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Selective decontamination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056807/evaluating-decontamination-protocols-for-the-isolation-of-mycobacterium-ulcerans-from-swabs
#1
Enid Owusu, Mercy J Newman, Amos Akumwena, Elizabeth Bannerman, Gerd Pluschke
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans) is the causative agent of Buruli Ulcer (BU) disease. In order to inhibit the growth of the microbial contaminants during culture of M. ulcerans, it is necessary to decontaminate BU samples with effective chemical agents. This study aimed at investigating some selected chemicals as potential decontamination agents for the isolation of M. ulcerans from swabs. RESULTS: Povidone iodine at 0.5 and 1% exhibited the lowest contamination and recovery rate for microbial contaminants and M...
January 5, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043568/isolation-and-molecular-identification-of-mycobacterium-from-commercially-available-pasteurized-milk-and-raw-milk-samples-collected-from-two-infected-cattle-farms-in-alborz-province-iran
#2
Mohsen Eftekhari, Nader Mosavari
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an etiological agent of Johne's disease in ruminant including cattle, sheep and goats. This disease is considered an economically important disease in cattle. Animals with paratuberculosis shed viable MAP, particularly in their milk and feces. MAP may be involved in the development of Crohn's disease in humans through the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Common methods of pasteurization are not enough to kill all MAP present in the milk and the bacterium has been isolated from raw milk, pasteurized milk and cheese samples...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002764/identify-biosorption-effects-of-thiobacillus-towards-perfluorooctanoic-acid-pfoa-pilot-study-from-field-to-laboratory
#3
Lei Li, Tieyu Wang, Yajun Sun, Pei Wang, Baninla Yvette, Jing Meng, Qifeng Li, Yunqiao Zhou
The concentration of Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and the bacterial community composition along the Xiaoqing River were explored with HPLC-MS/MS and Illumina high-throughput sequencing in present study. The results showed that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAAs in all sediment samples, and high level of PFOA could lead to an evident increase in the abundance of Thiobacillus. Thiobacillus was identified with the survival ability in high concentrations of PFOA accordingly. Therefore, Thiobacillus thioparus and Thiobacillus denitrificans were selected as receptors to design indoor biosorption experiment...
December 13, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000074/enhancement-of-cd-phytoextraction-by-hyperaccumulator-sedum-alfredii-using-electrical-field-and-organic-amendments
#4
Wendan Xiao, Dan Li, Xuezhu Ye, Haizhou Xu, Guihua Yao, Jingwen Wang, Qi Zhang, Jing Hu, Na Gao
The combined use of organic amendment-assisted phytoextraction and electrokinetic remediation to decontaminate Cd-polluted soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. The plant species selected was the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. Prior to the pot experiment, the loamy soil was treated with 15 g kg(-1) of pig manure compost, 10 g kg(-1) of humic acid, or 5 mmol kg(-1) of EDTA, and untreated soil without application of any amendment was the control. Two conditions were applied to each treatment: no voltage (without an electrical field) and a direct current (DC) electrical field (1 V cm(-1) with switching polarity every day)...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991646/materials-for-retrograde-filling-in-root-canal-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Xiangyu Ma, Chunjie Li, Liuhe Jia, Yan Wang, Wenwen Liu, Xuedong Zhou, Trevor M Johnson, Dingming Huang
BACKGROUND: Root canal therapy is a sequence of treatments involving root canal cleaning, shaping, decontamination and obturation. It is conventionally performed through a hole drilled into the crown of the affected tooth, namely orthograde root canal therapy. For teeth that cannot be treated with orthograde root canal therapy, or for which it has failed, retrograde root filling, which seals the root canal from the root apex, is a good alternative. Many materials, such as amalgam, zinc oxide eugenol and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), are generally used...
December 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966481/engineering-and-introduction-of-de-novo-disulphide-bridges-in-organophosphorus-hydrolase-enzyme-for-thermostability-improvement
#6
Gholamreza Farnoosh, Khosro Khajeh, Ali Mohammad Latifi, Hossein Aghamollaei
The organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) has been used to degrade organophosphorus chemicals, as one of the most frequently used decontamination methods. Under chemical and thermal denaturing conditions, the enzyme has been shown to unfold. To utilize this enzyme in various applications, the thermal stability is of importance. The engineering of de novo disulphide bridges has been explored as a means to increase the thermal stability of enzymes in the rational method of protein engineering. In this study, Disulphide by Design software, homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations were used to select appropriate amino acid pairs for the introduction of disulphide bridge to improve protein thermostability...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931875/efficacy-of-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-in-the-disinfection-of-acrylic-denture-surfaces-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Sergio Varela Kellesarian, Tariq Abduljabbar, Fahim Vohra, Hans Malmstrom, Michael Yunker, Tammy Varela Kellesarian, Georgios E Romanos, Fawad Javed
BACKGROUND: the aim of the present systematic review was to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the disinfection of acrylic denture surfaces. METHODS: in order to address the focused question: "Is aPDT more effective in decontaminating denture surfaces compared with traditional denture-disinfection techniques?" an electronic search without time or language restrictions was conducted up to November 2016 in indexed databases using different key words...
