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Selective decontamination

Karl Waked, Marc Schepens
During open thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair (OTAAAR), there is an inevitable organ ischemic period that occurs when the abdominal arteries are being reattached to the aortic graft. Despite various protective techniques, the incidence of renal and visceral complications remains substantial. This state-of-the-art review gives an overview of the current and most evidence-based organ protection methods during OTAAAR, based on the most recent publications and personal experience. An electronic search was performed in four medical databases, using the following MeSH terms: thoracoabdominal aneurysm, TAAAR, visceral protection, renal protection, kidney, perfusion, and intestines...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Jialiang Liang, Fuyang Liu, Mian Li, Wen Liu, Meiping Tong
Magnetic Fe3 O4 @BiOI@AgI (FBA) spheres were synthesized through a multi-step process. The fabricated photocatalysts were characterized by different techniques. To testify the visible light driven photocatalytic activity of FBA, Rhodamine B and Bisphenol A were chosen as model common and emerging organic contaminants, respectively. While, gram-negative strain Escherichia coli was selected as model waterborne bacteria. The results showed that under visible light irradiation, FBA contained strong photocatalytic degradation capacity towards both RhB and BPA...
March 10, 2018: Water Research
Sidney Júlio de Faria E Sousa, Stella Barretto de Faria E Sousa
Eye banks use sterile procedures to manipulate the eye, antiseptic measures for ocular surface decontamination, and rigorous criteria for donor selection to minimize the possibility of disease transmission due to corneal grafting. Donor selection focuses on analysis of medical records and specific post-mortem serological tests. To guide and standardize procedures, eye bank associations and government agencies provide lists of absolute and relative contraindications for use of the tissue based on donor health history...
January 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
Craig A Schuring, Daniel L Dodge, Tyler J Whitcomb, Geoffrey C Wall, Hayden L Smith, Greg A Hicklin
Toxic exposures with serious outcomes have increased over the last decade. Limited data exists on the pattern and outcomes of overdose-exposure patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the causes, treatments, and outcomes of toxic exposures in a mid-sized Midwestern health system. The secondary objective was to report cumulative economic costs associated with these patients. Data were obtained from medical records of patients 18 years or older with a diagnosis code of overdose admitted to the ICU at 2 teaching hospitals between August 1, 2012, and July 31, 2014...
March 2018: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
Silvia Valero, Eduardo López-Briz, Nieves Vila, Antonio Solana, Mar Melero, Jose Luis Poveda
Assuring healthcare workers security on Hazardous Drugs (HD) compounding is critical in healthcare settings. Our study aims to demonstrate that the use of a Close System drug Transfer Device (CSTD) PhaSeal™ added to a decontamination process reduces antiblastic surface contamination levels in the Compounding Area (CA) of our Pharmacy Department (PD). We selected cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil and iphosphamide to be evaluated. Testing was carried out with a wipe kit and quantified by an independent laboratory...
