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Selective decontamination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337735/isolation-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-from-soil-using-middlebrook-7h10-agar-with-increased-malachite-green-concentration
#1
Yuli Hu, Xinglong Yu, Dun Zhao, Runcheng Li, Yang Liu, Meng Ge, Huican Hu
Environmental exposure is considered to be responsible for nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in humans. To facilitate the isolation of mycobacteria from soil, Middlebrook 7H10 agar was optimized as an enhanced selective medium by increasing the concentration of malachite green. A series of modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar media with malachite green concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 2500 mg/L was evaluated using 20 soil samples decontaminated with 3% sodium dodecyl sulfate plus 2% NaOH for 30 min. Among these modified Middlebrook 7H10 media, the medium with malachite green at a concentration of 250 mg/L, i...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334619/investigation-on-metal-tolerance-and-phytoremoval-activity-in-the-poplar-hybrid-clone-monviso-under-cu-spiked-water-potential-use-for-wastewater-treatment
#2
Fabrizio Pietrini, Daniela Di Baccio, Valentina Iori, Sofia Veliksar, Natalia Lemanova, Liudvika Juškaitė, Audrius Maruška, Massimo Zacchini
A serious concern for the environmental and human health is represented by the increasing copper (Cu) occurrence in agricultural soils and waters, because of the possible food contamination and bioaugmentation along the trophic chain. The request for the decontamination of different matrices with an environmentally sustainable technology as the phytoremediation should be addressed by selecting plant materials with improved pollutant tolerance and removal capability. With this purpose, plants of the hybrid poplar clone "Monviso" (Populus×generosa A...
March 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322483/a-polyoxoniobate-polyoxovanadate-double-anion-catalyst-for-simultaneous-oxidative-and-hydrolytic-decontamination-of-chemical-warfare-agent-simulants
#3
Jing Dong, Jufang Hu, Yingnan Chi, Zhengguo Lin, Bo Zou, Song Yang, Craig L Hill, Changwen Hu
A novel double-anion complex, H13 [(CH3 )4 N]12 [PNb12 O40 (V(V) O)2 ⋅(V(IV)4 O12 )2 ]⋅22 H2 O (1), based on bicapped polyoxoniobate and tetranuclear polyoxovanadate was synthesized, characterized by routine techniques and used in the catalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents. Under mild conditions, 1 catalyzes both hydrolysis of the nerve agent simulant, diethyl cyanophosphonate (DECP) and selective oxidation of the sulfur mustard simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). In the oxidative decontamination system 100 % CEES was transformed selectively to nontoxic 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfoxide and vinyl ethyl sulfoxide using nearly stoichiometric 3 % aqueous H2 O2 with a turnover frequency (TOF) of 16 000 h(-1) ...
March 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318300/bacteria-from-wheat-and-cucurbit-plant-roots-metabolize-pahs-and-aromatic-root-exudates-implications-for-rhizodegradation
#4
Cairn S Ely, Barth F Smets
The chemical interaction between plants and bacteria in the root zone can lead to soil decontamination. Bacteria which degrade PAHs have been isolated from the rhizospheres of plant species with varied biological traits, however, it is not known what phytochemicals promote contaminant degradation. One monocot and two dicotyledon plants were grown in PAH-contaminated soil from a manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. A phytotoxicity assay confirmed greater soil decontamination in rhizospheres when compared to bulk soil controls...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287436/plasma-based-degradation-of-mycotoxins-produced-by-fusarium-aspergillus-and-alternaria-species
#5
Lars Ten Bosch, Katharina Pfohl, Georg Avramidis, Stephan Wieneke, Wolfgang Viöl, Petr Karlovsky
The efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) with ambient air as working gas for the degradation of selected mycotoxins was studied. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, enniatins, fumonisin B1, and T2 toxin produced by Fusarium spp., sterigmatocystin produced by Aspergillus spp. and AAL toxin produced by Alternaria alternata were used. The kinetics of the decay of mycotoxins exposed to plasma discharge was monitored. All pure mycotoxins exposed to CAPP were degraded almost completely within 60 s. Degradation rates varied with mycotoxin structure: fumonisin B1 and structurally related AAL toxin were degraded most rapidly while sterigmatocystin exhibited the highest resistance to degradation...
