keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Selective decontamination

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300363/unusually-high-incidences-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-within-studies-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-prevention-using-topical-antibiotics-benchmarking-the-evidence-base
#1
James C Hurley
Selective digestive decontamination (SDD, topical antibiotic regimens applied to the respiratory tract) appears effective for preventing ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, potential contextual effects of SDD on Staphylococcus aureus infections in the ICU remain unclear. The S. aureus ventilator associated pneumonia (S. aureus VAP), VAP overall and S. aureus bacteremia incidences within component (control and intervention) groups within 27 SDD studies were benchmarked against 115 observational groups...
January 4, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282886/biorefining-of-platinum-group-metals-from-model-waste-solutions-into-catalytically-active-bimetallic-nanoparticles
#2
Angela J Murray, Ju Zhu, Joe Wood, Lynne E Macaskie
Bacteria can fabricate platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts cheaply, a key consideration of industrial processes and waste decontaminations. Biorecovery of PGMs from wastes is promising but PGM leachates made from metallic scraps are acidic. A two-step biosynthesis 'pre-seeds' metallic deposits onto bacterial cells benignly; chemical reduction of subsequent metal from acidic solution via the seeds makes bioscaffolded nanoparticles (NPs). Cells of Escherichia coli were seeded using Pd(II) or Pt(IV) and exposed to a mixed Pd(II)/Pt(IV) model solution under H2 to make bimetallic catalyst...
December 28, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261680/determinants-of-stunting-among-children-aged-6-59-months-at-kindo-didaye-woreda-wolaita-zone-southern-ethiopia-unmatched-case-control-study
#3
Bancha Batiro, Tsegaye Demissie, Yoseph Halala, Antehun Alemayehu Anjulo
BACKGROUND: Stunting is a well-established risk marker of poor child development. Globally in 2017, 155 million children under 5 were estimated to be stunted. While different activities are being done to reduce the burden of stunted growth, the problem is overwhelming in Africa; it was increased by 24%. Therefore, identifying determinants of stunting among children aged 6-59 would help to set priorities for action and to the design of stunting reduction plan at a grassroots level. METHODS: The unmatched case-control study was conducted in randomly selected 8 rural kebeles of Kindo Didaye woreda, Ethiopia from February to April, 2016 to identify the determinants of stunting among children aged 6-59 months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244080/quantification-of-methadone-and-main-metabolites-in-nails
#4
Teresa Patrícia Magalhães, Sara Cravo, Diana Dias da Silva, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Carlos Afonso, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Helena Carmo
The quantification of drugs of abuse in keratinized matrices is becoming of special relevance for monitoring consumption and for post-mortem investigations. We aimed to implement an analytical method for the simultaneous detection of morphine (MORF), 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), methadone (MET), 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and 2-ethyl-5-methyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EMDP) in nails. After decontamination, the nail samples (30 mg) were submitted to an alkaline digestion followed by a two-step liquid-liquid and SPE extraction using mixed-mode cation exchange cartridges...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197796/copper-based-nanomaterials-for-environmental-decontamination-an-overview-on-technical-and-toxicological-aspects
#5
REVIEW
Mohammadreza Khalaj, Mohammadreza Kamali, Zahra Khodaparast, Akram Jahanshahi
Synthesis of the various types of engineered nanomaterials has gained a huge attention in recent years for various applications. Copper based nanomaterials are a branch of this category seem to be able to provide an efficient and cost-effective way for the treatment of the persistent effluents. The present work aimed to study the various parameters may involve in the overall performance of the copper based nanomaterials for environmental clean-up purposes. To this end, the related characteristics of copper based nanomaterials and their effects on the nanomaterials reactivity and the environmental and operating parameters have been critically reviewed...
November 30, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186403/associations-between-enteral-colonization-with-gram-negative-bacteria-and-intensive-care-unit-acquired-infections-and-colonization-of-the-respiratory-tract
#6
Jos F Frencken, Bastiaan H J Wittekamp, Nienke L Plantinga, Cristian Spitoni, Kirsten van de Groep, Olaf L Cremer, Marc J M Bonten
Background: Enteral and respiratory tract colonization with gram-negative bacteria may lead to subsequent infections in critically ill patients. We aimed to clarify the interdependence between gut and respiratory tract colonization and their associations with intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections in patients receiving selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD). Methods: Colonization status of the rectum and respiratory tract was determined using twice-weekly microbiological surveillance in mechanically ventilated subjects receiving SDD between May 2011 and June 2015 in a tertiary medical-surgical ICU in the Netherlands...
