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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531897/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-brain-of-a-monotreme-the-short-beaked-echidna-tachyglossus-aculeatus
#1
Sandilya Cherupalli, Craig D Hardman, Andre Bongers, Ken W S Ashwell
We used magnetic resonance imaging to study the anatomy of cortical regions, nuclear groups, and major tracts in the brain of a monotreme, i.e., the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Our specimens were from a collection held at the Australian Museum in Sydney and had been stored in formaldehyde solution for at least 70 years. Despite this, we were able to detect fine detail in the nuclear divisions of structures as well as in fiber tracts. In particular, we could detect the medial lemniscus as it approached the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, subdivisions within the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, lamination and subdivisions within the hippocampal formation, components of the olfactory pathways, and nuclei within the temporal amygdala...
May 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527986/the-temporal-and-spatial-brain-dynamics-of-automatic-emotion-regulation-in-children
#2
Charline Urbain, Julie Sato, Elizabeth W Pang, Margot J Taylor
Mechanisms for automatic emotion regulation (AER) are essential during childhood as they offset the impact of unwanted or negative emotional responses without drawing on limited attentional resources. Despite the importance of AER in improving the efficiency and flexibility of self-regulation, few research studies have investigated the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. To fill this gap, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate AER-related brain processes in 25 children (∼10 years old) who performed a go/no-go task that included an incidental exposure to faces containing socio-emotional cues...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525587/assessing-the-psychedelic-after-glow-in-ayahuasca-users-post-acute-neurometabolic-and-functional-connectivity-changes-are-associated-with-enhanced-mindfulness-capacities
#3
Frederic Sampedro, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Marta Valle, Natalia Roberto, Elisabet Domínguez-Clavé, Matilde Elices, Luís Eduardo Luna, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Draulio B de Araujo, Pablo Friedlander, Steven A Barker, Enrique Álvarez, Joaquim Soler, Juan C Pascual, Amanda Feilding, Jordi Riba
Background: Ayahuasca is a plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmala monoamine-oxidase inhibitors. Acute administration leads to neurophysiological modifications in brain regions of the default mode network (DMN), purportedly through a glutamatergic mechanism. Post-acutely, ayahuasca potentiates mindfulness capacities in volunteers, and induces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant patients. However, the mechanisms underlying these fast and maintained effects are poorly understood...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520647/altered-brain-structure-and-function-associated-with-sensory-and-affective-components-of-classic-trigeminal-neuralgia
#4
Yuan Wang, Dong-Yuan Cao, Bethany Remeniuk, Samuel Krimmel, David A Seminowicz, Ming Zhang
Classic trigeminal neuralgia (CTN) is a chronic neuropathic pain state characterized by intense, piercing spasms of the orofacial region, and may be attributable to abnormal pain processing in the central nervous system. Our study investigated neuronal alterations using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffuse tensor imaging (DTI), and resting state functional connectivity in 38 CTN patients and 38 matched healthy controls. For VBM analyses, CTN patients displayed gray matter volume (GMV) reductions in the anterior and mid cingulate cortex (ACC and MCC), insula, secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), primary motor cortex (M1), premotor area (PMA), and several regions in the temporal lobe...
May 16, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520631/operculo-insular-epilepsy-scalp-and-intracranial-electroencephalographic-findings
#5
Ariel Levy, Thi Phuoc Yen Tran, Olivier Boucher, Alain Bouthillier, Dang Khoa Nguyen
PURPOSE: Operculo-insular seizures are heterogeneous and may resemble seizures originating from the temporal, frontal, or parietal lobe. Although surface and invasive EEG recordings are often necessary to detect operculo-insular seizures, electrophysiological features of operculo-insular epilepsies remain poorly characterized. This study describes the EEG findings of patients with operculo-insular epilepsy. METHODS: We reviewed electrophysiological data of all patients (n = 9) with operculo-insular seizures revealed by intracranial EEG and for whom operculo-insular epilepsy was confirmed by good seizure outcome after resective or radiosurgery at our center between 2005 and 2013...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515948/cerebral-air-embolism-associated-with-penetrating-lung-injury-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Ayumu Yamaoka, Kei Miyata, Eichi Narimatsu, Eiji Sakawaki, Sonoko Sakawaki, Suguru Hirayama, Shuji Uemura, Naoya Yama
CASE: A 44-year-old man intentionally stabbed himself in the anterior neck and left thorax with a fruit knife. Physical examination revealed two open wounds entering the thoracic cavity in the front chest, and a stab wound entering the trachea at the neck. Two chest tubes were initially inserted for the left lung injury with open hemopneumothorax. Nevertheless, the worsening oxygenation required positive pressure ventilation (PPV) with endotracheal intubation. OUTCOME: Right hemiparesis was found during weaning from PPV...
April 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515267/presurgical-thalamic-hubness-predicts-surgical-outcome-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Xiaosong He, Gaelle E Doucet, Dorian Pustina, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini D Sharan, Joseph I Tracy
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the presurgical brain functional architecture presented in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using graph theoretical measures of resting-state fMRI data and to test its association with surgical outcome. METHODS: Fifty-six unilateral patients with TLE, who subsequently underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and were classified as obtaining a seizure-free (Engel class I, n = 35) vs not seizure-free (Engel classes II-IV, n = 21) outcome at 1 year after surgery, and 28 matched healthy controls were enrolled...
