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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806855/functional-stem-cell-integration-into-neural-networks-assessed-by-organotypic-slice-cultures
#1
David Forsberg, Charoensri Thonabulsombat, Johan Jäderstad, Linda Maria Jäderstad, Petri Olivius, Eric Herlenius
Re-formation or preservation of functional, electrically active neural networks has been proffered as one of the goals of stem cell-mediated neural therapeutics. A primary issue for a cell therapy approach is the formation of functional contacts between the implanted cells and the host tissue. Therefore, it is of fundamental interest to establish protocols that allow us to delineate a detailed time course of grafted stem cell survival, migration, differentiation, integration, and functional interaction with the host...
August 14, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806822/-multiple-myeloma-current-status-in-diagnostic-testing-and-therapy
#2
Michael Kehrer, Sebastian Koob, Andreas Strauss, Dieter Christian Wirtz, Jan Schmolders
Background Multiple myeloma is a haematological blood cancer of the bone marrow and is classified by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a plasma cell neoplasm. In multiple myeloma, normal plasma cells transform into malignant myeloma cells and produce large quantities of an abnormal immunoglobulin called monoclonal protein or M protein. This ultimately causes multiple myeloma symptoms such as bone damage or kidney problems. The annual worldwide incidence of multiple myeloma is estimated to be 6 - 7/100,000 and accounts for 1% of all cancer...
August 14, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806787/antagonism-of-proteasome-inhibitor-induced-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-by-pink1-mutation
#3
Xiang-Jun Sheng, Hunag-Ju Tu, Wei-Lin Chien, Kai-Hsiang Kang, Dai-Hua Lu, Horng-Huei Liou, Ming-Jen Lee, Wen-Mei Fu
PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) is an integral protein in the mitochondrial membrane and maintains mitochondrial fidelity. Pathogenic mutations in PINK1 have been identified as a cause of early-onset autosomal recessive familial Parkinson's disease (PD). The ubiquitin proteasome pathway is associated with neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated whether mutations of PINK1 affects the cellular stress response following proteasome inhibition. Administration of MG132, a peptide aldehyde proteasome inhibitor, significantly increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rat dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and in the SH-SY5Y neuronal cell line...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806774/fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-1-mediates-internalization-of-pathogenic-spotted-fever-rickettsiae-into-host-endothelium
#4
Abha Sahni, Jignesh Patel, Hema P Narra, Casey L C Schroeder, David H Walker, Sanjeev K Sahni
Rickettsial infections continue to cause serious morbidity and mortality in severe human cases around the world. Host cell adhesion and invasion is an essential requisite for intracellular growth, replication, and subsequent dissemination of pathogenic rickettsiae. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans [HSPGs] facilitate the interactions between fibroblast growth factor(s) and their tyrosine kinase receptors resulting in receptor dimerization/activation and have been implicated in bacterial adhesion to target host cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806767/hydrodynamic-repulsion-of-spheroidal-microparticles-from-micro-rough-surfaces
#5
Aleksey V Belyaev
Isolation of microparticles and biological cells from mixtures and suspensions is a central problem in a variety of biomedical applications. This problem, for instance, is of an immense importance for microfluidic devices manipulating with whole blood samples. It is instructive to know how the mobility and dynamics of rigid microparticles is altered by the presence of micrometer-size roughness on walls. The presented theoretical study addresses this issue via computer simulations. The approach is based on a combination of the Lattice Boltzmann method for calculating hydrodynamics and the Lagrangian Particle dynamics method to describe the dynamics of cell membranes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806760/endothelial-activation-and-dysfunction-in-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome
#6
Xiao-Kun Li, Zhen-Dong Yang, Juan Du, Bo Xing, Ning Cui, Pan-He Zhang, Hao Li, Xiao-Ai Zhang, Qing-Bin Lu, Wei Liu
