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Neonatal respiratory care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923474/beyond-the-inhaled-nitric-oxide-in-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn
#1
REVIEW
Mei-Yin Lai, Shih-Ming Chu, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Hung-Chih Lin
Persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) is a consequence of failed pulmonary vascular transition at birth and leads to pulmonary hypertension with shunting of deoxygenated blood across the ductus arteriosus (DA) and foramen ovale (FO) resulting in severe hypoxemia, and it may eventually lead to life-threatening circulatory failure. PPHN is a serious event affecting both term and preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. It is often associated with diseases such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia, meconium aspiration, sepsis, congenital pneumonia, birth asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome...
August 10, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919320/is-selective-echocardiography-in-duodenal-atresia-the-future-standard-of-care
#2
Abid Khan, Sharman Tan Tanny, Elizabeth J Perkins, Rodney W Hunt, John M Hutson, Sebastian K King, Bryn Jones, Warwick J Teague
BACKGROUND: Duodenal atresia (DA) is associated with cardiac defects that may have perioperative care implications. Standard preoperative care includes echocardiography to identify such cardiac defects, but this dogma has been challenged. We aimed to assess selective and selective strategies for preoperative echocardiography in DA patients. METHODS: Single-center retrospective review of neonates with DA over a 16-year period was performed. Data included preoperative cardiovascular and respiratory examination, chest x-ray, and echocardiography...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919116/global-regional-and-national-age-sex-specific-mortality-for-264-causes-of-death-1980-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#3
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. METHODS: We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918395/non-invasive-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-in-preterm-infants-a-randomised-controlled-cross-over-trial
#4
Daniel Klotz, Hendryk Schneider, Stefan Schumann, Benjamin Mayer, Hans Fuchs
OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (nHFOV) has recently been described as a novel mode of respiratory support for premature infants. This study was designed to determine whether nHFOV decreases CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in premature infants more effectively than non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). DESIGN: Non-blinded prospective randomised controlled cross-over study. SETTING: University Medical Center tertiary neonatal intensive care unit...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904810/nasal-high-flow-treatment-in-preterm-infants
#5
REVIEW
Calum T Roberts, Kate A Hodgson
Nasal High Flow (HF) is a mode of 'non-invasive' respiratory support for preterm infants, with several potential modes of action, including generation of distending airway pressure, washout of the nasopharyngeal dead space, reduction of work of breathing, and heating and humidification of inspired gas. HF has several potential advantages over continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), the most commonly applied form of non-invasive support, such as reduced nasal trauma, ease of use, and infant comfort, which has led to its rapid adoption into neonatal care...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902527/smoking-in-the-family-is-most-predictive-of-the-development-of-childhood-asthma-in-preterm-babies-30-weeks-gestation-results-of-the-respiratory-outcomes-study-2-repos2
#6
Claire F Johnston, Margaret Broom, Bruce Shadbolt, David A Todd
OBJECTIVES: The Respiratory Outcomes Study 2 (RESPOS2) investigated the relationship between neonatal outcomes (specifically, chronic lung disease [CLD]) and environmental factors on the development of asthma and atopic outcomes at primary school age for preterm babies (PBs) <30 weeks gestational age (GA). METHODS: The study included all surviving PBs <30 weeks GA admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Canberra Hospital, Australian Capital Territory between 2007-2009...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900356/humidifiers-for-oxygen-therapy-what-risk-for-reusable-and-disposable-devices
#7
REVIEW
V La Fauci, G B Costa, A Facciolà, A Conti, R Riso, R Squeri
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial pneumonia accounts for the vast majority of healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Although numerous medical devices have been discussed as potential vehicles for microorganisms, very little is known about the role played by oxygen humidifiers as potential sources of nosocomial pathogens. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the safety of the reuse of humidifiers by analysing the rate of microbial contamination in reusable and disposable oxygen humidifiers used during therapy, and then discuss their potential role in the transmission of respiratory pathogens...