May 17, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513102/how-bilingualism-protects-the-brain-from-aging-insights-from-bimodal-bilinguals
#8
Le Li, Jubin Abutalebi, Karen Emmorey, Gaolang Gong, Xin Yan, Xiaoxia Feng, Lijuan Zou, Guosheng Ding
Bilingual experience can delay cognitive decline during aging. A general hypothesis is that the executive control system of bilinguals faces an increased load due to controlling two languages, and this increased load results in a more "tuned brain" that eventually creates a neural reserve. Here we explored whether such a neuroprotective effect is independent of language modality, i.e., not limited to bilinguals who speak two languages but also occurs for bilinguals who use a spoken and a signed language. We addressed this issue by comparing bimodal bilinguals to monolinguals in order to detect age-induced structural brain changes and to determine whether we can detect the same beneficial effects on brain structure, in terms of preservation of gray matter volume (GMV), for bimodal bilinguals as has been reported for unimodal bilinguals...
May 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506806/selective-associative-phonagnosia-after-right-anterior-temporal-stroke
#9
Simona Luzzi, Michela Coccia, Gabriele Polonara, Carlo Reverberi, Gabriella Ceravolo, Mauro Silvestrini, Fabio Fringuelli, Sara Baldinelli, Leandro Provinciali, Guido Gainotti
We report the case of a 48 year old men who developed a selective impairment in famous voice recognition after ischemic stroke in right subcortical structures (lenticular nucleus and head of the caudate) and right anterior temporal lobe. He underwent fibrinolytic treatment. During the following days he progressively recovered and was discharged without neurological focal sign. Patent foramen ovale was found. When he got back to his house he noticed that he was unable to recognize the voice of his favoured singers and needed to ask who was the singer to his relatives...
May 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506483/cortical-and-subcortical-functional-neuroanatomy-for-low-grade-glioma-surgery
#10
REVIEW
L Chenin, M Lefranc, S Velut, P Foulon, E Havet, J Peltier
Knowledge of the encephalon anatomy is crucial for neurosurgical practice, especially the main cortical functional structures and their connections. General organisation of the encephalon is presented with frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, limbic and insular lobes and their Brodmann correspondence. Secondly, subcortical anatomy will be presented with main white matter fasciculi in three separated categories: association, commissural and projection fibers. Main association fibers are inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and cingulum...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502846/domains-of-physical-activity-and-brain-volumes-a-population-based-study
#11
Carmen Jochem, Sebastian E Baumeister, Katharina Wittfeld, Michael F Leitzmann, Martin Bahls, Ulf Schminke, Marcello R P Markus, Stephan B Felix, Henry Völzke, Katrin Hegenscheid, Marcus Dörr, Hans Jörgen Grabe
Observational studies and intervention trials suggest that physical activity (PA) is beneficial for human brain morphology, especially in older individuals. Few population-based studies examined whether domain-specific PA is associated with brain volumes. Accordingly, we studied putative associations of PA during leisure time, sports and work with volumes of the hippocampus, the prefrontal cortex, the temporal lobe, gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and total brain (TBV) after 5.9 years by applying volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with SPM 8/VBM 8 to brain magnetic resonance imaging data of 834 participants (447 women) aged 25 to 83 years from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania...
May 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494616/breakdown-of-thalamo-cortical-connectivity-precedes-spike-generation-in-focal-epilepsies
#12
Vitalie Chiosa, Stanislav Alexandru Groppa, Dimitru Ciolac, Nabin Koirala, Liuda Misina, Yaroslav Winter, Maria Moldovanu, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Sergiu Groppa
EEG spikes and focal epileptic seizures are generated in circumscribed cerebral networks that have been insufficiently described. For precise time and spatial domain networks characterization we applied in patients with focal epilepsy dense array 256-channel EEG recordings with causal connectivity estimation using time resolved partial directed coherence and 3T-MRI derived cortical and thalamus integrity reconstruction. Prior to spike generation significant theta and alpha bands driven information flows alterations were noted from both temporal and frontal lobes to thalamus and from thalamus to the frontal lobe...
