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Dyslexia memory

Usha Goswami, Lisa Barnes, Natasha Mead, Alan James Power, Victoria Leong
Children with developmental dyslexia are characterized by phonological difficulties across languages. Classically, this 'phonological deficit' in dyslexia has been investigated with tasks using single-syllable words. Recently, however, several studies have demonstrated difficulties in prosodic awareness in dyslexia. Potential prosodic effects in short-term memory have not yet been investigated. Here we create a new instrument based on three-syllable words that vary in stress patterns, to investigate whether prosodic similarity (the same prosodic pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables) exerts systematic effects on short-term memory...
October 17, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Steve Majerus, Nelson Cowan
Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment is one of the most consistent associated deficits observed in developmental reading disorders such as dyslexia. Few studies have addressed the nature of this STM impairment, especially as regards the ability to temporarily store serial order information. This question is important as studies in typically developing children have shown that serial order STM abilities are predictors of oral and written language development. Associated serial order STM deficits in dyslexia may therefore further increase the learning difficulties in these populations...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Elizabeth S Norton, Georgios Sideridis, Sara D Beach, Maryanne Wolf, John D E Gabrieli, Nadine Gaab
Research suggests that early identification of developmental dyslexia is important for mitigating the negative effects of dyslexia, including reduced educational attainment and increased socioemotional difficulties. The strongest pre-literacy predictors of dyslexia are rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological awareness (PA), letter knowledge, and verbal short-term memory. The relationship among these constructs has been debated, and several theories have emerged to explain the unique role of each in reading ability/disability...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
Chen Chen, Matthew H Schneps, Katherine E Masyn, Jennifer M Thomson
Increasing evidence has shown visual attention span to be a factor, distinct from phonological skills, that explains single-word identification (pseudo-word/word reading) performance in dyslexia. Yet, little is known about how well visual attention span explains text comprehension. Observing reading comprehension in a sample of 105 high school students with dyslexia, we used a pathway analysis to examine the direct and indirect path between visual attention span and reading comprehension while controlling for other factors such as phonological awareness, letter identification, short-term memory, IQ and age...
October 14, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Bin Wang, Yuxi Zhou, Song Leng, Liyuan Zheng, Hong Lv, Fei Wang, Li-Hai Tan, Yimin Sun
Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a neurodevelopment disorder characterized by reading disabilities without apparent etiologies. Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is a structural craniofacial malformation featured by isolated orofacial abnormalities. Despite substantial phenotypic differences, potential linkage between these two disorders has been suggested as prevalence of DD among NSCL/P patients was much higher than that in general populations. Previous neuroimaging studies observed impaired short-term memory in patients with DD and NSCL/P, respectively...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
Tanya M Evans, Michael T Ullman
Mathematical disability (MD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting math abilities. Here, we propose a new explanatory account of MD, the procedural deficit hypothesis (PDH), which may further our understanding of the disorder. According to the PDH of MD, abnormalities of brain structures subserving the procedural memory system can lead to difficulties with math skills learned in this system, as well as problems with other functions that depend on these brain structures. This brain-based account is motivated in part by the high comorbidity between MD and language disorders such as dyslexia that may be explained by the PDH, and in part by the likelihood that learning automatized math skills should depend on procedural memory...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Gayle Beam Long, Robert Allen Fox, Ewa Jacewicz
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the underlying phonological impairment in dyslexia is associated with a deficit in categorizing regional dialects. Method: Twenty adults with dyslexia, 20 school-age children with dyslexia, and 40 corresponding control listeners with average reading ability listened to sentences produced by multiple talkers (both sexes) representing two dialects: Midland dialect in Ohio (same as listeners' dialect) and Southern dialect in Western North Carolina...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Teri Lawton
There is an ongoing debate about whether the cause of dyslexia is based on linguistic, auditory, or visual timing deficits. To investigate this issue three interventions were compared in 58 dyslexics in second grade (7 years on average), two targeting the temporal dynamics (timing) of either the auditory or visual pathways with a third reading intervention (control group) targeting linguistic word building. Visual pathway training in dyslexics to improve direction-discrimination of moving test patterns relative to a stationary background (figure/ground discrimination) significantly improved attention, reading fluency, both speed and comprehension, phonological processing, and both auditory and visual working memory relative to controls, whereas auditory training to improve phonological processing did not improve these academic skills significantly more than found for controls...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Elisabeth A T Tilanus, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
We examined the responsiveness to a 12-week phonics intervention in 54 s-grade Dutch children with dyslexia, and compared their reading and spelling gains to a control group of 61 typical readers. The intervention aimed to train grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs), and word reading and spelling by using phonics instruction. We examined the accuracy and efficiency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences, decoding words and pseudowords, as well as the accuracy of spelling words before and after the intervention...
August 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Bruce J W Evans, Peter M Allen
Claims that coloured filters aid reading date back 200 years and remain controversial. Some claims, for example, that more than 10% of the general population and 50% of people with dyslexia would benefit from coloured filters lack sound evidence and face validity. Publications with such claims typically cite research using methods that have not been described in the scientific literature and lack a sound aetiological framework. Notwithstanding these criticisms, some researchers have used more rigorous selection criteria and methods of prescribing coloured filters that were developed at a UK Medical Research Council unit and which have been fully described in the scientific literature...
