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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749613/linked-selection-demography-and-the-evolution-of-correlated-genomic-landscapes-in-birds-and-beyond
#1
Reto Burri
Selection has a deep impact on the distribution of genetic diversity and population differentiation along the genome (the genomic landscapes of diversity and differentiation), reducing diversity and elevating differentiation not only at the sites it targets, but also at linked neutral sites. Fuelled by the high-throughput sequencing revolution, these genomic footprints of selection have been extensively exploited over the past decade with the aim to identify genomic regions involved in adaptation and speciation...
August 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749593/developing-better-practices-at-the-institutional-level-leads-to-better-outcomes-after-pancreaticoduodenectomy-in-3-378-patients-domestic-audit-of-the-japanese-society-of-pancreatic-surgery
#2
Sohei Satoi, Tomohisa Yamamoto, Hideyuki Yoshitomi, Fuyuhiko Motoi, Manabu Kawai, Tsutomu Fujii, Keita Wada, Hidehito Arimitsu, Masayuki Sho, Ippei Matsumoto, Satoshi Hirano, Hiroaki Yanagimoto, Masayuki Ohtsuka, Michiaki Unno, Hiroki Yamaue, Masanori Kon
PURPOSE: To assess recent trends in pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and the role of institutional standardization on the development of post-operative complications in 3,378 patients who underwent PD in Japan. METHODS: Data were collected from 3,378 patients who underwent PD in 2006, 2010, and 2014 at 53 institutions. A standardized institution (SI) was defined as one that implements ≥7 of 13 quality initiatives according to departmental policy. There were 1,223 patients in the SI group and 2,155 in the non-SI group...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749589/precisely-assembled-cyclic-gold-nanoparticle-frames-via-2d-polymer-single-crystal-templating
#3
Christopher Yuren Li, Shan Mei, Hao Qi, Tian Zhou
In recent decades, extensive studies have been devoted to assembling nanoparticles (NPs) into various ordered structures to achieve novel optical properties. It however still remains a challenging task to assemble NPs into cyclic one-dimensional (1D) shapes such as rings and frames. In this work, we report a directed assembly method to precisely assemble NPs into well-defined, free-standing frames using polymer single crystals (PSCs) as the template. Preformed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) single crystals were used as the template to direct the crystallization of block copolymer (BCP) poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PEO-b-P4VP), which directed gold NPs (AuNPs) to form AuNP frames...
July 27, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749588/primary-cutaneous-cd4-positive-small-medium-sized-pleomorphic-t-cell-lymphoproliferative-disorder-report-of-a-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Brett H Keeling, Alde Carlo P Gavino, Joan Admirand, Anthony C Soldano
Primary cutaneous small/medium-sized T-cell lymphoma (PCSM-TCL), which was included in the WHO-EORTC classification for cutaneous lymphomas as a provisional entity in 2008, has recently been reclassified as a lymphoproliferative disorder (PCSM-TCLPD) due to its indolent behavior and uncertain malignant potential. Treatment with local therapies is usually curative, though there have been reports of aggressive, systemic disease. This spectrum of disease behavior evokes the consideration that this entity may actually be multiple diseases with a shared clinicopathologic features rather than a singular disease process with a variety of behaviors...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749567/ab-initio-energetics-of-si%C3%AF-o-bond-cleavage
#5
Carolin Hühn, Andreas Erlebach, Dorothea Mey, Lothar Wondraczek, Marek Sierka
A multilevel approach that combines high-level ab initio quantum chemical methods applied to a molecular model of a single, strain-free SiOSi bridge has been used to derive accurate energetics for SiO bond cleavage. The calculated SiO bond dissociation energy and the activation energy for water-assisted SiO bond cleavage of 624 and 163 kJ mol(-1) , respectively, are in excellent agreement with values derived recently from experimental data. In addition, the activation energy for H2 O-assisted SiO bond cleavage is found virtually independent of the amount of water molecules in the vicinity of the reaction site...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749559/recombinant-cccdna-of-hepatitis-b-virus-induces-long-term-viral-persistence-with-chronic-hepatitis-in-a-mouse-model
#6
Gaiyun Li, Yuanfei Zhu, Dianhui Shao, Hao Chang, Xiaoming Zhang, Dongming Zhou, Yueqiu Gao, Ke Lan, Qiang Deng
Covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is critical for viral persistence in vivo. We recently reported a technique involving recombinant (r) cccDNA of HBV by site-specific DNA recombination. Using hydrodynamic injection, rcccDNA induces a temporarily prolonged HBV anigenemia in immunocompetent mice, similar to acute resolving HBV infection. In this study, we simulated the pathophysiological impact of chronic hepatitis by which to reproduce (r)cccDNA persistence in mouse models. We showed that rcccDNA achieved long-lasting persistence in the presence of a compromised immune response or when transcriptional activity was repressed...
