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Dyslexia consonants

Willy Serniclaes, M'ballo Seck
Although dyslexia can be individuated in many different ways, it has only three discernable sources: a visual deficit that affects the perception of letters, a phonological deficit that affects the perception of speech sounds, and an audio-visual deficit that disturbs the association of letters with speech sounds. However, the very nature of each of these core deficits remains debatable. The phonological deficit in dyslexia, which is generally attributed to a deficit of phonological awareness, might result from a specific mode of speech perception characterized by the use of allophonic (i...
March 26, 2018: Brain Sciences
Shahrzad Abbasi Baharanchi, Majid MohammadBeigi, Fatemeh Abnavi, Samira Tavakol
Reading is a complex process that requires various simultaneous brain processes. One of the most common types of reading disorders is developmental dyslexia, and one of the objectives of speech therapy sessions for children with developmental dyslexia is to increase their auditory discrimination. One of the most commonly used Auditory Discrimination Tests (ADTs) is Wepman's  Auditory Discrimination Test (WADT). It includes minimal pair words categorized by characteristics of vowels and consonants. The goal of this research is to design and implement a tactile stimulation device based on Wepman's test to increase auditory discrimination in children with developmental dyslexia in therapy sessions, so that while playing each word for the children, vibrational cues are presented to their left palm and fingers...
October 2017: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Nicole E Neef, Bent Müller, Johanna Liebig, Gesa Schaadt, Maren Grigutsch, Thomas C Gunter, Arndt Wilcke, Holger Kirsten, Michael A Skeide, Indra Kraft, Nina Kraus, Frank Emmrich, Jens Brauer, Johannes Boltze, Angela D Friederici
Dyslexia is a reading disorder with strong associations with KIAA0319 and DCDC2. Both genes play a functional role in spike time precision of neurons. Strikingly, poor readers show an imprecise encoding of fast transients of speech in the auditory brainstem. Whether dyslexia risk genes are related to the quality of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem remains to be investigated. Here, we quantified the response consistency of speech-evoked brainstem responses to the acoustically presented syllable [da] in 159 genotyped, literate and preliterate children...
April 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Nicole E Neef, Gesa Schaadt, Angela D Friederici
OBJECTIVE: Precise temporal coding of speech plays a pivotal role in sound processing throughout the central auditory system, which, in turn, influences literacy acquisition. The current study tests whether an electrophysiological measure of this precision predicts literacy skills. METHODS: Complex auditory brainstem responses were analysed from 62 native German-speaking children aged 11-13years. We employed the cross-phaseogram approach to compute the quality of the electrophysiological stimulus contrast [da] and [ba]...
March 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Axelle Calcus, Christian Lorenzi, Gregory Collet, Cécile Colin, Régine Kolinsky
PURPOSE: Children with dyslexia have been suggested to experience deficits in both categorical perception (CP) and speech identification in noise (SIN) perception. However, results regarding both abilities are inconsistent, and the relationship between them is still unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between CP and the psychometric function of SIN perception. METHOD: Sixteen children with dyslexia, 16 chronological-age controls, and 16 reading-level controls were evaluated in CP of a voicing continuum and in consonant identification in both stationary and fluctuating noises...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Paola Angelelli, Chiara V Marinelli, Marika Iaia, Anna Putzolu, Filippo Gasperini, Daniela Brizzolara, Anna M Chilosi
Language delay is considered a frequent antecedent of literacy problems and both may be linked to phonological impairment. However, while several studies have examined the relationship between language delay and reading impairment, relatively few have focused on spelling. In this study, spelling performance of 28 children with developmental dyslexia (DD), 14 children with a history of language delay (LD), and 14 children without (NoLD) and 28 control participants were examined. Spelling was investigated by a writing to dictation task that included orthographically regular stimuli (word and non-words), as well as words with unpredictable transcription...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Barbara Tomasino, Dario Marin, Marta Maieron, Serena D'Agostini, Franco Fabbro, Miran Skrap, Claudio Luzzatti
Neuropsychological data about acquired impairments in reading and writing provide a strong basis for the theoretical framework of the dual-route models. The present study explored the functional neuroanatomy of the reading and spelling processing system. We describe the reading and writing performance of patient CF, an Italian native speaker who developed an extremely selective reading and spelling deficit (his spontaneous speech, oral comprehension, repetition and oral picture naming were almost unimpaired) in processing double letters associated with surface dyslexia and dysgraphia, following a tumor in the left temporal lobe...
December 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Ellyn A Riley, Cynthia K Thompson
BACKGROUND: Individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia experience difficulty associating written letters with corresponding sounds, especially in pseudowords. Previous studies have shown that reading can be improved in these individuals by training letter-sound correspondence, practicing phonological skills, or using combined approaches. However, generalization to untrained items is typically limited. AIMS: We investigated whether principles of phonological complexity can be applied to training letter-sound correspondence reading in acquired phonological dyslexia to improve generalization to untrained words...
February 1, 2015: Aphasiology
Joseph W Houpt, Bethany L Sussman, James T Townsend, Sharlene D Newman
Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Luca Cilibrasi, Vesna Stojanovik, Patricia Riddell
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the saliency effect for word beginnings reported in children with dyslexia (Marshall & Van der Lely, 2009) can be found also in typically developing children. Thirty-four typically developing Italian children aged 8-10 years completed two specifically designed tasks: a production task and a perception task. Both tasks used nonwords containing clusters consisting of plosive plus liquid (e.g. pl). Clusters could be either in a stressed or in an unstressed syllable and could be either in initial position (first syllable) or in medial position (second syllable)...
