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Selective decontamination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884531/using-groundwater-age-distributions-to-understand-changes-in-methyl-tert-butyl-ether-mtbe-concentrations-in-ambient-groundwater-northeastern-united-states
#1
Bruce D Lindsey, Joseph D Ayotte, Bryant C Jurgens, Leslie A Desimone
Temporal changes in methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) concentrations in groundwater were evaluated in the northeastern United States, an area of the nation with widespread low-level detections of MtBE based on a national survey of wells selected to represent ambient conditions. MtBE use in the U.S. peaked in 1999 and was largely discontinued by 2007. Six well networks, each representing specific areas and well types (monitoring or supply wells), were each sampled at 10year intervals between 1996 and 2012. Concentrations were decreasing or unchanged in most wells as of 2012, with the exception of a small number of wells where concentrations continue to increase...
November 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864583/removal-and-biodegradation-of-phenanthrene-fluoranthene-and-pyrene-by-the-marine-algae-rhodomonas-baltica-enriched-from-north-atlantic-coasts
#2
Andrés H Arias, Anissa Souissi, Olivier Glippa, Marion Roussin, David Dumoulin, Sopheak Net, Baghdad Ouddane, Sami Souissi
This study is focused on the removal, accumulation and degradation of three environmental ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA) and pyrene (PYR), by the marine alga Rhodomonas baltica enriched from the English Channel. After separation, purification and culture in several phases, R. baltica was exposed to PAH concentrations that are frequently encountered in the field in several anthropized environments. The results showed that R. baltica can grow under PAH stress, efficiently remove up to 70% of these compounds from the medium by 216 h of culture and selectively bioaccumulate PAHs by their hydrophobicity...
November 19, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863580/hospital-decontamination-what-nurses-need-to-know
#3
REVIEW
Brent Cox
Incidents involving the release of hazardous materials challenge medical providers with safely, quickly, and correctly removing contaminants from the victim. While doing so, the safety of the first receiver, current patients, bystanders, as well as the victim all have to be considered. Key challenges with hospital decontamination include, but are not limited to, selection of team members, training protocols, employee turnover, and funding. Best practices, based on the available literature and evidence, include administration buy-in and support; strong policy and procedure documentation; equipment maintenance programs; and team member recruitment, retention, and education...
December 2016: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858411/increasing-intensity-of-selective-digestive-decontamination-sdd-dosing-does-not-result-in-improved-clinical-outcomes
#4
Johanna M Pieterse, Dinis Dos Reis Miranda, Wim Rietdijk, Jan Bakker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845441/cellulose-nanofiber-backboned-prussian-blue-nanoparticles-as-powerful-adsorbents-for-the-selective-elimination-of-radioactive-cesium
#5
Adavan Kiliyankil Vipin, Bunshi Fugetsu, Ichiro Sakata, Akira Isogai, Morinobu Endo, Mingda Li, Mildred S Dresselhaus
On 11 March 2011, the day of the unforgettable disaster of the 9 magnitude Tohoku earthquake and quickly followed by the devastating Tsunami, a damageable amount of radionuclides had dispersed from the Fukushima Daiichi's damaged nuclear reactors. Decontamination of the dispersed radionuclides from seawater and soil, due to the huge amounts of coexisting ions with competitive functionalities, has been the topmost difficulty. Ferric hexacyanoferrate, also known as Prussian blue (PB), has been the most powerful material for selectively trapping the radioactive cesium ions; its high tendency to form stable colloids in water, however, has made PB to be impossible for the open-field radioactive cesium decontamination applications...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837508/prerequisites-for-control-of-contamination-in-fungal-diagnosis
#6
Stefan Czurda, Thomas Lion
Nucleic acid amplification methods facilitate rapid and sensitive detection of clinically relevant fungal pathogens, and can be employed using a variety of patient specimens. However, contamination from various exogenous sources constitutes a serious threat to the validity of amplification-based fungal assays. In this chapter, common origins of fungal contaminants that compromise molecular fungal testing are described, and measures for preventing contamination are proposed. Detailed guidelines for sample handling, reagent selection, contamination screening, and decontamination procedures are provided...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837501/fungal-grade-reagents-and-materials-for-molecular-analysis
#7
Michael G Lorenz, Michael Lustig, Marina Linow
Fungal DNA is present at very low loads in clinical specimens. Molecular detection by amplification assays generally is a challenge because of a potentially multiple input of contaminating DNA from exogenous sources. Besides airborne, handling and cross-contamination, materials and reagents used in the molecular laboratory can contain microbial DNA which is a long underestimated potential source of false positive results. In this contribution decontamination procedures of materials and reagents and the selection of certified microbial DNA-free components for sample collection, DNA extraction, and PCR amplification are discussed with respect to the aim of building up a reliable molecular system for the diagnosis of fungal organisms at the limit of detection...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833754/potential-of-polyaniline-modified-clay-nanocomposite-as-a-selective-decontamination-adsorbent-for-pb-ii-ions-from-contaminated-waters-kinetics-and-thermodynamic-study
#8
Somayeh Piri, Zahra Alikhani Zanjani, Farideh Piri, Abbasali Zamani, Mohamadreza Yaftian, Mehdi Davari
BACKGROUND: Nowadays significant attention is to nanocomposite compounds in water cleaning. In this article the synthesis and characterization of conductive polyaniline/clay (PANI/clay) as a hybrid nanocomposite with extended chain conformation and its application for water purification are presented. METHODS: Clay samples were obtained from the central plain of Abhar region, Abhar, Zanjan Province, Iran. Clay was dried and sieved before used as adsorbent. The conductive polyaniline was inflicted into the layers of clay to fabricate a hybrid material...