March 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284251/bottom-up-or-top-down-unit-cost-estimation-of-tuberculosis-diagnostic-tests-in-india
#6
S Rupert, A Vassall, N Raizada, S D Khaparde, C Boehme, V S Salhotra, K S Sachdeva, S A Nair, A H Van't Hoog
SETTING: Of 18 sites that participated in an implementation study of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay in India, we selected five microscopy centres and two reference laboratories. OBJECTIVE: To obtain unit costs of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) and drug-resistant TB. DESIGN: Laboratories were purposely selected to capture regional variations and different laboratory types. Both bottom-up and the top-down methods were used to estimate unit costs...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267670/selective-digestive-decontamination-in-critically-ill-children-a-survey-of-canadian-providers
#7
Srinivas Murthy, Nazima Pathan, Brian H Cuthbertson
BACKGROUND: Selective digestive decontamination of the digestive tract involves the routine administration of oral, gastric, and intravenous antibiotics to mechanically ventilated children to prevent hospital-acquired infections. It has a strong evidence base in adults, with limited pediatric evidence. Current utilization of this intervention among pediatric physicians in North America is unknown. METHODS: An electronic survey administered to pediatric critical care and pediatric infectious disease providers in Canada...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228494/an-evaluation-of-rgm-medium-for-isolation-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-from-respiratory-samples-from-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-in-the-united-states
#8
Rongpong Plongla, Clair L Preece, John D Perry, Peter H Gilligan
A novel selective agar (RGM medium) has been advocated for the isolation of rapidly growing mycobacteria from the sputum of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The aim of this study was to compare RGM medium with Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) and a standard AFB culture method for the isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from patients with CF. The applicability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identification of NTM isolated on RGM was also assessed...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221974/evaluation-of-a-surface-sampling-method-for-recovery-of-human-noroviruses-prior-to-detection-using-reverse-transcription-quantitative-pcr
#9
Grace Tung-Thompson, Blanca I Escudero-Abarca, Janie Outlaw, Arnaud Ganee, Sylvanie Cassard, Claude Mabilat, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Human noroviruses are the most common cause of acute viral gastroenteritis, and the environmental persistence of these viruses contributes to their transmissibility. Environmental sampling is thus an important tool for investigating norovirus outbreaks and for assessing the effectiveness of cleaning and decontamination regimens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a sampling material (wipes) for their efficacy at recovering human norovirus from hard surfaces and foods. Dilutions of a human norovirus GII...
February 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187395/population-pharmacokinetic-modelling-of-valproic-acid-and-its-selected-metabolites-in-acute-vpa-poisoning
#10
Wojciech Jawień, Jolanta Wilimowska, Małgorzata Kłys, Wojciech Piekoszewski
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is a first-line antiepileptic drug. It is used in the treatment of many different types of partial and generalized epileptic seizures. Though the clinical pharmacokinetics of VPA has been well defined, information about pharmacokinetics after overdoses is rare. The aim of this study was to try to build a population pharmacokinetic model that would describe the time course of VPA and its selected metabolites when the drug is ingested in an overdose situation...
April 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152053/evaluation-of-absorbent-materials-for-use-as-ad-hoc-dry-decontaminants-during-mass-casualty-incidents-as-part-of-the-uk-s-initial-operational-response-ior
#11
Nick Kassouf, Sara Syed, Joanne Larner, Richard Amlôt, Robert P Chilcott
The UK's Initial Operational Response (IOR) is a revised process for the medical management of mass casualties potentially contaminated with hazardous materials. A critical element of the IOR is the introduction of immediate, on-scene disrobing and decontamination of casualties to limit the adverse health effects of exposure. Ad hoc cleansing of the skin with dry absorbent materials has previously been identified as a potential means of facilitating emergency decontamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro oil and water absorbency of a range of materials commonly found in the domestic and clinical environments and to determine the effectiveness of a small, but representative selection of such materials in skin decontamination, using an established ex vivo model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133483/assessment-of-resistance-and-bioremediation-ability-of-lactobacillus-strains-to-lead-and-cadmium
#12
Anna V Kirillova, Anna A Danilushkina, Denis S Irisov, Nataliya L Bruslik, Rawil F Fakhrullin, Yuri A Zakharov, Vladimir S Bukhmin, Dina R Yarullina
Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are heavy metals, important environmental pollutants, and potent toxicants to organism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been reported to remove Cd and Pb from solutions and therefore represent a useful tool for decontamination of food and beverages from heavy metals. Heavy metal ion binding by LAB was reported as metabolism-independent surface process. In this work ten Lactobacillus strains were investigated with respect to hydrophobicity, Lewis acid-base, and electrostatic properties of their outer cell surface in order to characterize their Cd and Pb removal capacity...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128552/rapid-selective-circumneutral-degradation-of-phenolic-pollutants-using-peroxymonosulfate-iodide-metal-free-oxidation-role-of-iodine-atoms
#13
Yong Feng, Po-Heng Lee, Deli Wu, Kaimin Shih
The development of environmentally friendly, oxidation-selective advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for water decontamination is important for resource recovery, carbon dioxide abatement, and cost savings. In this study, we developed an innovative AOP using a combination of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and iodide ions (I(-)) for the selective removal of phenolic pollutants from aqueous solutions. The results showed that nearly 100% degradation of phenol, bisphenol A, and hydroquinone was achieved after reaction for 4 min in the presence of 65 μM PMS and 50 μM I(-)...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056807/evaluating-decontamination-protocols-for-the-isolation-of-mycobacterium-ulcerans-from-swabs
#14
Enid Owusu, Mercy J Newman, Amos Akumwena, Elizabeth Bannerman, Gerd Pluschke
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans) is the causative agent of Buruli Ulcer (BU) disease. In order to inhibit the growth of the microbial contaminants during culture of M. ulcerans, it is necessary to decontaminate BU samples with effective chemical agents. This study aimed at investigating some selected chemicals as potential decontamination agents for the isolation of M. ulcerans from swabs. RESULTS: Povidone iodine at 0.5 and 1% exhibited the lowest contamination and recovery rate for microbial contaminants and M...
