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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775094/developmental-dyslexia-and-specific-language-impairment-distinct-syntactic-profiles
#1
Hélène Delage, Stephanie Durrleman
Recent work exploring syntax in developmental dyslexia (DD) has identified morphosyntactic deficits, striking parallelisms between children with DD and specific language impairment (SLI). The question remains open if the underlying causes for such deficits are related to difficulties in phonology, which is affected in DD, or to working memory, as has been previously reported for SLI. We focus on the production of third person accusative clitic pronouns (ACC3) and of homophonous definite determiners in French-speaking children with DD and SLI as well as typically developing (TD) controls...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764201/cognitive-predictors-of-sequential-motor-impairments-in-children-with-dyslexia-and-or-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Marie-Ève Marchand-Krynski, Anne-Marie Bélanger, Olivier Morin-Moncet, Miriam H Beauchamp, Gabriel Leonard
This study examined cognitive predictors of sequential motor skills in 215 children with dyslexia and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Visual working memory and math fluency abilities contributed significantly to performance of sequential motor abilities in children with dyslexia (N = 67), ADHD (N = 66) and those with a comorbid diagnosis (N = 82), generally without differentiation between groups. In addition, primary diagnostic features of each disorder, such as reading and inattention, did not contribute to the variance in motor skill performance of these children...
May 15, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757245/rapid-automatized-naming-verbal-working-memory-and-rhythm-discrimination-as-predictors-of-reading-in-italian-undergraduate-students-with-and-without-dyslexia
#3
Alice Cancer, Alessandro Antonietti
Whereas the clinical manifestations and the neuropsychological predictors of Developmental Dyslexia (DD) are already well documented in Italian-speaking children, empirical evidence on DD in Italian adults is in contrast rather scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of a subset of neuropsychological skills, which have been identified by previous literature to be related to reading, in the decoding abilities of a group of Italian undergraduates with and without DD. For this purpose, 39 university students aged between 19 and 27 years, 19 of whom with a diagnosis of DD, underwent an assessment battery including standardized reading tests, rapid automatized naming (RAN), verbal working memory, and rhythmic pattern discrimination tests...
May 13, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738440/prevalence-of-developmental-dyslexia-in-spanish-university-students
#4
Carmen López-Escribano, Judith Suro Sánchez, Fernando Leal Carretero
A recent concern in the field of dyslexia studies is the lack of awareness and attention to university students suffering from this condition. If this problem is serious in countries where the relative opacity of the writing system allows for an early detection and, therefore, effective interventions, it is most critical in countries where transparent spelling makes such detection difficult, except in the most severe cases. In Spain, the diagnosis of dyslexia is rare among university-level adults. The present study pursues three aims: (a) to put forward a screening instrument for the detection of university students at risk of dyslexia, (b) to determine the ratio of university students that could be at risk of dyslexia by means of two different procedures, and (c) to create awareness for a disorder that causes hitherto unrecognized difficulties for an important subgroup of the college population...
May 8, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709764/episodic-traces-and-statistical-regularities-paired-associate-learning-in-typical-and-dyslexic-readers
#5
Manon Wyn Jones, Jan-Rouke Kuipers, Sinead Nugent, Angelina Miley, Gary Oppenheim
Learning visual-phonological associations is a key skill underlying successful reading acquisition. However, we are yet to understand the cognitive mechanisms that enable efficient learning in good readers, and those which are aberrant in individuals with developmental dyslexia. Here, we use a repeated cued-recall task to examine how typical and reading-impaired adults acquire novel associations between visual and phonological stimuli, incorporating a looking-at-nothing paradigm to probe implicit memory for target locations...
