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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894888/increased-variability-of-stimulus-driven-cortical-responses-is-associated-with-genetic-variability-in-children-with-and-without-dyslexia
#1
T M Centanni, D Pantazis, D T Truong, J R Gruen, J D E Gabrieli, T P Hogan
Individuals with dyslexia exhibit increased brainstem variability in response to sound. It is unknown as to whether increased variability extends to neocortical regions associated with audition and reading, extends to visual stimuli, and whether increased variability characterizes all children with dyslexia or, instead, a specific subset of children. We evaluated the consistency of stimulus-evoked neural responses in children with (N = 20) or without dyslexia (N = 12) as measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
May 26, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888628/vowel-letter-dyslexia
#2
Lilach Khentov-Kraus, Naama Friedmann
This research describes vowel letter dyslexia, a new type of dyslexia characterized by impaired reading of vowel letters. We report a multiple case study of 23 Hebrew readers with vowel letter dyslexia (1 acquired, 22 developmental). They made vowel-letter migrations, omissions, and additions in reading, with significantly fewer errors on consonants, and without vowel errors in speech production. Based on 24 tests that examined various components and the analysis of errors in reading 33,483 words, we ruled out deficits in the orthographic-visual analysis and phonological-output stages, as well as visual, morphological, and auditory deficits...
June 9, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879142/short-term-adaptation-to-sound-statistics-is-unimpaired-in-developmental-dyslexia
#3
Yafit Gabay, Lori L Holt
Developmental dyslexia is presumed to arise from phonological impairments. Accordingly, people with dyslexia show speech perception deficits taken as indication of impoverished phonological representations. However, the nature of speech perception deficits in those with dyslexia remains elusive. Specifically, there is no agreement as to whether speech perception deficits arise from speech-specific processing impairments, or from general auditory impairments that might be either specific to temporal processing or more general...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867675/a-selective-deficit-in-phonetic-recalibration-by-text-in-developmental-dyslexia
#4
Mirjam Keetels, Milene Bonte, Jean Vroomen
Upon hearing an ambiguous speech sound, listeners may adjust their perceptual interpretation of the speech input in accordance with contextual information, like accompanying text or lipread speech (i.e., phonetic recalibration; Bertelson et al., 2003). As developmental dyslexia (DD) has been associated with reduced integration of text and speech sounds, we investigated whether this deficit becomes manifest when text is used to induce this type of audiovisual learning. Adults with DD and normal readers were exposed to ambiguous consonants halfway between /aba/ and /ada/ together with text or lipread speech...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791271/language-skills-but-not-frequency-discrimination-predict-reading-skills-in-children-at-risk-of-dyslexia
#5
Margaret J Snowling, Debbie Gooch, Genevieve McArthur, Charles Hulme
This study evaluated the claim that auditory processing deficits are a cause of reading and language difficulties. We report a longitudinal study of 245 children at family risk of dyslexia, children with preschool language impairments, and control children. Children with language impairments had poorer frequency-discrimination thresholds than controls at 5.5 years, but children at family risk of dyslexia did not. A model assessing longitudinal relationships among frequency discrimination, reading, language, and executive function skills showed that frequency discrimination was predicted by executive skills but was not a longitudinal predictor of reading or language skills...
May 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773528/a-digital-app-to-aid-detection-monitoring-and-management-of-dyslexia-in-young-children-dimmand-protocol-for-a-digital-health-and-education-solution
#6
Mariam R Sood, Annet Toornstra, Martin I Sereno, Mark Boland, Daniele Filaretti, Anuj Sood
BACKGROUND: Dyslexia, a specific learning difficulty and a disability as defined in the Equality Act 2010, is a lifelong condition that affects a child from the start of education. Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in language processing (reading, spelling, and writing) which do not correspond with the child's general intellectual abilities. Although dyslexia cannot be cured, there is a consensus that interventions are more effective and have greater impact the earlier they are administered...
May 17, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741273/is-auditory-perceptual-timing-a-core-deficit-of-developmental-coordination-disorder
#7
Laurel J Trainor, Andrew Chang, John Cairney, Yao-Chuen Li
Time is an essential dimension for perceiving and processing auditory events, and for planning and producing motor behaviors. Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 5-6% of children that is characterized by deficits in motor skills. Studies show that children with DCD have motor timing and sensorimotor timing deficits. We suggest that auditory perceptual timing deficits may also be core characteristics of DCD. This idea is consistent with evidence from several domains, (1) motor-related brain regions are often involved in auditory timing process; (2) DCD has high comorbidity with dyslexia and attention deficit hyperactivity, which are known to be associated with auditory timing deficits; (3) a few studies report deficits in auditory-motor timing among children with DCD; and (4) our preliminary behavioral and neuroimaging results show that children with DCD at age 6 and 7 have deficits in auditory time discrimination compared to typically developing children...
