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ethyl sulfate

N Fahrenfeld, A Pruden, M Widdowson
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a common groundwater contaminant often present with more toxic compounds of primary interest. Because of this, few studies have been performed to determine the effect of microbial community structure on MEK biodegradation rates in aquifer sediments. Here, microcosms were prepared with aquifer sediments containing MEK following a massive spill event and compared to laboratory-spiked sediments, with MEK biodegradation rates quantified under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Biodegradation was achieved in MEK-contaminated site sediment microcosms at about half of the solubility (356 mg/L) with largely Firmicutes population under iron-reducing conditions...
October 20, 2016: Biodegradation
Rosalina Djatmika, Chih-Chung Hsieh, Jhih-Ming Chen, Wang-Hsien Ding
An effective method for determining four commonly detected paraben preservatives (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl paraben) in marketed seafood is presented. This method employs matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) before identification and quantification of the paraben preservatives via on-line acetylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of MSPD were optimized through a Box-Behnken design method. Under optimal condition, 0.5-g of freeze-dried seafood was mixed with 0...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Christoph Heier, Hao Xie, Robert Zimmermann
Ethanol is a widely used psychoactive drug whose chronic abuse is associated with organ dysfunction and disease. Although the prevalent metabolic fate of ethanol in the human body is oxidation a smaller fraction undergoes nonoxidative metabolism yielding ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, phosphatidylethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters. Nonoxidative ethanol metabolites persist in tissues and body fluids for much longer than ethanol itself and represent biomarkers for the assessment of ethanol intake in clinical and forensic settings...
October 6, 2016: IUBMB Life
Yi-Jung Tu, Matthew J Allen, G Andrés Cisneros
Correction for 'Simulations of the water exchange dynamics of lanthanide ions in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate ([EMIm][EtSO4]) and water' by Yi-Jung Tu et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, DOI: 10.1039/c6cp04957e.
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zarif Farhana Mohd Aris, Ryan M Bouldin, Margery G H Pelletier, Peter Gaines, Bridgette Budhlall, Ramaswamy Nagarajan
Microwave-assisted synthesis of a new class of polymeric surfactants based on polygalacturonic acid (PGA) is presented. PGA is water-insoluble and not surface-active under normal conditions. Single-step hydrophilic modification of PGA with taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) renders it surface-active. The modification can be carried out either using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDCl) as a coupling agent or using microwave irradiation without a catalyst. Microwave irradiation significantly shortens reaction times and eliminates the need for a coupling agent...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Simonetta Lambiase, Angelo Groppi, Denise Gemmellaro, Luca Morini
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are specific and sensitive biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute or chronic alcohol abuse. Due to postmortem alcohol production in biological tissues, they have recently been evaluated as potential biomarkers of ethanol ingestion. This in vitro study aimed to evaluate all developmental stages of the fly Calliphora vicina L. (Calliphoridae). Different pig substrates were used during the in vitro experiments to rear C. vicina Experiments were performed to: (i) assess the presence of EtG and EtS in larvae, pupae and insects; (ii) study variability due to the substrates characteristics; (iii) evaluate the possibility of false positives due to external alcohol contamination; and (iv) estimate the potential metabolism of ethanol by the insects...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Alexandra Schröck, Annette Thierauf-Emberger, Stefan Schürch, Wolfgang Weinmann
In most studies, the alcohol marker phosphatidylethanol (PEth) was used to differentiate social drinking from alcohol abuse. This study investigates PEth's potential in abstinence monitoring by performing a drinking study to assess the detection window of PEth after ingesting a defined amount of alcohol. After 2 weeks of abstinence, 16 volunteers ingested a single dose of alcohol, leading to an estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 1 g/kg. In the week after drinking, blood and urine samples were taken daily; in the second week, samples were taken every other day...
