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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533422/paternal-hyperglycemia-in-rats-exacerbates-the-development-of-obesity-in-offspring
#1
Xiaoqin Shi, Xinyu Li, Yi Hou, Xuemei Cao, Yuyao Zhang, Heng Wang, Hongying Wang, Chuan Peng, Jibin Li, Qifu Li, Chaodong Wu, Xiaoqiu Xiao
Parental history with obesity or diabetes will increase the risk for developing metabolic diseases in offspring. However, literatures as to transgenerational inheritance of metabolic dysfunctions through male lineage are relatively scarce. In current study, we aimed to evaluate influences of paternal hyperglycemia on metabolic phenotypes in offspring. Male SD rats were ip injected with streptozotocin (STZ) or citrate buffer (CB, as control). STZ-injected rats with glucose levels higher than 16 mM were selected to breed with normal female rats...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531775/a-protocol-for-sustained-reduction-of-total-parenteral-nutrition-and-cost-savings-by-improvement-of-nutritional-care-in-hospitals
#2
Rian van Schaik, Kurt Van den Abeele, Glenn Melsens, Peter Schepens, Truus Lanssens, Bernadette Vlaemynck, Maria Devisch, Theo A Niewold
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Malnutrition and the use of Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) contribute considerably to hospital costs. Recently, we reported on the introduction of malnutrition screening and monitoring of TPN use in our hospital, which resulted in a large (40%) reduction in TPN and improved quality of nutritional care in two years (2011/12). Here, we aimed to assure continuation of improved care by developing a detailed malnutrition screening and TPN use protocol involving instruction tools for hospital staff, while monitoring the results in the following two years (2013/14)...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530498/negative-consequences-of-low-energy-availability-in-natural-male-bodybuilding-a-review
#3
Petter Fagerberg
Energy availability (EA) is a scientific concept describing how much energy is available for basic metabolic functions such as reproduction, immunity and skeletal homeostasis. Carefully controlled studies on women have shown pathological effects of EA<30kcal/kg fat free mass (FFM) and this state has been labeled low EA (LEA). Bodybuilding is a sport in which athletes compete to show muscular definition, symmetry and low body fat. The process of contest preparation in bodybuilding includes months of underfeeding, thus increasing the risk of LEA and its negative health consequences...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526384/stereology-shows-that-damaged-liver-recovers-after-protein-refeeding
#4
Silvio Pires Gomes, Andréa Almeida Pinto da Silva, Amanda Rabello Crisma, Primavera Borelli, Francisco Javier Hernandez-Blazquez, Mariana P de Melo, Barbara Bacci, Andrzej Loesch, A Augusto Coppi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the putative effects of a low-protein diet on the three-dimensional structure of hepatocytes and determine whether this scenario could be reversed by restoring the adequate levels of protein to the diet. METHODS: Using design-based stereology, the total number and volume of hepatocytes were estimated in the liver of mice in healthy and altered (by protein malnutrition) conditions and after protein renutrition...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513833/potential-role-and-prognostic-importance-of-dishevelled-2-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#5
Rong Liu, Jialin Cheng, Yannan Chen, Wei Wang, Jie Chen, Guoxin Mao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role and prognostic importance of Dvl2 in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: A multimethod study was undertaken including patients with pathologically confirmed non-metastatic EOC who underwent surgery for maximum tumor resection at a center in China. Dvl2 expression was assessed by western blot using fresh EOC tissues and normal ovarian tissues obtained between June 2014 and January 2015. Additionally, retrospective data were obtained for patients treated between April 2004 and September 2009...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510290/retrospective-evaluation-of-the-impact-of-early-enteral-nutrition-on-clinical-outcomes-in-dogs-with-pancreatitis-34-cases-2010-2013
#6
Jessica P Harris, Nolie K Parnell, Emily H Griffith, Korinn E Saker
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of early enteral nutritional therapy on time to return to voluntary intake, maximum food consumption, incidence of gastrointestinal intolerance (GI), and total hospitalization time for dogs with acute pancreatitis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective analysis of dogs with pancreatitis at a veterinary teaching hospital between 2010 and 2013. ANIMALS: Thirty-four client-owned dogs diagnosed with acute or acute-on-chronic pancreatitis...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505179/food-restriction-increase-the-expression-of-mtorc1-complex-genes-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-juvenile-pacu-piaractus-mesopotamicus
#7
Tassiana Gutierrez de Paula, Bruna Tereza Thomazini Zanella, Bruno Evaristo de Almeida Fantinatti, Leonardo Nazário de Moraes, Bruno Oliveira da Silva Duran, Caroline Bredariol de Oliveira, Rondinelle Artur Simões Salomão, Rafaela Nunes da Silva, Carlos Roberto Padovani, Vander Bruno Dos Santos, Edson Assunção Mareco, Robson Francisco Carvalho, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva
Skeletal muscle is capable of phenotypic adaptation to environmental factors, such as nutrient availability, by altering the balance between muscle catabolism and anabolism that in turn coordinates muscle growth. Small noncoding RNAs, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), repress the expression of target mRNAs, and many studies have demonstrated that miRNAs regulate the mRNAs of catabolic and anabolic genes. We evaluated muscle morphology, gene expression of components involved in catabolism, anabolism and energetic metabolism and miRNAs expression in both the fast and slow muscle of juvenile pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) during food restriction and refeeding...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504843/a-novel-synthetic-chemical-entity-upei-800-is-neuroprotective-in-vitro-and-in-an-in-vivo-rat-model-of-oxidative-stress
#8
Tarek M Saleh, Monique C Saleh, Barry J Connell, Inan Kucukkaya, Alaa S Abd-El-Aziz
In this study, we tested a novel synthetic pyrazole-containing compound, 5-amino-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile (APPC), as an antioxidant in both in vitro and in vivo models of oxidative stress. In addition, the utility of covalently combining APPC with another well-established antioxidant, lipoic acid (LA), was also tested in both models. The in vitro results demonstrated that pretreatment with APPC in a mixed neuronal-glial culture exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reoxygenation-refeeding, resulted in significant neuroprotection at concentrations between 2...