March 3, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Birhane Berhe, Gessessew Bugssa, Sena Bayisa, Megbaru Alemu
BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoa are parasites transmitted by consumption of contaminated water and food and mainly affect children and elder people and cause considerable health problems. They are the leading causes of outpatient morbidity due to diarrhea in the developing countries. So, assessing water and food source of diarrheal patients and identifying the main associated factors for transmission of protozoan parasitic infections help for effective control measures of protozoan infections...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Anne F Voor In 't Holt, Juliëtte A Severin, Margot B H Hagenaars, Inge de Goeij, Diederik Gommers, Margreet C Vos
Background: Emergence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is of global concern. We aimed to identify epidemiological relationships, the most common way of transmission, and risk factors for presence of Verona Integron-encoded Metallo-β-lactamase (VIM)-positive P. aeruginosa (VIM-PA). Methods: We conducted a network analysis and matched case-control studies (1:2:2). Controls were hospital-based and matched with cases for ward, day of admission (control group 1 and 2) and time between admission and the identification of VIM-PA (control group 1)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Hideki Araoka, Masaru Baba, Chikako Okada, Muneyoshi Kimura, Tomoaki Sato, Yutaka Yatomi, Kyoji Moriya, Akiko Yoneyama
Background: Previous studies suggest that Helicobacter cinaedi can cause recurrent bacteremia. This study aimed to elucidate the risk factors for recurrent H. cinaedi bacteremia and explore the efficacy of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) as a preventive measure. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients with H. cinaedi bacteremia between March 2009 and December 2016 at two Japanese hospitals. Results: We identified 168 patients with H...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Constantin Streche, Diana Mariana Cocârţă, Irina-Aura Istrate, Adrian Alexandru Badea
Currently, there are different remediation technologies for contaminated soils, but the selection of the best technology must be not only the treatment efficiency but also the energy consumption (costs) during its application. This paper is focused on assessing energy consumption related to the electrochemical treatment of polluted soil with petroleum hydrocarbons. In the framework of a research project, two types of experiments were conducted using soil that was artificially contaminated with diesel fuel at the same level of contamination...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maria Valentina Dinu, Ionel Adrian Dinu, Maria Marinela Lazar, Ecaterina Stela Dragan
An original strategy is proposed here to design chitosan-based ion-imprinted cryo-composites (II-CCs) with pre-organized recognition sites and tailored porous structure by combining ion-imprinting and ice-templating techniques. The cryo-composites showed a tube-like porous morphology with interconnected parallel micro-channels, the distance between the channel walls being around 15 μm. Both the entrapment of a natural zeolite and the presence of carboxylate groups, generated by partial hydrolysis of amide moieties, led to II-CCs with controlled swelling ratios (25-40 g/g, depending on pH) and enhanced overall chelating efficiency (260 mg Cu2+ /g composite)...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Mayumi Kako, Karen Hammad, Satoko Mitani, Paul Arbon
OBJECTIVES: This review was conducted to explore the literature to determine the availability, content, and evaluation of existing chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) education programs for health professionals. METHODS: An integrative review of the international literature describing disaster education for CBRN (2004-2016) was conducted. The following relevant databases were searched: Proquest, Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Journals @ OVID, Google Scholar, Medline, and Ichuschi ver...
February 19, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Emile S Massima Mouele, Olanrewaju Ojo Fatoba, Omotola Babajide, Kassim O Badmus, Leslie F Petrik
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) particularly non-thermal plasmas based on electrical discharges have been widely investigated for water and wastewater treatment. Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) generate large amounts of selective and non-selective reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as ozone, hydrogen peroxide, atomic oxygen, superoxide molecular anions and hydroxyl radicals, having been proved to be efficient for water decontamination among various forms of electrical discharge systems. The detection and quantification methods of these oxygen species in non-thermal plasmas have been reviewed...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
F Carniato, C Bisio, C Evangelisti, R Psaro, V Dal Santo, D Costenaro, L Marchese, M Guidotti
A class of heterogeneous catalysts based on commercial bentonite from natural origin, containing at least 80 wt% of montmorillonite clay, was designed to transform selectively and under mild conditions toxic organosulfur and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents into non-noxious products with a reduced impact on health and environment. The bentonite from the natural origin was modified by introducing iron species and acid sites in the interlayer space, aiming to obtain a sorbent with strong catalytic oxidising and hydrolytic properties...