January 5, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043568/isolation-and-molecular-identification-of-mycobacterium-from-commercially-available-pasteurized-milk-and-raw-milk-samples-collected-from-two-infected-cattle-farms-in-alborz-province-iran
#15
Mohsen Eftekhari, Nader Mosavari
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an etiological agent of Johne's disease in ruminant including cattle, sheep and goats. This disease is considered an economically important disease in cattle. Animals with paratuberculosis shed viable MAP, particularly in their milk and feces. MAP may be involved in the development of Crohn's disease in humans through the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Common methods of pasteurization are not enough to kill all MAP present in the milk and the bacterium has been isolated from raw milk, pasteurized milk and cheese samples...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002764/identify-biosorption-effects-of-thiobacillus-towards-perfluorooctanoic-acid-pfoa-pilot-study-from-field-to-laboratory
#16
Lei Li, Tieyu Wang, Yajun Sun, Pei Wang, Baninla Yvette, Jing Meng, Qifeng Li, Yunqiao Zhou
The concentration of Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and the bacterial community composition along the Xiaoqing River were explored with HPLC-MS/MS and Illumina high-throughput sequencing in present study. The results showed that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAAs in all sediment samples, and high level of PFOA could lead to an evident increase in the abundance of Thiobacillus. Thiobacillus was identified with the survival ability in high concentrations of PFOA accordingly. Therefore, Thiobacillus thioparus and Thiobacillus denitrificans were selected as receptors to design indoor biosorption experiment...
December 13, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000074/enhancement-of-cd-phytoextraction-by-hyperaccumulator-sedum-alfredii-using-electrical-field-and-organic-amendments
#17
Wendan Xiao, Dan Li, Xuezhu Ye, Haizhou Xu, Guihua Yao, Jingwen Wang, Qi Zhang, Jing Hu, Na Gao
The combined use of organic amendment-assisted phytoextraction and electrokinetic remediation to decontaminate Cd-polluted soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. The plant species selected was the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. Prior to the pot experiment, the loamy soil was treated with 15 g kg(-1) of pig manure compost, 10 g kg(-1) of humic acid, or 5 mmol kg(-1) of EDTA, and untreated soil without application of any amendment was the control. Two conditions were applied to each treatment: no voltage (without an electrical field) and a direct current (DC) electrical field (1 V cm(-1) with switching polarity every day)...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991646/materials-for-retrograde-filling-in-root-canal-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Xiangyu Ma, Chunjie Li, Liuhe Jia, Yan Wang, Wenwen Liu, Xuedong Zhou, Trevor M Johnson, Dingming Huang
BACKGROUND: Root canal therapy is a sequence of treatments involving root canal cleaning, shaping, decontamination and obturation. It is conventionally performed through a hole drilled into the crown of the affected tooth, namely orthograde root canal therapy. For teeth that cannot be treated with orthograde root canal therapy, or for which it has failed, retrograde root filling, which seals the root canal from the root apex, is a good alternative. Many materials, such as amalgam, zinc oxide eugenol and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), are generally used...
December 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966481/engineering-and-introduction-of-de-novo-disulphide-bridges-in-organophosphorus-hydrolase-enzyme-for-thermostability-improvement
#19
Gholamreza Farnoosh, Khosro Khajeh, Ali Mohammad Latifi, Hossein Aghamollaei
The organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) has been used to degrade organophosphorus chemicals, as one of the most frequently used decontamination methods. Under chemical and thermal denaturing conditions, the enzyme has been shown to unfold. To utilize this enzyme in various applications, the thermal stability is of importance. The engineering of de novo disulphide bridges has been explored as a means to increase the thermal stability of enzymes in the rational method of protein engineering. In this study, Disulphide by Design software, homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations were used to select appropriate amino acid pairs for the introduction of disulphide bridge to improve protein thermostability...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931875/efficacy-of-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-in-the-disinfection-of-acrylic-denture-surfaces-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Sergio Varela Kellesarian, Tariq Abduljabbar, Fahim Vohra, Hans Malmstrom, Michael Yunker, Tammy Varela Kellesarian, Georgios E Romanos, Fawad Javed
BACKGROUND: the aim of the present systematic review was to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the disinfection of acrylic denture surfaces. METHODS: in order to address the focused question: "Is aPDT more effective in decontaminating denture surfaces compared with traditional denture-disinfection techniques?" an electronic search without time or language restrictions was conducted up to November 2016 in indexed databases using different key words...
December 5, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
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