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varanus komodoensis

Martina Johnson Pokorná, Marie Altmanová, Michail Rovatsos, Petr Velenský, Roman Vodička, Ivan Rehák, Lukáš Kratochvíl
The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest lizard in the world. Surprisingly, it has not yet been cytogenetically examined. Here, we present the very first description of its karyotype and sex chromosomes. The karyotype consists of 2n = 40 chromosomes, 16 macrochromosomes and 24 microchromosomes. Although the chromosome number is constant for all species of monitor lizards (family Varanidae) with the currently reported karyotype, variability in the morphology of the macrochromosomes has been previously documented within the group...
2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Stephen D Ducey, Jeffrey S Cooper, Michael C Wadman
Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) are large lizards known to take down prey even larger than themselves. They rarely attack humans. A 38-year-old woman was bitten by a Komodo dragon on her hand while cleaning its enclosure. She was transiently hypotensive. The wounds were extensively cleaned, and she was started on prophylactic antibiotics. Her wounds healed without any infectious sequelae. Komodo dragon bites are historically thought to be highly infectious and venomous. Based on a literature review, neither of these are likely true...
June 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Deni Purwandana, Achmad Ariefiandy, M Jeri Imansyah, Aganto Seno, Claudio Ciofi, Mike Letnic, Tim S Jessop
Ontogenetic allometries in ecological habits and niche use are key responses by which individuals maximize lifetime fitness. Moreover, such allometries have significant implications for how individuals influence population and community dynamics. Here, we examined how body size variation in Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) influenced ecological allometries in their: (1) prey size preference, (2) daily movement rates, (3) home range area, and (4) subsequent niche use across ontogeny. With increased body mass, Komodo dragons increased prey size with a dramatic switch from small (≤10 kg) to large prey (≥50 kg) in lizards heavier than 20 kg...
April 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
Taylor J M Dick, Christofer J Clemente
BACKGROUND: The functional design of skeletal muscles is shaped by conflicting selective pressures between support and propulsion, which becomes even more important as animals get larger. If larger animals were geometrically scaled up versions of smaller animals, increases in body size would cause an increase in musculoskeletal stress, a result of the greater scaling of mass in comparison to area. In large animals these stresses would come dangerously close to points of failure. By examining the architecture of 22 hindlimb muscles in 27 individuals from 9 species of varanid lizards ranging from the tiny 7...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
Tammy Culpepper Wolfe, Elizabeth Stringer, Sue Krauss, Tim Trout
This case report describes a new physical therapy technique, specifically the Wolfe Kinetic Technique, as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of severe osteoarthritis in a 20-yr-old Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis). This animal was managed with oral analgesics for 3 yr with fair to minimal response over time. Due to worsening of lameness and mobility, physical therapy was initiated. Ten treatment sessions were administered at 1-wk intervals. Within 1 mo the Komodo dragon exhibited marked improvement in gait and function, increased responsiveness to his environment, and increased mobility which continued to improve over the subsequent sessions...
March 2015: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Heather A Borek, Nathan P Charlton
Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) are the world's largest lizards, known for killing prey that exceed their body mass. Reports of bites to humans in the popular press suggest high degrees of morbidity and mortality. Reports in the medical literature are lacking. We describe the case of a zookeeper who was bitten by a Komodo dragon, with a resultant mallet finger. We further discuss the various potential mechanisms of Komodo dragon lethality, including sepsis and venom deposition theories that are useful in guiding management...
June 2015: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Caleb Marshall Brown, Collin S VanBuren, Derek W Larson, Kirstin S Brink, Nicolás E Campione, Matthew J Vavrek, David C Evans
Tooth counts are commonly recorded in fossil diapsid reptiles and have been used for taxonomic and phylogenetic purposes under the assumption that differences in the number of teeth are largely explained by interspecific variation. Although phylogeny is almost certainly one of the greatest factors influencing tooth count, the relative role of intraspecific variation is difficult, and often impossible, to test in the fossil record given the sample sizes available to palaeontologists and, as such, is best investigated using extant models...
