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Anterior temporal lobe

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733246/defective-recognition-and-naming-of-famous-people-from-voice-in-patients-with-unilateral-temporal-lobe-tumours
#1
C Papagno, G Mattavelli, A Casarotti, L Bello, G Gainotti
Twenty-nine patients who underwent surgery for a temporal glioma, either in the left (16 patients) or right (13 patients) hemisphere, were administered standardized tests of unknown voice discrimination (UVD) and of famous voice recognition (VO-REC), which included tasks of familiarity evaluation, semantic identification and naming of famous voices. The UVD consisted of twenty stimuli, in which two audio files were consecutively presented; the subject was requested to judge whether the voices belonged to the same or different persons...
July 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718878/deep-brain-and-cortical-stimulation-for-epilepsy
#2
REVIEW
Mathieu Sprengers, Kristl Vonck, Evelien Carrette, Anthony G Marson, Paul Boon
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal medical treatment, including epilepsy surgery, many epilepsy patients have uncontrolled seizures. Since the 1970s interest has grown in invasive intracranial neurostimulation as a treatment for these patients. Intracranial stimulation includes both deep brain stimulation (DBS) (stimulation through depth electrodes) and cortical stimulation (subdural electrodes). This is an updated version of a previous Cochrane review published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of DBS and cortical stimulation for refractory epilepsy based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
July 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712747/selectivity-and-kinetic-requirements-of-hdac-inhibitors-as-progranulin-enhancers-for-treating-frontotemporal-dementia
#3
Angela She, Iren Kurtser, Surya A Reis, Krista Hennig, Jenny Lai, Audrey Lang, Wen-Ning Zhao, Ralph Mazitschek, Bradford C Dickerson, Joachim Herz, Stephen J Haggarty
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) arises from neurodegeneration in the frontal, insular, and anterior temporal lobes. Autosomal dominant causes of FTD include heterozygous mutations in the GRN gene causing haploinsufficiency of progranulin (PGRN) protein. Recently, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been identified as enhancers of PGRN expression, although the mechanisms through which GRN is epigenetically regulated remain poorly understood. Using a chemogenomic toolkit, including optoepigenetic probes, we show that inhibition of class I HDACs is sufficient to upregulate PGRN in human neurons, and only inhibitors with apparent fast binding to their target HDAC complexes are capable of enhancing PGRN expression...
July 20, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711736/two-dose-investigation-of-the-5-ht-agonist-psilocybin-on-relative-and-global-cerebral-blood-flow
#4
Candace R Lewis, Katrin H Preller, Rainer Kraehenmann, Lars Michels, Philipp Stämpfli, Franz X Vollenweider
Psilocybin, the active compound in psychedelic mushrooms, is an agonist of various serotonin receptors. Seminal psilocybin positron emission tomography (PET) research suggested regional increases in glucose metabolism in frontal cortex (hyperfrontality). However, a recent arterial spin labeling (ASL) study suggests psilocybin may lead to hypo-perfusion in various brain regions. In this placebo-controlled, double-blind study we used pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) to measure perfusion changes, with and without adjustment for global brain perfusion, after two doses of oral psilocybin (low dose: 0...
July 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710907/distinct-contributions-of-the-fornix-and-inferior-longitudinal-fasciculus-to-episodic-and-semantic-autobiographical-memory
#5
Carl J Hodgetts, Mark Postans, Naomi Warne, Alice Varnava, Andrew D Lawrence, Kim S Graham
Autobiographical memory (AM) is multifaceted, incorporating the vivid retrieval of contextual detail (episodic AM), together with semantic knowledge that infuses meaning and coherence into past events (semantic AM). While neuropsychological evidence highlights a role for the hippocampus and anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in episodic and semantic AM, respectively, it is unclear whether these constitute dissociable large-scale AM networks. We used high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging and constrained spherical deconvolution-based tractography to assess white matter microstructure in 27 healthy young adult participants who were asked to recall past experiences using word cues...
June 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709879/the-neural-bases-of-ictal-tachycardia-in-temporal-lobe-seizures
#6
Florian Chouchou, Romain Bouet, Vincent Pichot, Hélène Catenoix, François Mauguière, Julien Jung
OBJECTIVE: Due to limited information from scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, brain areas driving changes in cardiac rhythm during Temporal lobe (TL) seizures are not clearly identified. Using stereotactic EEG (SEEG) recordings, we aimed at identifying which of the brain regions involved in autonomic control trigger ictal tachycardia. METHODS: The neural activity of several mesial temporal lobe structures including amygdala, hippocampus, insula, and lateral temporal lobe recorded with SEEG were collected during 37 TL seizures in 9 patients, using indices based on High Frequency Activity (HFA)...
June 27, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693073/-resting-state-fmri-study-of-emotional-network-in-patients-with-postconcussion-syndrome
#7
X Zhang, R B Qian, X M Fu, B Lin, D Zhang, C S Xia, X P Wei, C S Niu, Y H Wang
Objective: To discuss functional connectivity changes in the emotional network of patients with post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and their clinical significance by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Methods: Twenty-seven patients with PCS were recruited from the Department of Neurosurgery of Anhui provincial hospital affiliated to Anhui medical university from October 2015 to April 2016, and 27 healthy subjects were recruited as the controls. The Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) were used to evaluate the emotional state of two groups of subjects...
