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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231689/are-children-with-asthma-in-south-korea-also-associated-with-vitamin-d-deficiency
#1
Yu-Ri Kim, Sung-Chul Seo, Young Yoo, Ji Tae Choung
Recently, epidemiologic studies have shown that the lack of vitamin D levels may be associated with high asthma prevalence, but its effect is still controversial, depending on season, area, and food consumption. We aimed to examine the association of serum vitamin D levels with the prevalence of pediatric asthma in Korea. A total of 80 children (50 asthmatic children and 30 healthy controls) aged 6-14 years were participated in this study. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (vitamin D) levels were measured and compared between the two groups...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231688/study-on-removal-difference-in-indoor-particulate-matter-and-volatile-organic-compounds-through-application-of-the-plants
#2
Seung-Han Hong, Jiyeon Hong, Jihyeon Yu, Young-Wook Lim
This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of plants to purify indoor air by observing the effective reduction rate among pollutant types of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds. Particulate matter and four types of volatile organic compounds were measured in a new building that is less than 3 years old and under three different conditions: before applying the plant, after applying the plant, and a room without a plant. The removal rate of each pollutant type due to the plant was also compared and analyzed...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231639/cell-cycle-rna-regulons-coordinating-early-lymphocyte-development
#3
REVIEW
Alison Galloway, Martin Turner
Lymphocytes undergo dynamic changes in gene expression as they develop from progenitor cells lacking antigen receptors, to mature cells that are prepared to mount immune responses. While transcription factors have established roles in lymphocyte development, they act in concert with post-transcriptional and post-translational regulators to determine the proteome. Furthermore, the post-transcriptional regulation of RNA regulons consisting of mRNAs whose protein products act cooperatively allows RNA binding proteins to exert their effects at multiple points in a pathway...
February 23, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231631/commentary-response-frailty-not-just-about-old-people-reply-to-smith-gd-kydd-a-2017-getting-care-of-older-people-right-the-need-for-appropriate-frailty-assessment
#4
Sunita R Jha, Julee Mcdonagh, Caleb Ferguson, Peter S Macdonald, Phillip J Newton
As highlighted in a recent editorial, the ageing population and burden of frailty amongst those aged 60 years and older represents an impending challenge for individuals and health care systems globally (Smith & Kydd 2017). As frailty is largely considered a geriatric syndrome, research has primarily occurred within elderly community dwelling populations (Fried et al. 2001). However, it is important to highlight that not all older people are frail; and conversely not all younger people are non-frail. With frailty research expanding its scope beyond geriatrics over the last 2 decades, our understanding of this syndrome and its complexities has progressed...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231624/targets-and-mechanisms-in-prevention-of-parkinson-s-disease-through-immunomodulatory-treatments
#5
REVIEW
Marianne von Euler Chelpin, Thomas Vorup-Jensen
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world, however, there is no cure for it. Current treatments only relieve some of the symptoms, without ceasing the disease, and lose efficacy with prolonged treatment. Considerable evidence shows that persistent inflammatory responses, involving T cell infiltration and glial cell activation, are common characteristics of human patients and play a crucial role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, it is important to develop therapeutic strategies that can impede or halt the disease through the modulation of the peripheral immune system by aiming at controlling the existing neuroinflammation...
February 23, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231611/leg-vascular-and-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-adaptations-to-aerobic-high-intensity-exercise-training-are-enhanced-in-the-early-postmenopausal-phase
#6
Michael Nyberg, Jon Egelund, Camilla M Mandrup, Caroline B Andersen, Karen M B E Hansen, Ida-Marie F Hergel, Nicholai Valbak-Andersen, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Bente Stallknecht, Jens Bangsbo, Ylva Hellsten
Exercise training leads to favourable adaptations within skeletal muscle; however, this effect of exercise training may be blunted in postmenopausal women due to the loss of oestrogens. Furthermore, postmenopausal women may have an impaired vascular response to acute exercise. We examined the haemodynamic response to acute exercise in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of aerobic high intensity exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1 ± 0.5 [mean ± SEM] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50 ± 0 versus 54 ± 1) years of age were included...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231592/cxcr4-a-new-player-in-an-old-scene
#7
Andreas Knopf, Marie Kristin Fritsche, Yin Li
Transmembrane C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and its ligand C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) came into focus in many solid cancers, allowing a more fundamental diagnostic and therapeutic approach by modulating the immune response against cancer cells. CXCR4 and CXCL12 mediate cell proliferation, migration, and metastatic outgrowth in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and are strongly associated with cancer recurrence and patient survival. Despite recent advances in molecular imaging and cancer therapy in lymphoma using CXCL12 analogues, clinical trials evaluating the diagnostic and therapeutic impact on HNSCC are missing...
