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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475734/biological-criteria-of-disease-four-ways-of-going-wrong
#1
John Matthewson, Paul E Griffiths
We defend a view of the distinction between the normal and the pathological according to which that distinction has an objective, biological component. We accept that there is a normative component to the concept of disease, especially as applied to human beings. Nevertheless, an organism cannot be in a pathological state unless something has gone wrong for that organism from a purely biological point of view. Biology, we argue, recognises two sources of biological normativity, which jointly generate four "ways of going wrong" from a biological perspective...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419307/truth-or-spin-disease-definition-in-cancer-screening
#2
Lynette Reid
Are the small and indolent cancers found in abundance in cancer screening normal variations, risk factors, or disease? Naturalists in philosophy of medicine turn to pathophysiological findings to decide such questions objectively. To understand the role of pathophysiological findings in disease definition, we must understand how they mislead in diagnostic reasoning. Participants on all sides of the definition of disease debate attempt to secure objectivity via reductionism. These reductivist routes to objectivity are inconsistent with the Bayesian nature of clinical reasoning; when they appeal to the sciences, they are inconsistent with what philosophy of biology tells us about its natural kinds...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144806/an-integral-approach-to-health-science-and-healthcare
#3
Patrick Daly
Defining disease and delineating its boundaries is a contested area in contemporary philosophy of medicine. The leading naturalistic theory faces a new round of difficulties related to defining a normal environment alongside normal organismic functioning and to delineating a discrete boundary between risk factors and disease. Normative theories face ongoing and seemingly intractable difficulties related to value pluralism and the problematic relation between theory and practice. In this article, I argue for an integral-as opposed to a hybrid-philosophy of health based on Bernard Lonergan's notion of generalized empirical method that provides a way to settle these difficulties dynamically and comprehensively, both in theory, by orienting functional and statistical investigation toward an explanatory ecological viewpoint, and in practice, by framing critiques in relation to the normativity intrinsic to all human inquiry...
February 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124475/-the-identity-of-medicine-in-the-thought-of-edmund-d-pellegrino
#4
Manuel De Santiago
This essay addresses Pellegrino's thought on Philosophy of Medicine; it also provides an approach to his concerns on the changing relationship between patients and physicians which took place in the late twentieth century in the United States and, finally, to his contribution to the identity of Medicine debate. From an Aristotelian-Thomist way of thinking, and from a phenomenological approach to the medical act, he identifies the ending of Medicine and also its limits concerning to ″healing″, in his two moments, curing and helping, which includes caring...
January 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26845777/how-do-medical-educators-design-a-curriculum-that-facilitates-student-learning-about-professionalism
#5
Vicki Langendyk, Glenn Mason, Shaoyu Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study analyses the ways in which curriculum reform facilitated student learning about professionalism. METHODS: Design-based research provided the structure for an iterative approach to curriculum change which we undertook over a 3 year period. The learning environment of the Personal and Professional Development Theme (PPD) was analysed through the sociocultural lens of Activity Theory. Lave and Wenger's and Mezirow's learning theories informed curriculum reform to support student development of a patient-centred and critically reflective professional identity...
2016: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26602907/medicalization-in-psychiatry-the-medical-model-descriptive-diagnosis-and-lost-knowledge
#6
Mark J Sedler
Medicalization was the theme of the 29th European Conference on Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care that included a panel session on the DSM and mental health. Philosophical critiques of the medical model in psychiatry suffer from endemic assumptions that fail to acknowledge the real world challenges of psychiatric nosology. The descriptive model of classification of the DSM 3-5 serves a valid purpose in the absence of known etiologies for the majority of psychiatric conditions. However, a consequence of the "atheoretical" approach of the DSM is rampant epistemological confusion, a shortcoming that can be ameliorated by importing perspectives from the work of Jaspers and McHugh...
June 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25990748/inquiry-in-bioethics-and-the-philosophy-of-medicine-organ-donation-defining-death-and-fairness-in-distribution
#7
Victor Saenz
This issue of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy brings together fresh essays addressing three main genres of questions: (1) questions about the nature of bioethical inquiry and the relevance of the humanities to medical practice; (2) questions regarding the ethics of organ donation; (3) questions bearing on the application of fairness to the distribution of medical resources.
June 2015: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25902943/conference-report-interdisciplinary-workshop-in-the-philosophy-of-medicine-parentalism-and-trust
#8
Emma Bullock, Tania Gergel, Elselijn Kingma
On 13 June 2014, the Centre for the Humanities and Health at King's College London hosted a 1-day workshop on 'parentalism and trust'. This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops whose aim is to provide a new model for high-quality open interdisciplinary engagement between medical professionals and philosophers. This report briefly describes the workshop methodology and the discussions on the day.