February 2015: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
John R Kershner
Rapidly changing environments in day-to-day activities, enriched with stimuli competing for attention, require a cognitive control mechanism to select relevant stimuli, ignore irrelevant stimuli, and shift attention between alternative features of the environment. Such attentional orchestration is essential to the acquisition of reading skills. In the present forced attention dichotic listening study, adults with moderate and severe dyslexia and nondisabled adults were tested on their ability to switch attention between ears for immediate recall...
May 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Jens Kronschnabel, Silvia Brem, Urs Maurer, Daniel Brandeis
The classical phonological deficit account of dyslexia is increasingly linked to impairments in grapho-phonological conversion, and to dysfunctions in superior temporal regions associated with audiovisual integration. The present study investigates mechanisms of audiovisual integration in typical and impaired readers at the critical developmental stage of adolescence. Congruent and incongruent audiovisual as well as unimodal (visual only and auditory only) material was presented. Audiovisual presentations were single letters and three-letter (consonant-vowel-consonant) stimuli accompanied by matching or mismatching speech sounds...
September 2014: Neuropsychologia
Tracy M Centanni, Fuyi Chen, Anne M Booker, Crystal T Engineer, Andrew M Sloan, Robert L Rennaker, Joseph J LoTurco, Michael P Kilgard
In utero RNAi of the dyslexia-associated gene Kiaa0319 in rats (KIA-) degrades cortical responses to speech sounds and increases trial-by-trial variability in onset latency. We tested the hypothesis that KIA- rats would be impaired at speech sound discrimination. KIA- rats needed twice as much training in quiet conditions to perform at control levels and remained impaired at several speech tasks. Focused training using truncated speech sounds was able to normalize speech discrimination in quiet and background noise conditions...
2014: PloS One
Serje Robidoux, Stephen C Pritchard
DRC (Coltheart et al., 2001) and CDP++ (Perry et al., 2010) are two of the most successful models of reading aloud. These models differ primarily in how their sublexical systems convert letter strings into phonological codes. DRC adopts a set of grapheme-to-phoneme conversion rules (GPCs) while CDP++ uses a simple trained network that has been exposed to a combination of rules and the spellings and pronunciations of known words. Thus far the debate between fixed rules and learned associations has largely emphasized reaction time experiments, error rates in dyslexias, and item-level variance from large-scale databases...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Travis White-Schwoch, Nina Kraus
Reading development builds upon the accurate representation of the phonological structure of spoken language. This representation and its neural foundations have been studied extensively with respect to reading due to pervasive performance deficits on basic phonological tasks observed in children with dyslexia. The subcortical auditory system - a site of intersection for sensory and cognitive input - is exquisitely tuned to code fine timing differences between phonemes, and so likely plays a foundational role in the development of phonological processing and, eventually, reading...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Maaike Callens, Carol Whitney, Wim Tops, Marc Brysbaert
Whitney and Cornelissen hypothesized that dyslexia may be the result of problems with the left-to-right processing of words, particularly in the part of the word between the word beginning and the reader's fixation position. To test this hypothesis, we tachistoscopically presented consonant trigrams in the left and the right visual field (LVF, RVF) to 20 undergraduate students with dyslexia and 20 matched controls. The trigrams were presented at different locations (from -2.5° to + 2.5°) in both visual half fields...
September 2013: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Norbert Maïonchi-Pino, Yasuyuki Taki, Satoru Yokoyama, Annie Magnan, Kei Takahashi, Hiroshi Hashizume, Jean Écalle, Ryuta Kawashima
To date, the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia is still debated. We concur with possible impairments in the representations of the universal phonological constraints that universally govern how phonemes co-occur as a source of this deficit. We were interested in whether-and how-dyslexic children have sensitivity to sonority-related markedness constraints. We tested 10 French dyslexic children compared with 20 typically developing chronological age-matched and reading level-matched controls...
May 2013: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Gwendoline Mahé, Anne Bonnefond, Nathalie Gavens, André Dufour, Nadège Doignon-Camus
Efficient reading relies on expertise in the visual word form area, with abnormalities in the functional specialization of this area observed in individuals with developmental dyslexia. We have investigated event related potentials in print tuning in adults with dyslexia, based on their N170 response at 135-255 ms. Control and dyslexic adults performed a lexical decision task with symbol strings and four sets of word-like stimuli (consonant strings, pseudowords, low frequency words and high frequency words)...
December 2012: Neuropsychologia
Wenli Liu, Guoan Yue
The ability to identify stop consonants from brief onset spectra was compared between a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia (the PD group, with a mean age of 10 years 4 months) and a group of chronological age-matched control children. The linguistic context, which included vowels and speakers, and durations of stop onset spectra were varied. Children with PD showed lower identification accuracy and exhibited a smaller vowel context effect for some stop-vowel combinations compared with the chronological age-matched control group...
November 2012: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Maria Mittag, Paula Thesleff, Marja Laasonen, Teija Kujala
OBJECTIVE: Letter-speech sound integration in fluent readers takes place automatically and is dependent on temporal synchrony between letters and sounds. In developmental dyslexia, however, letter-speech sound associations are hard to learn, compromising accurate and fluent reading. We studied the effect of printed text on processing speech sounds in dyslexic and fluent adult readers. METHODS: Visual stimuli were presented with sequences of spoken syllables including vowel or consonant changes, or changes in syllable intensity, frequency, or vowel duration...
February 2013: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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