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Anterior temporal lobe

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156413/anterior-posterior-gradient-differences-in-lobar-and-cingulate-cortex-cerebral-blood-flow-in-late-life-depression
#1
Margarita Abi Zeid Daou, Brian D Boyd, Manus J Donahue, Kimberly Albert, Warren D Taylor
Vascular pathology is common in late-life depression, contributing to changes in cerebral function. We examined whether late-life depression was associated with differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and whether such differences were related to vascular risk and cerebrovascular pathology, specifically white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volumes. Twenty-three depressed elders and 20 age- and sex-matched elders with no psychiatric history completed cranial 3T MRI. MRI procedures included a pseudo-continuous Arterial Spin Labeling (pcASL) acquisition obtained while on room air and during a hypercapnia challenge allowing for calculation of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155435/periventricular-white-matter-hyperintensities-and-functional-decline
#2
Mandip S Dhamoon, Ying-Kuen Cheung, Ahmet Bagci, Noam Alperin, Ralph L Sacco, Mitchell S V Elkind, Clinton B Wright
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We previously showed that global brain white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) was associated with accelerated long-term functional decline. The objective of the current study was to determine whether WMHV in particular brain regions is more predictive of functional decline. DESIGN: Prospective population-based study. SETTING: Northern Manhattan magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals free of stroke at baseline (N = 1,195; mean age 71 ± 9; n = 460 (39%) male)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153613/brain-expression-of-inflammatory-mediators-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#3
Bárbara Leal, João Chaves, Cláudia Carvalho, Rui Rangel, Agostinho Santos, Andreia Bettencourt, João Lopes, João Ramalheira, Berta M Silva, António Martins da Silva, Paulo P Costa
Neuroinflammation may be central in epileptogenesis. In this study we analysed inflammatory reaction markers in brain tissue of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Hippocampal Sclerosis (MTLE-HS) patients. TLR4, IL-1β and IL-10 gene expression as well as the presence of activated HLA-DR+ microglia was evaluated in 23 patients and 10 cadaveric controls. Inflammation characterized by the presence of HLA-DR(+) microglia and TLR4, IL-1β overexpression was evident in hippocampus and anterior temporal cortex of MTLE-HS patients...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146995/gaba-concentrations-in-the-anterior-temporal-lobe-predict-human-semantic-processing
#4
JeYoung Jung, Stephen R Williams, Faezeh Sanaei Nezhad, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
There is now considerable convergent evidence from multiple methodologies and clinical studies that the human anterior temporal lobe (ATL) is a semantic representational hub. However, the neurochemical nature of the ATL in the semantic processing remains unclear. The current study investigated the neurochemical mechanism underlying semantic processing in the ATL. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure task-related blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes during sematic processing and resting-state GABA concentrations in the ATL...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145186/the-kl%C3%A3-ver-bucy-syndrome
#5
Douglas J Lanska
In 1937, Heinrich Klüver and Paul Bucy described a dramatic behavioral syndrome in monkeys after bilateral temporal lobectomy. The full Klüver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) - hyperorality, placidity, hypermetamorphosis, dietary changes, altered sexual behavior, and visual agnosia - is evident within 3 weeks following operation. Some KBS features (i.e., hyperorality, placidity, hypermetamorphosis) persist indefinitely, whereas others gradually resolve over several years. Klüver and Bucy were initially unaware of an earlier report of KBS by Sanger Brown and Edward Schäfer in 1888...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137445/altered-resting-state-functional-activity-in-isolated-pontine-infarction-patients-with-pathological-laughing-and-crying
#6
Tao Liu, Jianjun Li, Shixiong Huang, Changqinq Li, Zhongyan Zhao, Guoqiang Wen, Feng Chen
We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the global spontaneous neural activity involved in pathological laughing and crying after stroke. Twelve pathological laughing and crying patients with isolated pontine infarction were included, along with 12 age- and gender-matched acute isolated pontine infarction patients without pathological laughing and crying, and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We examined both the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation and the regional homogeneity in order to comprehensively evaluate the intrinsic activity in patients with post-stroke pathological laughing and crying...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128469/the-different-patterns-of-seizure-induced-aphasia-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsies
#7
Agnès Trebuchon, Isabelle Lambert, Bernard Guisiano, Aileen McGonigal, Charline Perot, Francesca Bonini, Romain Carron, Catherine Liegeois-Chauvel, Patrick Chauvel, Fabrice Bartolomei
OBJECTIVES: Ictal language disturbances may occur in dominant hemisphere temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but little is known about the precise anatomoelectroclinical correlations. This study investigated the different facets of ictal aphasia in intracerebrally recorded TLE. METHODS: Video-stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) recordings of 37 seizures in 17 right-handed patients with drug-resistant TLE were analyzed; SEEG electroclinical correlations between language disturbance and involvement of temporal lobe structures were assessed...
