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Anterior temporal lobe

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786083/attention-improves-memory-by-suppressing-spiking-neuron-activity-in-the-human-anterior-temporal-lobe
#1
John H Wittig, Anthony I Jang, John B Cocjin, Sara K Inati, Kareem A Zaghloul
We identify a memory-specific attention mechanism in the human anterior temporal lobe, an area implicated in semantic processing and episodic memory formation. Spiking neuron activity is suppressed and becomes more reliable in preparation for verbal memory formation. Intracranial electroencephalography signals implicate this region as a source of executive control for attentional selection. Consistent with this interpretation, its surgical removal causes significant memory impairment for attended words relative to unattended words...
May 21, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774174/outpatient-interventions-that-may-enhance-the-care-of-a-patient-with-co-existing-moyamoya-and-down-syndromes
#2
Anita Lwanga, Waldo Herrera, Katya Cruz Madrid, Antony Irungu
Moyamoya vasculopathy is a condition of chronic, progressive occlusion of the distal internal carotid arteries and the Circle of Willis. The resultant ischemia produces compensatory angiogenesis and the growth of a network of collateral blood vessels, which on angiography resemble a "puff of smoke" or "moyamoya" in Japanese. The objective of this case report is to describe the clinical course of a patient with Down and moyamoya syndromes and to enlighten clinicians about strategies that can be taken to enhance the care of similar patients...
March 16, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769251/systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-of-resective-surgery-for-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Puneet Jain, George Tomlinson, Carter Snead, Beate Sander, Elysa Widjaja
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) versus selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) on seizure-free outcome in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, using both direct and indirect evidence from the literature. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for original research articles and systematic reviews comparing ATL versus SAH, and ATL or SAH versus medical management (MM). The outcome was seizure freedom at 12 months of follow-up or longer...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768433/the-long-term-outcomes-of-epilepsy-surgery
#4
Midhun Mohan, Simon Keller, Andrew Nicolson, Shubhabrata Biswas, David Smith, Jibril Osman Farah, Paul Eldridge, Udo Wieshmann
OBJECTIVE: Despite modern anti-epileptic drug treatment, approximately 30% of epilepsies remain medically refractory and for these patients, epilepsy surgery may be a treatment option. There have been numerous studies demonstrating good outcome of epilepsy surgery in the short to median term however, there are a limited number of studies looking at the long-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to ascertain the long-term outcome of resective epilepsy surgery in a large neurosurgery hospital in the U...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755904/radiation-induced-cavernous-malformation-as-a-late-sequelae-of-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-epilepsy
#5
Ethan A Winkler, Caleb Rutledge, Mariann Ward, Tarik Tihan, Patricia K Sneed, Nicholas Barbaro, Paul Garcia, Michael McDermott, Edward F Chang
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a promising treatment for medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. SRS for epilepsy has had an acceptable safety profile with reports of radiation-induced vascular malformations confined to central nervous system pathologies with prominent angiogenesis - namely, primary brain tumors, metastases, and arteriovenous malformations. Theoretical risks for radiation-induced lesions following radiosurgery for epilepsy have yet to be established. Of 13 patients treated in a pilot trial for medial temporal lobe epilepsy, one developed multiple delayed radiation-induced cavernous malformations following radiosurgery...
March 11, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752216/primary-and-secondary-variants-of-psychopathy-in-a-volunteer-sample-are-associated-with-different-neurocognitive-mechanisms
#6
Arjun Sethi, Eamon McCrory, Vanessa Puetz, Ferdinand Hoffmann, Annchen R Knodt, Spenser R Radtke, Bartholomew D Brigidi, Ahmad R Hariri, Essi Viding
BACKGROUND: Recent work has indicated that there at least two distinct subtypes of psychopathy. Primary psychopathy is characterized by low anxiety and thought to result from a genetic predisposition, whereas secondary psychopathy is characterized by high anxiety and thought to develop in response to environmental adversity. Primary psychopathy is robustly associated with reduced neural activation to others' emotions and, in particular, distress. However, it has been proposed that the secondary presentation has different neurocognitive correlates...
