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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633369/fine-subdivisions-of-the-semantic-network-supporting-social-and-sensory-motor-semantic-processing
#1
Nan Lin, Xiaoying Wang, Yangwen Xu, Xiaosha Wang, Huimin Hua, Ying Zhao, Xingshan Li
Neuroimaging studies have consistently indicated that semantic processing involves a brain network consisting of multimodal cortical regions distributed in the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. However, little is known about how semantic information is organized and processed within the network. Some recent studies have indicated that sensory-motor semantic information modulates the activation of this network. Other studies have indicated that this network responds more to social semantic information than to other information...
June 15, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624681/semantic-word-category-processing-in-semantic-dementia-and-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#2
Zubaida Shebani, Karalyn Patterson, Peter J Nestor, Lara Z Diaz-de-Grenu, Kate Dawson, Friedemann Pulvermüller
There is general agreement that perisylvian language cortex plays a major role in lexical and semantic processing; but the contribution of additional, more widespread, brain areas in the processing of different semantic word categories remains controversial. We investigated word processing in two groups of patients whose neurodegenerative diseases preferentially affect specific parts of the brain, to determine whether their performance would vary as a function of semantic categories proposed to recruit those brain regions...
April 29, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616036/correlation-between-white-matter-damage-and-gray-matter-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#3
Xue-Mei Han, Hong-Ji Tian, Zheng Han, Ce Zhang, Ying Liu, Jie-Bing Gu, Rohit Bakshi, Xia Cao
We observed the characteristics of white matter fibers and gray matter in multiple sclerosis patients, to identify changes in diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values following white matter fiber injury. We analyzed the correlation between fractional anisotropy values and changes in whole-brain gray matter volume. The participants included 20 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All subjects underwent head magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607780/homonymous-superior-quadrantanopia-due-to-erdheim-chester-disease-with-asymptomatic-pituitary-involvement
#4
Roaa Ridha Amer, Sara Mohammed Qubaiban, Eman Abdulkarim Bakhsh
Polyostotic sclerosing histiocytosis, also known as Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), is a rare form of non-Langerhans histiocytosis. ECD has wide clinical spectrums which mainly affect skeletal, neurological, dermatological, retroperitoneal, cardiac, and pulmonary manifestations. Here we describe a case of ECD in a 45-year-old female who presented initially with bilateral knee pain and homonymous superior quadrantanopia progressed to ophthalmoplegia and complete visual loss of the left eye over a period of one year...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603689/spiders-ladybugs-and-bees-a-case-of-unusual-sensations-in-a-child-with-cingulate-epilepsy
#5
Robyn Whitney, Sameer AlMehmadi, Cristina Go, Ayako Ochi, Hiroshi Otsubo, Laura Bradbury, Kevin Jones, Eisha Christian, James Rutka, Bláthnaid McCoy
Cingulate epilepsy is a rare form of epilepsy. Seizures from the anterior cingulate may present with mood change, fear, hypermotor activity, and autonomic signs, while posterior cingulate seizures resemble temporal lobe seizures. We describe a child with cingulate epilepsy who experienced unpleasant/painful sensory phenomenon. The sensations were described as spiders crawling on his forehead/right leg, ladybugs causing right ear pain and bees stinging his head/right extremities. Unpleasant sensory phenomenon/pain are rarely reported in cingulate epilepsy...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602963/brain-activity-related-to-working-memory-for-temporal-order-and-object-information
#6
Brooke M Roberts, Laura A Libby, Marika C Inhoff, Charan Ranganath
Maintaining items in an appropriate sequence is important for many daily activities; however, remarkably little is known about the neural basis of human temporal working memory. Prior work suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus, play a role in representing information about temporal order. The involvement of these areas in successful temporal working memory, however, is less clear. Additionally, it is unknown whether regions in the PFC and MTL support temporal working memory across different timescales, or at coarse or fine levels of temporal detail...
June 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583883/preferential-susceptibility-of-limbic-cortices-to-microstructural-damage-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-quantitative-t1-mapping-study
#7
REVIEW
Boris C Bernhardt, Fatemeh Fadaie, Reinder Vos De Wael, Seok-Jun Hong, Min Liu, Marie C Guiot, David A Rudko, Andrea Bernasconi, Neda Bernasconi
The majority of MRI studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have utilized morphometry to map widespread cortical alterations. Morphological markers, such as cortical thickness or grey matter density, reflect combinations of biological events largely driven by overall cortical geometry rather than intracortical tissue properties. Because of its sensitivity to intracortical myelin, quantitative measurement of longitudinal relaxation time (qT1) provides and an in vivo proxy for cortical microstructure. Here, we mapped the regional distribution of qT1 in a consecutive cohort of 24 TLE patients and 20 healthy controls...
