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ethyl sulfate

Bahador Sarkari, Ghasem Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Mohammad Fararouei, Abdolali Moshfe
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections are still a significant health problem in rural areas in developing countries including Iran. There is no recent population-based data about the prevalence of human intestinal parasites in most rural areas of Iran. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infection in inhabitants of rural areas of Boyer-Ahmad district, Southwestern Iran. METHODS: A total of 1025 stool samples were collected from the inhabitant of 50 randomly selected villages in Boyer-Ahmad Township...
November 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yaping Cheng, Yudao Chen, Yaping Jiang, Lingzhi Jiang, Liqun Sun, Liuyue Li, Junyu Huang
To provide more reasonable references for remedying underground water, fuel leak was simulated by establishing an experimental model of a porous-aquifer sand tank with the same size as that of the actual tank and by monitoring the underground water. In the tank, traditional gasoline and ethyl alcohol gasoline were poured. This study was conducted to achieve better understanding of the migration and distribution of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX), which are major pollutants in the underground water...
2016: BioMed Research International
Yi-Jung Tu, Matthew J Allen, G Andrés Cisneros
The dynamics of ligand exchange on lanthanide ions is important for catalysis and organic reactions. Recent (17)O-NMR experiments have shown that water-exchange rates of lanthanide ions in water/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate (water/[EMIm][EtSO4]) increase as a function of increasing charge density. The trend of water-exchange rates in this solvent is opposite to that observed in water. Since the lanthanide ions and ionic liquids investigated in that work were highly charged, an advanced polarizable potential is desirable for accurate simulations...
November 9, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Lakkoji Satish, Sabera Millan, Harekrushna Sahoo
The study of protein-ionic liquid interactions is very important because of the widespread use of ionic liquids as protein stabilizer in the recent years. In this work, the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with different imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) such as [1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ethyl sulfate (EmimESO4 ), 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (EmimCl) and 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (BmimCl)] has been investigated using different spectroscopic techniques. The intrinsic fluorescence of BSA is quenched by ILs by the dynamic mechanism...
November 3, 2016: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Solfrid Hegstad, Lena Kristoffersen, Veronica H Liane, Olav Spigset
Analytical challenges related to postmortem specimens are well known. The degree of putrefaction of the corpse will influence the quality of the blood samples, and both the efficiency of sample preparation and the subsequent chromatographic performance can be affected. An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in postmortem whole blood. Sample preparation prior to UPLC-MS-MS analysis consisted of protein precipitation and filtration through a phospholipid removal plate...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Gözde Gürdeniz, Morten Georg Jensen, Sebastian Meier, Lene Bech, Erik Lund, Lars Ove Dragsted
Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
N Fahrenfeld, A Pruden, M Widdowson
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a common groundwater contaminant often present with more toxic compounds of primary interest. Because of this, few studies have been performed to determine the effect of microbial community structure on MEK biodegradation rates in aquifer sediments. Here, microcosms were prepared with aquifer sediments containing MEK following a massive spill event and compared to laboratory-spiked sediments, with MEK biodegradation rates quantified under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Biodegradation was achieved in MEK-contaminated site sediment microcosms at about half of the solubility (356 mg/L) with largely Firmicutes population under iron-reducing conditions...
October 20, 2016: Biodegradation
Rosalina Djatmika, Chih-Chung Hsieh, Jhih-Ming Chen, Wang-Hsien Ding
An effective method for determining four commonly detected paraben preservatives (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl paraben) in marketed seafood is presented. This method employs matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) before identification and quantification of the paraben preservatives via on-line acetylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of MSPD were optimized through a Box-Behnken design method. Under optimal condition, 0.5-g of freeze-dried seafood was mixed with 0...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Christoph Heier, Hao Xie, Robert Zimmermann
Ethanol is a widely used psychoactive drug whose chronic abuse is associated with organ dysfunction and disease. Although the prevalent metabolic fate of ethanol in the human body is oxidation a smaller fraction undergoes nonoxidative metabolism yielding ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, phosphatidylethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters. Nonoxidative ethanol metabolites persist in tissues and body fluids for much longer than ethanol itself and represent biomarkers for the assessment of ethanol intake in clinical and forensic settings...