May 11, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482271/usefulness-of-stereoeeg-based-tailored-surgery-for-medial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-preliminary-results-in-11-patients
#13
Yuichi Kubota, Taku Ochiai, Tomokatsu Hori, Takakazu Kawamata
OBJECTIVE: Surgical options for medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) include anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH). Optimal criteria for choosing the appropriate surgical approach remain uncertain. This article reports 11 consecutive cases in which electrophysiological findings of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) were used to determine the optimal surgical approach. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven consecutive patients with MTLE underwent SEEG evaluation and were placed in either the medial or the medial+lateral group based on the findings...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473626/patterns-of-atrophy-in-pathologically-confirmed-dementias-a-voxelwise-analysis
#14
Lorna Harper, Femke Bouwman, Emma J Burton, Frederik Barkhof, Philip Scheltens, John T O'Brien, Nick C Fox, Gerard R Ridgway, Jonathan M Schott
OBJECTIVE: Imaging is recommended to support the clinical diagnoses of dementias, yet imaging research studies rarely have pathological confirmation of disease. This study aims to characterise patterns of brain volume loss in six primary pathologies compared with controls and to each other. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-six patients with a clinical diagnosis of dementia and histopathological confirmation of underlying pathology, and 73 healthy controls were included in this study...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468232/a-pilot-study-on-brain-plasticity-of-functional-connectivity-modulated-by-cognitive-training-in-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#15
Francesco Barban, Matteo Mancini, Mara Cercignani, Fulvia Adriano, Roberta Perri, Roberta Annicchiarico, Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo, Claudia Ricci, Maria Giovanna Lombardi, Valeria Teodonno, Laura Serra, Giovanni Giulietti, Lucia Fadda, Alessia Federici, Carlo Caltagirone, Marco Bozzali
Alzheimer's disease (AD) alters the functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) but also the topological properties of the functional connectome. Cognitive training (CT) is a tool to slow down AD progression and is likely to impact on functional connectivity. In this pilot study, we aimed at investigating brain functional changes after a period of CT and active control (AC) in a group of 26 subjects with mild AD (mAD), 26 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and a control group of 29 healthy elderly (HE) people...
April 29, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465270/assessment-of-the-temporopolar-artery-as-a-donor-artery-for-intracranial-to-intracranial-bypass-to-the-middle-cerebral-artery-anatomical-feasibility-study
#16
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Michael T Lawton, Dylan Griswold, Pooneh Mokhtari, Andre Payman, Halima Tabani, Sonia Yousef, Olivia Kola, Arnau Benet
BACKGROUND: Intracranial-intracranial bypass is a valuable cerebral revascularization option. Despite several advantages, one of the main shortcomings of the intracranial-intracranial bypass is the possibility of ischemic complications of the donor artery. However, when sacrificed, the temporopolar artery is not associated with major neurological deficits. We sought to define the role of TPA as a donor for revascularization of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). METHODS: A Pterional craniotomy was performed on 14 specimens...
April 29, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458637/group-cognitive-behavior-therapy-reversed-insula-subregions-functional-connectivity-in-asthmatic-patients
#17
Yuqun Zhang, Yuan Yang, Rongrong Bian, Yingying Yin, Zhenghua Hou, Yingying Yue, Huanxin Chen, Yonggui Yuan
Background: Group cognitive behavior therapy (GCBT) is an effective treatment in improving self-management behaviors and quality of life for asthmatic patients. However, the mechanisms by which GCBT improves asthma-related clinical symptoms remain unknown. Previous studies have indicated that insula is an important region involved in the neuropathology of asthma. Therefore, we examined the possible alteration of functional connectivity (FC) in insula subregions after GCBT in asthmatic patients. Methods: Forty-two asthmatic patients and 60 healthy controls (HCs) received resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scan and clinical assessments, 17 asthmatic patients completed GCBT treatment consisting of 8 sessions, and then received rs-fMRI scan and clinical assessments...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450141/a-shared-representation-of-order-between-encoding-and-recognition-in-visual-short-term-memory
#18
Kristjan Kalm, Dennis Norris
Many complex tasks require people to bind individual events into a sequence that can be held in short term memory (STM). For this purpose information about the order of the individual events in the sequence needs to be maintained in an active and accessible form in STM over a period of few seconds. Here we investigated how the temporal order information is shared between the presentation and response phases of an STM task. We trained a classification algorithm on the fMRI activity patterns from the presentation phase of the STM task to predict the order of the items during the subsequent recognition phase...
April 25, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444235/right-hemisphere-structural-adaptation-and-changing-language-skills-years-after-left-hemisphere-stroke
#19
Thomas M H Hope, Alex P Leff, Susan Prejawa, Rachel Bruce, Zula Haigh, Louise Lim, Sue Ramsden, Marion Oberhuber, Philipp Ludersdorfer, Jenny Crinion, Mohamed L Seghier, Cathy J Price
Stroke survivors with acquired language deficits are commonly thought to reach a 'plateau' within a year of stroke onset, after which their residual language skills will remain stable. Nevertheless, there have been reports of patients who appear to recover over years. Here, we analysed longitudinal change in 28 left-hemisphere stroke patients, each more than a year post-stroke when first assessed-testing each patient's spoken object naming skills and acquiring structural brain scans twice. Some of the patients appeared to improve over time while others declined; both directions of change were associated with, and predictable given, structural adaptation in the intact right hemisphere of the brain...
April 24, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435932/default-mode-network-subsystems-are-differentially-disrupted-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#20
Danielle R Miller, Scott M Hayes, Jasmeet P Hayes, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Ginette Lafleche, Mieke Verfaellie
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by debilitating re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms following trauma exposure. Recent evidence suggests that individuals with PTSD show disrupted functional connectivity in the default mode network, an intrinsic network that consists of a midline core, a medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem, and a dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) subsystem. The present study examined whether functional connectivity in these subsystems is differentially disrupted in PTSD...
May 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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