October 2016: Journal of Optometry
Susana Araújo, Luís Faísca, Alexandra Reis, J Frederico Marques, Karl Magnus Petersson
Naming speed deficits are well documented in developmental dyslexia, expressed by slower naming times and more errors in response to familiar items. Here we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine at what processing level the deficits in dyslexia emerge during a discrete-naming task. Dyslexic and skilled adult control readers performed a primed object-naming task, in which the relationship between the prime and the target was manipulated along perceptual, semantic and phonological dimensions. A 3×2 design that crossed Relationship Type (Visual, Phonemic Onset, and Semantic) with Relatedness (Related and Unrelated) was used...
July 12, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Soila Kuuluvainen, Alina Leminen, Teija Kujala
Children's obligatory auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) to speech and nonspeech sounds have been shown to associate with reading performance in children at risk or with dyslexia and their controls. However, very little is known of the cognitive processes these responses reflect. To investigate this question, we recorded ERPs to semisynthetic syllables and their acoustically matched nonspeech counterparts in 63 typically developed preschoolers, and assessed their verbal skills with an extensive set of neurocognitive tests...
June 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
James H Smith-Spark, Adam P Zięcik, Christopher Sterling
Short-term and working memory problems in dyslexia are well-documented, but other memory domains have received little empirical scrutiny, despite some evidence to suggest that they might be impaired. Prospective memory is memory for delayed intentions, whilst retrospective memory relates to memory for personally experienced past events. To gain an understanding of subjective everyday memory experience, a self-report measure designed to tap prospective and retrospective memory was administered to 28 adults with dyslexia and 26 IQ-matched adults without dyslexia...
August 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Maria Kulick Abramson, Peter J Lloyd
BACKGROUND: There is a critical need for tests of auditory discrimination for young children as this skill plays a fundamental role in the development of speaking, prereading, reading, language, and more complex auditory processes. Frequency discrimination is important with regard to basic sensory processing affecting phonological processing, dyslexia, measurements of intelligence, auditory memory, Asperger syndrome, and specific language impairment. PURPOSE: This study was performed to determine the clinical feasibility of the Pitch Discrimination Test (PDT) to screen the preschool child's ability to discriminate some of the acoustic demands of speech perception, primarily pitch discrimination, without linguistic content...
April 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
P Tamboer, H C M Vorst, S Ghebreab, H S Scholte
Meta-analytic studies suggest that dyslexia is characterized by subtle and spatially distributed variations in brain anatomy, although many variations failed to be significant after corrections of multiple comparisons. To circumvent issues of significance which are characteristic for conventional analysis techniques, and to provide predictive value, we applied a machine learning technique--support vector machine--to differentiate between subjects with and without dyslexia. In a sample of 22 students with dyslexia (20 women) and 27 students without dyslexia (25 women) (18-21 years), a classification performance of 80% (p < 0...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sarah E A Kuppen, Usha Goswami
Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The trajectory methodology enables identification of atypical versus delayed development in datasets gathered using group matching designs. Regarding the cognitive predictors of reading, which here are phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and rapid automatized naming (RAN), the method showed that trajectories for the two groups diverged markedly...
May 2016: Developmental Psychology
Aviah Gvion, Naama Friedmann
Lexical retrieval and reading aloud are often viewed as two separate processes. However, they are not completely separate-they share components. This study assessed the effect of an impairment in a shared component, the phonological output lexicon, on lexical retrieval and on reading aloud. Because the phonological output lexicon is part of the lexical route for reading, individuals with an impairment in this lexicon may be forced to read aloud via the sublexical route and therefore show a reading pattern that is typical of surface dyslexia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Kristina Moll, Paul A Thompson, Marina Mikulajova, Zuzana Jagercikova, Anna Kucharska, Helena Franke, Charles Hulme, Margaret J Snowling
Children with preschool language difficulties are at high risk of literacy problems; however, the nature of the relationship between delayed language development and dyslexia is not understood. Three hundred eight Slovak and Czech children were recruited into three groups: family risk of dyslexia, speech/language difficulties and controls, and were assessed three times from kindergarten until Grade 1. There was a twofold increase in probability of reading problems in each risk group. Precursors of 'dyslexia' included difficulties in oral language and code-related skills (phoneme awareness, letter-knowledge and rapid automatized naming); poor performance in phonological memory and vocabulary was observed in both affected and unaffected high-risk peers...
May 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Yujun Ma, Enguo Wang, Tian Yuan, Guo Xiang Zhao
As the reading process is inseparable from working memory, inhibition, and other higher cognitive processes, the deep cognitive processing defects that are associated with dyslexia may be due to defective distraction inhibition systems. In this study, we used event-related potential technology to explore the source of negative priming effects in children with developmental dyslexia and in a group of healthy children for comparison. We found that the changes in the average response times in the negative priming and control conditions were consistent across the two groups, while the negative priming effects differed significantly between the groups...
August 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Trecy Martinez Perez, Martine Poncelet, Eric Salmon, Steve Majerus
Dyslexia is characterized not only by reading impairment but also by short-term memory (STM) deficits, and this particularly for the retention of serial order information. Here, we explored the functional neural correlates associated with serial order STM performance of adults with dyslexia for verbal and visual STM tasks. Relative to a group of age-matched controls, the dyslexic group showed abnormal activation in a network associated with order STM encompassing the right intraparietal and superior frontal sulcus, and this for both verbal and visual order STM conditions...
2015: Developmental Neuropsychology
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