April 2015: Journal of Anatomy
Ankit Verma, Dhirendra Kumar Sharma, Rituparna Sarma, Hasnahana Chetia, Juri Saikia
BDNF (Brain derived neurotrophic factor) is a secretion protein and a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors. Structural and functional characterization of BDNF Varanus komodoensis is of interest while its structure remains unknown. Thus, a homology molecular model of BDNF was constructed for gleaning possible structural insights. The model was compared with the structure of the homologous NGF (Nerve growth factor, another member of neuro-trophin family) from Naja atra. Comparative structural analysis of the models showed structural similarities with their predicted cavities for the interpretation of potential functional analogy...
2013: Bioinformation
Ellie J C Goldstein, Kerin L Tyrrell, Diane M Citron, Cathleen R Cox, Ian M Recchio, Ben Okimoto, Judith Bryja, Bryan G Fry
It has been speculated that the oral flora of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) exerts a lethal effect on its prey; yet, scant information about their specific oral flora bacteriology, especially anaerobes, exists. Consequently, the aerobic and anaerobic oral bacteriology of 16 captive Komodo dragons (10 adults and six neonates), aged 2-17 yr for adults and 7-10 days for neonates, from three U.S. zoos were studied. Saliva and gingival samples were collected by zoo personnel, inoculated into anaerobic transport media, and delivered by courier to a reference laboratory...
June 2013: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Achmad Ariefiandy, Deni Purwandana, Aganto Seno, Claudio Ciofi, Tim S Jessop
Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of camera trapping to potentially monitor the population status of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), an apex predator, using site occupancy approaches...
2013: PloS One
Rebecca J Laver, Deni Purwandana, Achmad Ariefiandy, Jeri Imansyah, David Forsyth, Claudio Ciofi, Tim S Jessop
Somatic growth patterns represent a major component of organismal fitness and may vary among sexes and populations due to genetic and environmental processes leading to profound differences in life-history and demography. This study considered the ontogenic, sex-specific and spatial dynamics of somatic growth patterns in ten populations of the world's largest lizard the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis). The growth of 400 individual Komodo dragons was measured in a capture-mark-recapture study at ten sites on four islands in eastern Indonesia, from 2002 to 2010...
2012: PloS One
Lee R Hagey, Shoujiro Ogawa, Narimi Kato, Rika Satoh née Okihara, Mizuho Une, Kuniko Mitamura, Shigeo Ikegawa, Alan F Hofmann, Takashi Iida
A key intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway by which C(24) bile acids are formed from cholesterol has long been considered to be varanic acid, (24ξ,25ξ)-3α,7α,12α-24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid. The (24R,25R)-epimer of this tetrahydroxy bile acid, in the form of its taurine N-acyl amidate, was thought to be the major biliary bile acid in lizards of the family Varanidae. We report here that a major biliary bile acid of three lizard species - the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), Gray's monitor (Varanus olivaceus), and the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) - is a novel epimer of varanic acid...
November 2012: Steroids
Bryan G Fry, Nicholas R Casewell, Wolfgang Wüster, Nicolas Vidal, Bruce Young, Timothy N W Jackson
The evolutionary origin and diversification of the reptilian venom system is described. The resolution of higher-order molecular phylogenetics has clearly established that a venom system is ancestral to snakes. The diversification of the venom system within lizards is discussed, as is the role of venom delivery in the behavioural ecology of these taxa (particularly Varanus komodoensis). The more extensive diversification of the venom system in snakes is summarised, including its loss in some clades. Finally, we discuss the contentious issue of a definition for "venom", supporting an evolutionary definition that recognises the homology of both the venom delivery systems and the toxins themselves...
September 15, 2012: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Domenic C D'Amore, Karen Moreno, Colin R McHenry, Stephen Wroe
In addition to biting, it has been speculated that the forces resulting from pulling on food items may also contribute to feeding success in carnivorous vertebrates. We present an in vivo analysis of both bite and pulling forces in Varanus komodoensis, the Komodo dragon, to determine how they contribute to feeding behavior. Observations of cranial modeling and behavior suggest that V. komodoensis feeds using bite force supplemented by pulling in the caudal/ventrocaudal direction. We tested these observations using force gauges/transducers to measure biting and pulling forces...
