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R Jin, A Krasinskas, N-A Le, J V Konomi, J Holzberg, R Romero, M B Vos
BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of the endogenous fibrinolytic system and is known to be increased in obesity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We previously demonstrated that PAI-1 levels were closely related to the amount of hepatic steatosis in children. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize plasma PAI-1 in relationship to severity of inflammation and fibrosis, as well as to plasma lipids in children with NAFLD...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
Ryan D Sheldon, Kayla M Kanosky, Kevin D Wells, Lili Miles, James W Perfield, Stavra Xanthakos, Thomas H Inge, R Scott Rector
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms responsible for progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to steatohepatitis (NASH) remain poorly defined. METHODS: To examine the potential contribution of adipose tissue to NAFLD progression, we performed a complete transcriptomic analysis using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) on intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAT) from severely obese adolescents (Mage 16.9±0.4 yrs; BMI z-score 2.7±0.1) undergoing bariatric surgery and liver biopsy categorized into 3 groups; No steatosis (Normal, n=8), steatosis only (n=13), or NASH (n=10) by liver histology...
October 7, 2016: Physiological Genomics
David R Vinson, Dustin W Ballard, Dustin G Mark, Jie Huang, Mary E Reed, Adina S Rauchwerger, David H Wang, James S Lin, Mamata V Kene, Tamara S Pleshakov, Dana K Sax, Jordan M Sax, D Ian McLachlan, Cyrus K Yamin, Clifford J Swap, Hilary R Iskin, Ridhima Vemula, Bethany S Fleming, Andrew R Elms, Drahomir Aujesky
INTRODUCTION: The Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) is a validated prognostic score to estimate the 30-day mortality of emergency department (ED) patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). A simplified version (sPESI) was derived but has not been as well studied in the U.S. We sought to validate both indices in a community hospital setting in the U.S. and compare their performance in predicting 30-day all-cause mortality and classification of cases into low-risk and higher-risk categories...
September 24, 2016: Thrombosis Research
Shin-Ichi Inaba, Maki Goto, Kaoru Tanaka-Takanaka, Hisako Tanaka, Wataru Tomisato, Hiroshi Yuita, Hiromi Doi-Komuro, Ryotaku Inoue, Keiko Oshima, Takashi Kagari, Takaichi Shimozato, Takashi Izumi
The pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling was conducted for the reduction of peripheral lymphocytes after oral administration of CS-0777 to healthy rats, monkeys and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced rats. M1, the phosphorylated active metabolite of CS-0777, is a selective sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 modulator. A linear one-and two-compartment model with reversible metabolism process characterized the time courses of CS-0777 and M1 concentrations in rats and monkeys, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Leyla Ismayilova, Eleni Gaveras, Austin Blum, Alexice Tô-Camier, Rachel Nanema
OBJECTIVES: Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10-15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity...
2016: PloS One
Mojgan Aminnejad, Massimo Cogliati, Shuyao Duan, Michael Arabatzis, Kathrin Tintelnot, Elizabeth Castañeda, Marcia Lazéra, Aristea Velegraki, David Ellis, Tania C Sorrell, Wieland Meyer
Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are pathogenic basidiomycetous yeasts and the commonest cause of fungal infection of the central nervous system. Cryptococci are typically haploid but several inter-species, inter-varietal and intra-varietal hybrids have been reported. It has a bipolar mating system with sexual reproduction occurring normally between two individuals with opposite mating types, α and a. This study set out to characterize hybrid isolates within the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex: seven unisexual mating intra-varietal VNI/VNII (αAAα) and six novel inter-varietal VNII/VNIV (aADα)...