June 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582572/surgical-treatment-of-mesiotemporal-lobe-epilepsy-which-approach-is-favorable
#8
Barbara Schmeiser, Kathrin Wagner, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Irina Mader, Anne-Sophie Wendling, Bernhard Jochen Steinhoff, Marco Prinz, Christian Scheiwe, Astrid Weyerbrock, Josef Zentner
BACKGROUND: Mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy is one of the most frequent causes for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Different surgical approaches to the mesiotemporal area are used. OBJECTIVE: To analyze epileptological and neuropsychological results as well as complications of different surgical strategies. METHODS: This retrospective study is based on a consecutive series of 458 patients all harboring pharmacoresistant mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy...
June 2, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581371/delayed-presentation-of-cerebral-schistosomiasis-presenting-as-a-tumor-like-brain-lesion
#9
Suradech Suthiphosuwan, Amy Lin, Andrew F Gao, David G Munoz, Julian Spears, Aditya Bharatha
Schistosomiasis is the second most common parasitic infection worldwide. North America is a nonendemic area. However, there are occasional case reports among travelers and immigrants from endemic regions. We describe a case of a 55-year-old Canadian woman who presented with first episode of seizure. Her magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a mass-like lesion involving the left anterior temporal lobe. The lesion showed T1 hypo- and T2 hyperintense with perilesional brain edema. On post-gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequence, the lesion showed multiple small nodular and linear enhancements, also called an "arborized" appearance...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579788/primary-angle-closure-glaucomas-disturb-regional-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-the-visual-pathway-an-fmri-study
#10
Wei Chen, Li Zhang, Yong-Gen Xu, Kai Zhu, Man Luo
OBJECTIVE: To explore the underlying regional brain activity deficits in the visual cortex in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) relative to normal controls (NCs) using regional homogeneity (ReHo) method, and its relationship with behavioral performances. PATIENTS: Twenty PACG patients (10 females, 10 males; mean age ± standard deviation [SD]: 54.42±9.46 years) and 20 age-, and sex status-matched NCs (10 females, 10 males; mean age ± SD: 53.75±9...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579508/decompressive-hemicraniectomy-for-malignant-middle-cerebral-artery-stroke-south-asian-experience
#11
Saadat Kamran, Naveed Akhtar, Abdul Salam, Ayman Alboudi, Hiba Rashid, Kainat Kamran, Rabia Ali Khan, Mohsin Khalid Mirza, Arsalan Ahmed, Ahmed M A Own, Sohail Al Rukun, Jihad Inshasi, Dirk Deleu, Ghanim Al Sulaiti, Ashfaq Shuaib
BACKGROUND: The randomized trials showed improved outcome and reduced mortality in malignant middle cerebral artery (MMCA) undergoing Decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) within 48 hours of stroke onset. Despite high prevalence of stroke, especially in younger individuals, high and short-term mortality from stroke in South Asian and Middle East, there is little published data on DHC in patients with MMCA stroke. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicenter cross-sectional study to measure outcome following DHC using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and dichotomized as favorable (mRS ≤ 4) or unfavorable (mRS > 4), at 3 months...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575764/gaze-matters-the-effect-of-gaze-direction-on-emotional-enhancement-of-memory-for-faces-in-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#12
Łukasz Okruszek, Aleksandra Bala, Marcela Dziekan, Marta Szantroch, Andrzej Rysz, Andrzej Marchel, Sylwia Hyniewska
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to examine if gaze and emotional expression, both highly self-relevant social signals, affect the recollection accuracy of perceived faces in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). METHODS: Forty patients with MTLE (twenty-one without surgery and nineteen after anterior temporal lobectomy) as well as twenty healthy controls (HC) took part in the study. We used a set of 64 facial stimuli: 32 neutral and 32 emotional displays (16 fearful; 16 angry) from well-established affective stimuli databases...
