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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103632/global-health-and-emergency-care-defining-clinical-research-priorities
#1
Bhakti Hansoti, Adam R Aluisio, Meagan A Barry, Kevin Davey, Brian A Lentz, Payal Modi, Jennifer A Newberry, Melissa H Patel, Tricia A Smith, Alexandra M Vinograd, Adam C Levine
OBJECTIVES: Despite recent strides in the development of Global Emergency Medicine (EM), the field continues to lag in applying a scientific approach to identifying critical knowledge gaps and advancing evidence-based solutions to clinical and public health problems seen in emergency departments worldwide. Here, progress on the Global EM research agenda created at the 2013 Academic Emergency Medicine Global Health and Emergency Care Consensus Conference is evaluated and critical areas for future development in emergency care research internationally are identified...
January 19, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103626/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-the-next-frontier-in-the-epidemic
#2
REVIEW
Iliana Doycheva, Kymberly D Watt, Naim Alkhouri
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant health burden in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with substantial rise in prevalence over the last decades. This parallels high rates of obesity and metabolic syndrome in this age group, with unhealthy lifestyle also playing an independent role. Genetic factors, gender, and ethnicity should be considered in a risk stratification model. NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in AYAs often go unrecognized and if untreated, can progress eventually to cirrhosis requiring liver transplantation before the age of 40...
January 19, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103572/low-rate-of-positive-margins-and-re-excision-after-partial-mastectomy-in-highly-selected-breast-cancer-patients-a-chinese-single-institution-experience
#3
Siyu Wu, Yanyan Zhu, Zhaozhi Yang, Miao Mo, Hongbo Gao, Wentao Yang, Guangyu Liu
A recent randomized controlled trial firstly demonstrated that cavity shaving significantly decreased the rate of positive margins and re-excision among partial mastectomy (PM) patients. However, it remains unknown whether cavity shaving should be routinely applied to Chinese breast cancer patients undergoing PM. A total of 408 PM patients undergoing 410 PMs among 1796 surgically treated breast cancer patients at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Centre from January 2015 to June 2015 were included in our study...
January 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103558/effective-multi-query-expansions-collaborative-deep-networks-based-feature-learning-for-robust-landmark-retrieval
#4
Yang Wang, Xuemin Lin, Lin Wu, Wenjie Zhang
Given a query photo issued by a user (q-user), the landmark retrieval is to return a set of photos with their landmarks similar to those of the query, while the existing studies on the landmark retrieval focus on exploiting geometries of landmarks for similarity matches between candidate photos and a query photo. We observe that the same landmarks provided by different users over social media community may convey different geometry information depending on the viewpoints and/or angles, and may subsequently yield very different results...
January 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103556/steerable-wavelet-machines-swm-learning-moving-frames-for-texture-classification
#5
Adrien Depeursinge, Zsuzsanna Puspoki, John Paul Ward, Michael Unser
We present texture operators encoding classspecific local organizations of image directions (LOID) in a rotation-invariant fashion. The LOIDs are key for visual understanding, and are at the origin of the success of the popular approaches such as local binary patterns (LBP) and the scaleinvariant feature transform (SIFT). Whereas LBPs and SIFT yield handcrafted image representations, we propose to learn dataspecific representations of the LOIDs in a rotation-invariant fashion. The image operators are based on steerable circular harmonic wavelets (CHW), offering a rich and yet compact initial representation for characterizing natural textures...
January 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103533/the-readily-releasable-pool-of-synaptic-vesicles
#6
REVIEW
Pascal S Kaeser, Wade G Regehr
Each presynaptic bouton is densely packed with many vesicles, only a small fraction of which are available for immediate release. These vesicles constitute the readily releasable pool (RRP). The RRP size, and the probability of release of each vesicle within the RRP, together determine synaptic strength. Here, we discuss complications and recent advances in determining the size of the physiologically relevant RRP. We consider molecular mechanisms to generate and regulate the RRP, and discuss the relationship between vesicle docking and the RRP...
January 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103525/micrornas-in-ectodermal-appendages
#7
REVIEW
D'Juan T Farmer, Michael T McManus
The surface ectoderm is the source of ectodermal appendages including hair, teeth, and many glands. The development and function of ectodermal appendages has been researched extensively, but many of the molecular mechanisms that govern the developmental programs of ectodermal appendages remain elusive. While several protein-coding genes are established as key regulators of ectodermal appendage development, the role of noncoding RNAs is an emerging area of investigation. This review highlights recent advances in studies of microRNA-mediated control of ectodermal appendage development using mouse models...