2016: PloS One
Amir M Abtahi, Kade Shumway Lyman, Darrel S Brodke, Brandon D Lawrence, Chong Zhang, William Ryan Spiker
STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective review. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between patient functional status and self-assessment of disability as measured by 3 commonly used clinical assessment instruments-the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and the EuroQol (EQ)-5D and patient satisfaction scores in a spine surgery clinic population. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Patient satisfaction surveys, which measure the "patient experience of care" are becoming an increasingly important measure of the quality of medical care...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Giuseppe Santarpino, Lazlo Gazdag, Joachim Sirch, Ferdinand Vogt, Miroslaw Ledwon, Theodor Fischlein, Steffen Pfeiffer
Bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) grafting may be associated with a higher risk of postoperative deep sternal wound infection than monolateral internal thoracic artery grafting due to a limited blood supply to the thoracic chest wall. Because preliminary studies suggest negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) may reduce the risk of infection, a retrospective chart review of 129 patients who underwent BITA between February 2003 and October 2014 was conducted. Of those, 21 patients received NPWT for 5 days immediately following surgery and the incisions of 108 patients were covered with a conventional gauze dressing...
December 2015: Ostomy/wound Management
Natalie Emmert, Lauren Schwarz, Jillon Vander Wal, Jeffrey Gfeller
Previous research has yielded minimal empirical support for the theoretically formulated five-factor structure of the RBANS, a brief, yet comprehensive standardized neuropsychological test battery used to assess cognitive impairment. The present study tested the theoretically formulated five-factor structure, as well as three alternative factor solutions, using a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic approaches. The present study utilized archival data from a clinical sample of 150 older adults who were evaluated at an outpatient neuropsychological service...
October 20, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Does Reading a Single Passage of Literary Fiction Really Improve Theory of Mind? An Attempt at Replication" by Maria Eugenia Panero, Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Jessica Black, Thalia R. Goldstein, Jennifer L. Barnes, Hiram Brownell and Ellen Winner (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Sep 19, 2016, np). In the article, due to an error in stimulus construction, four items (three authors, one foil) were omitted from the ART presented to all participants tested by Research Group 1...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jin Ok Baek, Hoon Hur, Ha Ryeong Ryu, Jeong Soo Kim, Kyung Real Lee, Yu Ri Kim, Kwang Ho Choi
Various lasers have been used for the treatment of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR) that does not respond to systemic or topical therapy. The pulsed dye lasers (PDLs) are an effective option for ETR, and the purpuragenic fluence proved to be superior until now. Given that purpura and subsequent possible postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) are occasionally unbearable in some patients, and several studies using the low nonpurpuragenic fluence were reported. To deliver the sufficient high fluence of a PDL without generating purpura, we designed the fractionation of high fluence using five passes and longer pulse duration (6 milliseconds) of a PDL in succession...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Ling-Feng Zeng, Ye Cao, Lu Wang, Yun-Kai Dai, Ling Hu, Qi Wang, Li-Ting Zhu, Wen-Hu Bao, Yuan-Ping Zou, Yun-Bo Chen, Wei-Hua Xu, Wei-Xiong Liang, Ning-Sheng Wang
Current evidence demonstrated certain beneficial effects of medicinal herbs as an adjuvant therapy for post-stroke depression (PSD) in China; Chai-hu (Chinese Thorowax Root, Radix Bupleuri) is an example of a medicinal plant for Liver-Qi regulation (MPLR) in the treatment of PSD. Despite several narrative reports on the antidepressant properties of MPLR, it appears that there are no systematic reviews to summarize its outcome effects. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of MPLR adjuvant therapy in patients with PSD...
October 20, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Gerard Pasterkamp, Hester M den Ruijter, Peter Libby
The concept of the 'vulnerable plaque' originated from pathological observations in patients who died from acute coronary syndrome. This recognition spawned a generation of research that led to greater understanding of how complicated atherosclerotic plaques form and precipitate thrombotic events. In current practice, an increasing number of patients who survive their first event present with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) rather than myocardial infarction (MI) with ST-segment elevation (STEMI)...