May 9, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707797/can-very-early-music-interventions-promote-at-risk-infants-development
#8
REVIEW
Paula Virtala, Eino Partanen
Music and musical activities are often a natural part of parenting. As accumulating evidence shows, music can promote auditory and language development in infancy and early childhood. It may even help to support auditory and language skills in infants whose development is compromised by heritable conditions, like the reading deficit dyslexia, or by environmental factors, such as premature birth. For example, infants born to dyslexic parents can have atypical brain responses to speech sounds and subsequent challenges in language development...
April 30, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588226/the-current-status-of-the-magnocellular-theory-of-developmental-dyslexia
#9
John Stein
Some people doubt that the concept of developmental dyslexia (DD) is useful at all because the phonological weaknesses seen in DD cannot be distinguished from those found in every person with poor reading skills, whatever their cause. Here I argue that true DD is characterised by poor temporal processing, hence impaired visual and auditory sequencing, that is caused by impaired development of transient/magnocellular (M-) systems throughout the brain. These deficits can be measured in order to distinguish the causes of the phonological weaknesses in DD from those causing similar deficits in other types of poor reading...
March 26, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577504/the-modality-and-redundancy-effects-in-multimedia-learning-in-children-with-dyslexia
#10
Carolien A N Knoop-van Campen, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
The present study aimed to examine the modality and redundancy effects in multimedia learning in children with dyslexia in order to find out whether their learning benefits from written and/or spoken text with pictures. We compared study time and knowledge gain in 26 11-year-old children with dyslexia and 38 typically reading peers in a within-subjects design. All children were presented with a series of user-paced multimedia lessons in 3 conditions: pictorial information presented with (a) written text, (b) audio, or (c) combined text and audio...
May 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488880/shorter-cortical-adaptation-in-dyslexia-is-broadly-distributed-in-the-superior-temporal-lobe-and-includes-the-primary-auditory-cortex
#11
Sagi Jaffe-Dax, Eva Kimel, Merav Ahissar
Studies of the performance of individuals with dyslexia in perceptual tasks suggest that their implicit inference of sound statistics is impaired. Previously, using two-tone frequency discrimination, we found that the effect of previous trials' frequencies on the judgments of individuals with dyslexia decays faster than the effect on controls' judgments, and that the adaptation (decrease of neural response to repeated stimuli) of their ERP responses to tones is shorter (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="bib22">Jaffe-Dax et al...
February 28, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413429/auditory-temporal-perceptual-learning-and-transfer-in-chinese-speaking-children-with-developmental-dyslexia
#12
Manli Zhang, Weiyi Xie, Yanzhi Xu, Xiangzhi Meng
Perceptual learning refers to the improvement of perceptual performance as a function of training. Recent studies found that auditory perceptual learning may improve phonological skills in individuals with developmental dyslexia in alphabetic writing system. However, whether auditory perceptual learning could also benefit the reading skills of those learning the Chinese logographic writing system is, as yet, unknown. The current study aimed to investigate the remediation effect of auditory temporal perceptual learning on Mandarin-speaking school children with developmental dyslexia...
March 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401712/what-is-developmental-dyslexia
#13
REVIEW
John Stein
Until the 1950s, developmental dyslexia was defined as a hereditary visual disability, selectively affecting reading without compromising oral or non-verbal reasoning skills. This changed radically after the development of the phonological theory of dyslexia; this not only ruled out any role for visual processing in its aetiology, but it also cast doubt on the use of discrepancy between reading and reasoning skills as a criterion for diagnosing it. Here I argue that this theory is set at too high a cognitive level to be explanatory; we need to understand the pathophysiological visual and auditory mechanisms that cause children's phonological problems...