July 4, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680706/abnormal-functional-connectivity-of-ventral-anterior-insula-in-asthmatic-patients-with-depression
#8
Yuqun Zhang, Yuan Yang, Rongrong Bian, Yingying Yin, Zhenghua Hou, Yingying Yue, Zhi Xu, Yonggui Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To explore the underlying mechanism of depression in asthmatic patients, the ReHo in the insula and its FC was used to probe the differences between depressed asthmatic (DA) and nondepressed asthmatic (NDA) patients. METHODS: 18 DA patients, 24 NDA patients, and 60 healthy controls (HCs) received resting-state fMRI scan, severity of depression, and asthma control assessment. RESULTS: DA patients showed increased FC between the left ventral anterior insula (vAI) and the left middle temporal gyrus compared with both NDA and HC groups...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679330/altered-brain-network-centrality-in-patients-with-adult-comitant-exotropia-strabismus-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#9
Gang Tan, Zeng-Renqing Dan, Ying Zhang, Xin Huang, Yu-Lin Zhong, Lin-Hong Ye, Rong Rong, Lei Ye, Qiong Zhou, Yi Shao
Objective To investigate the underlying functional network brain-activity changes in patients with adult comitant exotropia strabismus (CES) and the relationship with clinical features using the voxel-wise degree centrality (DC) method. Methods A total of 30 patients with CES (17 men, 13 women), and 30 healthy controls (HCs; 17 men, 13 women) matched in age, sex, and education level participated in the study. DC was used to evaluate spontaneous brain activity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted to distinguish CESs from HCs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669871/tissue-expressions-of-soluble-human-epoxide-hydrolase-2-enzyme-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#10
Merdin Lyutviev Ahmedov, Rahsan Kemerdere, Oguz Baran, Berrin Bercik Inal, Alper Gumus, Cihan Coskun, Seher Naz Yeni, Bulent Eren, Mustafa Uzan, Taner Tanriverdi
OBJECTIVE: To simply demonstrate how levels of soluble human epoxide hydrolase-2 show changes in both temporal the cortex and hippocampal complex in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. METHODS: A total of 20 patients underwent anterior temporal lobe resection due to temporal lobe epilepsy. The control group comprised 15 people who died in traffic accidents or by falling from a height, and their autopsy findings were included. Adequately-sized temporal cortex and hippocampal samples were removed from each patient during surgery, and the same anatomic structures were removed from the control subjects during the autopsy procedures...
June 29, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666881/distinguishing-early-and-late-brain-aging-from-the-alzheimer-s-disease-spectrum-consistent-morphological-patterns-across-independent-samples
#11
Nhat Trung Doan, Andreas Engvig, Krystal Zaske, Karin Persson, Martina Jonette Lund, Tobias Kaufmann, Aldo Cordova-Palomera, Dag Alnæs, Torgeir Moberget, Anne Brækhus, Maria Lage Barca, Jan Egil Nordvik, Knut Engedal, Ingrid Agartz, Geir Selbæk, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Accurate identification of individuals at risk is complicated as AD shares cognitive and brain features with aging. We applied linked independent component analysis (LICA) on three complementary measures of gray matter structure: cortical thickness, area and gray matter density of 137 AD, 78 mild (MCI) and 38 subjective cognitive impairment patients, and 355 healthy adults aged 18-78 years to identify dissociable multivariate morphological patterns sensitive to age and diagnosis...
June 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662631/a-case-of-neuropsychiatric-lupus-erythematosus-characterized-by-the-owl-s-eye-sign-a-case-report
#12
Bolin Hu, Pengcheng Wu, Yibiao Zhou, Yan Peng, Xiaoping Tang, Weijiang Ding, Ming Zhang, Xueliang Qi
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder characterized by multiple affected systems. More than half of SLE patients will suffer from neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) during the course of their disease. Although nearly half of the NPSLE patients have normal MRI manifestations, the abnormalities found in the remainder can be located anywhere in the brain, and especially in the subcortical white matter of the frontal and temporal lobe...
June 29, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656696/predictive-factors-of-long-term-outcomes-of-surgery-for-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-associated-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#13
Bertrand Mathon, Franck Bielle, Séverine Samson, Odile Plaisant, Sophie Dupont, Anne Bertrand, Richard Miles, Vi-Huong Nguyen-Michel, Virginie Lambrecq, Ana Laura Calderon-Garcidueñas, Charles Duyckaerts, Alexandre Carpentier, Michel Baulac, Philippe Cornu, Claude Adam, Stéphane Clemenceau, Vincent Navarro
OBJECTIVE: The reasons for failure of surgical treatment for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) remain unclear. This retrospective study analyzed seizure, cognitive, and psychiatric outcomes, searching for factors associated with seizure relapse or cognitive and psychiatric deterioration after MTLE-HS surgery. METHODS: Seizure, cognitive, and psychiatric outcomes were reviewed after 389 surgeries performed between 1990 and 2015 on patients aged 15-67 years at a tertiary center...