April 12, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744804/frontal-lobe-functioning-during-a-simple-response-conflict-task-in-first-episode-psychosis-and-its-relationship-to-treatment-response
#7
Keith M Shafritz, Toshikazu Ikuta, Allison Greene, Delbert G Robinson, Juan Gallego, Todd Lencz, Pamela DeRosse, Peter B Kingsley, Philip R Szeszko
Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive control in patients with psychosis with findings of both hypo- and hyperfrontality. One factor that may contribute to inconsistent findings is the use of complex and polyfactorial tasks to investigate frontal lobe functioning. In the current study we employed a simple response conflict task during fMRI to examine differences in brain activation between patients experiencing their first-episode of psychosis (n = 33) and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 33)...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742026/cortical-sources-of-the-auditory-attentional-blink
#8
Dawei Shen, Dominique T Vuvan, Claude Alain
Attentional blink (AB) refers to the situation where correctly identifying a target impairs the processing of a subsequent probe in a sequence of stimuli. Although the AB often coincides with a modulation of scalp-recorded cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs), the neural sources of this effect remain unclear. In two separate experiments, we used Classical LORETA Analysis Recursively Applied (CLARA) to estimate the neural sources of ERPs elicited by an auditory probe when it immediately followed an auditory target (i...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739092/satb2-associated-syndrome-a-case-report-of-a-de-novo-nonsense-mutation-in-satb2-from-china-and-review-of-literature
#9
Hong-Yan Lv, Rui-Jiang Zheng, Qiu-Li Wang, Peng-Shun Ren, Lin-Hong Jin, Xiu-Ling Gu, Lian-Xiang Li
BACKGROUND: To study the clinical and genetic features from a Chinese child with SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) and review of literature. METHODS: The girl, 2 years 3 months old, is admitted to the Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation in our hospital. This patient has mental retardation, language development disorder, cleft palate II0, micrognathia, malocclusion, irritability and bilateral oblique palpebral fissure as a clinical manifestation and is treated for 3 months...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729534/the-surgical-outcome-of-patients-with-bilateral-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#10
Xiaoxia Zhou, Tao Yu, Guojun Zhang, Duanyu Ni, Liang Qiao, Xueyuan Wang, Cuiping Xu, Chang Liu, Yuping Wang, Yongjie Li
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to explore the surgical outcome of unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for patients with bilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (BTLE). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of patients who were diagnosed with BTLE by scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) and underwent ATL from 2001 to 2015. In addition, 80 patients were randomly selected as a control group. RESULTS: One hundred seventeen patients were included in this study and were divided into four groups by intracranial recordings as follows: 78 patients with unilateral seizure onset (Group 1), 13 patients with lateralizable dominant seizure onset (Group 2), 14 patients with lateralizable neuroimaging abnormalities (Group 3), and 12 patients without lateralizable dominant seizure onset or neuroimaging abnormalities (Group 4)...
April 26, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716643/tdp-43-pathology-in-anterior-temporal-pole-cortex-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Sukriti Nag, Lei Yu, Patricia A Boyle, Sue E Leurgans, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
TDP-43 pathology was investigated in the anterior temporal pole cortex (ATPC) and orbital frontal cortex (OFC), regions often degenerated in frontotemporal lobar degenerations (FTLD), in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Diagnosis of dementia in the 1160 autopsied participants from 3 studies of community-dwelling elders was based on clinical evaluation and cognitive performance tests which were used to create summary measures of the five cognitive domains. Neuronal and glial TDP-43 cytoplasmic inclusions were quantitated in 8 brain regions by immunohistochemistry, and used in ANOVA and regression analyses...
May 1, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714526/brain-intrinsic-network-connectivity-in-individuals-with-frequent-tanning-behavior
#12
Ariel Ketcherside, Francesca M Filbey, Pamela M Aubert, John P Seibyl, Julianne L Price, Bryon Adinoff
BACKGROUND: Emergent studies suggest a bidirectional relationship between brain functioning and the skin. This neurocutaneous connection may be responsible for the reward response to tanning and, thus, may contribute to excessive tanning behavior. To date, however, this association has not yet been examined. OBJECTIVES: To explore whether intrinsic brain functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) is related to indoor tanning behavior. METHODS: Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) was obtained in twenty adults (16 females) with a history of indoor tanning...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712487/prospective-study-of-myelin-water-fraction-changes-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-collegiate-contact-sports
#13
Heather S Spader, Douglas C Dean, W Curt LaFrance, Neha P Raukar, G Rees Cosgrove, Stephanie A Eyerly-Webb, Anna Ellermeier, Stephen Correia, Sean C L Deoni, Jeffrey Rogg
OBJECTIVE Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in athletes, including concussion, is increasingly being found to have long-term sequelae. Current imaging techniques have not been able to identify early damage caused by mTBI that is predictive of long-term symptoms or chronic traumatic encephalopathy. In this preliminary feasibility study, the authors investigated the use of an emerging magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, multicomponent driven equilibrium single pulse observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT), in visualizing acute and chronic white matter changes after mTBI in collegiate football and rugby players...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705713/the-neural-markers-of-mri-to-differentiate-depression-and-panic-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Chien-Han Lai
Depression and panic disorder (PD) share the common pathophysiology from the perspectives of neurotransmitters. The relatively high comorbidity between depression and PD contributes to the substantial obstacles to differentiate from depression and PD, especially for the brain pathophysiology. There are significant differences in the diagnostic criteria between depression and PD. However, the paradox of similar pathophysiology and different diagnostic criteria in these two disorders were still the issues needing to be addressed...