February 24, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231591/predictive-success-factors-in-selective-upper-airway-stimulation
#8
Clemens Heiser, Benedikt Hofauer
Obstructive sleep apnea is one of the most common diseases in Western industrialized countries. A variety of conservative and surgical treatment options are available for its treatment. In recent years, selective upper airway stimulation (sUAS) has been shown to be effective and safe. Different biomarkers have been investigated as predictive clinical success factors in a number of clinical trials. Age does not matter in sUAS, as compared to its predictive role in other therapies. Weight seems to play a limited role, depending on drug-induced sleep endoscopy to rule out a complete concentric collapse with an increased body mass index...
February 24, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231589/ultrasound-elastography-in-diffuse-and-focal-parotid-gland-lesions
#9
Naglaa Mansour, Benedikt Hofauer, Andreas Knopf
In Europe, ultrasound (US) is the diagnostic gold standard for the visualisation of parotid gland disorders. While high-resolution B-mode US reliably visualises focal lesions, its diagnostic capacity to distinguish tumour entities or to characterise diffuse lesions remains poor. Strain elastography (SE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) are novel imaging techniques that provide additional information about tissue elasticity. SE analyses the strain or displacement in response to force or compression and, therefore, shows the relative tissue elasticity within a selected region of interest (ROI)...
February 24, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231583/prevalence-of-impaired-kidney-function-in-the-german-elderly-results-from-the-berlin-aging-study-ii-base-ii
#10
Maximilian König, Maik Gollasch, Ilja Demuth, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen
BACKGROUND: In aging populations with an ever-growing burden of risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is on the rise. However, little is known about its exact prevalence among elderly adults, and often albuminuria is not included in the definition of CKD. Moreover, novel equations for the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have recently emerged, which have not been applied comprehensively to older adults. Data on CKD awareness among the elderly are sparse...
February 24, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231567/innate-lung-defense-during-invasive-aspergillosis-new-mechanisms
#11
Jaleesa M Garth, Chad Steele
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is one of the most difficult to treat and, consequently, one of the most lethal fungal infections known to man. Continued use of immunosuppressive agents during chemotherapy and organ transplantation often leads to the development of neutropenia, the primary risk factor for IA. However, IA is also becoming more appreciated in chronic diseases associated with corticosteroid therapy. The innate immune response to Aspergillus fumigatus, the primary agent in IA, plays a pivotal role in the recognition and elimination of organisms from the pulmonary system...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231563/hypoxia-pathway-mutations-in-pheochromocytomas-and-paragangliomas
#12
Diana Amorim-Pires, Joana Peixoto, Jorge Lima
Pheochromocytomas (PCC) and sympathetic paragangliomas (PGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors, which derive from chromaffin cells occurring in the adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal sympathetic paraganglia. PCC and PGL are often benign, catecholamine-producing tumors, responsible for a myriad of symptoms that may be potentially hazardous to the patient. In contrast, nonsecreting parasympathetic PGL, derived from chief cells, develop mainly in the head and neck region. Although PCC/PGL are more commonly sporadic tumors, germline mutations are present in up to 40% of the patients, ranking these tumors among those with the highest degree of heritability...
February 24, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231560/the-expanding-role-of-immunotherapy
#13
REVIEW
Juan Martin-Liberal, María Ochoa de Olza, Cinta Hierro, Alena Gros, Jordi Rodon, Josep Tabernero
The use of agents able to modulate the immune system to induce or potentiate its anti-tumour activity is not a new strategy in oncology. However, the development of new agents such as immune checkpoint inhibitors has achieved unprecedented efficacy results in a wide variety of tumours, dramatically changing the landscape of cancer treatment in recent years. Ipilimumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab or atezolizumab are now standard of care options in several malignancies and new indications are being approved on a regular basis in different tumours...
February 11, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231559/prostate-cancer-heterogeneity-discovering-novel-molecular-targets-for-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Chiara Ciccarese, Francesco Massari, Roberto Iacovelli, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Rodolfo Montironi, Vincenzo Di Nunno, Francesca Giunchi, Matteo Brunelli, Giampaolo Tortora
Prostate cancer (PCa) shows a broad spectrum of biological and clinical behavior, which represents the epiphenomenon of an extreme genetic heterogeneity. Recent genomic profiling studies have deeply improved the knowledge of the genomic landscape of localized and metastatic PCa. The AR and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways are the two most frequently altered, representing therefore interestingly targets for therapy. Moreover, somatic or germline aberrations of DNA repair genes (DRGs) have been observed at high frequency, supporting the potential role of platinum derivatives and PARP inhibitors as effective therapeutic strategies...
