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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351143/nutrition-in-the-icu-new-trends-versus-old-fashioned-standard-enteral-feeding
#1
Kristine W A C Koekkoek, Arthur R H van Zanten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The narrative review aims to summarize the relevant studies from the last 2 years and provide contextual information to understand findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent ICU studies have provided insight in the pathophysiology and time course of catabolism, anabolic resistance, and metabolic and endocrine derangements interacting with the provision of calories and proteins.Early provision of high protein intake and caloric overfeeding may confer harm...
January 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346768/activation-of-ampk-regulated-crh-neurons-in-the-pvh-is-sufficient-and-necessary-to-induce-dietary-preference-for-carbohydrate-over-fat
#2
Shiki Okamoto, Tatsuya Sato, Michihiro Tateyama, Haruaki Kageyama, Yuko Maejima, Masanori Nakata, Satoshi Hirako, Takashi Matsuo, Sanda Kyaw, Tetsuya Shiuchi, Chitoku Toda, Udval Sedbazar, Kumiko Saito, Nur Farehan Asgar, Boyang Zhang, Shigefumi Yokota, Kenta Kobayashi, Fabienne Foufelle, Pascal Ferré, Masamitsu Nakazato, Hiroaki Masuzaki, Seiji Shioda, Toshihiko Yada, Barbara B Kahn, Yasuhiko Minokoshi
Food selection is essential for metabolic homeostasis and is influenced by nutritional state, food palatability, and social factors such as stress. However, the mechanism responsible for selection between a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and a high-fat diet (HFD) remains unknown. Here, we show that activation of a subset of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-positive neurons in the rostral region of the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) induces selection of an HCD over an HFD in mice during refeeding after fasting, resulting in a rapid recovery from the change in ketone metabolism...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345582/is-the-impact-of-starvation-on-the-gut-microbiota-specific-or-unspecific-to-anorexia-nervosa-a-narrative-review-based-on-a-systematic-literature-search
#3
Isabelle Mack, John Penders, Jessica Cook, Jaslyn Dugmore, Nazar Mazurak, Paul Enck
BACKGROUND: The role of the gut microbiota in Anorexia nervosa (AN) has long been neglected by researchers, although the former is known to play an important role in health, disease and weight regulation. Overweight and underweight due to natural states of starvation and refeeding are normal in many vertebrates in their ecological niches. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to compare the similarities and differences between the gut microbiota in eating disorders with conditions of fasting and refeeding in other vertebrates...
January 17, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335275/interplay-between-chrebp-and-srebp-1c-coordinates-postprandial-glycolysis-and-lipogenesis-in-livers-of-mice
#4
Albert G Linden, Shili Li, Hwa Y Choi, Fei Fang, Masashi Fukasawa, Kosaku Uyeda, Robert E Hammer, Jay D Horton, Luke J Engelking, Guosheng Liang
Lipogenesis in liver is highest in the postprandial state; insulin activates SREBP-1c, which transcriptionally activates genes involved in fatty acid (FA) synthesis, whereas glucose activates ChREBP, which activates both glycolysis and FA synthesis. Whether SREBP-1c and ChREBP act independently of one another is unknown. Here, we characterized mice with liver-specific deletion of ChREBP (L-Chrebp-/- mice). Hepatic ChREBP deficiency resulted in reduced mRNA levels of glycolytic and lipogenic enzymes, particularly in response to sucrose refeeding following fasting, a dietary regimen that elicits maximal lipogenesis...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310561/endotoxin-activity-in-neonates-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-cohort-study
#5
Zaccaria Ricci, Simona Benegni, Cristiana Garisto, Isabella Favia, Roberta Haiberger, Luca Di Chiara
BACKGROUND: Endotoxemia in pediatric cardiac surgical patients is poorly understood. The endotoxin activity assay (EAA) levels were examined in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery in order to assess their reference levels and their association with other pre-, intra-, and postoperative risk factors for gut hypoperfusion. We finally observed if refeeding was associated with modification of endotoxin levels. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, neonates undergoing surgery for correction or palliation were enrolled...
January 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300858/evidence-supporting-a-role-for-constitutive-ghrelin-receptor-signaling-in-fasting-induced-hyperphagia-in-male-mice
#6
Gimena Fernandez, Agustina Cabral, María F Andreoli, Alexandra Labarthe, Céline M'Kadmi, Jorge G Ramos, Jacky Marie, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jacques Epelbaum, Virginie Tolle, Mario Perello
Ghrelin is a potent orexigenic peptide hormone that acts through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), a G-protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in the hypothalamus. In vitro studies have shown GHSR displays a high constitutive activity, whose physiological relevance is uncertain. Since GHSR gene expression in the hypothalamus is known to increase in fasting conditions, we tested the hypothesis that constitutive GHSR activity at hypothalamic level drives the fasting-induced hyperphagia. We found refed wild-type (WT) mice displayed a robust hyperphagia that continued for 5 days after refeeding and changed their food intake daily pattern...
