-Fernández, José Alcamí, Felipe García, Miguel Górgolas, Norma Rallón
BACKGROUND: Despite long-lasting HIV replication control, a significant proportion of elite controller (EC) patients may experience CD4 T-cell loss. Discovering perturbations in immunological parameters could help our understanding of the mechanisms that may be operating in those patients experiencing loss of immunological control. METHODS: A case-control study was performed to evaluate if alterations in different T-cell homeostatic parameters can predict CD4 T-cell loss in ECs by comparing data from EC patients showing significant CD4 decline (cases) and EC patients showing stable CD4 counts (controls)...
February 28, 2018: BMC Medicine
Takatsugu Yamamoto, Yohei Sato, Hidehiko Watanabe, Amit Punj, Minoru Abe, Yasuko Momoi, Chikahiro Ohkubo
The objective of this case report is to introduce a simple technique for simultaneously taking a closed-mouth impression and functionally generated path (FGP) for a full coverage crown restoration. A monolithic zirconia crown was the restoration of choice. An alginate impression of the abutment tooth was taken to fabricate a custom-made closed-mouth impression tray covering the abutment tooth and the adjacent teeth. The tray had an FGP table and an abutment tray in cameo and intaglio surfaces, respectively...
February 2018: Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics
Kikuo Nakano, Yoshihiro Kitahara, Mineyo Mito, Misato Seno, Shoji Sunada
BACKGROUND: Without explicit prognostic information, patients may overestimate their life expectancy and make poor choices at the end of life. We sought to design the Japanese version of an information aid (IA) to provide accurate information on prognosis to patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to assess the effects of the IA on hope, psychosocial status, and perception of curability. METHODS: We developed the Japanese version of an IA, which provided information on survival and cure rates as well as numerical survival estimates for patients with metastatic NSCLC receiving first-line chemotherapy...
February 27, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
Mukesh Kumar Singhal, Farah Ahmad, Chandana Nair, Pinki Bankoti
A maxillofacial patient's quality of life is distorted and social integration becomes difficult. An obturator is a maxillofacial prosthesis used to close a congenital or acquired tissue defect, primarily of the hard palate and/or contiguous alveolar/soft-tissue structures. Subsequently, it restores the esthetics, speech, and function. The present clinical report aimed for the prosthetic rehabilitation of a maxillectomy defect by the incorporation of a semi-precision attachment as PRECI-SAGIX - male part of 2...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Karine Dubé, Stuart Luter, Breanne Lesnar, Luke Newton, Jerome Galea, Brandon Brown, Sara Gianella
BACKGROUND: The landscape of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) research has changed drastically over the past three decades. With the remarkable success of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in decreasing AIDS-related mortality, some researchers have shifted their HIV research focus from treatment to cure research. The HIV cure research community often uses the term eradication to describe the science, and talks about eradicating the virus from the body. In public discourse, the term eradication could be conflated with disease eradication at the population level...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Akira Kitamura, Yoshihito Ishida, Hiroshi Kubota, Chan-Gi Pack, Takayuki Homma, Shinya Ito, Kazutaka Araki, Masataka Kinjo, Kazuhiro Nagata
Heat shock protein 47 kDa (HSP47), an ER-resident and collagen-specific molecular chaperone, recognizes collagenous hydrophobic amino acid sequences (Gly-Pro-Hyp) and assists in secretion of correctly folded collagen. Elevated collagen production is correlated with HSP47 expression in various diseases, including fibrosis and keloid. HSP47 knockdown ameliorates liver fibrosis by inhibiting collagen secretion, and inhibition of the interaction of HSP47 with procollagen also prevents collagen secretion. Therefore, a high-throughput system for screening of drugs capable of inhibiting the interaction between HSP47 and collagen would aid the development of novel therapies for fibrotic diseases...
February 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Muthupandian Saravanan, Tsehaye Asmalash, Atsebaha Gebrekidan, Dawit Gebreegziabiher, Tadele Araya, Haftamu Hilekiros, Hamed Barabadi, Kumaresan Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Human Immuno deficiency Virus (HIV) infection has attained pandemic level due to its complexity on both the HIV infection cycle and on the targets for drug delivery. This limits medication and consequently requires prominent and promising drug delivery systems to be invented. Notably, various nanomaterial have been studied to enhance effective delivery of the antiretroviral drugs for HIV prevention, diagnosis and cure. Some of these nanomaterials are liposomes, dendrimers, inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), polymeric micelles, natural and synthetic polymers...