BACKGROUND: Pathogenesis of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) has not been well described yet. Recent studies indicate that SFTSV could replicate in endothelial cells. Here we performed a case-control study to determine whether endothelial activation/dysfunction occurred in SFTSV infection and to identify the biomarkers reflecting endothelial dysfunction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a case-control study of 134 SFTS patients and 68 healthy controls, serum levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, tissue plasminogen activator, P-selectin, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecular, CD40 ligand, E-selectin, vascular endothelial growth factor A, serum amyloid antigen 1 (SAA-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecular 1 were significantly enhanced in the patients than the controls (all P<0...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806752/the-escrt-iii-pathway-facilitates-cardiomyocyte-release-of-cbin1-containing-microparticles
#7
Bing Xu, Ying Fu, Yan Liu, Sosse Agvanian, Robert C Wirka, Rachel Baum, Kang Zhou, Robin M Shaw, TingTing Hong
Microparticles (MPs) are cell-cell communication vesicles derived from the cell surface plasma membrane, although they are not known to originate from cardiac ventricular muscle. In ventricular cardiomyocytes, the membrane deformation protein cardiac bridging integrator 1 (cBIN1 or BIN1+13+17) creates transverse-tubule (t-tubule) membrane microfolds, which facilitate ion channel trafficking and modulate local ionic concentrations. The microfold- generated microdomains continuously reorganize, adapting in response to stress to modulate the calcium signaling apparatus...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806747/low-lamin-a-expression-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells-from-pleural-effusions-is-a-pejorative-factor-associated-with-high-number-of-metastatic-sites-and-poor-performance-status
#8
Elise Kaspi, Diane Frankel, Julien Guinde, Sophie Perrin, Sophie Laroumagne, Andrée Robaglia-Schlupp, Kevin Ostacolo, Karim Harhouri, Rachid Tazi-Mezalek, Joelle Micallef, Hervé Dutau, Pascale Tomasini, Annachiara De Sandre-Giovannoli, Nicolas Lévy, Pierre Cau, Philippe Astoul, Patrice Roll
The type V intermediate filament lamins are the principal components of the nuclear matrix, including the nuclear lamina. Lamins are divided into A-type and B-type, which are encoded by three genes, LMNA, LMNB1, and LMNB2. The alternative splicing of LMNA produces two major A-type lamins, lamin A and lamin C. Previous studies have suggested that lamins are involved in cancer development and progression. A-type lamins have been proposed as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and/or follow-up. The aim of the present study was to investigate lamins in cancer cells from metastatic pleural effusions using immunofluorescence, western blotting, and flow cytometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806745/persistent-mycobacteria-evade-an-antibacterial-program-mediated-by-phagolysosomal-tlr7-8-myd88-in-human-primary-macrophages
#9
Alexandre Gidon, Signe Elisabeth Åsberg, Claire Louet, Liv Ryan, Markus Haug, Trude Helen Flo
Pathogenic mycobacteria reside in macrophages where they avoid lysosomal targeting and degradation through poorly understood mechanisms proposed to involve arrest of phagosomal maturation at an early endosomal stage. A clear understanding of how this relates to host defenses elicited from various intracellular compartments is also missing and can only be studied using techniques allowing single cell and subcellular analyses. Using confocal imaging of human primary macrophages infected with Mycobacterium avium (Mav) we show evidence that Mav phagosomes are not arrested at an early endosomal stage, but mature to a (LAMP1+/LAMP2+/CD63+) late endosomal/phagolysosomal stage where inflammatory signaling and Mav growth restriction is initiated through a mechanism involving Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 8, the adaptor MyD88 and transcription factors NF-κB and IRF-1...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806736/unravelling-the-interplay-of-sphingolipids-and-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-the-human-corneal-stroma
#10
Sarah E Nicholas, Tyler G Rowsey, Shrestha Priyadarsini, Nawajes A Mandal, Dimitrios Karamichos