June 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894478/diagnosis-of-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-summary-of-the-ers-task-force-report
#8
Claudia E Kuehni, Jane S Lucas
KEY POINTS: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disease characterised by abnormal motile ciliary function.There is no "gold standard" diagnostic test for PCD.The European Respiratory Society (ERS) Task Force Guidelines for diagnosing PCD recommend that patients should be referred for diagnostic testing if they have several of the following features: persistent wet cough; situs anomalies; congenital cardiac defects; persistent rhinitis; chronic middle ear disease with or without hearing loss; or a history, in term infants, of neonatal upper and lower respiratory symptoms or neonatal intensive care admission...
September 2017: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892882/circulating-protein-carbonyls-antioxidant-enzymes-and-related-trace-minerals-among-preterms-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#9
Ahmed El-Abd Ahmed, Eman Ahmed Abd-Elmawgood, Mohammed H Hassan
INTRODUCTION: Information about oxidative stress in preterms with Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) is defective, so various researches in this area are required, which may open new roads in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease, hence provide additional helpful therapeutic approaches. AIM: To assess and compare the plasma level of protein carbonyls as a marker for oxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes; Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and the related trace minerals in the form of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and Selenium (Se) as markers for antioxidant status, in preterms with and without RDS...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885423/early-second-trimester-fetal-growth-restriction-and-adverse-perinatal-outcomes
#10
Lorene A Temming, Jeffrey M Dicke, Molly J Stout, Roxane M Rampersad, George A Macones, Methodius G Tuuli, Alison G Cahill
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes among women with isolated fetal growth restriction from 17 to 22 weeks of gestation. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all singleton, nonanomalous pregnancies undergoing ultrasonography to assess fetal anatomy between 17 and 22 weeks of gestation at a single center from 2010 to 2014. After excluding patients with fetal structural malformations, chromosomal abnormalities, or identified infectious etiologies, we compared perinatal outcomes between pregnancies with and without fetal growth restriction, defined as estimated fetal weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age...
September 5, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881515/-characteristics-of-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-gram-negative-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#11
L Dong, X Y Zhang, C C Li, Z Li, Y Q Xia
Objective: To study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in children, and to guide the choice of antimicrobials and the control of nosocomial infection. Method: Clinical data, bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results were collected retrospectively in hospitalized children who were diagnosed with gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January, 2010 to December, 2015...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875885/a-review-of-antenatal-corticosteroid-use-in-premature-neonates-in-a-middle-income-country
#12
A Laher, D E Ballot, T Ramdin, T Chirwa
BACKGROUND: Antenatal corticosteroid (ANS) use in premature neonates has become a standard of practice. However, there is low ANS coverage in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs). Recent studies have questioned the efficacy of ANSs in such countries. OBJECTIVE: To review the use of ANSs in preterm neonates at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH), South Africa. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of all neonates with a birth weight of 500 - 1 800 g born at CMJAH between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2016...
August 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875061/impact-of-caffeine-boluses-and-caffeine-discontinuation-on-apnea-and-hypoxemia-in-preterm-infants
#13
Christa R Tabacaru, Suk Young Jang, Manisha Patel, Faranek Davalian, Santina Zanelli, Karen D Fairchild
Background: Apnea of prematurity often occurs during and following caffeine therapy. We hypothesized that number of apnea events would be impacted by adjustments in caffeine therapy. Materials and Methods: An automated algorithm was used in all infants ≤32 weeks gestation admitted to a level IV Neonatal Intensive Care Unit from 2009 to 2014 to analyze chest impedance, electrocardiogram, and oxygen saturation data around the time of serum caffeine levels, caffeine boluses while on maintenance therapy, and caffeine discontinuation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Caffeine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871602/elective-transfers-of-preterm-neonates-to-regional-centres-on-non-invasive-respiratory-support-is-cost-effective-and-increases-tertiary-care-bed-capacity
#14
Hussein Zein, Kamran Yusuf, Renee Paul, Derek Kowal, Sumesh Thomas
AIM: Managing capacity at regional facilities caring for sick neonates is increasingly challenging. This study estimated the clinical and economic impact of the elective transfer of stable infants requiring nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) from level three to level two neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) within an established clinical network of five NICUs. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the records of 99 stable infants transferred on NCPAP between two level three NICUs and three level two NICUs in Calgary, Canada, between June 2014 and May 2016...