January 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103516/molecularly-imprinted-polymers-for-sample-preparation-and-biosensing-in-food-analysis-progress-and-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Jon Ashley, Mohammad-Ali Shahbazi, Krishna Kant, Vinayaka Aaydha Chidambara, Anders Wolff, Dang Duong Bang, Yi Sun
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are biomimetics which can selectively bind to analytes of interest. One of the most interesting areas where MIPs have shown the biggest potential is food analysis. MIPs have found use as sorbents in sample preparation attributed to the high selectivity and high loading capacity. MIPs have been intensively employed in classical solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction. More recently, MIPs have been combined with magnetic bead extraction, which greatly simplifies sample handling procedures...
January 11, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103513/interventional-radiology-in-the-management-of-thoracic-duct-injuries-anatomy-techniques-and-results
#9
REVIEW
Mohammad Toliyat, Kanwar Singh, Robert C Sibley, Murthy Chamarthy, Sanjeeva P Kalva, Anil K Pillai
Disruption of the thoracic duct can have devastating consequences and be associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Conservative therapies have been attempted to treat chylothorax without much success. Surgical management has traditionally been necessary to provide definitive treatment at the expense of increased morbidity. Lymphatic interventions have recently emerged as a new frontier for interventional radiologists to add value and provide minimally invasive therapies for debilitating conditions. The goal of this manuscript is to review the anatomy of the thoracic duct, describe various percutaneous techniques for accessing the duct, and briefly discuss outcomes as reported in the literature...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103507/circular-banp-an-upregulated-circular-rna-that-modulates-cell-proliferation-in-colorectal-cancer
#10
Mingchen Zhu, Yijun Xu, Yun Chen, Feng Yan
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are recently identified as widespread and diverse endogenous noncoding RNAs that may harbor vital functions in human and animals. However, the role of circRNAs in the process of tumorigenesis and development of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains vague. Here we characterized the circRNA expression profile from three paired CRC cancerous and adjacent normal tissues by human circRNA array, and identified 136 significantly overexpressed circRNAs and 243 downregulated circRNAs in CRC cancerous tissues (>2-fold changes)...
January 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103506/the-effect-of-anti-angiogenic-drugs-on-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#11
REVIEW
Chenxi Hu, Xiaodong Jiang
A benefit of anti-angiogenic drugs is improved tumor immune tolerance. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor microenvironment mediate tumor immune tolerance and anti-angiogenic drugs not only indirectly affect Tregs via dendritic cells (DCs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) but they can also act directly on Tregs causing immunosuppression. Specifically, these drugs may induce differentiation and chemotaxis and reduce the number and function of Tregs by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) on the cell surface...
January 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103497/host-microbiota-interactions-epigenomic-regulation
#12
REVIEW
Vivienne Woo, Theresa Alenghat
The coevolution of mammalian hosts and their commensal microbiota has led to the development of complex symbiotic relationships between resident microbes and mammalian cells. Epigenomic modifications enable host cells to alter gene expression without modifying the genetic code, and therefore represent potent mechanisms by which mammalian cells can transcriptionally respond, transiently or stably, to environmental cues. Advances in genome-wide approaches are accelerating our appreciation of microbial influences on host physiology, and increasing evidence highlights that epigenomics represent a level of regulation by which the host integrates and responds to microbial signals...
January 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103487/a-turn-on-thiol-functionalized-fluorescent-carbon-quantum-dot-based-chemosensory-system-for-arsenite-detection
#13
Pooja D, Sonia Saini, Anupma Thakur, Baban Kumar, Sachin Tyagi, Manoj K Nayak
Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have emerged out as promising fluorescent probes for hazardous heavy metals detection in recent past. In this study, water soluble CQDs were synthesized by facile microwave pyrolysis of citric acid & cysteamine, and functionalized with ditheritheritol to impart thiol functionalities at surface for selective detection of toxic arsenite in water. Microscopic analysis reveals that the synthesized CQDs are of uniform size (diameter ∼5nm) and confirmed to have surface SH groups by FT-IR...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103462/low-adherence-to-mediterranean-diet-in-portugal-pregnant-women-nutrition-in-portugal-and-its-repercussions
#14
REVIEW
Luis Pereira-da-Silva, Elisabete Pinto
INTRODUCTION: Portuguese population is drifting away from the Mediterranean diet-like pattern. In this context, the current nutritionalstatus of women of childbearing age and of pregnant Portuguese women and their growing fetuses is critically reviewed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A narrative critical review was performed on recent published high quality studies assessing diet and nutritional status of women of childbearing age and pregnant women and its influence on the nutritional status of their offspring...
