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Xiaofang Liang, Jia Wang, Guan Gong, Min Xue, Yingchao Dong, Xiufeng Wu, Xin Wang, Chunshan Chen, Xufang Liang, Yuchang Qin
Gluconeogenesis responses was assessed during a short starvation period and subsequent refeeding in Siberian sturgeon ( Acipenser baerii ) previously fed different dietary carbohydrates levels and experienced to a glucose stimuli during early life. The sturgeon larvae were previously fed either a high glucose diet (G) or a low glucose diet (F) from the first feeding to yolk absorption (8 to 12 d post-hatching [dph]). Each group of fish was sub-divided into 2 treatments at 13 dph and was fed either a high-carbohydrate diet (H) or a low carbohydrate diet (L) until 20 wk...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
María Paula Cornejo, Pablo Nicolás De Francesco, Guadalupe García Romero, Enrique L Portiansky, Jeffrey M Zigman, Mirta Reynaldo, Mario Perello
Ghrelin is a stomach-derived hormone that regulates a variety of biological functions such as food intake, gastrointestinal function and blood glucose metabolism, among others. Ghrelin acts via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), a G-protein-coupled receptor located in key brain areas that mediate specific actions of the hormone. GHSR is highly expressed in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), which is located in the medulla oblongata and controls essential functions, including orofacial, autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioral responses...
May 14, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Si-Ping Deng, Hua-Pu Chen, Yi Zhai, Li-Ying Jia, Jian-Ye Liu, Mei Wang, Dong-Neng Jiang, Tian-Li Wu, Chun-Hua Zhu, Guang-Li Li
Spexin (Spx), a novel neuropeptide, composed of 14 amino acid residues, is evolutionally conserved from fish to mammals. It has been suggested that Spx has pleiotropic functions in mammals. However, reports about Spx are very limited. To clarify the roles of Spx in the regulation of reproduction and food-intake in the spotted scat, the spx (ssspx) gene was cloned and analyzed. Analysis of the tissue distribution by RT-PCR showed that ssspx expression was widespread. During ovary development, expression of ssspx was found to be highest in phase II, moderate in phase III, and at its lowest level in phase IV...
May 10, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Ping Fu, Wei Sun, Juan Lai, Yi-Hong Shen, Ze Zhang
Two isoforms, Bmpop-a and Bmpop-b, were cloned and characterized, which were found to encode prolyl oligopeptidase (Pop) of the domestic silkworm Bombyx mori. The full lengths of Bmpop-a and Bmpop-b were 2497 and 2508 bp, deducing 707 and 740 amino acids, respectively. Both of them, possessing the typical characteristics of the Pop family of serine proteinase, were detected to be expressed among different tissues and development stages at the transcription and translation levels. Soluble recombinant BmPop-a (rBmPop-a) had oligopeptidase activity toward the substrates, Z-Gly-Pro-pNA, Z-Gly-Pro-AMC and angiotensin I...
May 9, 2018: Gene
Joseph Runde, Edgardo Rivera-Rivera, Cecelia Pompeii-Wolfe, Christopher Clardy, Timothy Sentongo
Refeeding syndrome is diagnosed based on the onset of multiple laboratory abnormalities (most commonly hypophosphatemia) and clinical signs in the setting of nutrition rehabilitation of malnourished patients. Because definitions are not uniform, a broad differential diagnosis should always include renal tubular dysfunction. Our report details a 3 year-old child with undiagnosed renal tubular dysfunction who presented with the clinical picture of refeeding syndrome with refractory electrolyte abnormalities...
May 10, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Simona Calugi, Elisa Chignola, Marwan El Ghoch, Riccardo Dalle Grave
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in starvation symptoms over time and their role as potential predictors of change in eating disorder and general psychopathology in patients with anorexia nervosa treated by means of intensive enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT-E). METHOD: Ninety adult female patients with anorexia nervosa (63 restricting type and 27 binge-eating/purging type) were recruited. Body mass index (BMI), Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and Starvation Symptoms Inventory (SSI) scores were recorded at admission, at the end of treatment, and at 6-month follow-up...
