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Jing Wu, Wei-Wei Tao, Dan-Yang Chong, Shan-Shan Lai, Chuang Wang, Qi Liu, Tong-Yu Zhang, Bin Xue, Chao-Jun Li
Postprandial insulin desensitization plays a critical role in maintaining whole-body glucose homeostasis by avoiding the excessive absorption of blood glucose; however, the detailed mechanisms that underlie how the major player, skeletal muscle, desensitizes insulin action remain to be elucidated. Herein, we report that early growth response gene-1 ( Egr-1) is activated by insulin in skeletal muscle and provides feedback inhibition that regulates insulin sensitivity after a meal. The inhibition of the transcriptional activity of Egr-1 enhanced the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (InsR) and Akt, thus increasing glucose uptake in L6 myotubes after insulin stimulation, whereas overexpression of Egr-1 decreased insulin sensitivity...
March 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
M O Rosales-Velázquez, A F Muttray, R H Devlin
The effect of feed cycling (consisting of periods of starvation followed by periods of refeeding to satiation) on compensatory growth was evaluated in growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic wild-type coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. The specific growth rate (GSR ) of feed-restricted non-transgenic O. kisutch was not significantly different from the GSR of fully-fed non-transgenic O. kisutch during two refeeding periods, whereas the GSR of feed-restricted transgenic O. kisutch was significantly higher in relation to the GSR of fully-fed transgenic O...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
M Hermanussen, B Bogin, C Scheffler
AIM: To scrutinize to what extent modern ideas about nutrition effects on growth are supported by historic observations in European populations. METHOD: We reviewed 19th and early 20th century paediatric journals in the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, the third largest European library with an almost complete collection of the German medical literature. During a three-day visit, we inspected 15 bookshelf meters of literature not available in electronic format. RESULTS: Late 19th and early 20th century breastfed European infants and children, independent of social strata, grew far below World Health Organisation (WHO) standards and 15-30% of adequately-fed children would be classified as stunted by the WHO standards...
March 11, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Rachel Nicoll, Michael Y Henein
Essential hypertension, fast heart rate, low heart rate variability, sympathetic nervous system dominance over parasympathetic, arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and poor flow-mediated arterial dilatation are all associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. This review of randomised controlled trials and other studies demonstrates that caloric restriction (CR) is capable of significantly improving all these parameters, normalising blood pressure (BP) and allowing patients to discontinue antihypertensive medication, while never becoming hypotensive...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Huiwen Ma, Ping Wang, Dan Jin, Ting Jia, Hong Mao, Jiandi Zhang, Shi Zhao
Hormones regulate hepatic gene expressions to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 has been thought to interfere with insulin signaling. To determine its potential role in the regulation of metabolism, we analyzed its gene (Enpp1) expression in the liver of rats experiencing fasting and refeeding cycles, and in primary rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma HepG2 cells treated with insulin and dexamethasone using northern blot and real-time PCR techniques. Hepatic Enpp1 expression was induced by fasting and reduced by refeeding in the rat liver...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
R Wirth, R Diekmann, G Janssen, O Fleiter, L Fricke, A Kreilkamp, M K Modreker, C Marburger, S Nels, M Pourhassan, R Schaefer, H-P Willschrei, D Volkert
Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening complication that may occur after initiation of nutritional therapy in malnourished patients, as well as after periods of fasting and hunger. Refeeding syndrome can be effectively prevented and treated if its risk factors and pathophysiology are known. The initial measurement of thiamine level and serum electrolytes, including phosphate and magnesium, their supplementation if necessary, and a slow increase in nutritional intake along with close monitoring of serum electrolytes play an important role...