July 27, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749547/comparing-the-lexical-similarity-of-the-triarchic-model-of-psychopathy-to-contemporary-models-of-psychopathy
#7
Dylan T Gatner, Kevin S Douglas, Stephen D Hart
OBJECTIVE: The Triarchic model of psychopathy (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009) posits that psychopathic personality comprises three domains: Boldness, Meanness, and Disinhibition. The present study aimed to clarify conceptual overlap between contemporary definitions of psychopathy, with particular emphasis given to the relevance of Boldness (i.e., social dominance, venturesomeness, emotional resiliency)-a topic of recent debate. METHOD: Undergraduate students (N = 439) compared the lexical similarity of Triarchic domains with two contemporary models of psychopathy: the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP; Cooke, Hart, Logan, & Michie, 2012) and Five Factor Model of psychopathy (FFM; Widiger & Lynam, 1998)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749536/the-lack-of-a-relationship-between-physician-payments-from-drug-manufacturers-and-medicare-claims-for-abiraterone-and-enzalutamide
#8
Jathin Bandari, Omar M Ayyash, Robert M Turner, Bruce L Jacobs, Benjamin J Davies
BACKGROUND: Interactions between industry and prescribers have raised concerns regarding conflicts of interest. To the best of the authors' knowledge, quantitative data measuring these interactions have been limited until recently. In the current study, the authors sought to determine whether an association exists between industry payments and prescriber behavior with regard to abiraterone and enzalutamide. METHODS: Two Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services databases were combined to analyze oncologists and urologists who received industry payments and/or prescribed abiraterone and enzalutamide...
July 27, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749519/atomic-scale-computational-design-of-hydrophobic-re-surface-doped-al2o3-and-tio2
#9
Kamil Czelej, Marcin Roland Zemła, Piotr Spiewak, Tomasz Wejrzanowski, Krzysztof Jan Kurzydłowski
Intrinsically hydrophobic rare-earth oxides (REOs) have emerged as a robust class of ceramics for a variety of applications. Recently, the hydrophobicity of REOs has been observed experimentally and subsequently scrutinized using electronic structure density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In this work, we applied the DFT method to analyze the possibility of tuning the wettability of commonly used hydrophilic Al2O3 and TiO2 by surface doping with Ce. The calculations indicate that Ce can preferentially segregate to the surface of Al2O3 and TiO2 and form a Ce-rich oxide layer, which is stable under a wide range of oxygen chemical potentials...
July 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749505/the-influence-of-surface-area-porous-structure-and-surface-state-on-the-supercapacitor-performance-of-titanium-oxynitride-implications-for-a-nanostructuring-strategy
#10
Eun Joo Lee, Lanlee Lee, Muhammad Awais Abbas, Jin Ho Bang
A recent surge of interest in metal (oxy)nitride materials for energy storage devices has given rise to the rapid development of various nanostructuring strategies for these materials. In supercapacitor applications, early transition metal (oxy)nitrides have been extensively explored, among which titanium oxynitride stands out due to its great potential for charge storage. Despite recent advances in supercapacitors based on titanium oxynitride, many underlying factors governing their capacitive performance remain elusive...
July 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749465/acid-sphingomyelinase-mediates-human-cd4-t-cell-signaling-potential-roles-in-t-cell-responses-and-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Aiping Bai, Yuan Guo
Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a lipid hydrolase. By generating ceramide, ASM had been reported to have an important role in regulating immune cell functions inclusive of macrophages, NK cells, and CD8(+) T cells, whereas the role of ASM bioactivity in regulation of human CD4(+) T-cell functions remained uncertain. Recent studies have provided novel findings in this field. Upon stimulation of CD3 and/or CD28, ASM-dependent ceramide signaling mediates intracellular downstream signal cascades of CD3 and CD28, and regulates CD4(+) T-cell activation and proliferation...
July 27, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749457/the-theory-of-disappearing-microbiota-and-the-epidemics-of-chronic-diseases
#12
Martin J Blaser
In recent decades, the incidence of many apparently unrelated chronic diseases has markedly increased. Here, I theorize that losses of particular bacterial species of our ancestral microbiota have altered the context in which immunological, metabolic and cognitive development occur in early life, which results in increased disease. This ominous trend suggests that we must refocus efforts to understand and reverse the underlying circumstances that are responsible for our disappearing microbiota.
July 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749451/characterization-of-two-historic-smallpox-specimens-from-a-czech-museum
#13
Petr Pajer, Jiri Dresler, Hana Kabíckova, Libor Písa, Pavel Aganov, Karel Fucik, Daniel Elleder, Tomas Hron, Vitezslav Kuzelka, Petr Velemínsky, Jana Klimentova, Alena Fucikova, Jaroslav Pejchal, Rita Hrabakova, Vladimir Benes, Tobias Rausch, Pavel Dundr, Alexander Pilin, Radomir Cabala, Martin Hubalek, Jan Stríbrny, Markus H Antwerpen, Hermann Meyer
Although smallpox has been known for centuries, the oldest available variola virus strains were isolated in the early 1940s. At that time, large regions of the world were already smallpox-free. Therefore, genetic information of these strains can represent only the very last fraction of a long evolutionary process. Based on the genomes of 48 strains, two clades are differentiated: Clade 1 includes variants of variola major, and clade 2 includes West African and variola minor (Alastrim) strains. Recently, the genome of an almost 400-year-old Lithuanian mummy was determined, which fell basal to all currently sequenced strains of variola virus on phylogenetic trees...
