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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646963/spectrum-and-burden-of-dermatophytes-in-children
#1
Leila Ferguson, L Claire Fuller
Tinea capitis is the most important superficial fungal condition in children. It is often unrecognised but the presence of alopecia, scale and lymphadenopathy, especially in inner-city children should prompt investigation. An understanding of changing epidemiology and prevalence of causative organisms is important in deciding appropriate therapy. The use of diagnostic aids including dermoscopy is increasing and is reported to be helpful in identifying subtle signs. Trichophyton tonsurans accounts for the majority of cases in the UK and terbinafine is increasingly advocated as a safe and effective therapy...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645279/diabetes-care-in-a-complex-humanitarian-emergency-setting-a-qualitative-evaluation
#2
Adrianna Murphy, Michel Biringanine, Bayard Roberts, Beverley Stringer, Pablo Perel, Kiran Jobanputra
BACKGROUND: Evidence is urgently needed from complex emergency settings to support efforts to respond to the increasing burden of diabetes mellitus (DM). We conducted a qualitative study of a new model of DM health care (Integrated Diabetic Clinic within an Outpatient Department [IDC-OPD]) implemented by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Mweso Hospital in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We aimed to explore patient and provider perspectives on the model in order to identify factors that may support or impede it...
June 23, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638377/a-novel-bromodomain-inhibitor-reverses-hiv-1-latency-through-specific-binding-with-brd4-to-promote-tat-and-p-tefb-association
#3
Huachao Huang, Shuai Liu, Maxime Jean, Sydney Simpson, He Huang, Mark Merkley, Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Weili Kong, Irene Rodríguez-Sánchez, Xiaofeng Zhang, Hailemichael O Yosief, Hongyu Miao, Jianwen Que, James J Kobie, James Bradner, Netty G Santoso, Wei Zhang, Jian Zhu
While combinatory antiretroviral therapy (cART) can effectively reduce HIV-1 viremia, it cannot eliminate HIV-1 infection. In the presence of cART, viral reservoirs remain latent, impeding the cure of HIV-1/AIDS. Recently, latency-reversing agents (LRAs) have been developed with the intent of purging latent HIV-1, providing an intriguing strategy for the eradication of the residual viral reservoirs. Our earlier studies show that the first-generation, methyl-triazolo bromodomain, and extra-terminal domain inhibitor (BETi), JQ1, facilitates the reversal of HIV-1 latency...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637010/local-application-of-bacteria-improves-safety-of-salmonella-mediated-tumor-therapy-and-retains-advantages-of-systemic-infection
#4
Dino Kocijancic, Sebastian Felgner, Tim Schauer, Michael Frahm, Ulrike Heise, Kurt Zimmermann, Marc Erhardt, Siegfried Weiss
Cancer is a devastating disease and a large socio-economic burden. Novel therapeutic solutions are on the rise, although a cure remains elusive. Application of microorganisms represents an ancient therapeutic strategy, lately revoked and refined via simultaneous attenuation and amelioration of pathogenic properties. Salmonella Typhimurium has prevailed in preclinical development. Yet, using virulent strains for systemic treatment might cause severe side effects. In the present study, we highlight a modified strain based on Salmonella Typhimurium UK-1 expressing hexa-acylated Lipid A...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628526/determinants-of-hiv-1-cd4-independent-brain-adaptation
#5
Madina Shakirzyanova, Xiang-Peng Kong, Cecilia Cheng-Mayer
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 is known to adapt to the local environment in its usage of receptors and it can become CD4 independent in the brain where the receptor is scarce. This adaptation is through amino acid variations, but the patterns of such variation are not yet well understood. Given that infection of long-lived CD4-low and CD4-negative cells in anatomic compartments such as the brain expand cell tropism in vivo and may serve as potential viral reservoirs that pose challenge for HIV eradication, understanding the evolution to CD4-independence and envelope conformation associated with infection in the absence of CD4 will not only broaden our insights into HIV pathogenesis, but may guide functional cure strategies as well...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592534/comprehensive-cross-clade-characterization-of-antibody-mediated-recognition-complement-mediated-lysis-and-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-of-hiv-1-envelope-specific-antibodies-towards-the-eradication-of-the-hiv-1-reservoir
#6
Shariq Mujib, Jun Liu, A K M Nur-Ur Rahman, Jordan A Schwartz, Phil Bonner, Feng Yun Yue, Mario A Ostrowski
Immunotherapy with passive administration of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 envelope-specific antibodies (bnAbs) in the setting of established infection in vivo has yielded mixed results. The contribution of different antibodies toward the direct elimination of infected cells is poorly understood. Here, we determined the ability of twelve well-characterized anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies to recognize and eliminate primary CD4 T cells infected with HIV-1, belonging to clades A, B, C and D, via antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis (ADCML) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), in vitro...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591256/association-of-outcomes-with-comprehension-adherence-and-behavioral-characteristics-of-tuberculosis-patients-using-fixed-dose-combination-therapy-in-contagem-minas-gerais-brazil
#7
Ana Maria Viegas, Silvana Spíndola de Miranda, João Paulo Haddad, Maria das Graças Ceccato, Wânia da Silva Carvalho
The present study aimed to assess the association of outcomes with comprehension, adherence and behavioral characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) patients using fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy in the city of Contagem, MG, Brazil. This study used standardized questionnaires to collect data. Outcomes included cure in 77.2% (64/ 83), noncompliance with treatment in 20.4% (17/ 83), and absence of organ failure or death cases. The rate of adherence to treatment was high (71.1% - 59/ 83), while the level of comprehension of the treatment was insufficient for the majority of patients (72...