2016: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823781/native-herbaceous-plant-species-with-potential-use-in-phytoremediation-of-heavy-metals-spotlight-on-wetlands-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Mayerly Alexandra Oyuela Leguizamo, Wilmar Darío Fernández Gómez, Martha Cecilia Gutiérrez Sarmiento
Soil, air and water pollution caused by the mobility and solubility of heavy metals significantly damages the environment, human health, plants and animals. One common in situ method used for the decontamination of heavy metals is phytoremediation. This usually involves the use of exotic species. However, these species may exhibit invasive behavior, thereby, affect the environmental and ecological dynamics of the ecosystem into which they are introduced. This paper focuses on some native herbaceous plant species reported on the wetlands of Bogota, Colombia, with potential use in phytoremediation of heavy metals...
November 4, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811902/guidelines-for-the-selection-use-and-maintenance-of-led-light-curing-units-part-ii
#10
A C Shortall, R B Price, L MacKenzie, F J T Burke
This paper is the second in a two-part series on the topic of LED light-curing units (LCUs). This part discusses LCU selection, cross infection and decontamination, maintenance, the blue-light hazard, and some possible future developments for LCUs. The article focusses on the practical aspects of the subject from the clinician's perspective. Scientific aspects are dealt with in the cited literature.
November 4, 2016: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774337/a-new-proof-of-concept-in-bacterial-reduction-antimicrobial-action-of-violet-blue-light-405%C3%A2-nm-in-ex-vivo-stored-plasma
#11
Michelle Maclean, John G Anderson, Scott J MacGregor, Tracy White, Chintamani D Atreya
Bacterial contamination of injectable stored biological fluids such as blood plasma and platelet concentrates preserved in plasma at room temperature is a major health risk. Current pathogen reduction technologies (PRT) rely on the use of chemicals and/or ultraviolet light, which affects product quality and can be associated with adverse events in recipients. 405 nm violet-blue light is antibacterial without the use of photosensitizers and can be applied at levels safe for human exposure, making it of potential interest for decontamination of biological fluids such as plasma...
2016: Journal of Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755474/selective-digestive-decontamination-attenuates-organ-dysfunction-in-critically-ill-burn-patients
#12
Lucía López-Rodríguez, Miguel A de la Cal, Paloma García-Hierro, Raquel Herrero, Judith Martins, Hendrick K F van Saene, José A Lorente
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) attenuates organ dysfunction in critically ill burn patients. BACKGROUND: The effect of SDD on the development and progression of organ dysfunction, as an important determinant of mortality in burned patients, is still unknown. We asked whether organ dysfunction is mitigated by treatment with SDD. METHODS: Patients with burns >20% of total body surface or suspected inhalation injury from a randomized placebo-controlled trial were analyzed to determine the relationship between treatment received (placebo or SDD) and the severity of organ dysfunction as measured by the area under the curve of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (and its individual components) from day 1 to day 7 of admission...
November 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750163/capillary-microextraction-a-new-method-for-sampling-methamphetamine-vapour
#13
M V Nair, G M Miskelly
Clandestine laboratories pose a serious health risk to first responders, investigators, decontamination companies, and the public who may be inadvertently exposed to methamphetamine and other chemicals used in its manufacture. Therefore there is an urgent need for reliable methods to detect and measure methamphetamine at such sites. The most common method for determining methamphetamine contamination at former clandestine laboratory sites is selected surface wipe sampling, followed by analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
October 3, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711122/prevalence-of-drug-resistance-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-patients-seen-in-coast-provincial-general-hospital-mombasa-kenya
#14
Ida Pam Ombura, Noel Onyango, Susan Odera, Florence Mutua, Joshua Nyagol
BACKGROUND: Although prevention and control of spread of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains is a global challenge, there is paucity of data on the prevalence of DR-TB in patients diagnosed with TB in referral hospitals in Kenya. The present study assessed patients' characteristics and prevalence of drug resistant TB in sputa smear positive TB patients presenting to Coast Provincial General Hospital (CPGH) in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: Drug resistance was evaluated in 258 randomly selected sputa smear TB positive cases between the periods of November 2011 to February 2012 at the CPGH-Mombasa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704214/management-of-bone-fragments-in-nonmissile-compound-depressed-skull-fractures
#15
Mohamed AbdelRahman AbdelFatah
BACKGROUND: There is no settled standard of care or even a consensus between neurosurgeons on the replacement of bone fragments in compound depressed skull fractures (CDSF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cohort study retrospectively reviewed the patients with nonmissile CDSF who were admitted to our university hospitals from January 2010 to January 2015. Patients who were managed nonoperatively, polytrauma, comatose patients, and CDSF over the air sinuses were excluded from this study...