February 4, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393703/dichotic-listening-and-sentence-repetition-performance-in-children-with-reading-difficulties
#14
Mária Gósy, Ruth Huntley Bahr, Dorottya Gyarmathy, András Beke
Numerous investigations have identified weaknesses in speech processing and language skills in children with dyslexia; however, little is known about these abilities in children with reading difficulties (RD). The primary objective of this investigation was to determine the utility of auditory speech processing tasks in differentiating children with RD from those with typical reading skills. It was hypothesized that children, who perform below grade level in reading, would also show poorer performance on both dichotic listening and sentence repetition tasks because of the reciprocal influences of deficient auditory speech processing and language abilities...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356010/a-life-in-academia-my-career-in-brief
#15
Kenneth Hugdahl
In this article I have summarized some of the main trends and topics of my research career, spanning a time period of 50 years, from its start as a master student at the Department of Psychology, University of Uppsala, Sweden to seeing the end of a long career, now at the University of Bergen, Norway. This journey has, apart from having been a journey across various disciplines and topics in experimental psychology, psychophysiology and neuropsychology, functional neuroimaging and cognitive neuroscience, also been a social class journey for me personally...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352968/children-with-dyslexia-show-a-reduced-processing-benefit-from-bimodal-speech-information-compared-to-their-typically-developing-peers
#16
Gesa Schaadt, Elke van der Meer, Ann Pannekamp, Regine Oberecker, Claudia Männel
During information processing, individuals benefit from bimodally presented input, as has been demonstrated for speech perception (i.e., printed letters and speech sounds) or the perception of emotional expressions (i.e., facial expression and voice tuning). While typically developing individuals show this bimodal benefit, school children with dyslexia do not. Currently, it is unknown whether the bimodal processing deficit in dyslexia also occurs for visual-auditory speech processing that is independent of reading and spelling acquisition (i...
January 17, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321232/hypermyelination-of-the-left-auditory-cortex-in-developmental-dyslexia
#17
Michael A Skeide, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Robert Trampel, Andreas Schäfer, Claudia Männel, Katharina von Kriegstein, Angela D Friederici
OBJECTIVE: Cortical malformations are documented postmortem in speech processing areas of the dyslexic human brain. The goal of this pilot study was to find out if such anatomic anomalies can be detected noninvasively and in vivo. METHODS: We developed a reconstruction of left perisylvian cortex profiles at a resolution of 400 μm using T1 data acquired with ultra-high-field MRI at 7T. Cortical thickness, myelinated cortical thickness, and layer-wise myelination were then compared in 6 men with developmental dyslexia and 6 healthy controls matched for age, sex, handedness, education level, and nonverbal IQ...
February 6, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304447/dyslexia-as-a-multi-deficit-disorder-working-memory-and-auditory-temporal-processing
#18
Leah Fostick, Hadas Revah
Dyslexia is difficulty in acquiring reading skills despite adequate intelligence and sufficient reading opportunities. Its origin is still under debate. Studies usually focus on a singular cause for dyslexia; however, some researchers argue that dyslexia reflects multiple deficits. Two of the abilities under investigation in dyslexia are working memory (WM) and auditory temporal processing (ATP). In order to better evaluate the relative roles of WM and ATP in dyslexia, in the present study, we tested the contribution of WM and ATP to different types of reading performance and phonological awareness in dyslexia, using a multidimensional approach...
February 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201552/-atp2c2-and-dyx1c1-are-putative-modulators-of-dyslexia-related-mmr
#19
Bent Müller, Gesa Schaadt, Johannes Boltze, Frank Emmrich, Michael A Skeide, Nicole E Neef, Indra Kraft, Jens Brauer, Angela D Friederici, Holger Kirsten, Arndt Wilcke
Background: Dyslexia is a specific learning disorder affecting reading and spelling abilities. Its prevalence is ~5% in German-speaking individuals. Although the etiology of dyslexia largely remains to be determined, comprehensive evidence supports deficient phonological processing as a major contributing factor. An important prerequisite for phonological processing is auditory discrimination and, thus, essential for acquiring reading and spelling skills. The event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) is an indicator for auditory discrimination capabilities with dyslexics showing an altered late component of MMR in response to auditory input...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163246/screening-protocol-for-early-identification-of-brazilian-children-at-risk-for-dyslexia
#20
Giseli D Germano, Alexandra B P de C César, Simone A Capellini
Early identification of students at risk of dyslexia has been an educational challenge in the past years. This research had two main goals. First, we aimed to develop a screening protocol for early identification of Brazilian children at risk for dyslexia; second, we aimed to identify the predictive variables of this protocol using Principal Component Analysis. The major step involved in developing this protocol was the selection of variables, which were chosen based on the literature review and linguistic criteria...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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