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Selective decontamination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817098/estimation-of-the-vertical-distribution-of-radiocesium-in-soil-on-the-basis-of-the-characteristics-of-gamma-ray-spectra-obtained-via-aerial-radiation-monitoring-using-an-unmanned-helicopter
#1
Kotaro Ochi, Miyuki Sasaki, Mutsushi Ishida, Shoichiro Hamamoto, Taku Nishimura, Yukihisa Sanada
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the vertical distribution of radiocesium in soil has been investigated to better understand the behavior of radiocesium in the environment. The typical method used for measuring the vertical distribution of radiocesium is troublesome because it requires collection and measurement of the activity of soil samples. In this study, we established a method of estimating the vertical distribution of radiocesium by focusing on the characteristics of gamma-ray spectra obtained via aerial radiation monitoring using an unmanned helicopter...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804670/synthesis-and-characterization-of-mixed-iron-manganese-oxide-nanoparticles-and-their-application-for-efficient-nickel-ion-removal-from-aqueous-samples
#2
Alessandro Buccolieri, Antonio Serra, Giuseppe Maruccio, Anna Grazia Monteduro, Sanosh Kunjalukkal Padmanabhan, Antonio Licciulli, Valentina Bonfrate, Luca Salvatore, Daniela Manno, Lucio Calcagnile, Gabriele Giancane
Mixed iron-manganese oxide nanoparticles, synthesized by a simple procedure, were used to remove nickel ion from aqueous solutions. Nanostructures, prepared by using different weight percents of manganese, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, selected area diffraction, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Adsorption/desorption isotherm curves demonstrated that manganese inclusions enhance the specific surface area three times and the pores volume ten times...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803549/comparative-gut-microbiota-and-resistome-profiling-of-intensive-care-patients-receiving-selective-digestive-tract-decontamination-and-healthy-subjects
#3
Elena Buelow, Teresita D J Bello González, Susana Fuentes, Wouter A A de Steenhuijsen Piters, Leo Lahti, Jumamurat R Bayjanov, Eline A M Majoor, Johanna C Braat, Maaike S M van Mourik, Evelien A N Oostdijk, Rob J L Willems, Marc J M Bonten, Mark W J van Passel, Hauke Smidt, Willem van Schaik
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is a reservoir of opportunistic pathogens that can cause life-threatening infections in critically ill patients during their stay in an intensive care unit (ICU). To suppress gut colonization with opportunistic pathogens, a prophylactic antibiotic regimen, termed "selective decontamination of the digestive tract" (SDD), is used in some countries where it improves clinical outcome in ICU patients. Yet, the impact of ICU hospitalization and SDD on the gut microbiota remains largely unknown...
August 14, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797573/digestive-decontamination-in-burn-patients-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-clinical-trials-and-observational-studies
#4
REVIEW
Mercedes Rubio-Regidor, Ana Martín-Pellicer, Luciano Silvestri, Hendrik K F van Saene, José A Lorente, Miguel A de la Cal
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review is to assess the effect of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) or non-absorbable enteral antibiotics (EA) on mortality, the incidence of infection and its adverse effects in burn patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCT) or observational studies enrolling burn patients, and comparing SDD or EA prophylaxis with placebo or no treatment. The search includes Pubmed/Medline, EMBASE, WOS, Cochrane Library (1970-2015)...
August 7, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776296/synthesis-of-piperazine-functionalized-magnetic-sporopollenin-a-new-organic-inorganic-hybrid-material-for-the-removal-of-lead-ii-and-arsenic-iii-from-aqueous-solution
#5
Naqhiyah Farhan Ahmad, Muhammad Afzal Kamboh, Hamid Rashidi Nodeh, Siti Nadiah Binti Abd Halim, Sharifah Mohamad
The present work describes the successful functionalization/magnetization of bio-polymeric spores of Lycopodium clavatum (sporopollenin) with 1-(2-hydroxyethyl) piperazine. Analytical techniques, i.e., Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), were used to confirm the formation of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl) piperazine-functionalized magnetic sporopollenin (MNPs-Sp-HEP). The proposed adsorbent (MNPs-Sp-HEP) was used for the removal of noxious Pb(II) and As(III) metal ions from aqueous media through a batch-wise method...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772331/-pre-operative-evaluation-of-patients-undergoing-total-joint-arthroplasty-what-is-essential
#6
Holger Haas, Christian D Weber
Background A thorough pre-operative evaluation is required prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The objective of screening is to identify patient- and procedure-related risk constellations. Pre-operative diagnostic measures are vital in order to anticipate, reduce or even eliminate threats to patient safety. Furthermore, the clinical and radiographical workup may confirm the indication and type of surgical procedure, but this is not the subject of this article. Objective An overview of the current literature on pre-operative diagnostic principles is presented...