February 8, 2018: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
Pi-Shan Hsu, Jui-An Chen, Yu-Tso Chen, Han-Ming Wu, Szu-Ying Lee, Chung-Liang Lai
The baby boom after World War II, coupled with the rapid advances in medical technology and public health, has led to the current rapid aging in the world's population. Countries in Asia are experiencing a faster rate of aging than most other countries around the world. Taiwan is expected to advance from an aged society to a super-aged society in the next 7~10 years. Consequently, the demand for long-term care is increasing. The focus of healthcare has changed from acute to chronic, from disease-oriented to function-oriented and from cure to care...
February 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Matthew D Gawryla, Eric M Arndt, Miguel Sánchez-Soto, David A Schiraldi
Low density composites of sodium montmorillonite and poly(amide-imide) polymers have been created using an ice templating method, which serves as an alternative to the often-difficult foaming of high temperature/high performance polymers. The starting polymer was received in the poly(amic acid) form which can be cured using heat, into a water insoluble amide-imide copolymer. The resulting materials have densities in the 0.05 g/cm³ range and have excellent mechanical properties. Using a tertiary amine as a processing aid provides for lower viscosity and allows more concentrated polymer solutions to be used...
February 3, 2018: Materials
Maya Beganovic, Megan K Luther, Louis B Rice, Cesar A Arias, Michael J Rybak, Kerry L LaPlante
Enterococci, one of the most common causes of hospital-associated infections, are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. Enterococcus faecalis, the more common and virulent species, cause serious high-inoculum infections, namely infective endocarditis, that are associated with cardiac surgery and mortality rates that remained unchanged for the last 30 years. The best cure for these infections are observed with combination antibiotic therapy; however, optimal treatment has not been fully elucidated...
January 30, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sofie Rutsaert, Kobus Bosman, Wim Trypsteen, Monique Nijhuis, Linos Vandekerckhove
Although antiretroviral therapy is able to suppress HIV replication in infected patients, the virus persists and rebounds when treatment is stopped. In order to find a cure that can eradicate the latent reservoir, one must be able to quantify the persisting virus. Traditionally, HIV persistence studies have used real-time PCR (qPCR) to measure the viral reservoir represented by HIV DNA and RNA. Most recently, digital PCR is gaining popularity as a novel approach to nucleic acid quantification as it allows for absolute target quantification...
January 30, 2018: Retrovirology
Joshua Pankrac, Katja Klein, Paul F McKay, Deborah F L King, Katie Bain, Jason Knapp, Tsigereda Biru, Chanuka N Wijewardhana, Rahul Pawa, David H Canaday, Yong Gao, Sarah Fidler, Robin J Shattock, Eric J Arts, Jamie F S Mann
First identified as the etiological agent behind Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the early 1980s, HIV-1 has continued to spread into a global pandemic and major public health concern. Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy at reducing HIV-1 viremia and preventing the dramatic CD4+ T-cell collapse, infected individuals remain HIV positive for life. Unfortunately, it is increasingly clear that natural immunity is not, and may never be, protective against this pathogen. Therefore, efficacious vaccine interventions, which can either prevent infection or eradicate the latent viral reservoir and effect cure, are a major medical priority...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Eric D Vavra, Yongchao Zeng, Siyang Xiao, George J Hirasaki, Sibani L Biswal
Microfluidic devices are versatile tools for studying transport processes at a microscopic scale. A demand exists for microfluidic devices that are resistant to low molecular-weight oil components, unlike traditional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices. Here, we demonstrate a facile method for making a device with this property, and we use the product of this protocol for examining the pore-scale mechanisms by which foam recovers crude oil. A pattern is first designed using computer-aided design (CAD) software and printed on a transparency with a high-resolution printer...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Valerie Li-Thiao-Te, Florence Uettwiller, Pierre Quartier, Florence Lacaille, Brigitte Bader-Meunier, Valentine Brousse, Mariane de Montalembert
BACKGROUND: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) present a defective activation of the alternate complement pathway that increases the risk of infection and is thought to predispose to autoimmune disease (AID). However, coexisting AID and SCD is rarely reported, suggesting possible underdiagnosis due to an overlapping of the symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: Among 603 patients with SCD followed between 1999 and June 2016, we retrospectively searched for patients with coexisting SCD and AID...
January 17, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Louise S Madsen, Charlotte Handberg
BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Nursing
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