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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937523/cytomegalovirus-retinitis-associated-with-occlusive-vasculopathy-in-an-elderly-human-immunodeficiency-virus-negative-man
#1
Kareem Moussa, Thuy Doan, Jay M Stewart, Jessica Shantha, John Gonzales, Nisha Acharya, Emmett T Cunningham
PURPOSE: To present a case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis associated with occlusive vasculopathy presenting as sudden unilateral loss of vision in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative elderly man. METHODS: Clinical case report and literature review. RESULTS: An 84-year-old Chinese man with diabetes mellitus and primary open-angle glaucoma was seen in consultation by our uveitis service for evaluation of sudden vision loss in the right eye...
September 20, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937221/in-vivo-dissolution-and-systemic-absorption-of-immediate-release-ibuprofen-in-human-gastrointestinal-tract-under-fed-and-fasted-conditions
#2
Duxin Sun, Jason R Baker, Bo Wen, Ann Frances, Huixia Zhang, Alex Yu, Ting Zhao, Yasuhiro Tsume, Manjunath Pai, Barry Bleske, Xinyuan Zhang, R Lionberger, Allen Lee, Gordon Amidon, William L Hasler, Mark Koenigsknecht
PURPOSE: In vivo drug dissolution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is largely unmeasured. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the in vivo drug dissolution and systemic absorption of the BCS Class IIa drug ibuprofen under fed and fasted conditions by direct sampling of stomach and small intestinal luminal content. Expanding current knowledge of drug dissolution in vivo will help to establish physiologically relevant in vitro models predictive of drug dissolution. METHODS: A multi-lumen GI catheter was orally inserted into the GI tract of healthy human subjects...
September 22, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936041/antifungal-response-of-oral-associated-candidal-reference-strains-american-type-culture-collection-by-supercritical-fluid-extract-of-nutmeg-seeds-for-geriatric-denture-wearers-an-in-vitro-screening-study
#3
Meenakshi Iyer, Anil Kumar Gujjari, Vishakante Gowda, Shridhar Angadi
OBJECTIVES: Since time immemorial, plants have continued to play a predominant role in the maintenance of human health as sources of medicinal compounds. Several effective antifungal agents are available for oral Candida infections; the failure is not uncommon because isolates of Candida albicans may exhibit resistance to the drug during therapy. The present study aimed to identify an alternative, inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling the candidal infection...
July 2017: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935541/a-novel-controlled-drug-delivery-system-based-on-alginate-hydrogel-chitosan-micelle-composites
#4
Zhaotong Cong, Yanbin Shi, Yang Wang, Yanhong Wang, Jing'e Niu, Nana Chen, Haoyue Xue
In this study, we present a novel cross-linked unimolecular micelle based on chitosan. For controlling drug delivery via oral administration, emodin (EMO) encapsulated micelles were loaded into sodium alginate hydrogel matrix to construct the pH-sensitive hydrogel/micelle composites. The optimized formulation of micelle that consists of 8.06% CaCl2, 1.71% chitosan and 26.52% β-GP was obtained by the combination of Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology. The morphological analysis showed that the micelles exhibited a smaller diameter of about 80nm in aqueous solution, but dilated to 100-200nm in hydrogel owing to the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932591/a-case-of-tuberculosis-reactivation-suspected-of-cancer-progression-during-oral-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-treatment-in-a-patient-diagnosed-as-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
Hwa Young Lee, Jin Woo Kim, Chang Dong Yeo
We report a first case of a patient experiencing reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) during treatment of oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A 44-year-old male patient visited the hospital with cough. He had been treated with erlotinib (oral TKI) for 8 months after being diagnosed as NSCLC with sensitive epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in our clinic. At initial chest imaging, the patient had fibroatelectatic calcified granuloma in the right upper lobe (RUL) apex as well as 1...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932196/-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-reduces-cigarette-smoke-induced-airway-neutrophilic-inflammation-and-mucin-hypersecretion-in-rats
#6
Yingmin Liang, Kenneth W K Liu, Sze C Yeung, Xiang Li, Mary S M Ip, Judith C W Mak
Background: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechins in Chinese green tea, has been studied for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties in cell and animal models. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effects of EGCG on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway inflammation and mucus secretion in the CS-exposed rat model. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into either sham air (SA) or CS exposure...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932152/human-salivary-protein-extraction-from-rnapro%C3%A2-sal%C3%A2-pure%C3%A2-sal%C3%A2-and-passive-drooling-method
#7
Zohaib Khurshid, Syed Faraz Moin, Rabia Sannam Khan, Muhammad Atif Saleem Agwan, Abdullah Hamed Alwadaani, Muhammad Sohail Zafar
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to carry out a preliminary validation of devices for standardized collection of whole mouth fluid (WMF) in comparison to the passive drooling method for protein analysis in healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A carefully designed sample collection/pretreatment protocol is crucial to the success of any saliva proteomics project. In this study, WMF was collected from healthy volunteers (n = 10, ages: 18-26 years). Individuals with any oral disease were excluded from the study group...