May 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499082/exacerbation-of-liver-steatosis-following-exposure-to-famine-and-overnutrition
#9
Zhiyuan Ning, Kun Zhang, Li Zhao, You Lu, Honglin Sun, Chi Chen, Xiaomin Nie, Meng Lu, Ningjian Wang, Yingli Lu
SCOPE: People suffering from famine in early life and overnutrition in adulthood may have an increased risk for liver steatosis. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of early nutrition restriction and overnutrition on de novo lipogenesis in the liver. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three-week-old male rats were food restricted for 4 weeks and refed a high-fat or normal-fat diet individually in metabolic cages for 9 weeks. Weight-matched groups were also set up...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496985/the-effects-of-dietary-macronutrient-composition-on-lipid-metabolism-associated-factor-gene-expression-in-the-adipose-tissue-of-chickens-are-influenced-by-fasting-and-refeeding
#10
Guoqing Wang, Betty R McConn, Dongmin Liu, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
BACKGROUND: Broiler chickens are compulsive feeders that become obese as juveniles and are thus a unique model for metabolic disorders in humans. However, little is known about the relationship between dietary composition, fasting and refeeding and adipose tissue physiology in chicks. Our objective was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and fasting and refeeding affect chick adipose physiology during the early post-hatch period. METHODS: Chicks were fed one of three isocaloric diets after hatch: high-carbohydrate (HC; control), high-fat (HF; 30% of ME from soybean oil) or high-protein (HP; 25% vs...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493487/effect-of-starvation-and-refeeding-on-the-hepatopancreas-of-whiteleg-shrimp-penaeus-vannamei-boone-using-computer-assisted-image-analysis
#11
F Cervellione, C McGurk, T Berger Eriksen, W Van den Broeck
Under normal farming conditions, shrimp can experience starvation periods attributable to disease outbreaks or adverse environmental conditions. Starvation leads to significant morphological changes in the hepatopancreas (HP), being the main organ for absorption and storage of nutrients. In the literature, limited research has described the effect on the HP of periods of starvation followed by refeeding and none in whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) using computer-assisted image analysis (CAIA). This study describes the effect of starvation and starvation followed by refeeding on the HP of whiteleg shrimp using CAIA...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489159/changing-paradigms-in-preoperative-fasting-results-of-a-joint-effort-in-pediatric-surgery
#12
Carlos Augusto Leite de Barros Carvalho, Augusto Aurélio de Carvalho, Paulo Luiz Batista Nogueira, José Eduardo de Aguilar-Nascimento
Background: Current researches associate long fasting periods to several adverse consequences. The fasting abbreviation to 2 h to clear liquids associated with the use of drinks containing carbohydrates attenuates endocrinometabolic response to surgical trauma, but often is observed children advised to not intake food from 00:00 h till the scheduled surgical time, regardless of what it is. Aim: To evaluate the safety of a protocol of preoperative fasting abbreviation with a beverage containing carbohydrates, and early postoperative feeding in children underwent elective small/mid-size surgical procedures during a national task-force on pediatric surgery...
January 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469464/effects-of-mild-and-severe-vitamin-b1-deficiencies-on-the-meiotic-maturation-of-mice-oocytes
#13
Ai Tsuji, Toshinobu Nakamura, Katsumi Shibata
We investigated the effects of vitamin B1 deficiency on the meiosis maturation of oocytes. Female Crl:CD1 (ICR) mice were fed a 20% casein diet (control group) or a vitamin B1-free diet (test group). The vitamin B1 concentration in ovary was approximately 30% lower in the test group than in the control group. Oocyte meiosis was not affected by vitamin B1 deficiency when the deficiency was not accompanied by body weight loss. On the contrary, frequency of abnormal oocyte was increased by vitamin B1 deficiency when deficiency was accompanied by body weight loss (referred to as severe vitamin B1 deficiency; frequency of abnormal oocyte, 13...