March 2, 2018: Der Internist
M Pourhassan, I Cuvelier, I Gehrke, C Marburger, M K Modreker, D Volkert, H P Willschrei, R Wirth
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of refeeding syndrome (RFS) in older patients is not well-known. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of known risk factors for RFS in older individuals during hospitalization at geriatric hospital departments. DESIGN AND SETTING: 342 consecutive older participants (222 females) who admitted at acute geriatric hospital wards were included in a cross-sectional study. We applied the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) criteria for determining patients at risk of RFS...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Joanne L Gusella, Anna G Campbell, Kristin Lalji
Family-based treatment (FBT) has emerged as a promising approach for medically stable youth with anorexia nervosa (AN). While there is evidence that therapists embrace the core principles of FBT, most face barriers in implementing the model with fidelity. Little research has been conducted to determine whether adhering to the core methods of placing parents in charge are sufficient in restoring weight in youth with AN. This study involved a chart review of youth under 16 years of age, treated by a Canadian tertiary care health centre-based eating disorders team (EDT)...
August 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Indrė Lapinskienė, Gabija Mikulevičienė, Gabija Laubner, Robertas Badaras
Refeeding syndrome, as a life-threatening condition, is well known among severely malnourished or deeply metabolically stressed patients. This case presents an atypical manifestation of the syndrome to a young bodybuilder, whose extreme diet, including 5 months of insufficient nourishment before the sport competition and 6 days of carbohydrates overload afterwards, has led him to a bilateral lower - limb paralysis and drastic homeostatic disturbances. Severe hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia and hyperglycemia with mildly elevated liver enzymes have occurred...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
John S Finnell, Bradley C Saul, Alan C Goldhamer, Toshia R Myers
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that fasting, during which only water is consumed, results in potentially health promoting physiological effects. However, peer-reviewed research assessing the safety of water-only fasting is lacking. To address this, we conducted a chart review to describe adverse events (AEs) that occurred during medically supervised, water-only fasting. METHODS: Electronic charts from patient visits to a residential medical facility from 2006 to 2011 were reviewed...
February 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
A L Thomson, D J Humphries, L A Crompton, C K Reynolds
The objectives of the study were (1) to test whether 6 h of feed deprivation followed by refeeding induces an acidosis challenge in dairy cattle and (2) to quantify the acidosis challenge mitigation potential of increased alfalfa silage concentration in the diet. Alfalfa silage constituted either 25 or 75% of forage dry matter (DM) replacing corn silage [low (LA) or high alfalfa (HA)] and was chopped to either 14 or 19 mm theoretical length [short (S) or long (L)]. Dietary treatments LAS, LAL, HAS, or HAL were offered to 4 rumen-cannulated Holstein dairy cattle (161 d in milk; 5th or 6th parity) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design study with 21-d periods...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Marta Araujo Castro, Clotilde Vázquez Martínez
Refeeding syndrome (RS) is a complex disease that occurs when nutritional support is initiated after a period of starvation. The hallmark feature is the hypophosphataemia, however other biochemical abnormalities like hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia, thiamine deficiency and disorder of sodium and fluid balance are common. The incidence of RS is unknown as no universally accepted definition exists, but it is frequently underdiagnosed. RS is a potentially fatal, but preventable, disorder. The identification of patients at risk is crucial to improve their management...
February 12, 2018: Medicina Clínica
Alex Reichenbach, Romana Stark, Mathieu Mequinion, Raphael R G Denis, Jeferson F Goularte, Rachel E Clarke, Sarah H Lockie, Moyra B Lemus, Greg M Kowalski, Clinton R Bruce, Cheng Huang, Ralf B Schittenhelm, Randall L Mynatt, Brian J Oldfield, Matthew J Watt, Serge Luquet, Zane B Andrews
AgRP neurons control peripheral substrate utilization and nutrient partitioning during conditions of energy deficit and nutrient replenishment, although the molecular mechanism is unknown. We examined whether carnitine acetyltransferase (Crat) in AgRP neurons affects peripheral nutrient partitioning. Crat deletion in AgRP neurons reduced food intake and feeding behavior and increased glycerol supply to the liver during fasting, as a gluconeogenic substrate, which was mediated by changes to sympathetic output and peripheral fatty acid metabolism in the liver...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Katie Braun, Anne Utech, Maria Eugenia Velez, Renee Walker
BACKGROUND: Studied since the 1940s, refeeding syndrome still has no universal definition, thus making comparison of studies difficult. Negative outcomes (eg, metabolic abnormalities) may occur with the use of specialized nutrition, such as parenteral nutrition (PN). Less than half of medical institutions have a nutrition support team (NST) managing PN. Interdisciplinary team management of PN may reduce negative outcomes of PN. The objective of this study was to show the value of the NST by measuring differences in PN variables, especially electrolyte abnormalities (EAs), before and after NST initiation at a large medical center and to identify factors associated with EAs among adult subjects receiving PN...