October 4, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696424/yeast-and-bacteria-from-ensiled-high-moisture-maize-grains-as-potential-mitigation-agents-of-fumonisin-b1
#16
Ccori Martinez Tuppia, Vessela Atanasova-Penichon, Sylvain Chéreau, Nathalie Ferrer, Gisèle Marchegay, Jean-Michel Savoie, Florence Richard-Forget
BACKGROUND: Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium species and a very common contaminant of maize-based food and feed throughout the world. The selection and use of FB1-degrading microorganisms appears as a promising alternative to cope with the problem of toxicity towards humans and livestock. High moisture maize grain silage which is based on natural maize fermentation could be an interesting reservoir of such microorganisms. RESULTS: Using an in vitro simulated silage model with FB1 naturally contaminated grains, we demonstrated a significant raw decrease in FB1 during ensiling process ascribed to biodegradation mechanisms...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694891/statistical-analysis-of-main-and-interaction-effects-on-cu-ii-and-cr-vi-decontamination-by-nitrogen-doped-magnetic-graphene-oxide
#17
Xinjiang Hu, Hui Wang, Yunguo Liu
A nitrogen-doped magnetic graphene oxide (NMGO) was synthesized and applied as an adsorbent to remove Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions. The individual and combined effects of various factors (A: pH, B: temperature, C: initial concentration of metal ions, D: CaCl2, and E: humic acid [HA]) on the adsorption were analyzed by a 2(5-1) fractional factorial design (FFD). The results from this study indicated that the NMGO had higher adsorption capacities for Cu(II) ions than for Cr(VI) ions under most conditions, and the five selected variables affected the two adsorption processes to different extents...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693206/randomized-evidence-for-reduction-of-perioperative-mortality-an-updated-consensus-process
#18
Giovanni Landoni, Antonio Pisano, Vladimir Lomivorotov, Gabriele Alvaro, Ludhmila Hajjar, Gianluca Paternoster, Caetano Nigro Neto, Nicola Latronico, Evgeny Fominskiy, Laura Pasin, Gabriele Finco, Rosetta Lobreglio, Maria Luisa Azzolini, Giuseppe Buscaglia, Alberto Castella, Marco Comis, Adele Conte, Massimiliano Conte, Francesco Corradi, Erika Dal Checco, Giovanni De Vuono, Marco Ganzaroli, Eugenio Garofalo, Gordana Gazivoda, Rosalba Lembo, Daniele Marianello, Martina Baiardo Redaelli, Fabrizio Monaco, Valentina Tarzia, Marta Mucchetti, Alessandro Belletti, Paolo Mura, Mario Musu, Giovanni Pala, Massimiliano Paltenghi, Vadim Pasyuga, Desiderio Piras, Claudio Riefolo, Agostino Roasio, Laura Ruggeri, Francesco Santini, Andrea Székely, Luigi Verniero, Antonella Vezzani, Alberto Zangrillo, Rinaldo Bellomo
OBJECTIVE: Of the 230 million patients undergoing major surgical procedures every year, more than 1 million will die within 30 days. Thus, any nonsurgical interventions that help reduce perioperative mortality might save thousands of lives. The authors have updated a previous consensus process to identify all the nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, that may help reduce perioperative mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667984/functional-metagenomics-of-spacecraft-assembly-cleanrooms-presence-of-virulence-factors-associated-with-human-pathogens
#19
Mina Bashir, Mahjabeen Ahmed, Thomas Weinmaier, Doina Ciobanu, Natalia Ivanova, Thomas R Pieber, Parag A Vaishampayan
Strict planetary protection practices are implemented during spacecraft assembly to prevent inadvertent transfer of earth microorganisms to other planetary bodies. Therefore, spacecraft are assembled in cleanrooms, which undergo strict cleaning and decontamination procedures to reduce total microbial bioburden. We wanted to evaluate if these practices selectively favor survival and growth of hardy microorganisms, such as pathogens. Three geographically distinct cleanrooms were sampled during the assembly of three NASA spacecraft: The Lockheed Martin Aeronautics' Multiple Testing Facility during DAWN, the Kennedy Space Center's Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (KSC-PHSF) during Phoenix, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Spacecraft Assembly Facility during Mars Science Laboratory...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639209/decontamination-of-spent-ion-exchangers-contaminated-with-cesium-radionuclides-using-resorcinol-formaldehyde-resins
#20
Marina Palamarchuk, Andrey Egorin, Eduard Tokar, Mikhail Tutov, Dmitry Marinin, Valentin Avramenko
The origin of the emergence of radioactive contamination not removable in the process of acid-base regeneration of ion-exchange resins used in treatment of technological media and liquid radioactive waste streams has been determined. It has been shown that a majority of cesium radionuclides not removable by regeneration are bound to inorganic deposits on the surface and inside the ion-exchange resin beads. The nature of the above inorganic inclusions has been investigated by means of the methods of electron microscopy, IR spectrometry and X-ray diffraction...
September 4, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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