November 8, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122609/structural-connections-support-emotional-connections-uncinate-fasciculus-microstructure-is-related-to-the-ability-to-decode-facial-emotion-expressions
#8
Bethany M Coad, Mark Postans, Carl J Hodgetts, Nils Muhlert, Kim S Graham, Andrew D Lawrence
The Uncinate Fasciculus (UF) is an association fibre tract connecting regions in the frontal and anterior temporal lobes. UF disruption is seen in several disorders associated with impaired social behaviour, but its functional role is unclear. Here we set out to test the hypothesis that the UF is important for facial expression processing, an ability fundamental to adaptive social behaviour. In two separate experiments in healthy adults, we used high-angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (HARDI) and constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) tractography to virtually dissect the UF, plus a control tract (the corticospinal tract (CST)), and quantify, via tissue fractional anisotropy (FAT), individual differences in tract microstructure...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113406/altered-dmn-functional-connectivity-and-regional-homogeneity-in-partial-epilepsy-patients-a-seventy-cases-study
#9
Chong-Yu Hu, Xiaoping Gao, Lili Long, Xiaoyan Long, Chaorong Liu, Yayu Chen, Yuanyuan Xie, Chujuan Liu, Bo Xiao, Zhe-Yu Hu
Purpose: Clinically diagnosed partial epilepsy is hard to be functionally diagnosed by regular electroencephalograph (EEG) and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By collecting transient brain regional signals, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) function MRI (BOLD-fMRI) can provide brain function change information with high accuracy. By using resting state BOLD-fMRI technique, we aim to investigate the changes of brain function in partial epilepsy patients. Methods: BOLD-fMRI scanning was performed in 70 partial epilepsy and 70 healthy people...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111296/a-neurosurgeon-s-view-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-structures
#10
Yarema B Bezchlibnyk, Jon T Willie, Robert E Gross
Stereotactic laser ablation of mesial temporal structures is a promising new surgical intervention for patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Since this procedure was first used to treat MTLE in 2010, the literature contains reports of 37 patients that underwent MR-guided stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy (SLAH) using Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy (LITT) with at least 1year of follow-up. This early body of data suggests that SLAH is a safe and effective treatment for MTLE in properly selected patients...
October 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108942/how-landmark-suitability-shapes-recognition-memory-signals-for-objects-in-the-medial-temporal-lobes
#11
Chris B Martin, Jacqueline A Sullivan, Jessey Wright, Stefan Köhler
A role of perirhinal cortex (PrC) in recognition memory for objects has been well established. Contributions of parahippocampal cortex (PhC) to this function, while documented, remain less well understood. Here, we used fMRI to examine whether the organization of item-based recognition memory signals across these two structures is shaped by object category, independent of any difference in representing episodic context. Guided by research suggesting that PhC plays a critical role in processing landmarks, we focused on three categories of objects that differ from each other in their landmark suitability as confirmed with behavioral ratings (buildings > trees > aircraft)...
November 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107660/hemispheric-differences-in-the-number-of-parvalbumin-positive-neurons-in-subdivisions-of-the-rat-basolateral-amygdala-complex
#12
Ryan K Butler, Elisabeth M Oliver, Jim R Fadel, Marlene A Wilson
The amygdala is a bilateral temporal lobe brain region which plays an important role in emotional processing. Past studies on the amygdala have shown hemispheric differences in amygdalar processes and responses associated with specific pain and fear behaviors. Despite the functional differences in the amygdala, few studies have been performed to characterize whether anatomical differences exist between the left and right amygdala. Parvalbumin (PV) is a phenotypic marker for an inhibitory interneuronal population in cortical brain structures such as the basolateral amygdala complex (BLC)...
October 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100736/single-neuron-correlates-of-awareness-during-attentional-blinks
#13
Zhongzheng Fu, Ueli Rutishauser
A recent single-neuron study revealed an anatomical anterior-to-posterior gradient of awareness-related responses by 'concept neurons' in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL). Delayed and weaker responses were indicative of the failure of a stimulus to reach awareness, suggesting that reliable fast responses are a critical aspect of the neural mechanisms of consciousness.