December 2016: IUBMB Life
Yi-Jung Tu, Matthew J Allen, G Andrés Cisneros
Correction for 'Simulations of the water exchange dynamics of lanthanide ions in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate ([EMIm][EtSO4]) and water' by Yi-Jung Tu et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, DOI: 10.1039/c6cp04957e.
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zarif Farhana Mohd Aris, Ryan M Bouldin, Margery G H Pelletier, Peter Gaines, Bridgette Budhlall, Ramaswamy Nagarajan
Microwave-assisted synthesis of a new class of polymeric surfactants based on polygalacturonic acid (PGA) is presented. PGA is water-insoluble and not surface-active under normal conditions. Single-step hydrophilic modification of PGA with taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) renders it surface-active. The modification can be carried out either using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDCl) as a coupling agent or using microwave irradiation without a catalyst. Microwave irradiation significantly shortens reaction times and eliminates the need for a coupling agent...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Simonetta Lambiase, Angelo Groppi, Denise Gemmellaro, Luca Morini
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are specific and sensitive biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute or chronic alcohol abuse. Due to postmortem alcohol production in biological tissues, they have recently been evaluated as potential biomarkers of ethanol ingestion. This in vitro study aimed to evaluate all developmental stages of the fly Calliphora vicina L. (Calliphoridae). Different pig substrates were used during the in vitro experiments to rear C. vicina Experiments were performed to: (i) assess the presence of EtG and EtS in larvae, pupae and insects; (ii) study variability due to the substrates characteristics; (iii) evaluate the possibility of false positives due to external alcohol contamination; and (iv) estimate the potential metabolism of ethanol by the insects...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Alexandra Schröck, Annette Thierauf-Emberger, Stefan Schürch, Wolfgang Weinmann
In most studies, the alcohol marker phosphatidylethanol (PEth) was used to differentiate social drinking from alcohol abuse. This study investigates PEth's potential in abstinence monitoring by performing a drinking study to assess the detection window of PEth after ingesting a defined amount of alcohol. After 2 weeks of abstinence, 16 volunteers ingested a single dose of alcohol, leading to an estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 1 g/kg. In the week after drinking, blood and urine samples were taken daily; in the second week, samples were taken every other day...
September 5, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Mingqiang Huang, Jiahui Zhang, Shunyou Cai, Yingmin Liao, Weixiong Zhao, Changjin Hu, Xuejun Gu, Li Fang, Weijun Zhang
Aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from OH- initiated oxidation of ethylbenzene in the presence of high mass (100-300μg/m(3)) concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosol was investigated in a home-made smog chamber in this study. The chemical composition of aged ethylbenzene SOA particles was measured using an aerosol laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ALTOFMS) coupled with a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Experimental results showed that nitrophenol, ethyl-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, methyl glyoxylic acid, 5-ethyl-6-oxo-2,4-hexadienoic acid, 2-ethyl-2,4-hexadiendioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-5-ethyl-6-oxo-4-hexenoic acid, 1H-imidazole, hydrated N-glyoxal substituted 1H-imidazole, hydrated glyoxal dimer substituted imidazole, 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde, N-glyoxal substituted hydrated 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde and high-molecular-weight (HMW) components were the predominant products in the aged particles...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Gellert Mezei
The reaction of CuSO4·5H2O, 4-chloro-pyrazole (4-Cl-pzH) and tri-ethyl-amine (Et3N) in di-methyl-formamide (DMF) produced crystals of di-aqua-hexa-kis-(μ-4-chloro-pyrazolato-κ(2) N:N')bis-(N,N-di-methyl-formamide)di-μ3-hydroxido-bis-(μ4-sulfato-κ(4) O:O':O'':O'')hexa-copper(II) N,N-di-methyl-formamide tetra-solvate dihydrate, [Cu3(OH)(SO4)(C3H2ClN2)3(C3H7NO)(H2O)]2·4C3H7NO·2H2O. The centrosymmetric dimeric molecule consists of two trinuclear copper-pyrazolate units bridged by two sulfate ions. The title compound provides the first example of a trinuclear copper-pyrazolate complex with three different terminal ligands on the Cu atoms, and also the first example of such complex with a strongly binding basal sulfate ion...