September 5, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Mingqiang Huang, Jiahui Zhang, Shunyou Cai, Yingmin Liao, Weixiong Zhao, Changjin Hu, Xuejun Gu, Li Fang, Weijun Zhang
Aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from OH- initiated oxidation of ethylbenzene in the presence of high mass (100-300μg/m(3)) concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosol was investigated in a home-made smog chamber in this study. The chemical composition of aged ethylbenzene SOA particles was measured using an aerosol laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ALTOFMS) coupled with a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Experimental results showed that nitrophenol, ethyl-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, methyl glyoxylic acid, 5-ethyl-6-oxo-2,4-hexadienoic acid, 2-ethyl-2,4-hexadiendioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-5-ethyl-6-oxo-4-hexenoic acid, 1H-imidazole, hydrated N-glyoxal substituted 1H-imidazole, hydrated glyoxal dimer substituted imidazole, 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde, N-glyoxal substituted hydrated 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde and high-molecular-weight (HMW) components were the predominant products in the aged particles...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Gellert Mezei
The reaction of CuSO4·5H2O, 4-chloro-pyrazole (4-Cl-pzH) and tri-ethyl-amine (Et3N) in di-methyl-formamide (DMF) produced crystals of di-aqua-hexa-kis-(μ-4-chloro-pyrazolato-κ(2) N:N')bis-(N,N-di-methyl-formamide)di-μ3-hydroxido-bis-(μ4-sulfato-κ(4) O:O':O'':O'')hexa-copper(II) N,N-di-methyl-formamide tetra-solvate dihydrate, [Cu3(OH)(SO4)(C3H2ClN2)3(C3H7NO)(H2O)]2·4C3H7NO·2H2O. The centrosymmetric dimeric molecule consists of two trinuclear copper-pyrazolate units bridged by two sulfate ions. The title compound provides the first example of a trinuclear copper-pyrazolate complex with three different terminal ligands on the Cu atoms, and also the first example of such complex with a strongly binding basal sulfate ion...
August 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Miao Yang, Jun Cai, Changgao Wang, Xin Du, Jianguo Lin
β-Mannanases are the second most important enzymes for the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. An endo-β-mannanase from Enterobacter ludwigii MY271 was purified at 11.7 ± 0.2-fold to homogeneity with a final recovery of 15.2 ± 0.2 %. Using purified β-mannanase protein and SDS-PAGE, the molecular mass was found to be 43.16 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme was found to be 7.0 and 55 °C, respectively. The β-mannanase activity was stable over a broad pH range of pH 2.0-10.0. In addition, the purified enzyme was highly activated by several metal ions and chemical reagents, such as Mg(2+), L-cysteine, glutathione (GSH) and β-mercaptoethanol...
August 17, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Morgane Bayle, Céline Roques, Bénédicte Marion, Michel Audran, Catherine Oiry, Françoise M M Bressolle-Gomeni, Gérard Cros
Urolithins are microflora human metabolites of dietary ellagic acid derivatives. There is now a growing interest in the biological activities of these compounds. Several studies suggest that urolithins have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-glycative activities. Recently, our group investigated the role of urolithins as potential anti-diabetic treatments; among the four urolithins, urolithin C was the most promising compound. The purpose of this paper was to develop a rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of urolithin C in rat plasma...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Marc Luginbühl, Sofie Rutjens, Stefan König, Julien Furrer, Wolfgang Weinmann
The forensic utility of N-acetyltaurine (NAcT) in urine as a marker for ethanol intake was examined. A HILIC-based liquid chromatography method for the mass spectrometric determination of NAcT, taurine, and creatinine in urine was developed and validated to investigate NAcT formation and elimination in a drinking study. Thereby, eight subjects ingested 0.66 to 0.84 g/kg alcohol to reach a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.8 g/kg. Blood and urine were taken every 1.5-2 h, during the first 8 h. NAcT and taurine levels were measured and corrected for the urine's dilution by normalization to a creatinine concentration of 1 mg/mL...
October 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Salla Välimäki, Alexey Khakalo, Ari Ora, Leena-Sisko Johansson, Orlando J Rojas, Mauri A Kostiainen
Heparin is a naturally occurring polyelectrolyte consisting of a sulfated polysaccharide backbone. It is widely used as an anticoagulant during major surgical operations. However, the associated bleeding risks require rapid neutralization after the operation. The only clinically approved antidote for heparin is protamine sulfate, which is, however, ineffective against low molecular weight heparin and can cause severe adverse reactions in patients. In this study, the facile synthesis of cationic-neutral diblock copolymers and their effective heparin binding is presented...
September 12, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Debashis Majhi, Prabhat Kumar Sahu, Sudipta Seth, Moloy Sarkar
The rotational diffusion of two organic solutes, 4-(azitidine-1-yl)-7-nitrobenzo[1,2,5]oxadi-azole (ANBD) and 7-nitrobenzo[1,2,5]oxadiazole-4-amine (HNBD), has been examined in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium alkyl sulfate (alkyl = ethyl, hexyl and octyl) ionic liquids with the aim of understanding intermolecular interactions among solute and solvent molecules. Solute-solvent interaction has also been investigated by employing fluorescence, NMR and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The ionic liquids (ILs) having a fixed cationic moiety are chosen to monitor the roles of the alkyl chain length as well as the solute-anion (sulfate) interactions in the rotational diffusion of the solutes in the given ILs...