PURPOSE: To delineate the role of Sphingolipids (SPLs) in the human cornea and their cross-talks with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in order to develop novel, non-invasive therapies. METHODS: Human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) were harvested from healthy donors, stimulated with Vitamin C to promote extracellular matrix assembly, treated with exogenous sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) or sphingosine kinase inhibitor 2 (SPHK I2) and isolated after 4 weeks for further analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806727/formation-of-friable-embryogenic-callus-in-cassava-is-enhanced-under-conditions-of-reduced-nitrate-potassium-and-phosphate
#11
Yoshinori Utsumi, Chikako Utsumi, Maho Tanaka, Vu The Ha, Akihiro Matsui, Satoshi Takahashi, Motoaki Seki
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is an important research tool for the genetic improvement of cassava. The induction of friable embryogenic callus (FEC) is considered as a key step in cassava transformation. In the present study, the media composition was optimized for enhancing the FEC induction, and the effect of the optimized medium on gene expression was evaluated. In relative comparison to MS medium, results demonstrated that using a medium with reducing nutrition (a 10-fold less concentration of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphate), the increased amount of vitamin B1 (10 mg/L) and the use of picrolam led to reprogram non-FEC to FEC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806720/exploration-of-acute-genotoxic-effects-and-antigenotoxic-potential-of-gambogic-acid-using-allium-cepa-assay
#12
Abhishek Shetty, Thejaswini Venkatesh, Padmanaban S Suresh, Rie Tsutsumi
The plant derived xanthanoid gambogic acid (GA) is well known for its anticancer activity. To date, biological actions of GA on plant system have not been reported. In the present study, we evaluated the potential acute genotoxic activity of GA, and its antigenotoxic potential against H2O2 induced genetic damage using Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay under hydroponic conditions. There was a significant decrease in the percentage of mitotic index/prophase index with the increase in clastogenicity percentage in a dose and time-dependent manner when Allium cepa bulbs were exposed to GA at 0...
August 5, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806716/efficient-hardware-implementation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-external-globus-pallidus-oscillation-system-and-its-dynamics-investigation
#13
Shuangming Yang, Xile Wei, Jiang Wang, Bin Deng, Chen Liu, Haitao Yu, Huiyan Li
Modeling and implementation of the nonlinear neural system with physiologically plausible dynamic behaviors are considerably meaningful in the field of computational neuroscience. This study introduces a novel hardware platform to investigate the dynamical behaviors within the nonlinear subthalamic nucleus-external globus pallidus system. In order to reduce the implementation complexities, a hardware-oriented conductance-based subthalamic nucleus (STN) model is presented, which can reproduce accurately the dynamical characteristics of biological conductance-based STN cells...
July 26, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806684/photochemical-inactivation-of-lymphocytes-by-riboflavin-with-visible-light-for-ta-gvhd-prevention
#14
Qin Mo, Yuwen Huang, Li Wang, Zhenzhen Cheng, Xiaofei Wu, Yao Jia, Xun Wang, Bo Zhang
Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a life-threatening complication caused by the input of a number of immunocompetent allogeneic lymphocytes. This study focus on the photochemical effects of riboflavin excited by visible light (RB+L) treatment on human lymphocytes, to study the feasibility of using RB+L treatment to prevent adverse immune reactions caused by transfused lymphocytes. 100μM riboflavin was added to lymphocyte suspensions. After exposure to 400-580nm visible light with a total energy of 40J/mL, cells were cultured and the ability of proliferation and cytokine secretion were assayed upon stimuli...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806674/cadmium-induces-histopathological-injuries-and-ultrastructural-changes-in-the-liver-of-freshwater-turtle-chinemys-reevesii
#15
Junfeng Huo, Aiguo Dong, Yonghui Wang, Shaochin Lee, Cungen Ma, Lan Wang
The study investigated the histopathological and ultrastructural lesions of liver of freshwater turtle Chinemys reevesii exposed to Cadmium (Cd). The animals were exposed to 0 mg kg(-1) (0.85% normal saline (NS)), 7.5 mg kg(-1), 15 mg kg(-1), 30 mg kg(-1) Cd chloride separately by intraperitoneal injection. Liver samples were collected for examination of lesions under light and electronic microscopes. Results showed that liver tissues from Cd -treated animals presented various degrees of histopathological lesions...