October 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103450/paper-based-analytical-devices-for-clinical-diagnosis-recent-advances-in-the-fabrication-techniques-and-sensing-mechanisms
#15
Mazhar Sher, Rachel Zhuang, Utkan Demirci, Waseem Asghar
There is a significant interest in developing inexpensive portable biosensing platforms for various applications including disease diagnostics, environmental monitoring, food safety, and water testing at the point-of-care (POC) settings. Current diagnostic assays available in the developed world require sophisticated laboratory infrastructure and expensive reagents. Hence, they are not suitable for resource-constrained settings with limited financial resources, basic health infrastructure, and few trained technicians...
January 19, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103444/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-recombinant-factor-viii-produced-from-a-human-cell-line-simoctocog-alfa
#16
Massimo Franchini, Pier Mannuccio Mannucci
The development of inhibitors against infused factor VIII (FVIII) has a detrimental impact on health and quality of life of patients with hemophilia A. Several observational studies and a recently published randomized trial indicate that the inhibitor risk in previously untreated patients (PUPs) is higher following the use of recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) products compared with plasma-derived FVIII concentrates. There is currently a great interest towards newer rFVIII products that adopt various technological solutions to reduce the inhibitor risk...
January 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103426/analytical-characterization-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-4-fluoromethylphenidate-4%C3%A2-f-mph-and-differentiation-between-the-%C3%A2-threo-and-%C3%A2-erythro-diastereomers
#17
Gavin McLaughlin, Noreen Morris, Pierce V Kavanagh, John D Power, Geraldine Dowling, Brendan Twamley, John O'Brien, Gary Hessman, Brian Murphy, Donna Walther, John S Partilla, Michael H Baumann, Simon D Brandt
Misuse of (±)-threo-methylphenidate (methyl-2-phenyl-2-(piperidin-2-yl)acetate; Ritalin®, MPH) has long been acknowledged, but the appearance of MPH analogs in the form of 'research chemicals' has only emerged in more recent years. 4-Fluoromethylphenidate (4 F-MPH) is one of these recent examples and this study presents the identification and analytical characterization of two powdered 4 F-MPH products that were obtained from an online vendor in 2015. Interestingly, the products appeared to have originated from two distinct batches given that one product consisted of (±)-threo-4 F-MPH isomers whereas the second sample consisted of a mixture of (±)-threo and (±)-erythro 4 F-MPH...
January 19, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103397/the-economic-burden-of-nurse-sensitive-adverse-events-in-22-medical-surgical-units-retrospective-and-matching-analysis
#18
Eric Tchouaket, Carl-Ardy Dubois, Danielle D'Amour
AIMS: To assess the economic burden of nurse-sensitive adverse events (NSAEs) in 22 acute care units in Quebec by estimating excess hospital-related costs and calculating resulting additional hospital days. BACKGROUND: Recent changes in the worldwide economic and financial contexts have made the cost of patient safety a topical issue. Yet our knowledge about the economic burden of safety of nursing care is quite limited in Canada in general and Quebec in particular...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103313/mycobacterium-marinum-degrades-both-triacylglycerols-and-phospholipids-from-its-dictyostelium-host-to-synthesise-its-own-triacylglycerols-and-generate-lipid-inclusions
#19
Caroline Barisch, Thierry Soldati
During a tuberculosis infection and inside lipid-laden foamy macrophages, fatty acids (FAs) and sterols are the major energy and carbon source for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacteria can be found both inside a vacuole and the cytosol, but how this impacts their access to lipids is not well appreciated. Lipid droplets (LDs) store FAs in form of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and are energy reservoirs of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Using the Dictyostelium discoideum/Mycobacterium marinum infection model we showed that M...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103307/plant-family-specific-impacts-of-petroleum-pollution-on-biodiversity-and-leaf-chlorophyll-content-in-the-amazon-rainforest-of-ecuador
#20
Paul Arellano, Kevin Tansey, Heiko Balzter, Markus Tellkamp
In recent decades petroleum pollution in the tropical rainforest has caused significant environmental damage in vast areas of the Amazon region. At present the extent of this damage is not entirely clear. Little is known about the specific impacts of petroleum pollution on tropical vegetation. In a field expedition to the Ecuadorian Amazon over 1100 leaf samples were collected from tropical trees in polluted and unpolluted sites. Plant families were identified for 739 of the leaf samples and compared between sites...
2017: PloS One
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