August 10, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Shizuka Saito-Shida, Satoru Nemoto, Reiko Teshima, Hiroshi Akiyama
A GC-MS/MS method for determination of the rodenticide tetramethylenedisulfotetramine was developed. Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine was extracted from the sample with ethyl acetate in the presence of anhydrous sodium sulfate. Then, an aliquot of the extract was evaporated under vacuum, followed by acetonitrile/hexane partitioning, and cleanup with a tandem graphitized carbon/primary secondary amine (PSA) column, prior to GC-MS/MS analysis. The recoveries from 10 processed foods, all of which were fortified at 0...
2016: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
Takahiro Sasaki, Shoichi Tahara, Yukiko Yamajima, Hiroyuki Miyakawa, Yoko Uematsu, Kimio Monma
A simple and efficient method for the determination of propionic acid (PA) in foods was developed. The sample was cleaned up by dialysis, and PA in the resulting solution was extracted into ethyl acetate for GC analysis. Sodium sulfate was used as a salting-out agent in the extraction process, and GC-FID and GC-MS were successfully applied to the determination and confirmation of PA, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 98.9-104.4% at the addition level of 0.2 g/kg from 6 foods, bread, cake, cheese, worcester sauce, vinegar-pickles and yogurt...
2016: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
Dorota Dobler, Thomas Schmidts, Christina Zinecker, Peggy Schlupp, Jens Schäfer, Frank Runkel
Ionic liquids (ILs) have several properties that offer many advantages in dermal drug delivery systems. Depending on the chemical structure, ILs can be used for protection against microorganisms, to enhance skin penetration, and as a solvent. In the present work, SEPINEO™ P 600 formulations and hydroxyethylcellulose gels containing the hydrophilic ILs hexylpyridinium chloride, choline dihydrogen phosphate, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate were prepared, and the influence of the ILs on the formulation properties was evaluated...
August 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Marco Costantini, Joanna Idaszek, Krisztina Szöke, Jakub Jaroszewicz, Mariella Dentini, Andrea Barbetta, Jan E Brinchmann, Wojciech Święszkowski
In this work we demonstrate how to print 3D biomimetic hydrogel scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering with high cell density (>10(7) cells ml(-1)), high cell viability (85 ÷ 90%) and high printing resolution (≈100 μm) through a two coaxial-needles system. The scaffolds were composed of modified biopolymers present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of cartilage, namely gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA), chondroitin sulfate amino ethyl methacrylate (CS-AEMA) and hyaluronic acid methacrylate (HAMA). The polymers were used to prepare three photocurable bioinks with increasing degree of biomimicry: (i) GelMA, (ii) GelMA + CS-AEMA and (iii) GelMA + CS-AEMA + HAMA...
2016: Biofabrication
Raffaella Mancuso, Asif Maner, Ida Ziccarelli, Christian Pomelli, Cinzia Chiappe, Nicola Della Ca', Lucia Veltri, Bartolo Gabriele
A convenient carbonylative approach to 2-oxazolidinone derivatives carried out using an ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate, EmimEtSO₄) as the solvent is presented. It is based on the sequential concatenation of two catalytic cycles, both catalyzed by the same metal species (auto-tandem catalysis): the first cycle corresponds to the oxidative monoaminocarbonylation of the triple bond of propargylic amines to give the corresponding 2-ynamide intermediates, while the second one involves the cyclocarbonylation of the latter to yield 2-(2-oxooxazolidin-5-ylidene)-acetamides...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Nadine Döge, Stefan Hönzke, Fabian Schumacher, Benjamin Balzus, Miriam Colombo, Sabrina Hadam, Fiorenza Rancan, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi, Monika Schäfer-Korting, Anke Schindler, Eckart Rühl, Per Stahl Skov, Martin Church, Sarah Hedtrich, Burkhard Kleuser, Roland Bodmeier, Annika Vogt
Understanding penetration not only in intact, but also in lesional skin with impaired skin barrier function is important, in order to explore the surplus value of nanoparticle-based drug delivery for anti-inflammatory dermatotherapy. Herein, short-term ex vivo cultures of (i) intact human skin, (ii) skin pretreated with tape-strippings and (iii) skin pre-exposed to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were used to assess the penetration of dexamethasone (Dex). Intradermal microdialysis was utilized for up to 24h after drug application as commercial cream, nanocrystals or ethyl cellulose nanocarriers applied at the therapeutic concentration of 0...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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