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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157917/the-mediator-complex-in-genomic-and-non-genomic-signaling-in-cancer
#1
Hannah Weber, Michael J Garabedian
Mediator is a conserved, multi-subunit macromolecular machine divided structurally into head, middle, and tail modules, along with a transiently associating kinase module. Mediator functions as an integrator of transcriptional regulatory activity by interacting with DNA-bound transcription factors and with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to both activate and repress gene expression. Mediator has been shown to affect multiple steps in transcription, including chromatin looping between enhancers and promoters, pre-initiation complex formation, transcriptional elongation, and mRNA splicing...
November 17, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155215/membrane-estrogen-receptors-signal-to-determine-transcription-factor-function
#2
Ellis R Levin
Estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta as well as many other steroid receptors are found both within the nucleus and outside the nucleus. This includes extra-nuclear receptors in many organelles, including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, cytosolic endosomes, and membrane lipid rafts, such as caveolae. The functions of these receptors in the various extra-nuclear cell organelles are not well described, but progress for understanding steroid receptor signaling from the membrane has advanced. In this Review I will discuss the enlarging role of membrane ER signaling to the expression, cell localization, and function of transcription factors that are essential to mediate cell physiology or pathophysiology in many organs...
November 16, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133394/role-of-estrogen-receptor-beta-in-neural-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#3
Mukesh K Varshney, José Inzunza, Diana Lupu, Vaidheeswaran Ganapathy, Per Antonson, Joëlle Rüegg, Ivan Nalvarte, Jan-Åke Gustafsson
The ability to propagate mature cells and tissue from pluripotent stem cells offers enormous promise for treating many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. Before such cells can be used successfully in neurodegenerative diseases without causing unwanted cell growth and migration, genes regulating growth and migration of neural stem cells need to be well characterized. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is essential for migration of neurons and glial cells in the developing mouse brain. To examine whether ERβ influences differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) into neural lineages, we compared control and ERβ knockout (BERKO) mESCs at defined stages of neural development and examined the effects of an ERβ-selective ligand (LY3201) with a combination of global and targeted gene-expression profiling and the expression of key pluripotency markers...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127073/estrogen-receptor-beta-maintains-expression-of-klf15-to-prevent-cardiac-myocyte-hypertrophy-in-female-rodents
#4
Neil Hoa, Lisheng Ge, Kenneth S Korach, Ellis R Levin
Maintaining a healthy, anti-hypertrophic state in the heart prevents progression to cardiac failure. In humans, angiotensin II (AngII) indirectly and directly stimulates hypertrophy and progression, while estrogens acting through estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) inhibit these AngII actions. The KLF15 transcription factor has been purported to provide anti-hypertrophic action. In cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, we found AngII inhibited KLF1 expression and nuclear localization, substantially prevented by estradiol (E2) or β-LGND2 (β-LGND2), an ERβ agonist...