December 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297106/idalopirdine-a-selective-5-ht6-receptor-antagonist-reduces-food-intake-and-body-weight-in-a-model-of-excessive-eating
#7
Magdalena Kotańska, Klaudia Lustyk, Adam Bucki, Monika Marcinkowska, Joanna Śniecikowska, Marcin Kołaczkowski
Obesity, from early childhood onwards, is a common societal problem. The overconsumption of sweet, salty and high-fat products are the main factors that cause excessive weight gain. It is therefore necessary to search for new drugs that affect satiety centers and reduce the sense of hunger and caloric intake. It has been suggested that the blockade of 5-HT6 receptors may reduce food intake, and since idalopirdine is a clinically tested, selective 5HT6 receptor antagonist, it was chosen to be examined in animal models of obesity...
January 3, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288234/recovery-from-n-deprivation-is-a-transcriptionally-and-functionally-distinct-state-in-chlamydomonas
#8
Chia-Hong Tsai, Sahra Uygun, Rebecca Roston, Shin-Han Shiu, Christoph Benning
Facing adverse conditions such as nitrogen (N) deprivation, microalgae enter cellular quiescence, a reversible cell cycle arrest with drastic changes in metabolism allowing cells to remain viable. Recovering from N deprivation and quiescence is an active and orderly process as we are showing here for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We conducted comparative transcriptomics on this alga to discern processes relevant to quiescence in the context of N deprivation and recovery following refeeding. A mutant with slow recovery from N deprivation, compromised hydrolysis of triacylglycerols 7 (cht7), was included to better define the regulatory processes governing the respective transitions...
December 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280638/the-effects-of-a-high-protein-high-calorie-fiber-and-fructo-oligosaccharide-enriched-enteral-formula-on-nutritional-status-bowel-habits-and-tolerance-safety-and-effectiveness-of-enteral-nutrition-in-elderly-spanish-patients-sens-study
#9
Federico Miguel Cuesta Triana, Francisco Villazón González, Alejandro Sanz Paris, Juan Ignacio Ramos-Clemente Romero, José Enrique Palacio Abizanda, Rebeca Sanz Barriuso
BACKGROUND: Enteral nutrition (EN) is an effective nutritional intervention for patients at risk of malnutrition or malnourished. However, complications such as gastrointestinal intolerance, hyperglycemia or refeeding syndrome can be triggered by EN. AIM: To investigate the effects of a tube feeding formula (TFF) on patients' nutritional status, biochemical status, bowel habits and safety. METHODOLOGY: Observational, prospective and multicenter study...
October 27, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261744/energy-homeostasis-in-leptin-deficient-lepob-ob-mice
#10
Alicja A Skowronski, Yann Ravussin, Rudolph L Leibel, Charles A LeDuc
Maintenance of reduced body weight is associated both with reduced energy expenditure per unit metabolic mass and increased hunger in mice and humans. Lowered circulating leptin concentration, due to decreased fat mass, provides a primary signal for this response. However, leptin deficient (Lepob/ob) mice (and leptin receptor deficient Zucker rats) reduce energy expenditure following weight reduction by a necessarily non-leptin dependent mechanisms. To identify these mechanisms, Lepob/ob mice were fed ad libitum (AL group; n = 21) or restricted to 3 kilocalories of chow per day (CR group, n = 21)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251692/is-refeeding-syndrome-relevant-for-critically-ill-patients
#11
Wilhelmina A C Koekkoek, Arthur R H Van Zanten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent relevant studies regarding refeeding syndrome (RFS) in critically ill patients and provide recommendations for clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent knowledge regarding epidemiology of refeeding syndrome among critically ill patients, how to identify ICU patients at risk, and strategies to reduce the potential negative impact on outcome are discussed. SUMMARY: RFS is a potentially fatal acute metabolic derangement that ultimately can result in marked morbidity and even mortality...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244064/%C3%AE-cell-control-of-insulin-production-during-starvation-refeeding-in-male-rats
#12
Brandon B Boland, Charles Brown, Cristina Alarcon, Damien Demozay, Joseph S Grimsby, Christopher J Rhodes
Mammalian metabolism has evolved to adapt relative to changes in nutrient status. Insulin, the key anabolic hormone, facilitates intracellular storage of nutrient fuels and plays a pivotal role in the transition away from catabolism upon refeeding. While circulating insulin relative to nutrient levels has been well-characterized during both fasting and refeeding, how pancreatic β-cell biology caters to acute changes in insulin demand has not been sufficiently addressed. Here, we examined the dynamics of (pro)insulin production and associated changes in β-cell ultrastructure during refeeding after a prolonged 72 hour fast in male rats...