February 11, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231553/a-reusable-aptasensor-of-thrombin-based-on-dna-machine-employing-resonance-light-scattering-technique
#15
Yining Hou, Jifeng Liu, Min Hong, Xia Li, Yanhua Ma, Qiaoli Yue, Chen-Zhong Li
The design of molecular nanodevices attracted great interest in these years. Herein, a reusable, sensitive and specific aptasensor was constructed based on an extension-contraction movement of DNA interconversion for the application of human thrombin detection. The present biosensor was based on resonance light scattering (RLS) using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as the RLS probe. MNPs coated with streptavidin can combine with biotin labeled thrombin aptamers. The combined nanoparticles composite is monodispersed in aqueous medium...
February 20, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231521/therapeutic-journey-of-2-4-thiazolidinediones-as-a-versatile-scaffold-an-insight-into-structure-activity-relationship
#16
REVIEW
Mohd Javed Naim, Md Jahangir Alam, Shujauddin Ahmad, Farah Nawaz, Neelima Shrivastava, Meeta Sahu, Ozair Alam
Thiazolidinedione is an important heterocyclic ring system, a pharmacophore and a privileged scaffold in medicinal chemistry; is a derivative of thiazolidine ring which came into existence for its role as antihyperglycemic agent and a specific ligand of PPAR's (Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor). Exhaustive research has led to determination of its vast biological profile with wide range of therapeutic applications. This review covers recent pharmacological advancements of thiazolidinedione moiety along with structure activity relationship so as to provide better correlation among different structures and their receptor interactions...
February 20, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231515/computational-tools-for-enzyme-improvement-why-everyone-can-and-should-use-them
#17
REVIEW
Maximilian Ccjc Ebert, Joelle N Pelletier
This review presents computational methods that experimentalists can readily use to create smart libraries for enzyme engineering and to obtain insights into protein-substrate complexes. Computational tools have the reputation of being hard to use and inaccurate compared to experimental methods in enzyme engineering, yet they are essential to probe datasets of ever-increasing size and complexity. In recent years, bioinformatics groups have made a huge leap forward in providing user-friendly interfaces and accurate algorithms for experimentalists...
February 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231512/the-impact-of-third-generation-genomic-technologies-on-plant-genome-assembly
#18
REVIEW
Wen-Biao Jiao, Korbinian Schneeberger
Since the introduction of next generation sequencing, plant genome assembly projects do not need to rely on dedicated research facilities or community-wide consortia anymore, even individual research groups can sequence and assemble the genomes they are interested in. However, such assemblies are typically not based on the entire breadth of genomic technologies including genetic and physical maps and their contiguities tend to be low compared to the full-length gold standard reference sequences. Recently emerging third generation genomic technologies like long-read sequencing or optical mapping promise to bridge this quality gap and enable simple and cost-effective solutions for chromosomal-level assemblies...
February 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231506/plant-chromium-uptake-and-transport-physiological-effects-and-recent-advances-in-molecular-investigations
#19
REVIEW
Maria Angélica da Conceição Gomes, Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis, Marina Satika Suzuki, Angela Pierre Vitória
Increasingly, anthropogenic perturbations of the biosphere manifest in a broad array of global phenomena, causing widespread contamination of most ecosystems, with high dispersion rates of many contaminants throughout different environmental compartments, including metals. Chromium (Cr) contamination in particular, is, increasingly, posing a serious threat to the environment, emerging as a major health hazard to the biota. However, although the molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant responses to many heavy metals, especially lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), have been focused upon in recent years, chromium has attracted significantly less attention...
February 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231490/lipid-droplet-growth-regulation-of-a-dynamic-organelle
#20
REVIEW
David Barneda, Mark Christian
Intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) are remarkably dynamic and complex organelles that enact regulated storage and release of lipids to fulfil their fundamental roles in energy metabolism, membrane synthesis and provision of lipid-derived signaling molecules. Although small LDs are observed in all types of eukaryotic cells, it is adipocytes that present the widest range of sizes up to the massive unilocular droplet of a white adipocyte. Our knowledge of the proteins and associated processes that control LD dynamics is improving...
February 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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