November 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113424/update-on-the-therapeutic-significance-of-estrogen-receptor-beta-in-malignant-gliomas
#5
REVIEW
Yu-Long Lan, Shuang Zou, Xun Wang, Jia-Cheng Lou, Jin-Shan Xing, Min Yu, Bo Zhang
Malignant glioma is the most fatal of the astrocytic lineage tumors despite therapeutic advances. Men have a higher glioma incidence than women, indicating that estrogen level differences between men and women may influence glioma pathogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying the anticancer effects of estrogen has not been fully clarified and is complicated by the presence of several distinct estrogen receptor types and the identification of a growing number of estrogen receptor splice variants. Specifically, it is generally accepted that estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) functions as a tumor promoter, while estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) functions as a tumor suppressor, and the role and therapeutic significance of ERβ signaling in gliomas remains elusive...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102591/hippocampal-gene-expression-patterns-in-oxytocin-male-knockout-mice-are-related-to-impaired-social-interaction
#6
Virginia Meneghini Lazzari, Josi Maria Zimmermann-Peruzatto, Grasiela Agnes, Roberta Oriques Becker, Ana Carolina de Moura, Silvana Almeida, Renata Padilha Guedes, Marcia Giovenardi
Social interaction between animals is crucial for the survival and life in groups. It is well demonstrated that oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) play critical roles in the regulation of social behaviors in mammals, however, other neurotransmitters and hormones are involved in the brain circuitry related to these behaviors. The present study aimed to investigate the gene expression of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain of OT knockout (OTKO) male mice. In this study, we evaluated the expression levels of the OT receptor (Oxtr), AVP receptors 1a and 1b (Avpr1a; Avpr1b), dopamine receptor 2 (Drd2), and the estrogen receptors alpha and beta (Esr1; Esr2) genes in the hippocampus (HPC), olfactory bulb (OB), hypothalamus (HPT) and prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
November 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094395/estrogen-receptor-signaling-in-prostate-cancer-implications-for-carcinogenesis-and-tumor-progression
#7
REVIEW
Helmut Bonkhoff
BACKGROUND: The androgen receptor (AR) is the classical target for prostate cancer prevention and treatment, but more recently estrogens and their receptors have also been implicated in prostate cancer development and tumor progression. METHODS: Recent experimental and clinical data were reviewed to elucidate pathogenetic mechanisms how estrogens and their receptors may affect prostate carcinogenesis and tumor progression. RESULTS: The estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is the most prevalent ER in the human prostate, while the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is restricted to basal cells of the prostatic epithelium and stromal cells...
November 2, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080952/acute-effects-of-sex-steroids-on-visual-processing-in-male-goldfish
#8
S Yue, V Wadia, N Sekula, P S Dickinson, R R Thompson
Elevations of sex steroids induced by social cues can rapidly modulate social behavior, but we know little about where they act within the nervous system to produce such effects. In male goldfish, testosterone (T) rapidly increases approach responses to the visual cues of females through its conversion to estradiol. Because aromatase is expressed in the retina, we tested if T can acutely influence retina responses to visual stimuli, and investigated the receptor mechanisms that may mediate such effects. Specifically, we measured FOS protein immunoreactivity to determine if T affects cellular responses to visual stimuli that include females, and used electrophysiology to investigate whether T can generally affect light sensitivity...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074841/a-network-pharmacology-approach-to-determine-the-active-components-and-potential-targets-of-curculigo-orchioides-in-the-treatment-of-osteoporosis
#9
Nani Wang, Guizhi Zhao, Yang Zhang, Xuping Wang, Lisha Zhao, Pingcui Xu, Dan Shou
BACKGROUND Osteoporosis is a complex bone disorder with a genetic predisposition, and is a cause of health problems worldwide. In China, Curculigo orchioides (CO) has been widely used as a herbal medicine in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. However, research on the mechanism of action of CO is still lacking. The aim of this study was to identify the absorbable components, potential targets, and associated treatment pathways of CO using a network pharmacology approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS We explored the chemical components of CO and used the five main principles of drug absorption to identify absorbable components...
October 27, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073745/increased-serum-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-1-levels-and-its-diagnostic-value-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Ebru Findikli, Ergül Belge Kurutas, Mehmet Akif Camkurt, Mehmet Fatih Karaaslan, Filiz Izci, Hüseyin Avni Fındıklı, Selçuk Kardaş, Berat Dag, Hatice Altun
Objective: The facts that depression is more prevalent in females than in males and females are exposed to depression more commonly during certain hormonal fluctuating periods indicate the role of sex hormones in physiopathology. Estrogen acts over estrogen receptors alpha and beta and recently identified G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1). The present study aimed, for the first time, to evaluate serum GPER1 levels in drug-naïve major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. Methods: The study included 56 newly diagnosed drug-naïve MDD patients aged between 18 and 50 years and 42 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers...