December 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187615/learning-to-starve-impacts-of-food-limitation-beyond-the-stress-period
#13
REVIEW
Marshall D McCue, John S Terblanche, Joshua B Benoit
Starvation is common among wild animal populations, and many individuals experience repeated bouts of starvation over the course of their lives. Although much information has been gained through laboratory studies of acute starvation, little is known about how starvation affects an animal once food is again available (i.e. during the refeeding and recovery phases). Many animals exhibit a curious phenomenon - some seem to 'get better' at starving following exposure to one or more starvation events - by this we mean that they exhibit potentially adaptive responses, including reduced rates of mass loss, reduced metabolic rates, and lower costs of digestion...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179448/overexpression-of-syf2-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-correlates-with-poor-prognosis-in-human-breast-cancer
#14
Feng Shi, Feng-Feng Cai, Lu Cai, Xiao-Yan Lin, Wei Zhang, Qin-Qin Wang, Yu-Jie Zhao, Qi-Chao Ni, Hua Wang, Zhi-Xian He
SYF2, a known cell cycle regulator, is reported to be involved in cell cycle arrest by interacting with cyclin-D-type binding protein 1. In the present study, we investigated the role of SYF2 in human breast cancer (BC) progression. SYF2 was highly upregulated in BC tissues and cell lines, as per Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. The SYF2 expression level had a significant correlation with the tumor grade and Ki-67 expression. In vitro starvation-refeeding experiment and SYF2-siRNA transfection assay demonstrated that SYF2 could promote proliferation of BC cells, while SYF2 knockdown resulted in cells cycle arrest at G1/S phase, reducing the cell growth rate of BC cells...
October 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174870/molecular-cloning-tissue-distribution-and-effect-of-fasting-and-refeeding-on-the-expression-of-neuropeptide-y-in-channa-argus
#15
Song Yang, Zheng-Yong Wen, Yuan-Chao Zou, Chuan-Jie Qin, Jun Wang, Deng-Yue Yuan, Rui Li
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino-acid amidated peptide of the pancreatic polypeptide (PP) family, which plays an important role in appetite regulation and energy expenditure in mammals. Although several teleost NPY have been identified, its roles remain unclear in fish. We herein reported on the molecular cloning, tissue distribution and the effect of fasting on the expression of NPY in Channa argus, and designated as CaNPY. It consisted of a 300 bp open reading frame predicted to encode a prepro-NPY of 99 amino acids...
November 22, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126834/low-expression-of-nkd2-is-associated-with-enhanced-cell-proliferation-and-poor-prognosis-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Dongzhi Wang, Shusen Zhang, Yuyan Chen, Baoying Hu, Cuihua Lu
NKD2 is a member of the Naked cuticle (Nkd) protein family and functions as a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway. We investigated the prognostic value of NKD2 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that NKD2 was significantly downregulated in HCC specimens compared with adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Next, we found that NKD2 expression correlated significantly with several clinicopathologic features, such as tumor grade, tumor size, and Ki-67 expression...
November 7, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116191/histone-methyltransferase-g9a-is-a-key-regulator-of-the-starvation-induced-behaviors-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Kouhei Shimaji, Ryo Tanaka, Toru Maeda, Mamiko Ozaki, Hideki Yoshida, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Tetsuya Sato, Mikita Suyama, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Organisms have developed behavioral strategies to defend themselves from starvation stress. Despite of their importance in nature, the underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. Here, we show that Drosophila G9a (dG9a), one of the histone H3 Lys 9-specific histone methyltransferases, functions as a key regulator for the starvation-induced behaviors. RNA-sequencing analyses utilizing dG9a null mutant flies revealed that the expression of some genes relating to gustatory perception are regulated by dG9a under starvation conditions...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114984/the-accuracy-and-consistency-of-nutrition-care-process-terminology-use-in-cases-of-refeeding-syndrome
#18
Kylie L Matthews, Michelle A Palmer, Sandra M Capra
AIM: Using standardised terminology in acute care has encouraged consistency in patient care and the evaluation of outcomes. As such, the Nutrition Care Process (NCP) and Nutrition Care Process Terminology (NCPT) may assist dietitian nutritionists in the delivery of high quality nutrition care worldwide; however, limited research has been conducted examining the consistency and accuracy of its use. We aimed to examine the NCPT that dietitian nutritionists would use to formulate a diagnostic statement relating to refeeding syndrome (RFS)...
November 8, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107582/perinatal-exposure-to-endocrine-disrupting-compounds-and-the-control-of-feeding-behavior-an-overview
#19
REVIEW
Sabrina N Walley, Troy A Roepke
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that can interact with steroid and nuclear receptors or alter hormone production. Many studies have reported that perinatal exposure to EDC including bisphenol A, PCB, dioxins, and DDT disrupt energy balance, body weight, adiposity, or glucose homeostasis in rodent offspring. However, little information exists on the effects of perinatal EDC exposure on the control of feeding behaviors and meal pattern (size, frequency, duration), which may contribute to their obesogenic properties...
November 7, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104345/risk-factors-for-the-development-of-refeeding-syndrome-like-hypophosphatemia-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#20
Aiko Igarashi, Takashi Okuno, Genrei Ohta, Shuko Tokuriki, Yusei Ohshima
Background: Refeeding syndrome is characterized by metabolic disturbance including hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia upon reinstitution of nutrition in severely malnourished patients. Objective: The present study sought to identify the risk factors for the development of refeeding syndrome-like metabolic disturbance in very low birth weight infants. Methods: The correlations of severe hypophosphatemia with the serum levels of potassium and ionized calcium, daily calorie and phosphate intake, and umbilical cord blood flow on ultrasonography were analyzed in 49 very low birth weight infants...
2017: Disease Markers
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