December 5, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916357/triclosan-sutures-for-surgical-site-infection-in-colorectal-cancer
#8
Kanefumi Yamashita, Shinsuke Takeno, Seiichiro Hoshino, Hironari Shiwaku, Naoya Aisu, Yoichiro Yoshida, Syu Tanimura, Yuichi Yamashita
BACKGROUND: Among all procedures, surgical site infections (SSIs) in colorectal surgery continue to have the highest rate, accounting for 5%-45%. To prevent the bacterial colonization of suture material, which disables local mechanisms of wound decontamination, triclosan-coated sutures were developed. We assessed the effectiveness of triclosan-coated sutures used for skin closure on the rate of SSIs in colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Until August 2012, we used conventional methods for skin closure in colorectal cancer surgery at the Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Fukuoka University Faculty of Medicine...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884531/using-groundwater-age-distributions-to-understand-changes-in-methyl-tert-butyl-ether-mtbe-concentrations-in-ambient-groundwater-northeastern-united-states
#9
Bruce D Lindsey, Joseph D Ayotte, Bryant C Jurgens, Leslie A Desimone
Temporal changes in methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) concentrations in groundwater were evaluated in the northeastern United States, an area of the nation with widespread low-level detections of MtBE based on a national survey of wells selected to represent ambient conditions. MtBE use in the U.S. peaked in 1999 and was largely discontinued by 2007. Six well networks, each representing specific areas and well types (monitoring or supply wells), were each sampled at 10year intervals between 1996 and 2012. Concentrations were decreasing or unchanged in most wells as of 2012, with the exception of a small number of wells where concentrations continue to increase...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864583/removal-and-biodegradation-of-phenanthrene-fluoranthene-and-pyrene-by-the-marine-algae-rhodomonas-baltica-enriched-from-north-atlantic-coasts
#10
Andrés H Arias, Anissa Souissi, Olivier Glippa, Marion Roussin, David Dumoulin, Sopheak Net, Baghdad Ouddane, Sami Souissi
This study is focused on the removal, accumulation and degradation of three environmental ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA) and pyrene (PYR), by the marine alga Rhodomonas baltica enriched from the English Channel. After separation, purification and culture in several phases, R. baltica was exposed to PAH concentrations that are frequently encountered in the field in several anthropized environments. The results showed that R. baltica can grow under PAH stress, efficiently remove up to 70% of these compounds from the medium by 216 h of culture and selectively bioaccumulate PAHs by their hydrophobicity...
November 19, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863580/hospital-decontamination-what-nurses-need-to-know
#11
REVIEW
Brent Cox
Incidents involving the release of hazardous materials challenge medical providers with safely, quickly, and correctly removing contaminants from the victim. While doing so, the safety of the first receiver, current patients, bystanders, as well as the victim all have to be considered. Key challenges with hospital decontamination include, but are not limited to, selection of team members, training protocols, employee turnover, and funding. Best practices, based on the available literature and evidence, include administration buy-in and support; strong policy and procedure documentation; equipment maintenance programs; and team member recruitment, retention, and education...
December 2016: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858411/increasing-intensity-of-selective-digestive-decontamination-sdd-dosing-does-not-result-in-improved-clinical-outcomes
#12
Johanna M Pieterse, Dinis Dos Reis Miranda, Wim Rietdijk, Jan Bakker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845441/cellulose-nanofiber-backboned-prussian-blue-nanoparticles-as-powerful-adsorbents-for-the-selective-elimination-of-radioactive-cesium
#13
Adavan Kiliyankil Vipin, Bunshi Fugetsu, Ichiro Sakata, Akira Isogai, Morinobu Endo, Mingda Li, Mildred S Dresselhaus
On 11 March 2011, the day of the unforgettable disaster of the 9 magnitude Tohoku earthquake and quickly followed by the devastating Tsunami, a damageable amount of radionuclides had dispersed from the Fukushima Daiichi's damaged nuclear reactors. Decontamination of the dispersed radionuclides from seawater and soil, due to the huge amounts of coexisting ions with competitive functionalities, has been the topmost difficulty. Ferric hexacyanoferrate, also known as Prussian blue (PB), has been the most powerful material for selectively trapping the radioactive cesium ions; its high tendency to form stable colloids in water, however, has made PB to be impossible for the open-field radioactive cesium decontamination applications...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837508/prerequisites-for-control-of-contamination-in-fungal-diagnosis
#14
Stefan Czurda, Thomas Lion
Nucleic acid amplification methods facilitate rapid and sensitive detection of clinically relevant fungal pathogens, and can be employed using a variety of patient specimens. However, contamination from various exogenous sources constitutes a serious threat to the validity of amplification-based fungal assays. In this chapter, common origins of fungal contaminants that compromise molecular fungal testing are described, and measures for preventing contamination are proposed. Detailed guidelines for sample handling, reagent selection, contamination screening, and decontamination procedures are provided...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837501/fungal-grade-reagents-and-materials-for-molecular-analysis