April 27, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706915/the-impact-of-morphological-awareness-on-word-reading-and-dictation-in-chinese-early-adolescent-readers-with-and-without-dyslexia
#6
Sylvia Chanda Kalindi, Kevin Kien Hoa Chung
This study investigated the role of morphological awareness in understanding Chinese word reading and dictation among Chinese-speaking adolescent readers in Hong Kong as well as the cognitive-linguistic profile of early adolescent readers with dyslexia. Fifty-four readers with dyslexia in Grades 5 and 6 were compared with 54 chronological age-matched (CA) typical readers on the following measures of cognitive-linguistic and literacy skills: morphological awareness, phonological awareness, visual-orthographic knowledge, rapid naming, vocabulary knowledge, verbal short-term memory (STM), Chinese word reading, and dictation (or spelling)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706878/mirror-image-equivalence-and-interhemispheric-mirror-image-reversal
#7
Michael C Corballis
Mirror-image confusions are common, especially in children and in some cases of neurological impairment. They can be a special impediment in activities such as reading and writing directional scripts, where mirror-image patterns (such as b and d ) must be distinguished. Treating mirror images as equivalent, though, can also be adaptive in the natural world, which carries no systematic left-right bias and where the same object or event can appear in opposite viewpoints. Mirror-image equivalence and confusion are natural consequences of a bilaterally symmetrical brain...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660590/detection-of-neurodevelopmental-diversity-in-memory-clinics-validation-of-a-self-report-measure
#8
Alon Seifan, Chiashin Shih, Katherine Hackett, Max J Pensack, Matthew W Schelke, Michael Lin, Hemali Patel, Christine A Ganzer, Mahreen Ahmed, Robert Krikorian, Peter Tamboer, Adolfo M Henriquez, Richard S Isaacson, Sheila Steinhof
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental learning and attentional disorders (NLAD) such as dyslexia, dyscalculia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect at least 6% of the adult population or more. They are associated with atypical cognitive patterns in early and adult life. The cognitive patterns of affected individuals in late life have never been described. One main challenge is detecting individuals in clinical settings during which mild cognitive changes could be confounding the clinical presentation...
April 13, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658458/-verbal-and-visual-spatial-memory-in-chinese-children-with-developmental-dyslexia
#9
Xiao-Yun Hu, Jin Jing, Miao Fan, De-Sheng Yang, Yan-Na Zhu, Ling Chen, Xiu-Hong Li
OBJECTIVE: To explore the abilities of verbal and visual-spatial memory in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia. METHODS: Thirty-two children with developmental dyslexia (aged 8-12 years) and thirty-nine age- and gender-matched normal children were involved in the study. Their verbal short-term and verbal working memories were measured using the digit ordering and the digit span tests, respectively. Their visual-spatial short-term and visual-spatial working memories were examined using the forward and backward block-tapping tests, respectively...
April 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577521/how-phonological-awareness-mediates-the-relation-between-working-memory-and-word-reading-efficiency-in-children-with-dyslexia
#10
Carolien A N Knoop-van Campen, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
This study examined the relation between working memory, phonological awareness, and word reading efficiency in fourth-grade children with dyslexia. To test whether the relation between phonological awareness and word reading efficiency differed for children with dyslexia versus typically developing children, we assessed phonological awareness and word reading efficiency in 50 children with dyslexia (aged 9;10, 35 boys) and 613 typically developing children (aged 9;5, 279 boys). Phonological awareness was found to be associated with word reading efficiency, similar for children with dyslexia and typically developing children...
March 25, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577504/the-modality-and-redundancy-effects-in-multimedia-learning-in-children-with-dyslexia
#11
Carolien A N Knoop-van Campen, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
The present study aimed to examine the modality and redundancy effects in multimedia learning in children with dyslexia in order to find out whether their learning benefits from written and/or spoken text with pictures. We compared study time and knowledge gain in 26 11-year-old children with dyslexia and 38 typically reading peers in a within-subjects design. All children were presented with a series of user-paced multimedia lessons in 3 conditions: pictorial information presented with (a) written text, (b) audio, or (c) combined text and audio...
March 25, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528680/reading-in-developmental-prosopagnosia-evidence-for-a-dissociation-between-word-and-face-recognition
#12
Randi Starrfelt, Solja K Klargaard, Anders Petersen, Christian Gerlach
OBJECTIVE: Recent models suggest that face and word recognition may rely on overlapping cognitive processes and neural regions. In support of this notion, face recognition deficits have been demonstrated in developmental dyslexia. Here we test whether the opposite association can also be found, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face recognition experience...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522609/-history-from-neuropsychology-to-cognitive-neurosciences-in-argentina
#13
Ricardo F Allegri, Pablo Bagnatti
The first step from the neuropsychology in Argentina was in 1883 with the thesis of Antonio Piñeiro about the brain localization of the language and vision disorders, only few years after Broca. The aim of this work has been to describe the development of the neuropsychology in Argentina and its relation with the psychology, neurology and psychiatry. The first period was into the neurology with its French school in?uence. In 1907, Jose Ingeniero published in French his book about "amusia", Cristofredo Jakob the "folia neurobiologica" where he described the organization of the human brain, Vicente Dimitri in 1933 his book "aphasia" and Bernardo de Quiros in 1959 his works about dyslexia...