July 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930953/proposed-clinical-pathway-for-nonoperative-management-of-high-grade-pediatric-pancreatic-injuries-based-on-a-multicenter-analysis-a-pediatric-trauma-society-collaborative
#8
Bindi J Naik-Mathuria, Eric H Rosenfeld, Ankush Gosain, Randall Burd, Richard A Falcone, Rajan Thakkar, Barbara Gaines, David Mooney, Mauricio Escobar, Mubeen Jafri, Anthony Stallion, Denise B Klinkner, Robert Russell, Brendan Campbell, Rita V Burke, Jeffrey Upperman, David Juang, Shawn St Peter, Stephon J Fenton, Marianne Beaudin, Hale Wills, Adam Vogel, Stephanie Polites, Adam Pattyn, Christine Leeper, Laura V Veras, Ilan Maizlin, Shefali Thaker, Alexis Smith, Megan Waddell, Joseph Drews, James Gilmore, Lindsey Armstrong, Alexis Sandler, Suzanne Moody, Brandon Behrens, Laurence Carmant
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for nonoperative management (NOM) of high-grade pancreatic injuries in children have not been established, and wide practice variability exists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate common clinical strategies across multiple pediatric trauma centers to develop a consensus-based standard clinical pathway. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective review was conducted of children with high-grade (American Association of Surgeons for Trauma grade III-V) pancreatic injuries treated with NOM between 2010 and 2015...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930847/guillain-barr%C3%A3-like-axonal-polyneuropathy-associated-with-toscana-virus-infection-a-case-report
#9
Eugenia Rota, Nicola Morelli, Paolo Immovilli, Paola De Mitri, Donata Guidetti
RATIONALE: Numerous cases of post-infectious Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have been reported in the literature. Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne emerging pathogen in the Mediterranean area. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 40-year-old male patient was admitted to hospital for acute facial weakness, associated to numbness paraesthesias at lower and upper limbs. The neurological examination revealed facial diplegia and reduced tendon reflexes. The nerve conduction studies documented an acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN); the lumbar puncture detected albuminocytologic dissociation...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930747/quantification-of-bisoprolol-and-metoprolol-in-simultaneous-human-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-samples
#10
Ali Sigaroudi, Martina Kinzig, Oliver Wahl, Christoph Stelzer, Michael Schroeter, Uwe Fuhr, Ulrike Holzgrabe, Fritz Sörgel
BACKGROUND: Bisoprolol and metoprolol are moderately lipophilic, beta(1)-selective betablockers reported to cause adverse effects in the central nervous system (CNS), such as sleep disturbance, suggesting that both drugs may reach relevant concentrations in the brain. CNS beta(2)-receptor blockade has been suspected to be related to such effects. The higher molecular size of bisoprolol (325 Dalton) and the higher beta(1)-selectivity compared to metoprolol (267 Dalton) would suggest a lower rate of CNS effects...
September 21, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929768/protein-corona-analysis-of-silver-nanoparticles-links-to-their-cellular-effects
#11
Sabine Juling, Alicia Niedzwiecka, Linda Böhmert, Dajana Lichtenstein, Soeren Selve, Albert Braeuning, Andreas F Thünemann, Eberhard Krause, Alfonso Lampen
The breadth of applications of nanoparticles and the access to food-associated consumer products containing nano-sized materials lead to oral human exposure to such particles. In biological fluids nanoparticles dynamically interact with biomolecules and form a protein corona. Knowledge about the protein corona is of great interest for understanding the molecular effects of particles as well as their fate inside the human body. We used a mass spectrometry-based toxicoproteomics approach to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity of silver nanoparticles and to comprehensively characterize the protein corona formed around silver nanoparticles in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929198/-substance-abuse-detection-in-substitution-therapy-oral-fluid-versus-urine-screening
#12
Johannes Stein, Max Geraedts
BACKGROUND: A patient's health in an opioid maintenance program is potentially endangered due to concurrent consumption of drugs. Therefore, the German Medical Association requests evidence of compliant substitute intake while type and frequency of drug screening is chosen by the physician. This study comparatively assessed the feasibility and potential advantage of oral fluid drug testing versus urine screening in day-to-day practice. METHODS: Urine and oral fluid-samples of a randomly chosen third of a total of 361 patients, treated in four different practices in a major German city, were tested...
September 19, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927956/the-correlation-between-periodontal-health-status-and-suspectibility-to-infections-associated-with-craniomaxillofacial-osteosynthesis-plates
#13
Yahya Açil, Marie-Annett Heitzer, Aydin Gülses, Hendrik Naujokat, Rainer Podschun, Jörg Wiltfang, Christian Flörke
AIM: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the possible relation between periodontal health status and infections associated with osteosynthesis materials (OMs) used in the oral and maxillofacial reconstruction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 32 individuals which were subdivided into two groups regarding their PSI scores. After the removal of the osteosynthesis plates, microbial colonization was assessed via microbiological cultivation, fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924069/-a-case-of-transoral-penetrating-head-injury-from-a-crossbow-fired-arrow
#14
Naoto Nakamura, Yuichi Fujita, Satoshi Nakamizo, Yoshio Sakagami, Ken Okazaki, Kouta Kida
Penetrating head injuries are extremely rare in Japan. The authors describe a case involving a penetrating head injury from an arrow fired from a crossbow. A 52-year-old man who had shot himself transorally in a suicide attempt was admitted to the authors' hospital. On admission, he was conscious and exhibited no neurological deficits. The end of the arrow was visible inside his oral cavity. Computed tomography revealed the arrow had penetrated the right cerebellum and occipital lobe, resulting in a very small hematoma...