August 3, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759469/what-is-new-in-the-prevention-of-nosocomial-pneumonia-in-the-icu
#7
Michael Klompas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and contextualize recent evidence on preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). RECENT FINDINGS: Many centers continue to report dramatic decreases in VAP rates after implementing ventilator bundles. Interpreting these reports is complicated, however, by the subjectivity and lack of specificity of VAP definitions. More objective data suggest VAP rates may not have meaningfully changed over the past decade. If so, this compels us to re-examine and revise the prevention bundles we have been using to prevent VAP...
July 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758285/effect-of-ozone-on-the-microbiological-status-of-five-dried-aromatic-plants
#8
Martha Kazi, Foteini F Parlapani, Ioannis S Boziaris, Evangelos K Vellios, Christos Lykas
BACKGROUND: Aromatic plants may be contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms making them a potential health hazard when infused or added in ready-to-eat meals. To ensure safety, the effect of gaseous ozone treatment on the population of aerobic plate counts (APC), hygienic indicators (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae) and fungi was investigated for five dried aromatic plants; i.e. oregano, thyme, mountain tea, lemon verbena and chamomile. Selection, isolation, and further fungi identification were based on the phenotypic and macro and microscopic characteristics...
July 31, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755553/remediation-of-137-cs-contaminated-concrete-using-electrokinetic-phenomena-and-ionic-salt-washes-in-nuclear-energy-contexts
#9
Andrew J Parker, Malcolm J Joyce, Colin Boxall
This work describes the first known the use of electrokinetic treatments and ionic salt washes to remediate concrete contaminated with (137)Cs. A series of experiments were performed on concrete samples, contaminated with K(+) and (137)Cs, using a bespoke migration cell and an applied electric field (60V potential gradient and current limit of 35mA). Additionally, two samples were treated with an ionic salt wash (≤400molm(-3) of KCl) alongside the electrokinetic treatment. The results show that the combined treatment produces removal efficiencies three times higher (>60%) than the electrokinetic treatment alone and that the decontamination efficiency appears to be proportional to the initial degree of contamination...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724312/in-vitro-skin-decontamination-of-paraoxon-wet-type-cleansing-effect-of-selected-detergents
#10
Ruzena Pavlikova, Jan Misik, Jiri Cabal, Jan Marek, Kamil Kuca
The aim of this study was to determine optimal conditions for in vitro skin decontamination using water and detergents as decontamination agents and to test the cleansing efficiency of selected detergents. Experiments were performed using a peristaltic pump for showering of pig skin in modified static diffusion cells. Several conditions were tested including different flow rates (from 5 to 33 ml s(-1)), quantity of rinsing fluid (from 40 to 400 ml) and concentration of detergents (2; 5; 10%). Further, several types of detergents/commercial decontamination agents were evaluated under the selected conditions to find the most effective means of decontamination...
August 7, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702037/transcriptomic-response-of-purple-willow-salix-purpurea-to-arsenic-stress
#11
Aymeric Yanitch, Nicholas J B Brereton, Emmanuel Gonzalez, Michel Labrecque, Simon Joly, Frederic E Pitre
Arsenic (As) is a toxic element for plants and one of the most common anthropogenic pollutants found at contaminated sites. Despite its severe effects on plant metabolism, several species can accumulate substantial amounts of arsenic and endure the associated stress. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance remains obscure in many model plant species used for land decontamination (phytoremediation), including willows. The present study assesses the potential of Salix purpurea cv. 'Fish Creek' for arsenic phytoextraction and reveals the genetic responses behind arsenic tolerance, phytoextraction and metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701019/decontamination-of-mikania-glomerata-leaves-by-gamma-irradiation-coumarin-determination-by-hplc-dad-microbiological-control-and-genotoxicological-studies
#12
Marcos Martins Gouvêa, Samara Cristina Ferreira-Machado, Thalita Martins da Silva, Julien Silva Lima Lima, Cláudio Sérgio Corrêa Lau, Luciana Maria Ramires Esper, Samanta Cardozo Mourão, Elizabeth Valverde Macedo, Helio de Carvalho Vital, Edson Ramos Andrade, Annibal Duarte Pereira Netto, Flávia Ferreira de Carvalho Marques, Carlos Augusto de Freitas Peregrino
Gamma irradiation as a decontaminating physical agent could be an important tool in the production chain of herbal medicines by improving the microbiological quality of raw materials and the safety of final products. This study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic potential and eventual chemical modifications of a batch of Mikania glomerata raw material decontaminated by different doses of gamma irradiation (2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 kGy), using a cesium-137 source. DNA damage was assessed in vitro by agarose gel electrophoresis in regard to double-chain breaks of plasmid pUC 9...
July 12, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675844/treatment-of-radioactive-liquid-effluents-by-reverse-osmosis-membranes-from-lab-scale-to-pilot-scale
#13
Nicolas Combernoux, Luc Schrive, Véronique Labed, Yvan Wyart, Emilie Carretier, Philippe Moulin
The recent use of the reverse osmosis (RO) process at the damaged Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant generated a growing interest in the application of this process for decontamination purposes. This study focused on the development of a robust RO process for decontamination of two kinds of liquid effluents: a contaminated groundwater after a nuclear disaster and a contaminated seawater during a nuclear accident. The SW30 HR membrane was selected among other in this study due to higher retentions (96% for Cs and 98% for Sr) in a true groundwater...