February 14, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jie Li, Xuede Li, Ahmed Alsaedi, Tasawar Hayat, Changlun Chen
Innovative solid-phase adsorbent is needed urgently for highly efficient extraction of mercury (Hg(II)) from aqueous solution. Herein, highly porous inorganic materials, including ZrOx, ZrOxyPhos and ZrSulf, were obtained from topotactic transformations of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) via a facile ligand extraction process, which preserved the original MOF morphology and introduced useful functionalities. ZrOx and ZrOxyPhos exhibited high adsorption efficiency for Hg(II). And ZrSulf showed fastest adsorption kinetics (1...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
E C Deasy, E M Moloney, M A Boyle, J S Swan, D A Geoghegan, G I Brennan, T E Fleming, M J O'Donnell, D C Coleman
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of infection associated with microbial biofilm in hospital hand washbasin U-bends are increasingly being reported. In a previous study the efficacy of a prototype automated U-bend decontamination method was demonstrated for a single non-hospital pattern washbasin. It used two electrochemically-activated solutions generated from brine; a catholyte with detergent properties and anolyte with disinfectant properties. AIM: To develop and test a large-scale automated ECA-treatment system to simultaneously decontaminate 10 hospital pattern washbasin U-bends in a busy hospital clinic...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Zhen-Wei Peng, Sonja Rothweiler, Guangyan Wei, Naoki Ikenaga, Susan B Liu, Deanna Y Sverdlov, Kahini A Vaid, Maria Serena Longhi, Ming Kuang, Simon C Robson, Yury V Popov
The pathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and the mechanistic link to inflammatory bowel disease remain ill-defined. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (ENTPD1)/clusters of differentiation (CD) 39, the dominant purinergic ecto-enzyme, modulates intestinal inflammation. Here, we have explored the role of CD39 in biliary injury and fibrosis. The impact of CD39 deletion on disease severity was studied in multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mdr2)-/- and 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine mouse models of sclerosing cholangitis and biliary fibrosis...
November 2017: Hepatology Communications
Yaxing Wang, Huangjie Lu, Xing Dai, Tao Duan, Xiaojing Bai, Yawen Cai, Xuemiao Yin, Lanhua Chen, Juan Diwu, Shiyu Du, Ruhong Zhou, Zhifang Chai, Thomas E Albrecht-Schmitt, Ning Liu, Shuao Wang
The coexistence of radioactive contaminants (e.g., thorium, uranium, and their daughters) in rare earth minerals introduces significant environmental, economic, and technological hurdles in modern rare earth production. Efficient, low cost, and green decontamination strategies are therefore desired to ameliorate this problem. We report here a single-step and quantitative decontamination strategy of thorium from rare earths based on a unique periodic trend in the formation of crystalline selenite compounds across the lanthanide series, where Ce(III) is fully oxidized in situ to Ce(IV)...
February 2, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Velu Nair, D N Karan, C S Makhani
Management of victim of radiation injury poses a wide spectrum of challenges to the health care provider starting with the evaluation of the damage, the kind of hospitalization and treatment and the regular monitoring of the patient. Undesirable clinical outcomes are probable if prodromal stage evolves rapidly and is severe. Critical systems like neurovascular, gastrointestinal, haematopoietic and cutaneous are afflicted in Acute Radiation Syndrome. Three main elements which are essential for assessment of prognosis and selection of treatment are vomiting onset time, kinetics of depletion of lymphocyte, and chromosome abnormalities...
October 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Raffaela Bressan, Anna Knezevich, Jacopo Monticelli, Floriana Campanile, Marina Busetti, Maria Santagati, Lucilla Dolzani, Annalisa Milan, Dafne Bongiorno, Manuela Di Santolo, Enrico A Tonin, Stefania Stefani, Roberto Luzzati, Cristina Lagatolla
An alarming increase of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates was detected in an Italian referral hospital subjected to policies of infection control validated by the Joint Commission International. Analysis of the population structure of 122 consecutive, nonreplicate VREfm isolates collected over an 18-month period identified a single major clone that spread around the whole hospital, rapidly establishing an endemic state. It belonged to sequence type (ST) 17 and showed a highly multidrug-resistant phenotype, being resistant to all antimicrobial classes for the carriage of several resistance determinants...
January 26, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Di Mao, Xie Khim Watson Chung, Tomoko Andoh-Noda, Ying Qin, Shin-Ichi Sato, Yasushi Takemoto, Wado Akamatsu, Hideyuki Okano, Motonari Uesugi
This report describes the design and evaluation of phosphorylated 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38-P), which selectively eliminates tumor-forming proliferative stem cells, including human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and neural stem cells, from iPSC-derived neural cell mixtures. Results of the present study demonstrate that simple phosphorylation of an anticancer drug can provide a safe, cost-effective, and chemically-defined tool for decontaminating hiPSC-derived neuron.
January 19, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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