September 4, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870125/role-of-chest-ultrasound-in-neonatal-lung-disease-a-review-of-current-evidences
#15
Deepak Sharma, Nazanin Farahbakhsh
Among the common causes of neonatal admission to NICU, respiratory distress is one of the important cause. The neonatal respiratory distress is end result of various pulmonary and nonpulmonary causes. Differentiation of pulmonary causes of respiratory distress is important for the neonatologist as treatment differs with different etiologies. Conventionally, chest X-ray and sometimes CT scan has been used to identify the etiology of respiratory distress but these modalities have several limitations which make their use in NICU doubtful...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857765/impact-of-diuretic-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-acute-kidney-injury-in-the-neonatal-population
#16
Alexandra Kesler Johnson, Natalie Lynch, Desi Newberry, Amy J Jnah
BACKGROUND: Diuretics are among the most frequently prescribed medications in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), despite minimal data regarding the safety and efficacy of their use in the neonatal population. Off-label diuretic therapy is used in preterm and full-term infants to both optimize kidney function and improve respiratory status. PURPOSE: This article examines the literature specific to the impact of diuretic therapy in the NICU and compares the benefits versus risks of utilization as they pertain to the prevention and treatment of renal and pulmonary dysfunction in this population...
August 29, 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837137/maternal-and-neonatal-demographics-of-macrosomic-infants-admitted-to-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#17
J N Tolosa, D A Calhoun
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the incidence, significance, associated demographics and impact of macrosomic infants (⩾4 kg) admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) on NICU census and resources. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort review was performed from 2010 to 2015. Descriptive statistical analyses were used. RESULTS: Of 19 308 deliveries, 1823 were infants ⩾4000 g and 213 were admitted to the NICU...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834879/effect-of-acid-base-balance-on-postoperative-course-in-children-with-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-after-the-modified-norwood-procedure
#18
Marcin Gładki, Tomasz Składzień, Rafał Żurek, Elżbieta Broniatowska, Elżbieta Wójcik, Janusz H Skalski
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital heart defect that requires 3-stage cardiac surgical treatment and multidirectional specialist care. The condition of newborns in the first postoperative days following the modified Norwood procedure is characterized by considerable hemodynamic instability that may result in a sudden cardiac arrest. It is believed that the most important cause of hemodynamic instability is the fluctuations in redistribution between pulmonary and systemic blood flow.The paper analyzes the postoperative course in 40 neonates with HLHS following the modified Norwood procedure performed under deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass hospitalized in Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit (CSICU) in the years 2014-2015...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822646/the-crucial-role-of-maternal-care-providers-as-vaccinators-for-pregnant-women
#19
Maria Luz Vilca, Susanna Esposito
Vaccination during pregnancy is increasingly being recognised internationally a useful means of preventing illness in pregnant women and their newborns. It has been used since the 1960s, when it was found that tetanus vaccine was highly effective in preventing neonatal tetanus, but interest has greatly increased over the last few years. As new data become available showing the numerous benefits of maternal immunisation and its potential for improving maternal and neonatal health in relation to a number of infectious conditions, it is being increasingly incorporated into the national vaccination programmes around the world...
August 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821388/a-case-control-analysis-investigating-risk-factors-and-outcomes-for-nephrocalcinosis-and-renal-calculi-in-neonates
#20
Melissa Huynh, Roderick Clark, Jenny Li, Guido Filler, Sumit Dave
INTRODUCTION: Studies on outcomes and risk factors for neonatal nephrocalcinosis (NC) and renal calculi (RC) are limited, and often do not include controls for comparison. We conducted a case-control analysis to identify risk factors associated with NC and/or RC in neonates and studied the natural course of these anomalies. STUDY DESIGN: Infants diagnosed with NC/RC on ultrasound within the first year of life and corresponding gestational age- and gender-matched controls were identified from the neonatal intensive care unit database at our institution over a 10-year period...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
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