June 28, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655631/varieties-of-semantic-cognition-revealed-through-simultaneous-decomposition-of-intrinsic-brain-connectivity-and-behaviour
#14
Deniz Vatansever, Danilo Bzdok, Hao-Ting Wang, Giovanna Mollo, Mladen Sormaz, Charlotte Murphy, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Contemporary theories assume that semantic cognition emerges from a neural architecture in which different component processes are combined to produce aspects of conceptual thought and behaviour. In addition to the state-level, momentary variation in brain connectivity, individuals may also differ in their propensity to generate particular configurations of such components, and these trait-level differences may relate to individual differences in semantic cognition. We tested this view by exploring how variation in intrinsic brain functional connectivity between semantic nodes in fMRI was related to performance on a battery of semantic tasks in 154 healthy participants...
June 24, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653033/neuroticism-depression-and-anxiety-traits-exacerbate-the-state-of-cognitive-impairment-and-hippocampal-vulnerability-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Valérie Zufferey, Alessia Donati, Julius Popp, Reto Meuli, Jérôme Rossier, Richard Frackowiak, Bogdan Draganski, Armin von Gunten, Ferath Kherif
INTRODUCTION: Certain personality traits are associated with higher risk of Alzheimer's disease, similar to cognitive impairment. The identification of biological markers associated with personality in mild cognitive impairment could advance the early detection of Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: We used hierarchical multivariate linear models to quantify the interaction between personality traits, state of cognitive impairment, and MRI biomarkers (gray matter brain volume, gray matter mean water diffusion) in the medial temporal lobe (MTL)...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647325/the-processing-of-semantic-relatedness-in-the-brain-evidence-from-associative-and-categorical-false-recognition-effects-following-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-left-anterior-temporal-lobe
#16
Emiliano Díez, Carlos J Gómez-Ariza, Antonio M Díez-Álamo, María A Alonso, Angel Fernandez
A dominant view of the role of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in semantic memory is that it serves as an integration hub, specialized in the processing of semantic relatedness by way of mechanisms that bind together information from different brain areas to form coherent amodal representations of concepts. Two recent experiments, using brain stimulation techniques along with the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, have found a consistent false memory reduction effect following stimulation of the ATL, pointing to the importance of the ATL in semantic/conceptual processing...
June 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646671/frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-and-social-behaviour-dissociation-between-the-knowledge-of-its-consequences-and-its-conceptual-meaning
#17
Roland Zahn, Sophie Green, Helen Beaumont, Alistair Burns, Jorge Moll, Diana Caine, Alexander Gerhard, Paul Hoffman, Benjamin Shaw, Jordan Grafman, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Inappropriate social behaviour is an early symptom of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in both behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and semantic dementia (SD) subtypes. Knowledge of social behaviour is essential for appropriate social conduct. The superior anterior temporal lobe (ATL) has been identified as one key neural component for the conceptual knowledge of social behaviour, but it is unknown whether this is dissociable from knowledge of the consequences of social behaviour. Here, we used a newly-developed test of knowledge about long-term and short-term consequences of social behaviour to investigate its impairment in patients with FTLD relative to a previously-developed test of social conceptual knowledge...
June 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646241/never-forget-a-name-white-matter-connectivity-predicts-person-memory
#18
Athanasia Metoki, Kylie H Alm, Yin Wang, Chi T Ngo, Ingrid R Olson
Through learning and practice, we can acquire numerous skills, ranging from the simple (whistling) to the complex (memorizing operettas in a foreign language). It has been proposed that complex learning requires a network of brain regions that interact with one another via white matter pathways. One candidate white matter pathway, the uncinate fasciculus (UF), has exhibited mixed results for this hypothesis: some studies have shown UF involvement across a range of memory tasks, while other studies report null results...
June 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633369/fine-subdivisions-of-the-semantic-network-supporting-social-and-sensory-motor-semantic-processing
#19
Nan Lin, Xiaoying Wang, Yangwen Xu, Xiaosha Wang, Huimin Hua, Ying Zhao, Xingshan Li
Neuroimaging studies have consistently indicated that semantic processing involves a brain network consisting of multimodal cortical regions distributed in the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. However, little is known about how semantic information is organized and processed within the network. Some recent studies have indicated that sensory-motor semantic information modulates the activation of this network. Other studies have indicated that this network responds more to social semantic information than to other information...
June 15, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624681/semantic-word-category-processing-in-semantic-dementia-and-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#20
Zubaida Shebani, Karalyn Patterson, Peter J Nestor, Lara Z Diaz-de-Grenu, Kate Dawson, Friedemann Pulvermüller
There is general agreement that perisylvian language cortex plays a major role in lexical and semantic processing; but the contribution of additional, more widespread, brain areas in the processing of different semantic word categories remains controversial. We investigated word processing in two groups of patients whose neurodegenerative diseases preferentially affect specific parts of the brain, to determine whether their performance would vary as a function of semantic categories proposed to recruit those brain regions...
April 29, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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