May 30, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574311/erratum-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-recurrent-or-residual-seizures-after-anterior-temporal-lobectomy-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-long-term-follow-up-results-of-more-than-4-years
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570739/exploring-the-spatio-temporal-neural-basis-of-face-learning
#14
Ying Yang, Yang Xu, Carol A Jew, John A Pyles, Robert E Kass, Michael J Tarr
Humans are experts at face individuation. Although previous work has identified a network of face-sensitive regions and some of the temporal signatures of face processing, as yet, we do not have a clear understanding of how such face-sensitive regions support learning at different time points. To study the joint spatio-temporal neural basis of face learning, we trained subjects to categorize two groups of novel faces and recorded their neural responses using magnetoencephalography (MEG) throughout learning...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567171/a-functional-mri-based-model-for-individual-memory-assessment-in-patients-eligible-for-anterior-temporal-lobe-resection
#15
Maria Strandberg, Peter Mannfolk, Lars Stenberg, Hanna Ljung, Ia Rorsman, Elna-Marie Larsson, Danielle van Westen, Kristina Källén
TITLE: A functional (f) MRI-based model for individual memory assessment in patients eligible for temporal lobe resection. AIM: To investigate if pre-operative fMRI memory paradigms, add predictive information with regard to post-surgical memory deficits. METHODS: Fourteen pharmacoresistant Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) patients accepted for Anterior Temporal Lobe Resection (ATLR) were included. A clinical risk assessment score (RAS 0-3) was constructed from structural MRI, neuropsychological testing and hemisphere dominance...
2017: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566958/cognitive-outcome-after-surgery-in-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
Günay Gül, Demet Yandim Kuşcu, Mesude Özerden, Melek Kandemir, Fulya Eren, Bekir Tuğcu, Cahit Keskinkiliç, Nalan Kayrak, Dursun Kirbaş
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the neuropsychological outcomes of patients with medically intractable unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS) treated either by anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) or selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH). METHODS: This was a retrospective study where 67 patients who had undergone surgery for MTLE were evaluated. Thirty-two patients underwent ATL and 35 underwent SAH...
March 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552361/human-cortical-neurons-in-the-anterior-temporal-lobe-reinstate-spiking-activity-during-verbal-memory-retrieval
#17
Anthony I Jang, John H Wittig, Sara K Inati, Kareem A Zaghloul
When we recall an experience, we rely upon the associations that we formed during the experience, such as those among objects, time, and place [1]. These associations are better remembered when they are familiar and draw upon generalized knowledge, suggesting that we use semantic memory in the service of episodic memory [2, 3]. Moreover, converging evidence suggests that episodic memory retrieval involves the reinstatement of neural activity that was present when we first experienced the event. Therefore, we hypothesized that retrieving associations should also reinstate the neural activity responsible for semantic processing...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548591/test-retest-reliability-of-cortical-language-mapping-in-a-patient-with-refractory-focal-epilepsy-11-years-later
#18
Kirsty E Bortnik, Guy M McKhann, Marla J Hamberger
Electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) is considered the gold standard for identification of essential language cortex and is especially important in patients for whom classic language landmarks are less useful because of reorganization in response to epileptogenic or neoplastic cortex. However, little is known regarding the reliability of the procedure, particularly over extended time intervals. The authors present the case of a young man with refractory left temporal lobe epilepsy in the setting of a low-grade left temporal tumor who had undergone intraoperative language mapping at age 14 years and repeat mapping at age 25...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543989/brain-structural-alterations-in-obese-children-with-and-without-prader-willi-syndrome
#19
Mingze Xu, Yi Zhang, Karen M von Deneen, Huaiqiu Zhu, Jia-Hong Gao
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic imprinting disorder that is mainly characterized by hyperphagia and childhood obesity. Previous neuroimaging studies revealed that there is a significant difference in brain activation patterns between obese children with and without PWS. However, whether there are differences in the brain structure of obese children with and without PWS remains elusive. In the current study, we used T1-weighted and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging to investigate alterations in the brain structure, such as the cortical volume and white matter integrity, in relation to this eating disorder in 12 children with PWS, 18 obese children without PWS (OB) and 18 healthy controls...
May 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540180/hemoglobin-and-mean-platelet-volume-predicts-diffuse-t1-mri-white-matter-volume-decrease-in-sickle-cell-disease-patients
#20
Soyoung Choi, Adam M Bush, Matthew T Borzage, Anand A Joshi, William J Mack, Thomas D Coates, Richard M Leahy, John C Wood
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a life-threatening genetic condition. Patients suffer from chronic systemic and cerebral vascular disease that leads to early and cumulative neurological damage. Few studies have quantified the effects of this disease on brain morphometry and even fewer efforts have been devoted to older patients despite the progressive nature of the disease. This study quantifies global and regional brain volumes in adolescent and young adult patients with SCD and racially matched controls with the aim of distinguishing between age related changes associated with normal brain maturation and damage from sickle cell disease...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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