June 1, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587377/network-of-microrna-transcription-factors-target-genes-and-host-genes-in-human-mesothelioma
#8
Guanhua Zhang, Zhiwen Xu, Ning Wang
Significant progress has been made into the elucidation of the etiology of mesothelioma at the level of the genes and miRNA. Nevertheless, researchers in this field remain unable to systematically construct a network that demonstrates the specific relationships between genes, miRNA and transcription factors (TFs). TFs are key regulatory elements that control gene expression. In the present study, according to the transcriptional regulatory rule, three regulatory networks were constructed using experimentally validated elements to explore the pathogenesis of mesothelioma...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579286/hiv-aids-infection-the-beginning-of-the-end-for-today-s-greatest-pandemic
#9
F Gutiérrez
Recently, there have been significant advances in the fight against human immunodeficiency virus, which have increased the hopes of definitively halting its dissemination and of starting the decline of the epidemic it has caused. Transmission of the infection was drastically reduced when infected patients were given antiretroviral treatments, which boosted the diffusion of treatments to middle- and low-income countries. Global therapy coverage has doubled in recent years; meanwhile the incidence of new infections has decreased...
June 1, 2017: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569447/marginal-accuracy-and-internal-fit-of-dental-copings-fabricated-by-modern-additive-and-subtractive-digital-technologies
#10
Neha Nelson, Jyothi K S, Kiran Sunny
The margins of copings for crowns and retainers of fixed partial dentures affect the progress of microleakage and dental caries. Failures occur due to altered fit which is also influenced by the method of fabrication. An in-vitro study was conducted to determine among the cast base metal, copy milled zirconia, computer aided designing computer aided machining/manufacturing zirconia and direct metal laser sintered copings which showed best marginal accuracy and internal fit. Forty extracted maxillary premolars were mounted on an acrylic model and reduced occlusally using a milling machine up to a final tooth height of 4 mm from the cementoenamel junction...
March 2017: European Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551769/clinical-course-and-end-of-life-care-in-patients-who-have-died-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#11
Christoph Busemann, Andreas Jülich, Britta Buchhold, Vanessa Schmidt, Laila Schneidewind, Daniel Pink, Christian Andreas Schmidt, Thomas Neumann, William H Krüger
PURPOSE: Allogeneic stem cell transplantation may cure approximately 50% of patients, however, a significant part of the other half might benefit from a high-quality palliative care medicine at the end of life. Somatic, psychic and spiritual needs of these patients may differ from those of patients suffering from incurable solid tumours and are not comprehensively evaluated so far. METHODS: To address this question, data from charts of 123 patients who have died after allogeneic stem cell transplantation were extracted...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530684/tackling-hiv-and-aids-contributions-by-non-human-primate-models
#12
Koen K A Van Rompay
During the past three decades, non-human primate (NHP) models have gained an increasing importance in HIV basic and translational research. In contrast to natural host models, infection of macaques with virulent simian or simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SIV, SHIV) results in a disease that closely resembles HIV infection and AIDS. Although there is no perfect animal model, and each of the available models has its benefits and limitations, carefully designed NHP studies with selection of experimental variables have unraveled important questions of basic pathogenesis and have provided the tools to explore and screen intervention strategies...
May 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530113/refining-current-scientific-priorities-and-identifying-new-scientific-gaps-in-hiv-related-heart-lung-blood-and-sleep-research
#13
Homer L Twigg, Ronald Crystal, Judith Currier, Paul Ridker, Nancy Berliner, Hans-Peter Kiem, George Rutherford, Shimian Zou, Simone Glynn, Renee Wong, Emmanuel Peprah, Michael Engelgau, Tony Creazzo, Sandra Colombini-Hatch, Elisabet Caler
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) AIDS Program's goal is to provide direction and support for research and training programs in areas of HIV-related heart, lung, blood, and sleep (HLBS) diseases. To better define NHLBI current HIV-related scientific priorities and with the goal of identifying new scientific priorities and gaps in HIV-related HLBS research, a wide group of investigators gathered for a scientific NHLBI HIV Working Group on December 14-15, 2015, in Bethesda, MD. The core objectives of the Working Group included discussions on: (1) HIV-related HLBS comorbidities in the antiretroviral era; (2) HIV cure; (3) HIV prevention; and (4) mechanisms to implement new scientific discoveries in an efficient and timely manner so as to have the most impact on people living with HIV...