November 30, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069289/distinct-dynorphin-expression-patterns-with-low-and-high-dose-estrogen-treatment-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-female-rats
#11
Moeko Kanaya, Kinuyo Iwata, Hitoshi Ozawa
Kisspeptin (KISS1; encoded by Kiss1 ) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) co-express tachykinin 3 (TAC3; also known as neurokinin B) and dynorphin A (PDYN). Accordingly, they are termed KNDy neurons and considered to be crucial in generating pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Accumulating evidence suggests that Kiss1 and Tac3 are negatively regulated by estrogen. However it has not been fully determined whether and how estrogen modulates Pdyn and PDYN. Here, we examined the expression of Pdyn mRNA and PDYN by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in the ARC of female rats after ovariectomy (OVX) and OVX plus low or high-dose beta-estradiol (E 2 ) replacement...
October 24, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065927/the-protective-role-of-estrogen-and-estrogen-receptors-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-the-controversial-use-of-estrogen-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Andrea Iorga, Christine M Cunningham, Shayan Moazeni, Gregoire Ruffenach, Soban Umar, Mansoureh Eghbali
Epidemiologic studies have previously suggested that premenopausal females have reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared to age-matched males, and the incidence and severity of CVD increases postmenopause. The lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in women during reproductive age is attributed at least in part to estrogen (E2). E2 binds to the traditional E2 receptors (ERs), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), as well as the more recently identified G-protein-coupled ER (GPR30), and can exert both genomic and non-genomic actions...
October 24, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065151/g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-regulates-embryonic-heart-rate-in-zebrafish
#13
Shannon N Romano, Hailey E Edwards, Jaclyn Paige Souder, Kevin J Ryan, Xiangqin Cui, Daniel A Gorelick
Estrogens act by binding to estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα, ERβ), ligand-dependent transcription factors that play crucial roles in sex differentiation, tumor growth and cardiovascular physiology. Estrogens also activate the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), however the function of GPER in vivo is less well understood. Here we find that GPER is required for normal heart rate in zebrafish embryos. Acute exposure to estrogens increased heart rate in wildtype and in ERα and ERβ mutant embryos but not in GPER mutants...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032728/estrogen-receptor-beta-expression-and-prognosis-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#14
Saruta Faknuam, Thamathorn Assanasen, Preecha Ruangvejvorachai, Punchong Hanvivadhanakul, Tanin Intragumtornchai, Ponlapat Rojnuckarin
OBJECTIVES: Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ)-selective agonists inhibited B cell lymphoma growth in animal models. However, a recent study found that higher ERβ expression in tissue from diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients indicated a poorer survival. This study aimed to determine the ERβ expression in DLBCL tissue using immunohistochemistry and correlate with clinical outcomes. METHODS: Diagnostic tissues from newly diagnosed adult DLBCL patients treated with Rituximab-Cyclophosphamide/Doxorubicin/Vincristine/Prednisolone were counted for ERβ1-expressing cells...
October 15, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030963/estrogen-regulates-stemness-and-senescence-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-to-prevent-osteoporosis-via-er%C3%AE-satb2-pathway
#15
Geng Wu, Rongyao Xu, Ping Zhang, Tao Xiao, Yu Fu, Yuchao Zhang, Yifei Du, Jinhai Ye, Jie Cheng, Hongbing Jiang
Decline of pluripotency in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) associated with estrogen deficiency leads to a bone formation defect in osteoporosis. Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 2 (SATB2) is crucial for maintaining stemness and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. However, whether SATB2 is involved in estrogen-deficiency associated-osteoporosis is largely unknown. In this study, we found that estrogen mediated pluripotency and senescence of BMSCs, primarily through estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). BMSCs from the OVX rats displayed increased senescence and weaker SATB2 expression, stemness, and osteogenic differentiation, while estrogen could rescue these phenotypes...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017520/the-nuclear-receptor-er%C3%AE-engages-ago2-in-regulation-of-gene-transcription-rna-splicing-and-risc-loading
#16
Roberta Tarallo, Giorgio Giurato, Giuseppina Bruno, Maria Ravo, Francesca Rizzo, Annamaria Salvati, Luca Ricciardi, Giovanna Marchese, Angela Cordella, Teresa Rocco, Valerio Gigantino, Biancamaria Pierri, Giovanni Cimmino, Luciano Milanesi, Concetta Ambrosino, Tuula A Nyman, Giovanni Nassa, Alessandro Weisz
BACKGROUND: The RNA-binding protein Argonaute 2 (AGO2) is a key effector of RNA-silencing pathways It exerts a pivotal role in microRNA maturation and activity and can modulate chromatin remodeling, transcriptional gene regulation and RNA splicing. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is endowed with oncosuppressive activities, antagonizing hormone-induced carcinogenesis and inhibiting growth and oncogenic functions in luminal-like breast cancers (BCs), where its expression correlates with a better prognosis of the disease...