June 2015: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25850886/historical-thinking-in-clinical-medicine-lessons-from-r-g-collingwood-s-philosophy-of-history
#9
Benjamin H Chin-Yee, Ross E G Upshur
The aim of this article is to create a space for historical thinking in medical practice. To this end, we draw on the ideas of R.G. Collingwood (1889-1943), the renowned British philosopher of history, and explore the implications of his philosophy for clinical medicine. We show how Collingwood's philosophy provides a compelling argument for the re-centring of medical practice around the patient history as a means of restoring to the clinical encounter the human meaning that is too often lost in modern medicine...
June 2015: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25822670/obesity-as-a-socially-defined-disease-philosophical-considerations-and-implications-for-policy-and-care
#10
Bjørn Hofmann
Obesity has generated significant worries amongst health policy makers and has obtained increased attention in health care. Obesity is unanimously defined as a disease in the health care and health policy literature. However, there are pragmatic and not principled reasons for this. This warrants an analysis of obesity according to standard conceptions of disease in the literature of philosophy of medicine. According to theories and definitions of disease referring to (abnormal functioning of) internal processes, obesity is not a disease...
March 2016: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25644975/beyond-bioethics-the-5th-international-philosophy-of-medicine-roundtable
#11
EDITORIAL
Jeremy R Simon, Alex Broadbent, Fred Gifford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2015: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25503606/a-trifocal-perspective-on-medicine-as-a-moral-enterprise-towards-an-authentic-philosophy-of-medicine
#12
Gerald M Ssebunnya
The fundamental claim that the practice of medicine is essentially a moral enterprise remains highly contentious, not least among the dominant traditional moral theories. The medical profession itself is today characterized by multicultural pluralism and moral relativism that have left the Hippocratic moral tradition largely in disarray. In this paper, I attempt to clarify the ambiguity about practicing medicine as a moral enterprise and echo Pellegrino's call for a phenomenologically and teleologically derived philosophy of medicine...
February 2015: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25470528/interdisciplinary-workshop-in-the-philosophy-of-medicine-medical-knowledge-medical-duties
#13
REVIEW
Emma Bullock, Elselijn Kingma
On 27 September 2013, the Centre for the Humanities and Health (CHH) at King's College London hosted a 1-day workshop on 'Medical knowledge, Medical Duties'. This workshop was the fifth in a series of five workshops whose aim is to provide a new model for high-quality, open interdisciplinary engagement between medical professionals and philosophers. This report identifies the key points of discussion raised throughout the day and the methodology employed.
December 2014: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25402812/health-as-a-clinic-epidemiological-concept
#14
Marco Antonio Azevedo
I propose a clinic-epidemiological concept of health as the best description of what physicians actually think about health within medical practice. Its aim is to be an alternative to the best approach in the philosophy of medicine about health, Christopher Boorse's biostatistical theory. Contrary to Boorse's 'theoretical' approach, I propose to take health as a practical clinical concept. In the first two parts of the paper, I will present my complaints against Boorse's view that health is a theoretical concept, a 'species normal functional ability'...
June 2015: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25398759/christopher-boorse-and-the-philosophy-of-medicine
#15
Thomas Schramme
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2014: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25296904/-mental-disease-as-disturbance-of-essential-functions
#16
T Schramme
BACKGROUND: The article defends an interpretation of mental illness as mental dysfunction. It develops a concept in line with the naturalistic viewpoint in the philosophy of medicine. METHODS: The concept of mental function is scrutinized. Functions are regarded as effects of traits that enable an organism to live independently. The significance of this theoretical perspective for the psychiatric practice is discussed. Finally, the developed conceptualization is compared to the current edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM)...
January 2015: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25080559/breaking-new-ground-in-the-philosophy-of-medicine-and-bioethics
#17
Graham M Valenta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2014: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25048149/on-the-classification-of-diseases
#18
Benjamin Smart
Identifying the necessary and sufficient conditions for individuating and classifying diseases is a matter of great importance in the fields of law, ethics, epidemiology, and of course, medicine. In this paper, I first propose a means of achieving this goal, ensuring that no two distinct disease-types could correctly be ascribed to the same disease-token. I then posit a metaphysical ontology of diseases-that is, I give an account of what a disease is. This is essential to providing the most effective means of interfering with disease processes...
August 2014: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25040366/borrowed-philosophy-bedside-physicalism-and-the-need-for-a-sui-generis-metaphysic-of-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Shawn D Whatley
The character of medicine has changed over the last 100 years such that medicine is more interested in diseases than the people who suffer from them. Despite notable efforts to address this, the medical humanities do not challenge doctors' fundamental view of the world. Students adopt a metaphysic of physicalism during basic science training that gets carried into medical training. While necessary for medical science, physicalism is insufficient for clinical care. Physicalism offers no foundation for the sine qua non of medicine, the doctor-patient relationship...
December 2014: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25039823/where-is-philosophy-of-medicine-headed-a-report-of-the-international-advanced-seminar-in-the-philosophy-of-medicine-iaspm
#20
Maël Lemoine, Marie Darrason, Hélène Richard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2014: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
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