September 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178762/adverse-effects-of-salivary-contamination-for-adhesives-in-restorative-dentistry-a-literature-review
#7
REVIEW
Pooja Nair, Reinhard Hickel, Nicoleta Ilie
PURPOSE: To review and critically analyze the literature concerning the influence of salivary contamination on the bond quality of adhesives used in restorative materials by comparing and contrasting the different adhesive materials. METHODS: A detailed search on PUBMED, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and Web of Science was carried out to identify publications on salivary contamination and dental adhesive materials, from 1990-2017 (March) which resulted in a total of 6,202 web-identified publications...
June 2017: American Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172441/a-new-method-of-polonium-source-preparation-using-tellurium-micro-precipitation-for-alpha-spectrometry
#8
Lijuan Song, Yan Ma, Yadong Wang, Yonggang Yang, Maoyi Luo, Xiongxin Dai
A thin-layer source for the counting of polonium isotopes by alpha spectrometry can be rapidly prepared using micro-precipitation with tellurium. Polonium was first co-precipitated with the reduction of tellurium by stannous chloride followed by micro-filtration onto a membrane filter for counting. This micro-precipitation method is faster, cheaper and more convenient than the traditional spontaneous deposition method, with an excellent Po recovery (>90%) under optimal conditions. The influences of several experimental parameters, including Te(IV) quantity, reaction time and HCl molarity, were examined to determine the optimal conditions for Te micro-precipitation...
November 26, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143704/identification-of-clostridium-difficile-reservoirs-in-the-patient-environment-and-efficacy-of-aerial-hydrogen-peroxide-decontamination
#9
Samuel Yui, Shanom Ali, Monika Muzslay, Annette Jeanes, A Peter R Wilson
OBJECTIVE To identify, using a novel enhanced method of recovery, environmental sites where spores of Clostridium difficile persist despite cleaning and hydrogen peroxide aerial decontamination. DESIGN Cohort study. SETTING Tertiary referral center teaching hospital. METHODS In total, 16 sites representing high-frequency contact or difficult-to-clean surfaces in a single-isolation room or bed area in patient bed bays were sampled before and after terminal or hydrogen peroxide disinfection using a sponge swab...
November 16, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135239/advances-in-sulfidation-of-zerovalent-iron-for-water-decontamination
#10
Jinxiang Li, Xueying Zhang, Yuankui Sun, Liping Liang, Bing-Cai Pan, Weiming Zhang, Xiaohong Guan
Sulfidation has gained increasing interest in recent years for improving the sequestration of contaminants by zerovalent iron (ZVI). In view of the bright prospects of the sulfidated ZVI (S-ZVI), this review comprehensively summarized the latest developments in sulfidation of ZVI, particularly that of nanoscale ZVI (S-nZVI). The milestones in development of S-ZVI technology including its background, enlightenment, synthesis, characterization, water remediation and treatment, etc., are summarized. Under most circumstances, sulfidation can enhance the sequestration of various organic compounds and metal(loid)s by ZVI to various extents...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119936/recent-patents-on-light-based-anti-infective-approaches
#11
Imran Ahmed, Yanyan Fang, Min Lu, Quan Yan, Ahmed Mohamed Kamel El-Hussein, Michael R Hamblin, Tianhong Dai
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is one of the most serious health threats to modern medicine. The lack of potent antibiotics puts us at a disadvantage in the fight against infectious diseases, especially those caused by antibiotic-resistant microbial strains. To this end, an urgent need to search for alternative antimicrobial approaches has arisen. In the last decade, light-based therapy has made significant strides in this fight to combat antibiotic resistance among various microbial strains...
November 7, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119289/local-antibiotic-decontamination-to-prevent-anastomotic-leakage-short-term-outcome-in-rectal-cancer-surgery
#12
Ulrich Wirth, Susanne Rogers, Kristina Haubensak, Stefan Schopf, Thomas von Ahnen, Hans Martin Schardey
PURPOSE: Anastomotic leakage still presents an issue in rectal cancer surgery with rates of about 11%. As bacteria play a critical role, there is the concept of perioperative local decontamination to prevent anastomotic leakage. METHODS: To ascertain the effectiveness of this treatment, we performed a retrospective analysis on 206 rectal resections with primary anastomosis and routine use of a selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) regimen for local decontamination...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113028/restoration-of-a-healthy-intestinal-microbiota-normalizes-portal-hypertension-in-a-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#13
Teresa García-Lezana, Imma Raurell, Miren Bravo, Manuel Torres-Arauz, María Teresa Salcedo, Alba Santiago, Andreu Schoenenberger, Chaysavanh Manichanh, Joan Genescà, María Martell, Salvador Augustin
Portal hypertension (PH) drives most of the clinical complications in chronic liver diseases. However, its progression in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and its association with the intestinal microbiota (IM) has been scarcely studied. Our aim was to investigate the role of IM in the mechanisms leading to PH in early NASH. The experimental design was divided in two stages: Stage 1: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 8 weeks with high-fat diet and high-glucose/fructose syrup (HFGFD) or control diet/water (CD)...