November 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519463/unilateral-spatial-neglect-after-posterior-parietal-damage
#14
Giuseppe Vallar, Elena Calzolari
Unilateral spatial neglect is a disabling neurologic deficit, most frequent and severe after right-hemispheric lesions. In most patients neglect involves the left side of space, contralateral to a right-hemispheric lesion. About 50% of stroke patients exhibit neglect in the acute phase. Patients fail to orient, respond to, and report sensory events occurring in the contralateral sides of space and of the body, to explore these portions of space through movements by action effectors (eye, limbs), and to move the contralateral limbs...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488880/shorter-cortical-adaptation-in-dyslexia-is-broadly-distributed-in-the-superior-temporal-lobe-and-includes-the-primary-auditory-cortex
#15
Sagi Jaffe-Dax, Eva Kimel, Merav Ahissar
Studies of the performance of individuals with dyslexia in perceptual tasks suggest that their implicit inference of sound statistics is impaired. Previously, using two-tone frequency discrimination, we found that the effect of previous trials' frequencies on the judgments of individuals with dyslexia decays faster than the effect on controls' judgments, and that the adaptation (decrease of neural response to repeated stimuli) of their ERP responses to tones is shorter (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="bib22">Jaffe-Dax et al...
February 28, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356010/a-life-in-academia-my-career-in-brief
#16
Kenneth Hugdahl
In this article I have summarized some of the main trends and topics of my research career, spanning a time period of 50 years, from its start as a master student at the Department of Psychology, University of Uppsala, Sweden to seeing the end of a long career, now at the University of Bergen, Norway. This journey has, apart from having been a journey across various disciplines and topics in experimental psychology, psychophysiology and neuropsychology, functional neuroimaging and cognitive neuroscience, also been a social class journey for me personally...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304447/dyslexia-as-a-multi-deficit-disorder-working-memory-and-auditory-temporal-processing
#17
Leah Fostick, Hadas Revah
Dyslexia is difficulty in acquiring reading skills despite adequate intelligence and sufficient reading opportunities. Its origin is still under debate. Studies usually focus on a singular cause for dyslexia; however, some researchers argue that dyslexia reflects multiple deficits. Two of the abilities under investigation in dyslexia are working memory (WM) and auditory temporal processing (ATP). In order to better evaluate the relative roles of WM and ATP in dyslexia, in the present study, we tested the contribution of WM and ATP to different types of reading performance and phonological awareness in dyslexia, using a multidimensional approach...
February 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273913/effectiveness-of-working-memory-training-among-children-with-dyscalculia-evidence-for-transfer-effects-on-mathematical-achievement-a-pilot-study
#18
Smail Layes, Robert Lalonde, Yamina Bouakkaz, Mohamed Rebai
We examined whether the working memory (WM) capacity of developmentally dyscalculic children can be improved by a WM training program and whether outcomes relate to mathematical performance. The experimental design comprised two groups with developmental dyslexia with grade 4 schooling: an experimental group (n = 14; mean age = 129.74 months) and a control group (n = 14; mean age = 126.9 months). All participants were assessed on measures of WM, mathematic attainment, and nonverbal mental ability (Raven test) before and after training...
December 22, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226513/consolidation-of-vocabulary-is-associated-with-sleep-in-typically-developing-children-but-not-in-children-with-dyslexia
#19
Faye R H Smith, M Gareth Gaskell, Anna R Weighall, Meesha Warmington, Alexander M Reid, Lisa M Henderson
Sleep is known to play an active role in consolidating new vocabulary in adults; however, the mechanisms by which sleep promotes vocabulary consolidation in childhood are less well understood. Furthermore, there has been no investigation into whether previously reported differences in sleep architecture might account for variability in vocabulary consolidation in children with dyslexia. Twenty-three children with dyslexia and 29 age-matched typically developing peers were exposed to 16 novel spoken words. Typically developing children showed overnight improvements in novel word recall; the size of the improvement correlated positively with slow wave activity, similar to previous findings with adults...
December 11, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163246/screening-protocol-for-early-identification-of-brazilian-children-at-risk-for-dyslexia
#20
Giseli D Germano, Alexandra B P de C César, Simone A Capellini
Early identification of students at risk of dyslexia has been an educational challenge in the past years. This research had two main goals. First, we aimed to develop a screening protocol for early identification of Brazilian children at risk for dyslexia; second, we aimed to identify the predictive variables of this protocol using Principal Component Analysis. The major step involved in developing this protocol was the selection of variables, which were chosen based on the literature review and linguistic criteria...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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