#15
Michael G Lorenz, Michael Lustig, Marina Linow
Fungal DNA is present at very low loads in clinical specimens. Molecular detection by amplification assays generally is a challenge because of a potentially multiple input of contaminating DNA from exogenous sources. Besides airborne, handling and cross-contamination, materials and reagents used in the molecular laboratory can contain microbial DNA which is a long underestimated potential source of false positive results. In this contribution decontamination procedures of materials and reagents and the selection of certified microbial DNA-free components for sample collection, DNA extraction, and PCR amplification are discussed with respect to the aim of building up a reliable molecular system for the diagnosis of fungal organisms at the limit of detection...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833754/potential-of-polyaniline-modified-clay-nanocomposite-as-a-selective-decontamination-adsorbent-for-pb-ii-ions-from-contaminated-waters-kinetics-and-thermodynamic-study
#16
Somayeh Piri, Zahra Alikhani Zanjani, Farideh Piri, Abbasali Zamani, Mohamadreza Yaftian, Mehdi Davari
BACKGROUND: Nowadays significant attention is to nanocomposite compounds in water cleaning. In this article the synthesis and characterization of conductive polyaniline/clay (PANI/clay) as a hybrid nanocomposite with extended chain conformation and its application for water purification are presented. METHODS: Clay samples were obtained from the central plain of Abhar region, Abhar, Zanjan Province, Iran. Clay was dried and sieved before used as adsorbent. The conductive polyaniline was inflicted into the layers of clay to fabricate a hybrid material...
2016: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823781/native-herbaceous-plant-species-with-potential-use-in-phytoremediation-of-heavy-metals-spotlight-on-wetlands-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Mayerly Alexandra Oyuela Leguizamo, Wilmar Darío Fernández Gómez, Martha Cecilia Gutiérrez Sarmiento
Soil, air and water pollution caused by the mobility and solubility of heavy metals significantly damages the environment, human health, plants and animals. One common in situ method used for the decontamination of heavy metals is phytoremediation. This usually involves the use of exotic species. However, these species may exhibit invasive behavior, thereby, affect the environmental and ecological dynamics of the ecosystem into which they are introduced. This paper focuses on some native herbaceous plant species reported on the wetlands of Bogota, Colombia, with potential use in phytoremediation of heavy metals...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811902/guidelines-for-the-selection-use-and-maintenance-of-led-light-curing-units-part-ii
#18
A C Shortall, R B Price, L MacKenzie, F J T Burke
This paper is the second in a two-part series on the topic of LED light-curing units (LCUs). This part discusses LCU selection, cross infection and decontamination, maintenance, the blue-light hazard, and some possible future developments for LCUs. The article focusses on the practical aspects of the subject from the clinician's perspective. Scientific aspects are dealt with in the cited literature.
November 4, 2016: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774337/a-new-proof-of-concept-in-bacterial-reduction-antimicrobial-action-of-violet-blue-light-405%C3%A2-nm-in-ex-vivo-stored-plasma
#19
Michelle Maclean, John G Anderson, Scott J MacGregor, Tracy White, Chintamani D Atreya
Bacterial contamination of injectable stored biological fluids such as blood plasma and platelet concentrates preserved in plasma at room temperature is a major health risk. Current pathogen reduction technologies (PRT) rely on the use of chemicals and/or ultraviolet light, which affects product quality and can be associated with adverse events in recipients. 405 nm violet-blue light is antibacterial without the use of photosensitizers and can be applied at levels safe for human exposure, making it of potential interest for decontamination of biological fluids such as plasma...
2016: Journal of Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755474/selective-digestive-decontamination-attenuates-organ-dysfunction-in-critically-ill-burn-patients
#20
Lucía López-Rodríguez, Miguel A de la Cal, Paloma García-Hierro, Raquel Herrero, Judith Martins, Hendrick K F van Saene, José A Lorente
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) attenuates organ dysfunction in critically ill burn patients. BACKGROUND: The effect of SDD on the development and progression of organ dysfunction, as an important determinant of mortality in burned patients, is still unknown. We asked whether organ dysfunction is mitigated by treatment with SDD. METHODS: Patients with burns >20% of total body surface or suspected inhalation injury from a randomized placebo-controlled trial were analyzed to determine the relationship between treatment received (placebo or SDD) and the severity of organ dysfunction as measured by the area under the curve of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (and its individual components) from day 1 to day 7 of admission...
November 2016: Shock
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