August 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Miao Yang, Jun Cai, Changgao Wang, Xin Du, Jianguo Lin
β-Mannanases are the second most important enzymes for the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. An endo-β-mannanase from Enterobacter ludwigii MY271 was purified at 11.7 ± 0.2-fold to homogeneity with a final recovery of 15.2 ± 0.2 %. Using purified β-mannanase protein and SDS-PAGE, the molecular mass was found to be 43.16 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme was found to be 7.0 and 55 °C, respectively. The β-mannanase activity was stable over a broad pH range of pH 2.0-10.0. In addition, the purified enzyme was highly activated by several metal ions and chemical reagents, such as Mg(2+), L-cysteine, glutathione (GSH) and β-mercaptoethanol...
August 17, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Morgane Bayle, Céline Roques, Bénédicte Marion, Michel Audran, Catherine Oiry, Françoise M M Bressolle-Gomeni, Gérard Cros
Urolithins are microflora human metabolites of dietary ellagic acid derivatives. There is now a growing interest in the biological activities of these compounds. Several studies suggest that urolithins have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-glycative activities. Recently, our group investigated the role of urolithins as potential anti-diabetic treatments; among the four urolithins, urolithin C was the most promising compound. The purpose of this paper was to develop a rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of urolithin C in rat plasma...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Marc Luginbühl, Sofie Rutjens, Stefan König, Julien Furrer, Wolfgang Weinmann
The forensic utility of N-acetyltaurine (NAcT) in urine as a marker for ethanol intake was examined. A HILIC-based liquid chromatography method for the mass spectrometric determination of NAcT, taurine, and creatinine in urine was developed and validated to investigate NAcT formation and elimination in a drinking study. Thereby, eight subjects ingested 0.66 to 0.84 g/kg alcohol to reach a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.8 g/kg. Blood and urine were taken every 1.5-2 h, during the first 8 h. NAcT and taurine levels were measured and corrected for the urine's dilution by normalization to a creatinine concentration of 1 mg/mL...
October 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Salla Välimäki, Alexey Khakalo, Ari Ora, Leena-Sisko Johansson, Orlando J Rojas, Mauri A Kostiainen
Heparin is a naturally occurring polyelectrolyte consisting of a sulfated polysaccharide backbone. It is widely used as an anticoagulant during major surgical operations. However, the associated bleeding risks require rapid neutralization after the operation. The only clinically approved antidote for heparin is protamine sulfate, which is, however, ineffective against low molecular weight heparin and can cause severe adverse reactions in patients. In this study, the facile synthesis of cationic-neutral diblock copolymers and their effective heparin binding is presented...
September 12, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Debashis Majhi, Prabhat Kumar Sahu, Sudipta Seth, Moloy Sarkar
The rotational diffusion of two organic solutes, 4-(azitidine-1-yl)-7-nitrobenzo[1,2,5]oxadi-azole (ANBD) and 7-nitrobenzo[1,2,5]oxadiazole-4-amine (HNBD), has been examined in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium alkyl sulfate (alkyl = ethyl, hexyl and octyl) ionic liquids with the aim of understanding intermolecular interactions among solute and solvent molecules. Solute-solvent interaction has also been investigated by employing fluorescence, NMR and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The ionic liquids (ILs) having a fixed cationic moiety are chosen to monitor the roles of the alkyl chain length as well as the solute-anion (sulfate) interactions in the rotational diffusion of the solutes in the given ILs...
August 10, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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