October 20, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Jutta G Richter, Gamal Chehab, Matthias Schneider
Electronic health records are increasingly used and frequently required from various regulatory authorities. Apart from their day-to-day use by health care professionals for routine clinical practice and/or the improvement of quality of care processes, patients with chronic inflammatory disease may become increasingly involved in the data retrieval process by self-monitoring and providing patient-reported (outcome) data. Among key features of electronic health records are automated scoring, visualisation of validated measures, and long-term systematic patient-centered data collection in a structured and standardised manner...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Piet L C M van Riel, Lisanne Renskers
In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), disease activity cannot be measured in all individual patients according to a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) and the DAS28 have been developed to measure disease activity in RA both in daily clinical practice as well as in clinical trials on a group as well as individual level. The DAS/DAS28 is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and general health. The DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Antonio Pangallo, Lara Zibarras, Fiona Patterson
OBJECTIVES: Relatively little research has been directed toward the assessment of resilience in the health care context. Given the stressors associated with the provision of health care, the present study describes the development and evaluation of a situational judgement test (SJT) designed to assess resilience in palliative care health care workers. METHODS: An SJT was developed to measure behaviours associated with resilience in a palliative care context. Next, SJT reliability and validity analyses were assessed in a sample of acute ward, hospice and community palliative care workers (n = 284)...
November 2016: Medical Education
L Chen, G Guo, X J Yuan, J Zhang, A Y Wen, X H Sun, T Shao
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ensiling different ratios of whole crop oat to lucerne on fermentation quality, aerobic stability and in vitro digestibility of silage on the Tibetan plateau. Four experimental treatments were produced varying in the ratio of forages on a fresh matter (FM) basis: 1) 100% oat (control, dry matter (DM) content: 317 g/kg), 2) 90% oat + 10% lucerne (OL10, DM content: 316 g/kg), 3) 80% oat+ 20% lucerne (OL20, DM content: 317 g/kg) and 4) 70% oat+ 30% lucerne (OL30, DM content: 318 g/kg)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Michitaka Honda, Takashi Akiyoshi, Hisashi Noma, Atsushi Ogura, Toshiya Nagasaki, Tsuyoshi Konishi, Yoshiya Fujimoto, Satoshi Nagayama, Yosuke Fukunaga, Masashi Ueno
BACKGROUND: For patients with low-lying rectal cancer, the feasibility of anus-preserving surgery in combination with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) has been not well established from the perspective of patient-centered outcomes. METHODS: We investigated 278 patients with low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma from 2005 to 2012. We compared their symptoms and QOL scores of patients who underwent anus-preserving surgery with (n = 88) and without (n = 143) NACRT according to the Wexner scale, EORTC QLQ C-30, CR29, and the modified fecal incontinence quality life scale (mFIQL)...
October 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Julia Depa, Jenny Schweizer, Sandra-Kristin Bekers, Carolin Hilzendegen, Nanette Stroebele-Benschop
PURPOSE: Orthorexia nervosa (ON) describes the constant pathological preoccupation with "healthy" nutrition. The current results regarding the prevalence of ON differ widely possibly because of invalid measurement tools. This study aimed to investigate ON prevalence in a sample of German students and to examine age, gender, semester, and nutritional knowledge as potential predictors of ON by comparing nutrition science (NS) with economics (ES) students. METHODS: A total of 446 university students participated in the survey (NS 188, ES 268)...
October 19, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Osman Aydoğan, Ali Öter, Kerim Güney, M Kemal Kıymık, Deniz Tuncel
Obstructive sleep apnea is a sleep disorder which may lead to various results. While some studies used real-time systems, there are also numerous studies which focus on diagnosing Obstructive Sleep Apnea via signals obtained by polysomnography from apnea patients who spend the night in sleep laboratory. The mean, frequency and power of signals obtained from patients are frequently used. Obstructive Sleep Apnea of 74 patients were scored in this study. A visual-scoring based algorithm and a morphological filter via Artificial Neural Networks were used in order to diagnose Obstructive Sleep Apnea...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
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