October 6, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994619/biological-evaluation-of-benzosuberones
#17
Haider Behbehani, Kamal M Dawood, Thoraya A Farghaly
Several natural products containing benzosuberone moiety are clinically reported as anti-tumor agents. Furthermore, several synthetic benzosuberones cited in this review exhibited wide range of theraputic activities such as bacteriostatic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressants and anti-tumor activities. Our recent review provides an overview of the different methods to synthesize the benzosuberones and their extensive biological activities. Areas covered: Thirty-two patents among 130 references are cited in this review that covered the recent inhibitory activities of the benzosuberone scaffolds and their broad area of biological applications up to the first quarter of 2017...
October 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993577/effect-of-biochanin-a-versus-17%C3%AE-estradiol-in-rat-submandibular-salivary-gland
#18
Amira M Elsherbini, Mohammed A R Mohammed, Fatma M Ibrahim
The epigenetic nature of development mandates the observation of the effect of any exogenous substance, especially those with estrogenic activities, during critical phases of development. The submandibular gland (SMG) presents as a great model due to extensive postnatal development, and is known to be regulated and affected by hormones as well as growth factors. Herein, we observed postnatal development following low doses of Biochanin A (BCA) and 17β estradiol (E2) in rats. The pups were randomly divided into four groups: control, BCA, E2, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and euthanized at the 6th, 15th, 30th, and 60th postnatal days (PND)...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990664/hormone-receptors-analysis-in-idiopathic-progressive-subglottic-stenosis
#19
Ivana Fiz, Zeid Bittar, Cesare Piazza, Jan Constantin Koelmel, Federico Gatto, Diego Ferone, Francesco Fiz, Diana Di Dio, Alexander Bosse, Giorgio Peretti, Christian Sittel
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic subglottic stenosis predominantly affects fertile and perimenopausal women. Estrogens and/or progesterone have been proposed as mediators of its pathogenesis by stimulating collagen deposition within the upper airway. We evaluated the presence and expression of estrogen-alpha (ER-α), estrogen-beta (ER-β), and progesterone receptors (PR) in idiopathic stenotic patients. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis on 42 surgical specimens from idiopathic stenosis female patients (mean age, 52...
October 9, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983690/subcellular-localization-and-characterization-of-estrogenic-pathway-regulators-and-mediators-in-atlantic-salmon-spermatozoal-cells
#20
Kristian R von Schalburg, Brent E Gowen, Jong S Leong, Eric B Rondeau, William S Davidson, Ben F Koop
Much progress has been made regarding our understanding of aromatase regulation, estrogen synthesis partitioning and communication between the germinal and somatic compartments of the differentiating gonad. We now know that most of the enzymatic and signaling apparatus required for steroidogenesis is endogenously expressed within germ cells. However, less is known about the expression and localization of steroidogenic components within mature spermatozoa. We have assembled a sperm library presenting 197,015 putative transcripts...
October 5, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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