2011: PloS One
David C Collar, James A Schulte, Jonathan B Losos
Many features of species' biology, including life history, physiology, morphology, and ecology are tightly linked to body size. Investigation into the causes of size divergence is therefore critical to understanding the factors shaping phenotypic diversity within clades. In this study, we examined size evolution in monitor lizards (Varanus), a clade that includes the largest extant lizard species, the Komodo dragon (V. komodoensis), as well as diminutive species that are nearly four orders of magnitude smaller in adult body mass...
September 2011: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Claudio Ciofi, Athanasia C Tzika, Chiara Natali, Phillip C Watts, Sri Sulandari, Moch S A Zein, Michel C Milinkovitch
Multiplex PCR assays for the coamplification of microsatellite loci allow rapid and cost-effective genetic analyses and the production of efficient screening protocols for international breeding programs. We constructed a partial genomic library enriched for di-nucleotide repeats and characterized 14 new microsatellite loci for the Komodo monitor (or Komodo dragon, Varanus komodoensis). Using these novel microsatellites and four previously described loci, we developed multiplex PCR assays that may be loaded on a genetic analyser in three separate panels...
May 2011: Molecular Ecology Resources
Scott A Hocknull, Philip J Piper, Gert D van den Bergh, Rokus Awe Due, Michael J Morwood, Iwan Kurniawan
BACKGROUND: The largest living lizard species, Varanus komodoensis Ouwens 1912, is vulnerable to extinction, being restricted to a few isolated islands in eastern Indonesia, between Java and Australia, where it is the dominant terrestrial carnivore. Understanding how large-bodied varanids responded to past environmental change underpins long-term management of V. komodoensis populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reconstruct the palaeobiogeography of Neogene giant varanids and identify a new (unnamed) species from the island of Timor...
2009: PloS One
Bryan G Fry, Stephen Wroe, Wouter Teeuwisse, Matthias J P van Osch, Karen Moreno, Janette Ingle, Colin McHenry, Toni Ferrara, Phillip Clausen, Holger Scheib, Kelly L Winter, Laura Greisman, Kim Roelants, Louise van der Weerd, Christofer J Clemente, Eleni Giannakis, Wayne C Hodgson, Sonja Luz, Paolo Martelli, Karthiyani Krishnasamy, Elazar Kochva, Hang Fai Kwok, Denis Scanlon, John Karas, Diane M Citron, Ellie J C Goldstein, Judith E McNaughtan, Janette A Norman
The predatory ecology of Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) has been a subject of long-standing interest and considerable conjecture. Here, we investigate the roles and potential interplay between cranial mechanics, toxic bacteria, and venom. Our analyses point to the presence of a sophisticated combined-arsenal killing apparatus. We find that the lightweight skull is relatively poorly adapted to generate high bite forces but better adapted to resist high pulling loads. We reject the popular notion regarding toxic bacteria utilization...
June 2, 2009: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dawn M Zimmerman, Michael Douglass, Meg Sutherland-Smith, Roberto Aguilar, Willem Schaftenaar, Andy Shores
Cervical subluxation and compressive myelopathy appears to be a cause of morbidity and mortality in captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Four cases of cervical subluxation resulting in nerve root compression or spinal cord compression were identified. Three were presumptively induced by trauma, and one had an unknown inciting cause. Two dragons exhibited signs of chronic instability. Cervical vertebrae affected included C1-C4. Clinical signs on presentation included ataxia, ambulatory paraparesis or tetraparesis to tetraplegia, depression to stupor, cervical scoliosis, and anorexia...
March 2009: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
R Pizzi, Y Martinez Pereira, Y Feltner Rambaud, T Strike, E Flach, M Rendle, A Routh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2009: Veterinary Record
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