2017: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462703/divergent-roles-of-irs-insulin-receptor-substrate-1-and-2-in-liver-and-skeletal-muscle
#14
Sabine Eckstein, Cora Weigert, Rainer Lehmann
IRS1 and IRS2 are the most important representatives of the IRS protein family and critical nodes in insulin/IGF1-signalling. Although they are quite similar in their structural and functional features they show tissue-specific differences. In this review we outline the functions of IRS1 and IRS2 in skeletal muscle and liver with regard to their importance for metabolism, growth and differentiation. Mechanisms contributing to IRS1 and IRS2 dysregulation in disease states as well as consequences thereof are discussed...
April 26, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440738/restricted-feeding-modulates-the-daily-variations-of-liver-glutamate-dehydrogenase-activity-expression-and-histological-location
#15
Olivia Vázquez-Martínez, Isabel Méndez, Isaías Turrubiate, Héctor Valente-Godínez, Moisés Pérez-Mendoza, Paola García-Tejada, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Glutamate dehydrogenase is an important enzyme in the hepatic regulation of nitrogen and energy metabolism. It catalyzes one of the most relevant anaplerotic reactions. Although its relevance in liver homeostasis has been widely described, its daily pattern and responsiveness to restricted feeding protocols has not been studied. We explored the daily variations of liver glutamate dehydrogenase transcription, protein, activity, and histochemical and subcellular location in a protocol of daytime food synchronization in rats...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439092/timeline-of-changes-in-appetite-during-weight-loss-with-a-ketogenic-diet
#16
S Nymo, S R Coutinho, J Jørgensen, J F Rehfeld, H Truby, B Kulseng, C Martins
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to increased hunger and reduced fullness feelings, increased ghrelin and reduced satiety peptides concentration (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY)). Ketogenic diets seem to minimise or supress some of these responses. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline over which changes in appetite occur during progressive WL with a ketogenic very-low energy diet (VLED). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty-one sedentary adults (18 men), with obesity (BMI: 37±4...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432843/vitamin-b1-in-critically-ill-patients-needs-and-challenges
#17
REVIEW
Jake T B Collie, Ronda F Greaves, Oliver A H Jones, Que Lam, Glenn M Eastwood, Rinaldo Bellomo
BACKGROUND: Thiamine has a crucial role in energy production, and consequently thiamine deficiency (TD) has been associated with cardiac failure, neurological disorders, oxidative stress (lactic acidosis and sepsis) and refeeding syndrome (RFS). This review aims to explore analytical methodologies of thiamine compound quantification and highlight similarities, variances and limitations of current techniques and how they may be relevant to patients. CONTENT: An electronic search of Medline, PubMed and Embase databases for original articles published in peer-reviewed journals was conducted...
April 22, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408989/timing-of-oral-refeeding-in-acute-pancreatitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Masayasu Horibe, Toshihiro Nishizawa, Hidekazu Suzuki, Kazuhiro Minami, Naohisa Yahagi, Eisuke Iwasaki, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The optimal timing of oral refeeding in acute pancreatitis is unclear. This study aimed to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared early oral refeeding with standard oral refeeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: PubMed, the Cochrane library, and the Igaku-Chuo-Zasshi database were searched in order to identify RCTs eligible for inclusion in the systematic review. The weighted mean differences (WMDs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated...
December 2016: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386235/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-stimulate-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-improve-glucose-homeostasis-during-refeeding-with-high-fat-diet
#19
Raffaella Crescenzo, Arianna Mazzoli, Rosa Cancelliere, Francesca Bianco, Antonia Giacco, Giovanna Liverini, Abdul G Dulloo, Susanna Iossa
Aims: The recovery of body weight after a period of caloric restriction is accompanied by an enhanced efficiency of fat deposition and hyperinsulinemia-which are exacerbated by isocaloric refeeding on a high fat diet rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA-MUFA), and poor in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and associated with a blunting of de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue and liver. As high fat diets rich in PUFA have been shown to limit the excess fat deposition and improve glucose homeostasis, we investigated here the extent to which de novo lipogenesis in liver and adipose tissues (white and brown), as well as hepatic oxidative stress, are influenced by refeeding on diets rich in PUFA...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377747/dynamics-of-sequestered-cryptophyte-nuclei-in-mesodinium-rubrum-during-starvation-and-refeeding
#20
Miran Kim, Kirstine Drumm, Niels Daugbjerg, Per J Hansen
The marine mixotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum is known to acquire chloroplasts, mitochondria, nucleomorphs, and nucleus from its cryptophyte prey, particularly from species in the genera, Geminigera and Teleaulax. The sequestered prey nucleus and chloroplasts are considered to support photosynthesis of M. rubrum. In addition, recent studies have shown enlargement of the retained prey nucleus in starved M. rubrum and have inferred that enlargement results from the fusion of ingested prey nuclei. Thus far, however, little is known about the mechanism underlying the enlargement of the prey nucleus in M...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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