September 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923569/digestive-behavior-of-dendrobium-huoshanense-polysaccharides-in-the-gastrointestinal-tracts-of-mice
#15
Song-Zi Xie, Ji-Chun Ge, Fan Li, Jun Yang, Li-Hua Pan, Xue-Qiang Zha, Qiang-Ming Li, Jun Duan, Jian-Ping Luo
With fluorescent end-labeling method, a homogenous Dendrobium huoshanense polysaccharide (GXG) that was orally administrated to mice was found to be degraded into a stable fragment (dGXG) in the stomach, where dGXG was propelled into the small intestine and absorbed into the systemic circulation. The residual GXG in the stomach could pass through the gastrointestinal tract and was excreted into faeces with a very slow fermentation in the large intestine. The simulated digestion of GXG indicated that the acidic pH condition in the gastric fluid was responsible for GXG degradation, which was supported by the oral digestion of dGXG...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923421/avoidance-of-food-effect-on-oral-absorption-profile-of-itraconazole-by-self-micellizing-solid-dispersion-approach
#16
Yoshiki Kojo, Kanako Kobayashi, Saori Matsunaga, Hiroki Suzuki, Yoshiki Seto, Hideyuki Sato, Satomi Onoue
The present study was aimed to avoid pharmacokinetic transitions of itraconazole (ITZ) evoked by high-fat meal intake by employing a self-micellizing solid dispersion (SMSD) approach. The dissolution behavior of SMSD/ITZ was assessed in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). To evaluate the food effect on the oral absorption profile of ITZ, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted on orally-dosed ITZ samples in fasted and high-fat meal-fed rats. Crystalline ITZ showed a 9.0-fold higher dissolution amount of ITZ in fed-state SGF (FeSSGF) than in fasted-state SGF (FaSSGF), whereas there was no significant difference in the dissolution amount of ITZ in SMSD/ITZ between FeSSGF and FaSSGF...
June 15, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923049/roflumilast-reverses-cftr-mediated-ion-transport-dysfunction-in-cigarette-smoke-exposed-mice
#17
S Vamsee Raju, Lawrence Rasmussen, Peter A Sloane, Li Ping Tang, Emily Falk Libby, Steven M Rowe
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) can be elicited by cigarette smoke and is observed in patients with chronic bronchitis. We have previously demonstrated in human airway epithelial cell monolayers that roflumilast, a clinically approved phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor that reduces the risk of exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with chronic bronchitis and a history of exacerbations, activates CFTR-dependent chloride secretion via a cAMP-mediated pathway, partially restores the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke on CFTR-mediated ion transport, and increases CFTR-dependent gastrointestinal fluid secretion in isolated murine intestine segments...
September 18, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922662/treatment-of-autoimmune-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-astrocytopathy-follow-up-in-7-cases
#18
Xinguang Yang, Junyan Liang, Qingmei Huang, Huiming Xu, Cong Gao, Youming Long, Xiaoyu Xiao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to report an autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy with long-term follow-up in 7 patients. METHODS: Antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay and patient data were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Seven patients (4 female, 3 male) with ≥1 year follow-up were included. All patients had positive GFAP antibodies in their cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Their median age at disease onset was 56 years (range 27-69) and the median disease duration was 1 year (range 1-4)...
September 19, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922514/the-complexity-of-oral-physiology-and-its-impact-on-salivary-diagnostics
#19
Eva J Helmerhorst, Colin Dawes, Frank G Oppenheim
OBJECTIVES: Saliva contains biomarkers for systemic as well as oral diseases. This study was undertaken to assess the variability in the sources of such biomarkers (plasma, cells), and attempted to identify saliva deterioration markers in order to improve saliva diagnostic outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inter- and intra-subject variation in salivary gingival crevicular fluid levels were determined by measuring salivary albumin and transferrin levels. The purity of collected glandular secretions was determined by bacterial culture, and the variability in epithelial cell numbers by cell counting and optical density measurement...
September 18, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920464/absorption-sites-of-orally-administered-drugs-in-the-small-intestine
#20
Teruo Murakami
In pharmacotherapy, drugs are mostly taken orally to be absorbed systemically from the small intestine, and some drugs are known to have preferential absorption sites in the small intestine. It would therefore be valuable to know the absorption sites of orally administered drugs and the influencing factors. Areas covered:In this review, the author summarizes the reported absorption sites of orally administered drugs, as well as, influencing factors and experimental techniques. Information on the main absorption sites and influencing factors can help to develop ideal drug delivery systems and more effective pharmacotherapies...
September 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
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