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Dyslexia memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304447/dyslexia-as-a-multi-deficit-disorder-working-memory-and-auditory-temporal-processing
#1
Leah Fostick, Hadas Revah
Dyslexia is difficulty in acquiring reading skills despite adequate intelligence and sufficient reading opportunities. Its origin is still under debate. Studies usually focus on a singular cause for dyslexia; however, some researchers argue that dyslexia reflects multiple deficits. Two of the abilities under investigation in dyslexia are working memory (WM) and auditory temporal processing (ATP). In order to better evaluate the relative roles of WM and ATP in dyslexia, in the present study, we tested the contribution of WM and ATP to different types of reading performance and phonological awareness in dyslexia, using a multidimensional approach...
January 2, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273913/effectiveness-of-working-memory-training-among-children-with-dyscalculia-evidence-for-transfer-effects-on-mathematical-achievement-a-pilot-study
#2
Smail Layes, Robert Lalonde, Yamina Bouakkaz, Mohamed Rebai
We examined whether the working memory (WM) capacity of developmentally dyscalculic children can be improved by a WM training program and whether outcomes relate to mathematical performance. The experimental design comprised two groups with developmental dyslexia with grade 4 schooling: an experimental group (n = 14; mean age = 129.74 months) and a control group (n = 14; mean age = 126.9 months). All participants were assessed on measures of WM, mathematic attainment, and nonverbal mental ability (Raven test) before and after training...
December 22, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226513/consolidation-of-vocabulary-is-associated-with-sleep-in-typically-developing-children-but-not-in-children-with-dyslexia
#3
Faye R H Smith, M Gareth Gaskell, Anna R Weighall, Meesha Warmington, Alexander M Reid, Lisa M Henderson
Sleep is known to play an active role in consolidating new vocabulary in adults; however, the mechanisms by which sleep promotes vocabulary consolidation in childhood are less well understood. Furthermore, there has been no investigation into whether previously reported differences in sleep architecture might account for variability in vocabulary consolidation in children with dyslexia. Twenty-three children with dyslexia and 29 age-matched typically developing peers were exposed to 16 novel spoken words. Typically developing children showed overnight improvements in novel word recall; the size of the improvement correlated positively with slow wave activity, similar to previous findings with adults...
December 11, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163246/screening-protocol-for-early-identification-of-brazilian-children-at-risk-for-dyslexia
#4
Giseli D Germano, Alexandra B P de C César, Simone A Capellini
Early identification of students at risk of dyslexia has been an educational challenge in the past years. This research had two main goals. First, we aimed to develop a screening protocol for early identification of Brazilian children at risk for dyslexia; second, we aimed to identify the predictive variables of this protocol using Principal Component Analysis. The major step involved in developing this protocol was the selection of variables, which were chosen based on the literature review and linguistic criteria...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159849/spoken-sentence-production-in-college-students-with-dyslexia-working-memory-and-vocabulary-effects
#5
Rebecca Wiseheart, Lori J P Altmann
BACKGROUND: Individuals with dyslexia demonstrate syntactic difficulties on tasks of language comprehension, yet little is known about spoken language production in this population. AIMS: To investigate whether spoken sentence production in college students with dyslexia is less proficient than in typical readers, and to determine whether group differences can be attributable to cognitive differences between groups. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Fifty-one college students with and without dyslexia were asked to produce sentences from stimuli comprising a verb and two nouns...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157996/longitudinal-interactions-between-brain-and-cognitive-measures-on-reading-development-from-6-months-to-14-years
#6
Kaisa Lohvansuu, Jarmo A Hämäläinen, Leena Ervast, Heikki Lyytinen, Paavo H T Leppänen
Dyslexia is a neurobiological disorder impairing learning to read. Brain responses of infants at genetic risk for dyslexia are abnormal already at birth, and associations from infant speech perception to preschool cognitive skills and reading in early school years have been documented, but there are no studies showing predicting power until adolescence. Here we show that in at-risk infants, brain activation to pseudowords at left hemisphere predicts 44% of reading speed at 14 years, and even improves the prediction after taking into account neurocognitive preschool measures of letter naming, phonology, and verbal short-term memory...