February 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Carlos Gaspar, Jonás I Silva-Marrero, María C Salgado, Isabel V Baanante, Isidoro Metón
Glutamate dehydrogenase (Gdh) plays a central role in ammonia detoxification by catalysing reversible oxidative deamination of L-glutamate into α-ketoglutarate using NAD+ or NADP+ as cofactor. To gain insight into transcriptional regulation of glud, the gene that codes for Gdh, we isolated and characterised the 5' flanking region of glud from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). In addition, tissue distribution, the effect of starvation as well as short- and long-term refeeding on Gdh mRNA levels in the liver of S...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Natalie Friedli, Zeno Stanga, Alison Culkin, Martin Crook, Alessandro Laviano, Lubos Sobotka, Reto W Kressig, Jens Kondrup, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
OBJECTIVES: Refeeding syndrome (RFS) can be a life-threatening metabolic condition after nutritional replenishment if not recognized early and treated adequately. There is a lack of evidence-based treatment and monitoring algorithm for daily clinical practice. The aim of the study was to propose an expert consensus guideline for RFS for the medical inpatient (not including anorexic patients) regarding risk factors, diagnostic criteria, and preventive and therapeutic measures based on a previous systematic literature search...
March 2018: Nutrition
Showkat Ahmad Dar, Prem P Srivastava, Tincy Varghese, Sheikh Irfan Rasool, Garima Anand, Subodh Gupta, P Gireesh-Babu, Gopal Krishna
A study was carried out to assess the regulation of compensatory growth under different restriction feeding regimes in Labeo rohita juveniles by the interaction of various feed intake and growth regulating genes. A 60 day feeding trial was conducted with five treatment groups, Control (3% body weight, bw), T1 (alternate days), T2 (0.5% bw), T3 (1% bw) and T4 (2% bw) and feeding was done for first 30 days of the trial. For next 30 days, all the treatment groups were fed at a rate of 3% bw as in the control group...
January 30, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Jeremy J Stubblefield, Peng Gao, Gokhul Kilaru, Bilal Mukadam, Jeremy Terrien, Carla B Green
The timing of food intake and nutrient utilization is critical to health and regulated partly by the circadian clock. Increased amplitude of circadian oscillations and metabolic output has been found to improve health in diabetic and obesity mouse models. Here, we report a function for the circadian deadenylase Nocturnin as a regulator of metabolic amplitude across the day/night cycle and in response to nutrient challenge. We show that mice lacking Nocturnin (Noct-/-) display significantly increased amplitudes of mRNA expression of hepatic genes encoding key metabolic enzymes regulating lipid and cholesterol synthesis, both over the daily circadian cycle and in response to fasting and refeeding...
January 30, 2018: Cell Reports
Azrina Md Ralib, Mohd Basri Mat Nor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Refeeding hypophosphataemia (RH) is characterized by an acute electrolyte derangement following nutrition therapy. Complications associated include heart failure, respiratory failure, paraesthesia, seizure and death. We aim to assess its incidence, risk factors, and outcome in our local intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted at the mixed medical- surgical of a tertiary ICU in Kuantan, Malaysia...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Sonia Hammami, Houda Lazreg Aref, Messouda Khalfa, Ines Kochtalli, Mohamed Hammami
BACKGROUND: Refeeding syndrome is a rare and life-threatening pathology with polyvisceral manifestations occurring in severely malnourished patients. It is rarely described in adults with celiac disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 28-year-old Tunisian woman followed up for celiac disease, who did not adhere to the gluten-free diet. She presented to our hospital with celiac crisis manifested by severe diarrhea, and metabolic and electrolyte disturbances...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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