July 27, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749444/a-possible-percutaneous-penetration-pathway-that-should-be-considered
#14
Ichiro Hatta, Noboru Ohta, Hiromitsu Nakazawa
The intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum form structures composed of ordered phases with orthorhombic and hexagonal hydrocarbon-chain packing structures and, in addition, a structure composed of a disordered fluid phase. Although the fluid phase plays an important role in percutaneous penetration, little attention has been paid to it in the literature thus far. Recently, a method to estimate the proportion of the fluid phase within the lipids of the stratum corneum was proposed and it was shown to reach about 80%...
July 27, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749442/long-term-effects-of-pregnancy-complications-on-maternal-health-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Ran Neiger
Background: Most pregnancy-related medical complications appear to resolve at delivery or shortly thereafter. Common examples are preterm labor, placental abruption, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes. Women who developed such complications are known to be at increased risk of developing similar complications in future pregnancies. It has recently become evident that these women are at an increased risk of long term medical complications. Methods: A search through scientific publications in English regarding the association of obstetric complications and long-term maternal illness...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749436/disparities-in-snacking-trends-in-us-adults-over-a-35-year-period-from-1977-to-2012
#16
Elizabeth K Dunford, Barry M Popkin
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that snacking is contributing to increased calories in the American diet, and that the contribution of snacks to energy intake has increased in recent decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine trends in the energy intake deriving from snacks and food sources of snacks for US adults over 35 years from 1977 to 2012, and whether these trends differ across sociodemographic groups. METHODS: Participants included 74,291 US adults aged ≥19 years who participated in the 1977-1978 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS); the 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII), the 1994-1996 CSFII, the 1997-1998 CSFII, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004, NHANES 2005-2006, NHANES 2009-2010 and NHANES 2011-2012; all surveys are a stratified random sample of the total civilian, non-institutionalized US population...
July 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749434/unsolved-puzzles-surrounding-hcv-immunity-heterologous-immunity-adds-another-dimension
#17
REVIEW
Babita Agrawal, Shakti Singh, Nancy Gupta, Wen Li, Satish Vedi, Rakesh Kumar
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) afflicts 3% of the world's population and can lead to serious and late-stage liver diseases. Developing a vaccine for HCV is challenging because the correlates of protection are uncertain and traditional vaccine approaches do not work. Studies of natural immunity to HCV in humans have resulted in many enigmas. Human beings are not immunologically naïve because they are continually exposed to various environmental microbes and antigens, creating large populations of memory T cells...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749429/establishment-of-a-site-specific-tropospheric-model-based-on-ground-meteorological-parameters-over-the-china-region
#18
Chongchong Zhou, Bibo Peng, Wei Li, Shiming Zhong, Jikun Ou, Runjing Chen, Xinglong Zhao
China is a country of vast territory with complicated geographical environment and climate conditions. With the rapid progress of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS); more accurate tropospheric models must be applied to improve the accuracy of navigation and positioning. Based on the formula of the Saastamoinen and Callahan models; this study develops two single-site tropospheric models (named SAAS_S and CH_S models) for the Chinese region using radiosonde data from 2005 to 2012. We assess the two single-site tropospheric models with radiosonde data for 2013 and zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) data from four International GNSS Service (IGS) stations and compare them to the results of the Saastamoinen and Callahan models...
July 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749425/recent-developments-in-the-medicinal-applications-of-silver-nhc-complexes-and-imidazolium-salts
#19
REVIEW
Nicholas A Johnson, Marie R Southerland, Wiley J Youngs
Because of their great structural diversity and multitude of chemical properties, N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have been utilized in a variety of capacities. Most recently, NHCs have been utilized as carrier molecules for many transition metals in medicinal chemistry. Specifically, Ag(I)-NHCs have been investigated as potent antibacterial agents and chemotherapeutics and have shown great efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Ag(I)-NHC compounds have been shown to be effective against a wide range of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains...
July 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749422/metamaterials-and-metasurfaces-for-sensor-applications
#20
REVIEW
Yohan Lee, Sun-Je Kim, Hyeonsoo Park, Byoungho Lee
Electromagnetic metamaterials (MMs) and metasurfaces (MSs) are artificial media and surfaces with subwavelength separations of meta-atoms designed for anomalous manipulations of light properties. Owing to large scattering cross-sections of metallic/dielectric meta-atoms, it is possible to not only localize strong electromagnetic fields in deep subwavelength volume but also decompose and analyze incident light signal with ultracompact setup using MMs and MSs. Hence, by probing resonant spectral responses from extremely boosted interactions between analyte layer and optical MMs or MSs, sensing the variation of refractive index has been a popular and practical application in the field of photonics...
July 27, 2017: Sensors
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