August 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806666/doxorubicin-loaded-environmentally-friendly-carbon-dots-as-a-novel-drug-delivery-system-for-nucleus-targeted-cancer-therapy
#16
Yifang Yuan, Bin Guo, Liying Hao, Na Liu, Yunfeng Lin, Wushuang Guo, Xiaoguang Li, Bin Gu
Chemotherapy is widely applied against various kinds of carcinoma. Generally, chemotherapeutic agents, such as Doxorubicin (DOX), Paclitaxel (PTX), 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), Methotrexate (MTX), and Vinblastine (VLB) are combined with a view to maximizing their efficacy. Unfortunately, chemotherapeutics are indiscriminate and also kill normal healthy cells, resulting in serious side effects. This non-productive and destructive distribution of chemotherapeutics is regarded as one of the largest problems associated with chemotherapy...
July 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806647/mechanical-reinforcement-of-bioceramics-scaffolds-via-fracture-energy-dissipation-induced-by-sliding-action-of-mos2-nanoplatelets
#17
Cijun Shuai, Hang Sun, Chengde Gao, Pei Feng, Wang Guo, Youwen Yang, Mingchun Zhao, Sheng Yang, Fulai Yuan, Shuping Peng
The inherent brittleness of bioceramics restricts their applications in load bearing implant, although they possess good biocompatibility and bioactivity. In this study, molybdenum disulfide nanoplatelets (MSNPs) were used to reinforce bioceramics (Mg2SiO4/CaSiO3) scaffolds fabricated by selective laser sintering (SLS). The fracture mode of scaffolds was transformed from transgranular to mixed trans- and intergranular. It could be explained that MSNPs could slide easily due to their weak interlayer van der Waals interactions and provide elastic deformation due to their high elastic modulus...
July 20, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806642/circulating-follicular-helper-t-cells-presented-distinctively-different-responses-toward-bacterial-antigens-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#18
Zun-Qiang Zhou, Da-Nian Tong, Jiao Guan, Mei-Fang Li, Qi-Ming Feng, Min-Jie Zhou, Zheng-Yun Zhang
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic and progressive cholestatic liver disease with unknown causes. The initiation of PBC is associated with bacterial infections and abnormal immune correlates, such as the presence of self-reactive anti-mitochondrial antibodies and shifted balance of T cell subsets. In particular, the CD4(+)CXCR5(+) follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are highly activated in PBC patients and are significantly associated with PBC severity, but the underlying reasons are unknown. In this study, we found that the circulating CD4(+)CXCR5(+) T cells were enriched with the interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting Th1-subtype and the interleukin (IL)-17-secreting Th17-subtype, but not the IL-4-secreting Th2 subtype...
August 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806641/acute-ethanol-administration-results-in-a-protective-cytokine-and-neuroinflammatory-profile-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Akila Chandrasekar, Florian Olde Heuvel, Annette Palmer, Birgit Linkus, Albert C Ludolph, Tobias M Boeckers, Borna Relja, Markus Huber-Lang, Francesco Roselli
Ethanol intoxication is a common comorbidity in traumatic brain injury. To date, the effect of ethanol on TBI pathogenic cascades and resulting outcomes remains debated. A closed blunt weight-drop murine TBI model has been implemented to investigate behavioral (by sensorimotor and neurological tests), and neuro-immunological (by tissue cytokine arrays and immuno-histology) effects of ethanol intoxication on TBI. The effect of the occurrence of traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage was also studied. The results indicate that ethanol pretreatment results in a faster and better recovery after TBI with reduced infiltration of leukocytes and reduced microglia activation...
August 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806629/aseptic-meningitis-in-adults-and-children-diagnostic-and-management-challenges
#20
Bhavarth Shukla, Elizabeth A Aguilera, Lucrecia Salazar, Susan H Wootton, Quanhathai Kaewpoowat, Rodrigo Hasbun
BACKGROUND: Aseptic meningitis represents a common diagnostic and management dilemma to clinicians. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical epidemiology, diagnostic evaluations, management, and outcomes between adults and children with aseptic meningitis. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 through September 2010 at 9 Memorial Hermann Hospitals in Houston, TX. Patients age≥2months who presented with community-acquired aseptic meningitis with a CSF white blood cell count >5cells/mm(3) and a negative Gram stain and cultures were enrolled...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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