May 8, 2018: Eating Disorders
Iman Badr Ibrahim, Alia Arif Hussain, Jan Magnus Sjögren
The refeeding syndrome (RFS) is a potentially fatal condition involving fluid and electrolyte imbalances after refeeding in patients with anorexia nervosa. Low-calorie diet added thiamine and minerals is the standard approach to prevent RFS. In a recent systematic review starting with a higher calorie amount than earlier has been recommended, and in another review, it is proposed that a restriction in the amount of carbohydrates may allow for a higher calorie intake early on to enable a safe and faster weight gain...
April 30, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Kylie L Matthews, Michelle A Palmer, Sandra M Capra
AIM: Refeeding syndrome (RFS) prevalence rates vary across studies depending on the criteria used for assessment and identification. For registered dietitians, the assessment and management of RFS is highly reliant on daily serum electrolyte values; however, registered dietitians working within Australia do not currently possess laboratory test ordering privileges. We aimed to examine the opinions of registered dietitians regarding RFS identification, management and guidelines and the option of using extended scope of practice to order electrolyte monitoring autonomously...
April 30, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Wenli Li, Meiling Ji, Yandie Lin, Yi Miao, Simin Chen, Hao Li
Decidual protein induced by progesterone (DEPP/DEPP1/C10ORF10) is induced by denying access to food and reduced by refeeding in insulin-sensitive organs in vivo. The negative regulation of DEPP by insulin is also proven in several cell lines. However, the functions of DEPP in insulin-sensitive organs remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of DEPP on hepatic energy metabolism and addressed the underlying mechanisms. The metabolic effects of DEPP were investigated in mice with adenovirus-mediated hepatic overexpression...
April 27, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
David A Kramer, Ariel D Quiroga, Jihong Lian, Richard P Fahlman, Richard Lehner
During fasting, the liver increases lipid storage as a mean to reserve and provide energy for vital cellular functions. After re-feeding, hepatocytes rapidly decrease the amount of triacylglycerol that is stored in lipid droplets (LDs), visible as the size of hepatic LDs significantly decreases after re-feeding. Little is known about the changes in the liver LD proteome that occur during the fasting/re-feeding transition. This study aimed to investigate the hepatic LD proteome in fasted and re-fed conditions in the mouse...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Sophie Vust, Solange Cook-Darzens, Françoise Lier, Anne-Emmanuelle Ambresin
A new paradigm in the management of adolescents with eating disorders promotes different treatment orientations aiming at increasing therapeutic effectiveness as well as offering a more integrated and coherent care for families. Particular attention is given to the process of refeeding to avoid the severe somatic sequelae of eating disorder and the risk of a chronic course for a disorder which is well known for its « addictive » power and influence. The parents and the need for a strong alliance with the healthcare team stand at the centre of this new paradigm...
April 18, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Firoz Anwar, Ruqaiyah Khan, Richa Sachan, Imran Kazmi, Alisha Rawat, Abdullah Sabih, Rajbala Singh, Muhammad Afzal, Aftab Ahmad, Abdulaziz S Al-Orab, F A Al-Abbasi, Prakash Chandra Bhatt, Vikas Kumar
HCC has been reported to be immensely occurring carcinoma worldwide. Recent days the mortality occurred due to liver cancer has also been found to be increased at an alarming speed affecting mostly the young patients. The aim of the current study was to decipher the role of calcium and vitamin K3 in the treatment of chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the male Wistar rats. Liver cancer was induced via a subnecrogenic dose of 160 mg/kg body weight, diethylnitrosamine (DENA) when associated with fasting/refeeding in male Wistar rats...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Kylie Matthews, Jan Hill, Shane Jeffrey, Susan Patterson, Amanda Davis, Warren Ward, Michelle Palmer, Sandra Capra
BACKGROUND: Patients with eating disorders (EDs) are often considered a high-risk population to refeed. Current research advises using "start low, go slow" refeeding methods (∼1,000 kcal/day, advancing ∼500 kcal/day every 3 to 4 days) in adult patients with severe EDs to prevent the development of refeeding syndrome (RFS), typically characterized by decreases in serum electrolyte levels and fluid shifts. OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of RFS and related outcomes using a low-calorie protocol (LC) (1,000 kcal) or a higher-calorie protocol (HC) (1,500 kcal) in medically compromised adult patients with EDs...