October 31, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098403/nuclear-organization-of-the-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana-amygdaloid-complex-an-unusual-mammalian-amygdala
#14
Aude'Marie Limacher-Burrell, Adhil Bhagwandin, Busisiwe C Maseko, Paul R Manger
Here we describe the nuclear organization of the African elephant amygdaloid complex using Nissl, myelin, and a range of immunohistochemical stains. The African elephant is thought to exhibit many affect-laden and social-empathic behaviours; however, to date the amygdaloid complex, which is the generator of emotional states of the brain is yet to be fully explored in the elephants. For the most part, the amygdaloid complex of the African elephant is similar to that observed in other mammals in terms of the presence of nuclei and their topological relationships; however, we did observe several specific differences in amygdaloid organization...
November 2, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089238/-clinical-and-pathological-definition-of-temporal-medium-epilepsy-subtypes-with-hypocampic-sclerosis
#15
Gonzalo Olivares-Granados, Rosa María Ríos-Pelegrina, Jesús Ruiz-Giménez, Alberto Galdón-Castillo, Teresa Escobar-Delgado, Raimundo García Del Moral
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of refractory epilepsy, and the most common indication for surgery. Although effective, surgery fails in up to 40% of patients. The objective of our study was to establish a correlation between the different histological subtypes of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis and the prognosis, seizures control, side effects and anticonvulsivant drug withdrawal in patients with refractory epilepsy...
October 28, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079492/the-contribution-of-different-prefrontal-cortex-regions-to-recollection-and-familiarity-a-review-of-fmri-data
#16
REVIEW
Francesco Scalici, Carlo Caltagirone, Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo
Dual-process theories of recognition memory sustain that recollection and familiarity reflect different mnemonic processes and rely on separate neural substrates that are located primarily in the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Aggleton and Brown's model (1999) assumes that this distinction extends to other brain regions, including the thalamus, and that both recognition memory processes interact with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether recollection and familiarity are subtended by separate prefrontal regions...
October 25, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079398/the-neural-correlates-of-apathy-in-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-investigation
#17
Fernando Caravaggio, Gagan Fervaha, Mahesh Menon, Gary Remington, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Philip Gerretsen
BACKGROUND: Motivational deficits represent a core negative symptom in patients with schizophrenia. Previous morphology studies have demonstrated that apathy in patients with schizophrenia is associated with reduced frontal grey matter (GM). We attempted to replicate this previous finding, and explored whether it was distinct from potential associations with a distinct subdomain of negative symptoms, namely Affective Flattening, and GM. METHODS: Twenty medicated patients with schizophrenia provided structural T1-weighted images acquired on a 3-Tesla MRI scanner and negative symptoms were evaluated using the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms...
October 24, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077553/greater-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-reduced-frontal-cortical-volumes-among-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder
#18
Alvi H Islam, Arron W S Metcalfe, Bradley J MacIntosh, Daphne J Korczak, Benjamin I Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Higher body mass index (BMI) and obesity is common among youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and is associated with greater psychiatric illness severity, including suicidality. Obesity has been associated with frontal, temporal and subcortical volumetric reductions in adults with BD. We examined the neurostructural correlates of BMI in adolescents early in their course of BD. METHODS: We processed T1-weighted images of adolescents with BD and psychiatrically healthy controls using FreeSurfer to derive a priori region of interest (ROI) volumes/cortical thickness for the frontal lobe (FL), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as volumes for the amygdala and hippocampus...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073645/integration-of-objects-and-space-in-perception-and-memory
#19
REVIEW
Charles E Connor, James J Knierim
Distinct processing of objects and space has been an organizing principle for studying higher-level vision and medial temporal lobe memory. Here, however, we discuss how object and spatial information are in fact closely integrated in vision and memory. The ventral, object-processing visual pathway carries precise spatial information, transformed from retinotopic coordinates into relative dimensions. At the final stages of the ventral pathway, including the dorsal anterior temporal lobe (TEd), object-sensitive neurons are intermixed with neurons that process large-scale environmental space...
October 26, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072188/body-dysmorphic-disorder-latest-neuroanatomical-and-neuropsychological-findings
#20
K Tasios, I Michopoulos
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by a preoccupation with a perceived defect or flaw in physical appearance that is not observable or appears slight to others. It leads to severe distress and functional impairment. Cognitive-behavioural and neurobiological similarities to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have led to its newly conceived classification as an obsessive compulsive related disorder (OCRD). In the process of investigating the neurobiology of BDD, neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have been conducted...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
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