November 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145402/specific-effects-of-working-memory-training-on-the-reading-skills-of-chinese-children-with-developmental-dyslexia
#7
Juanhua Yang, Jun Peng, Dake Zhang, Liling Zheng, Lei Mo
Most research on working memory (WM) training for children with developmental dyslexia (DD) has focused on western alphabetical languages. Moreover, most of these studies used a combination of training tasks targeting a variety of WM components, making it difficult to determine whether WM training generates a general improvement in overall reading, or improves specific cognitive skills corresponding to the WM components that are targeted in training. We tested the general and specific effects of WM training on the reading skills of 45 Chinese children with DD, grades 3 to 5...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134481/inflectional-morphology-and-dyslexia-italian-children-s-performance-in-a-nonword-pluralization-task
#8
Maria Vender, Federica Mantione, Silvia Savazzi, Denis Delfitto, Chiara Melloni
In this study, we present the results of an original experimental protocol designed to assess the performance in a pluralization task of 52 Italian children divided into two groups: 24 children with developmental dyslexia (mean age 10.0 years old) and 28 typically developing children (mean age 9.11 years old). Our task, inspired by Berko's Wug Test, had the aim of testing the subjects' ability to apply pluralization rules to nonwords in the morphologically complex context of Italian nominal inflection. Results demonstrate that dyslexics display poorer morphological skills in comparison to controls, showing lower accuracy in the task...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134480/false-memory-for-orthographically-versus-semantically-similar-words-in-adolescents-with-dyslexia-a-fuzzy-trace-theory-perspective
#9
Michał Obidziński, Marek Nieznański
The presented research was conducted in order to investigate the connections between developmental dyslexia and the functioning of verbatim and gist memory traces-assumed in the fuzzy-trace theory. The participants were 71 high school students (33 with dyslexia and 38 without learning difficulties). The modified procedure and multinomial model of Stahl and Klauer (simplified conjoint recognition model) was used to collect and analyze data. Results showed statistically significant differences in four of the model parameters: (a) the probability of verbatim trace recollection upon presentation of orthographically similar stimulus was higher in the control than dyslexia group, (b) the probability of verbatim trace recollection upon presentation of semantically similar stimulus was higher in the control than dyslexia group, (c) the probability of gist trace retrieval upon presentation of semantically similar stimulus was higher in the dyslexia than control group, and (d) the probability of gist trace retrieval upon target stimulus presentation (in the semantic condition) was higher in the control than dyslexia group...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062600/l1-and-l2-reading-skills-in-dutch-adolescents-with-a-familial-risk-of-dyslexia
#10
Ellie R H van Setten, Wim Tops, Britt E Hakvoort, Aryan van der Leij, Natasha M Maurits, Ben A M Maassen
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated differences in reading and spelling outcomes in Dutch and English as a second language (ESL) in adolescents with a high familial risk of dyslexia, of whom some have developed dyslexia (HRDys) while others have not (HRnonDys), in comparison to a low familial risk control group without dyslexia (LRnonDys). This allowed us to investigate the persistence of dyslexia in the first language (L1) and the effect of dyslexia on the second language (L2), which has, in this case, a lower orthographic transparency...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040923/six-factors-of-adult-dyslexia-assessed-by-cognitive-tests-and-self-report-questions-very-high-predictive-validity
#11
Peter Tamboer, Harrie C M Vorst, Peter F de Jong
The Multiple Diagnostic Digital Dyslexia Test for Adults (MDDDT-A) consists of 12 newly developed tests and self-report questions in the Dutch language. Predictive validity and construct validity were investigated and compared with validity of a standard test battery of dyslexia (STB) in a sample of 154 students. There are three main results. First, various analyses of principal components showed that six or more factors of dyslexia can be distinguished (rapid naming, spelling, reading, short-term memory, confusion, phonology, attention, complexity)...
October 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933620/sequential-processing-deficit-as-a-shared-persisting-biomarker-in-dyslexia-and-childhood-apraxia-of-speech
#12
Beate Peter, Hope Lancaster, Caitlin Vose, Kyle Middleton, Carol Stoel-Gammon
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that individuals with dyslexia and individuals with childhood apraxia of speech share an underlying persisting deficit in processing sequential information. Levels of impairment (sensory encoding, memory, retrieval, and motor planning/programming) were also investigated. Participants were 22 adults with dyslexia, 10 adults with a probable history of childhood apraxia of speech (phCAS), and 22 typical controls. All participants completed nonword repetition, multisyllabic real word repetition, and nonword decoding tasks...
September 21, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933571/the-role-of-short-term-memory-impairment-in-nonword-repetition-real-word-repetition-and-nonword-decoding-a-case-study
#13
Beate Peter
In a companion study, adults with dyslexia and adults with a probable history of childhood apraxia of speech showed evidence of difficulty with processing sequential information during nonword repetition, multisyllabic real word repetition and nonword decoding. Results suggested that some errors arose in visual encoding during nonword reading, all levels of processing but especially short-term memory storage/retrieval during nonword repetition, and motor planning and programming during complex real word repetition...