June 24, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672227/pyrimethanil-degradation-by-photo-fenton-process-influence-of-iron-and-irradiance-level-on-treatment-cost
#14
A Cabrera Reina, S Miralles-Cuevas, J L Casas López, J A Sánchez Pérez
This study evaluates the combined effect of photo-catalyst concentration and irradiance level on photo-Fenton efficiency when this treatment is applied to industrial wastewater decontamination. Three levels of irradiance (18, 32 and 46W/m(2)) and three iron concentrations (8, 20 and 32mg/L) were selected and their influence over the process studied using a raceway pond reactor placed inside a solar box. For 8mg/L, it was found that there was a lack of catalyst to make use of all the available photons. For 20mg/L, the treatment always improved with irradiance indicating that the process was photo-limited...
June 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654114/functionalized-metal-organic-frameworks-for-effective-capture-of-radioactive-organic-iodides
#15
Baiyan Li, Xinglong Dong, Hao Wang, Dingxuan Ma, Kui Tan, Zhan Shi, Yves J Chabal, Yu Han, Jing Li
Highly efficient capture of radioactive organic iodides (ROIs) from off-gas mixtures remains a substantial challenge for nuclear waste treatment. Current materials utilized for ROI sequestration suffer from low capacity, high cost (e.g. use of noble metals), and poor recyclability. Recently, we have developed a new strategy to tackle this challenge by functionalizing MOF materials with tertiary amines to create molecular traps for the effective capture and removal of ROIs (e.g. radioactive methyl iodide) from nuclear wastes...
June 27, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651304/rifaximin-and-propranolol-combination-therapy-is-more-effective-than-propranolol-monotherapy-for-the-reduction-of-portal-pressure-an-open-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#16
Yoo Li Lim, Moon Young Kim, Yoon Ok Jang, Soon Koo Baik, Sang Ok Kwon
Background/Aims: Non-selective beta blockers (NSBBs) are currently the only accepted regimen for preventing portal hypertension (PHT)-related complications. However, the effect of NSBBs is insufficient in many cases. Bacterial translocation (BT) is one of the aggravating factors of PHT in cirrhosis; therefore, selective intestinal decontamination by rifaximin is a possible therapeutic option for improving PHT. We investigated whether the addition of rifaximin to propranolol therapy can improve hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) response...
June 27, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638595/use-of-90-ethanol-to-decontaminate-stethoscopes-in-resource-limited-settings
#17
Bijendra Raj Raghubanshi, Supriya Sapkota, Arjab Adhikari, Aman Dutta, Utsuk Bhattarai, Rastriyata Bhandari
BACKGROUND: In developing countries like Nepal, 90% ethanol is cheap and is available in most hospitals. The unavailability of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) in these settings led us to compare the efficacy between 90% ethanol and isopropyl alcohol pads in reducing the bacterial contamination of diaphragm of stethoscope. METHODS: A randomized blinded experimental study was carried out to determine the difference between cleaning stethoscopes with 90% ethanol and IPA. Cultures of diaphragm were taken before and after cleaning with one of the cleaning agent...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616203/reduced-rate-of-intensive-care-unit-acquired-gram-negative-bacilli-after-removal-of-sinks-and-introduction-of-water-free-patient-care
#18
Joost Hopman, Alma Tostmann, Heiman Wertheim, Maria Bos, Eva Kolwijck, Reinier Akkermans, Patrick Sturm, Andreas Voss, Peter Pickkers, Hans Vd Hoeven
BACKGROUND: Sinks in patient rooms are associated with hospital-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of removal of sinks from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patient rooms and the introduction of 'water-free' patient care on gram-negative bacilli colonization rates. METHODS: We conducted a 2-year pre/post quasi-experimental study that compared monthly gram-negative bacilli colonization rates pre- and post-intervention using segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series data...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613818/efficient-removal-of-anionic-radioactive-pollutant-from-water-using-ordered-urea-functionalized-mesoporous-polymeric-nanoparticle
#19
Jian Shen, Wei Chai, Kaixuan Wang, Fang Zhang
A urea-functionalized ordered mesoporous polymeric nanoparticle for removing the perrhenate anion ReO4(-) as the surrogate of the particularly intractable anion radioactive pollutant TcO4(-) was demonstrated in the present study. This nanomaterial (denoted as urea-MPN) was produced for the first time by a surfactant-directed urea-phenol-formaldehyde resol oligomers self-assembly protocol under hydrothermal condition. The obtained urea-MPN possessed the uniform nanosized spherical morphology with a 3D interconnected ordered cubic mesoporous structure...
July 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607344/surviving-sepsis-campaign-guidelines-2016-omission-of-selective-decontamination-of-the-digestive-tract-deprives-patients-of-a-level-2b-therapy
#20
Luciano Silvestri, Hendrick K van Saene, Johannes H Rommes, Andy J Petros, Miguel A de la Cal, Julian F Bion
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
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