April 26, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703447/cognitive-and-functional-correlates-of-accelerated-long-term-forgetting-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Samantha Audrain, Mary P McAndrews
While we know that hippocampal dysfunction is responsible for the memory deficits that patients with temporal lobe epilepsy exhibit at relatively short study-test delays, the role of this region in accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is not yet clear. In the present study, we probed the role of the hippocampus in ALF by directly comparing memory for associations to memory that could be supported by item recognition during a forced choice recognition task over delays ranging from 15-min to 72-h. We additionally examined resting-state functional connectivity between the hippocampus and cortical regions known to be involved in processing these types of stimuli, as well as the relationship between ALF and various clinical variables including structural abnormality in the hippocampus, lateralization of epileptic focus, presence of seizures across the retention period, and standardized composite memory scores...
March 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699465/alterations-of-brain-grey-matter-density-and-olfactory-bulb-volume-in-patients-with-olfactory-loss-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Pengfei Han, Nicole Winkler, Cornelia Hummel, Antje Hähner, Johannes Gerber, Thomas Hummel
Olfactory loss and traumatic brain injury (TBI) both lead to anatomical brain alterations in humans. Little research has been done on the structural brain changes for TBI patients with olfactory loss. Using voxel-based morphometry, the grey matter (GM) density was examined for twenty-two TBI patients with hyposmia, twenty-four TBI patients with anosmia, and twenty-two age-matched controls. Olfactory bulb (OB) volumes were measured by manual segmentation of acquired T2 weighted coronal slices using a standardized protocol...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698733/evidence-for-degraded-low-frequency-verbal-concepts-in-left-resected-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#17
M Visser, C Forn, M A Lambon Ralph, P Hoffman, A Gómez Ibáñez, A Sanjuan-Tomas, P Rosell Negre, V Villanueva, C Ávila
According to a large neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature, the bilateral anterior temporal lobe (ATL) is a core region for semantic processing. It seems therefore surprising that semantic memory appears to be preserved in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with unilateral ATL resection. However, recent work suggests that the bilateral semantic system is relatively robust against unilateral damage and semantic impairments under these circumstances only become apparent with low frequency specific concepts...
April 23, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697994/affective-traits-of-psychopathy-are-linked-to-white-matter-abnormalities-in-impulsive-male-offenders
#18
Anouk Vermeij, Maaike M Kempes, Maaike J Cima, Rogier B Mars, Inti A Brazil
OBJECTIVE: Psychopathy is a personality disorder typified by lack of empathy and impulsive antisocial behavior. Psychopathic traits may partly relate to disrupted connections between brain regions. The aim of the present study was to link abnormalities in microstructural integrity of white-matter tracts to the severity of different psychopathic traits in 15 male offenders with impulse control problems and 10 without impulse control problems. METHOD: Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-revised (PCL-R)...
April 26, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695997/the-anatomo-electrical-network-underlying-hypermotor-seizures
#19
Xiu Wang, Wenhan Hu, Kai Zhang, Xiaoqiu Shao, Yanshan Ma, Lin Sang, Zhong Zheng, Chao Zhang, Junjv Li, Jian-Guo Zhang
Purpose: Hypermotor seizures (HMS) can be triggered by different epileptogenic foci and thus common symptomatic networks generating HMS may exist among these patients. The goal of the present study was to investigate the specialized networks underlying HMS by analyzing interictal 18 FDG-PET imaging and ictal stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) recordings. Methods: Fourteen patients with HMS were retrospectively analyzed. HMS were classified into HMS1 and HMS2 according to the speed and intensity of the motor seizure behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693207/composing-lexical-versus-functional-adjectives-evidence-for-uniformity-in-the-left-temporal-lobe
#20
Linmin Zhang, Liina Pylkkänen
Featural information (e.g., color or shape) allows interlocutors to focus their attention on the specific items under discussion from the vast set of possibilities in the environment. Intriguingly, when they are used to modify and restrict nouns, adjectives can either carry featural information themselves (e.g., green car) or retrieve featural information from the context (e.g., somebody points at a car and claims that she has the same car or a different car). Do the processing of same/different car and green car share neural correlates? For the composition of nouns with feature-carrying adjectives, prior work revealed early compositional effects (roughly 200 ms after noun onset) in the left anterior temporal lobe...
April 24, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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