April 12, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Chase A Arbra, Andra Oprisan, Dulaney A Wilson, Rita M Ryan, Aaron P Lesher
BACKGROUND: For infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) treated nonoperatively, no consensus exists on the optimal fasting period prior to reintroducing feeds after NEC. We report our experience with early (<7days) and late (≥7days) refeeding in this population. METHODS: A chart review of infants with NEC born between 2006 and 2016 was performed. Data elements include demographics, comorbidities, day of diagnosis, Bell's stage, recurrence, strictures, length of stay and mortality, and were grouped into early and late refeeding...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Haiying Wang, Danping Wang, Chunsun Li, Xingsong Zhang, Xiaolin Zhou, Jianan Huang
Karyopherin β1 (Kpnβ1), also known as importin-β, is part of the karyopherin superfamily of nuclear transport proteins. Kpnβ1 is an oncogene that is overexpressed in various human cancers. Recent studies have showed that Kpnβ1 is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the world. However, the role of Kpnβ1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains uncertain. In this study, we used western blotting to show that Kpnβ1 expression is higher in lung-cancer tissues and cells, and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that Kpnβ1 was significantly associated with the clinicopathological features of NSCLC...
April 2018: Tissue & Cell
Willem J Lammers, Antonie Jp van Tilburg, Jan A Apers, Janneke Wiebolt
Bariatric surgery is an effective tool in the treatment of patients with morbid obesity. In these case reports we describe 2 patients who developed liver failure after currently-practiced types of bariatric surgery, caused by a prolonged state of malnutrition provoked by psychiatric problems. Despite intensive guidance of a psychologist and dieticians after surgery, our patients deteriorated psychologically, resulting in a prolonged state of severe malnutrition and anorexia. Finally, a state of starvation was reached, passing a critical level of the liver capacity...
March 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Zenith Gaye A Orozco, Satoshi Soma, Toyoji Kaneko, Soichi Watanabe
The mRNA expressions of the epithelial neutral amino acid transporters slc6a18 and slc6a19a in the five segments (HL, PMC, GL, DMC, and TS) of the intestine of Mozambique tilapia , and their responses to fasting and refeeding were investigated for a better understanding of the functional and nutritional characteristics of slc6a18 and slc6a19a . Although both slc6a18 and slc6a19a were expressed mainly in the intestine, these genes showed opposing spatial distributions along the intestine. The slc6a18 was mainly expressed in the middle (GL) and posterior (DMC and TS) intestines, while slc6a19a was specifically expressed in the anterior intestine (HL and PMC)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hiromi Kawamura, Sarasa Tanaka, Yuri Uenami, Mariko Tani, Midori Ishitani, Saeko Morii, Motoyoshi Sakaue, Mikiko Ito
Refeeding syndrome (RFS) is characterized by the metabolic and clinical changes that occur following aggressive nutritional supplementation in malnourished patients. Hypophosphatemia is the hallmark of RFS and is key to its prevention and treatment in clinical practice. However, the mechanism of hypophosphatemia during RFS is unclear because of the lack of an animal model. In this study, we developed a rat RFS model as a first step to clarifying the molecular mechanism. After establishing the parenteral route, rats were fasted for 5 days and refeeding was started using total parenteral nutrition...
2018: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
Fumiaki Obata, Kayoko Tsuda-Sakurai, Takahiro Yamazaki, Ryo Nishio, Kei Nishimura, Masaki Kimura, Masabumi Funakoshi, Masayuki Miura
The intestine has direct contact with nutritional information. The mechanisms by which particular dietary molecules affect intestinal homeostasis are not fully understood. In this study, we identified S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a universal methyl donor synthesized from dietary methionine, as a critical molecule that regulates stem cell division in Drosophila midgut. Depletion of either dietary methionine or SAM synthesis reduces division rate of intestinal stem cells. Genetic screening for putative SAM-dependent methyltransferases has identified protein synthesis as a regulator of the stem cells, partially through a unique diphthamide modification on eukaryotic elongation factor 2...
March 26, 2018: Developmental Cell
Jingshu Chen, Sui Ke, Lei Zhong, Jing Wu, Alexander Tseng, Benjamin Morpurgo, Andrei Golovko, Gang Wang, James J Cai, Xi Ma, Defa Li, Yanan Tian
The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a long noncoding RNA and its overexpression is associated with the development of many types of malignancy. MALAT1 null mice show no overt phenotype. However, in transcriptome analysis of MALAT1 null mice we found significant upregulation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulated antioxidant genes including Nqo1 and Cat with significant reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and greatly reduced ROS-generated protein carbonylation in hepatocyte and islets...
March 22, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
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