September 21, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863035/same-or-different-the-overlap-between-children-with-auditory-processing-disorders-and-children-with-other-developmental-disorders-a-systematic-review
#14
Ellen de Wit, Pim van Dijk, Sandra Hanekamp, Margot I Visser-Bochane, Bert Steenbergen, Cees P van der Schans, Margreet R Luinge
OBJECTIVES: Children diagnosed with auditory processing disorders (APD) experience difficulties in auditory functioning and with memory, attention, language, and reading tasks. However, it is not clear whether the behavioral characteristics of these children are distinctive from the behavioral characteristics of children diagnosed with a different developmental disorder, such as specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disorder (LD), or autism spectrum disorder...
August 31, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826299/a-review-of-prospective-memory-impairments-in-developmental-dyslexia-evidence-explanations-and-future-directions
#15
James H Smith-Spark
OBJECTIVE: The effects of developmental dyslexia are not restricted solely to the processes involved in reading and spelling. Despite this broader impact on cognition, there has been very little dyslexia-related research on prospective memory (PM; memory for delayed intentions) until very recently. This paper focuses on reviewing a recent program of research which sought to explore this memory system in adults with dyslexia. METHOD: The review focuses mainly on studies of adults with dyslexia in which PM was compared with that of IQ-matched adults without dyslexia across clinical measures, computerized tests, self-report questionnaire, and more naturalistic tasks...
August 22, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725022/action-video-games-improve-reading-abilities-and-visual-to-auditory-attentional-shifting-in-english-speaking-children-with-dyslexia
#16
Sandro Franceschini, Piergiorgio Trevisan, Luca Ronconi, Sara Bertoni, Susan Colmar, Kit Double, Andrea Facoetti, Simone Gori
Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in learning to read and there is some evidence that action video games (AVG), without any direct phonological or orthographic stimulation, improve reading efficiency in Italian children with dyslexia. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying this improvement and the extent to which the benefits of AVG training would generalize to deep English orthography, remain two critical questions. During reading acquisition, children have to integrate written letters with speech sounds, rapidly shifting their attention from visual to auditory modality...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670621/changes-in-dti-diffusivity-and-fmri-connectivity-cluster-coefficients-for-students-with-and-without-specific-learning-disabilities-in-written-language-brain-s-response-to-writing-instruction
#17
Todd L Richards, Virginia W Berninger, Kevin J Yagle, Robert D Abbott, Daniel J Peterson
Before and after computerized writing instruction, participants completed assessment with normed measures and DTI and fMRI connectivity scanning. Evidence-based differential diagnosis was used at time 1 to assign them to diagnostic groups: typical oral and written language (n=6), dysgraphia (impaired handwriting, n=10), dyslexia (impaired word spelling and reading, n=20), and OWL LD (impaired syntax construction, n=6). The instruction was aimed at subword letter writing, word spelling, and syntax composing...
April 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654032/assessing-working-memory-in-children-the-comprehensive-assessment-battery-for-children-working-memory-cabc-wm
#18
Kathryn Cabbage, Shara Brinkley, Shelley Gray, Mary Alt, Nelson Cowan, Samuel Green, Trudy Kuo, Tiffany P Hogan
The Comprehensive Assessment Battery for Children - Working Memory (CABC-WM) is a computer-based battery designed to assess different components of working memory in young school-age children. Working memory deficits have been identified in children with language-based learning disabilities, including dyslexia(1)(,)(2) and language impairment(3)(,)(4), but it is not clear whether these children exhibit deficits in subcomponents of working memory, such as visuospatial or phonological working memory. The CABC-WM is administered on a desktop computer with a touchscreen interface and was specifically developed to be engaging and motivating for children...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611610/music-games-potential-application-and-considerations-for-rhythmic-training
#19
REVIEW
Valentin Bégel, Ines Di Loreto, Antoine Seilles, Simone Dalla Bella
Rhythmic skills are natural and widespread in the general population. The majority can track the beat of music and move along with it. These abilities are meaningful from a cognitive standpoint given their tight links with prominent motor and cognitive functions such as language and memory. When rhythmic skills are challenged by brain damage or neurodevelopmental disorders, remediation strategies based on rhythm can be considered. For example, rhythmic training can be used to improve motor performance (e.g...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579056/-computerized-oculomotor-training-in-dyslexia-a-randomized-crossover-clinical-trial-in-pediatric-population
#20
H Peyre, C-L Gérard, I Dupong Vanderhorst, S Larger, C Lemoussu, J Vesta, E Bui Quoc, N Gouleme, R Delorme, M P Bucci
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported abnormal oculomotor capacities leading to reading/writing difficulties among dyslexic children. However, no randomized clinical trial has been conducted to determine whether oculomotor training improves reading/writing skills of these children. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of computer-based oculomotor training among dyslexic children. METHOD: Crossover randomized trial with enrollment from January 12, 2015 to July 24, 2015, and follow-up to February 4, 2016...
June 1, 2017: L'Encéphale
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