November 7, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112384/efficient-capture-and-effective-sensing-of-cr2o7-2-from-water-using-a-zirconium-metal-organic-framework
#14
Zu-Jin Lin, He-Qi Zheng, Huan-Yu Zheng, Li-Ping Lin, Qin Xin, Rong Cao
Highly efficient decontamination of heavily toxic Cr2O7(2-) from water remains a serious task for public health and ecosystem protection. An easily regenerative and reused sorbent with suitable porosity may address this task. Herein, a series of water-stable and ecofriendly metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with large surface areas were assessed for their ability to adsorb and separate Cr2O7(2-) from aqueous solutions. Among these tested MOFs, NU-1000 shows an extraordinary capability to efficiently capture (within 3 min) Cr2O7(2-) with a sorption capacity of up to 76...
November 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103639/surveillance-guided-selective-digestive-decontamination-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#15
Joyce H S You, Hong-Kiu Li, Margaret Ip
BACKGROUND: Clinical findings have shown effectiveness and safety of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) for eradication of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in high-risk carriers. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of SDD guided by CRE surveillance in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Outcomes of surveillance-guided SDD (test-guided SDD) and no screening (control) in the ICU were compared by Markov model simulations. Model outcomes were CRE infection and mortality rates, direct costs, and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) loss...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101197/population-wide-survey-of-salmonella-enterica-response-to-high-pressure-processing-reveals-a-diversity-of-responses-and-tolerance-mechanisms
#16
Sandeep Tamber
High pressure processing is a non-thermal method of food preservation that uses pressure to inactivate microorganisms. To ensure the effective validation of process parameters, it is important that the design of challenge protocols consider the potential for resistance in a particular species. Herein, the response of 99 diverse Salmonella enterica strains to high pressure is reported. Members of this population belong to one of 24 serovars and were isolated from various Canadian sources over a period of 26 years...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066141/evaluation-of-a-shoe-sole-uvc-device-to-reduce-pathogen-colonization-on-floors-surfaces-and-patients
#17
Tasnuva Rashid, Kelley Poblete, Jonathan Amadio, Irtiza Hasan, Khurshida Begum, M Jahangir Alam, Kevin W Garey
BACKGROUND: Recently, a UVC decontamination device has become available that delivers germicidal UVC radiation to shoe soles. The objective of this study were to demonstrate that shoe soles can be vectors for healthcare associated infection and whether a UVC shoe sole decontamination device would be effective at decreasing this risk. METHODOLOGY: Three bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli, and a non-toxigenic strain of Clostridium difficile were spiked onto standardized rubber soled shoe soles and then randomly selected to UVC exposure or no UVC exposure...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058966/high-level-isolation-unit-infection-control-procedures
#18
Jocelyn J Herstein, Paul D Biddinger, Shawn G Gibbs, Aurora B Le, Katelyn C Jelden, Angela L Hewlett, John J Lowe
The 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa prompted a select group of US hospitals to establish high-level isolation units equipped with advanced engineering controls, trained staff, and stringent protocols to safely treat highly infectious disease patients. This survey details the comprehensive infection control protocols developed by these units, including for decontamination of units, post-mortem management, liquid waste disposal, and personal protective equipment (PPE) use. In spring 2016, a survey was electronically distributed to the 56 original Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-designated high-level isolation units...
September 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046782/assessment-of-the-potential-for-resistance-to-antimicrobial-violet-blue-light-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Rachael M Tomb, Michelle Maclean, John E Coia, Scott J MacGregor, John G Anderson
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial violet-blue light in the region of 405 nm is emerging as an alternative technology for hospital decontamination and clinical treatment. The mechanism of action is the excitation of endogenous porphyrins within exposed microorganisms, resulting in ROS generation, oxidative damage and cell death. Although resistance to 405 nm light is not thought likely, little evidence has been published to support this. This study was designed to establish if there is potential for tolerance development, using the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus as the model organism...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033925/caco-2-invasion-by-cronobacter-sakazakii-and-salmonella-enterica-exposed-to-drying-and-heat-treatments-in-dried-state-in-milk-powder
#20
Emilie Lang, Stéphane Guyot, Pablo Alvarez-Martin, Jean-Marie Perrier-Cornet, Patrick Gervais
Due to the ability of foodborne pathogens to survive in low moisture food, the decontamination of milk powder is an important issue in food protection. The safety of food products is, however, not always insured and the different steps in the processing of food involve physiological and metabolic changes in bacteria. Among these changes, virulence properties may also be affected. In this study, the effect of drying and successive thermal treatments on the invasion capacity of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Senftenberg, and Cronobacter sakazakii was assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
keyword
keyword
72157
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"