June 26, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520967/in-vivo-models-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-persistence-and-cure-strategies
#14
Christopher C Nixon, Maud Mavigner, Guido Silvestri, J Victor Garcia
Current HIV therapy is not curative regardless of how soon after infection it is initiated or how long it is administered, and therapy interruption almost invariably results in robust viral rebound. Human immunodeficiency virus persistence is therefore the major obstacle to a cure for AIDS. The testing and implementation of novel yet unproven approaches to HIV eradication that could compromise the health status of HIV-infected individuals might not be ethically warranted. Therefore, adequate in vitro and in vivo evidence of efficacy is needed to facilitate the clinical implementation of promising strategies for an HIV cure...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491286/unwinding-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Vasil Peev, Eunsil Hahm, Jochen Reiser
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) represents the most common primary glomerular disease responsible for the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States (US). The disease progresses from podocyte injury to chronic kidney disease (CKD), ultimately leading to total nephron degeneration. Extensive basic science research has been conducted to unwind the mechanisms of FSGS and, with those insights, understand major contributors of CKD in general. As a result, several putative molecules and pathways have been studied, all implicated in the disease; some serve, in addition, as early biomarkers...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482505/sirna-nanoparticle-conjugate-in-gene-silencing-a-future-cure-to-deadly-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Rituparna Acharya, Suman Saha, Sayantan Ray, Sugata Hazra, Manoj K Mitra, Jui Chakraborty
Alzheimers, cancer, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are considered to be some of the most deadly diseases of the 21st century on account of their severity and rapid increase in the number of affected population and with scarce cases of recovery, they still remain a troubling paradox. Specifically, with millions of cancer patients worldwide and lack of proper cure for the same, understanding the deadly disease at the molecular level and planning a therapeutic strategy in the same line is the need of the hour...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473734/long-term-survival-of-aids-patients-treated-with-only-traditional-chinese-medicine
#17
Yifei Wang, Fujun Jin, Qiaoli Wang, Zucai Suo
Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM) has been used in Chinese society for more than 5,000 years to treat diseases from inflammation to cancer. Here, we report the case of nine living AIDS patients in the age range of 51 to 67 who were treated with either a unique formula of TCM alone from 2001 to 2009 or the TCM from 2001 to 2006 and then switched to occasional antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly, the viral loads of eight patients were at undetectable levels on June 28, 2016, while the remaining patient had a low viral load of 29 copies/ml...
April 1, 2017: Alternative & Complementary Therapies: a New Bimonthly Publication for Health Care Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471431/current-application-of-crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-to-eradication-of-hiv-aids
#18
REVIEW
Z Huang, A Tomitaka, A Raymond, M Nair
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains a major health hazard despite significant advances in prevention and treatment of HIV infection. The major reason for the persistence of HIV/AIDS is the inability of existing treatments to clear or eradicate the multiple HIV reservoirs that exist in the human body. To suppress the virus replication and rebound, HIV/AIDS patients must take life-long antiviral medications. The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) system is an emerging gene-editing technique with the potential to eliminate or disrupt HIV-integrated genomes or HIV-infected cells from multiple HIV reservoirs, which could result in the complete cure of HIV/AIDS...
May 4, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465838/a-critical-review-of-the-evidence-concerning-the-hiv-latency-reversing-effect-of-disulfiram-the-possible-explanations-for-its-inability-to-reduce-the-size-of-the-latent-reservoir-in-vivo-and-the-caveats-associated-with-its-use-in-practice
#19
REVIEW
Harry D J Knights
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) effectively suppresses the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), improves immune function, and decreases the morbidity of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, it is unable to eradicate the virus because it does not eliminate latently infected cells. The latent reservoir poses the major barrier to an HIV-1 cure. The "shock and kill" strategy aims to reactivate the virus and destroy latently infected cells. Many latency reversing agents (LRAs) reactivate HIV in vitro, but the absence of damaging side-effects and efficacy in vivo make disulfiram particularly promising...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464317/joint-analysis-of-longitudinal-and-survival-aids-data-with-a-spatial-fraction-of-long-term-survivors-a-bayesian-approach
#20
Rui Martins, Giovani L Silva, Valeska Andreozzi
A typical survival analysis with time-dependent covariates usually does not take into account the possible random fluctuations or the contamination by measurement errors of the variables. Ignoring these sources of randomness may cause bias in the estimates of the model parameters. One possible way for overcoming that limitation is to consider a longitudinal model for the time-varying covariates jointly with a survival model for the time to the event of interest, thereby taking advantage of the complementary information flowing between these two-model outcomes...
May 2, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
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