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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239897/ex-vivo-expression-of-chemokine-receptors-on-cells-surrounding-cutaneous-nerves-in-patients-with-hiv-associated-sensory-neuropathy
#1
Jenjira Mountford, Fitri Octaviana, Riwanti Estiasari, Denise Dewanto Setiawan, Ibnu Ariyanto, Silvia Lee, Jessica Gaff, Constance Chew, Connie Jackaman, Peter Kamerman, Catherine Cherry, Patricia Price
OBJECTIVE: HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) remains common in HIV+ individuals receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART), even though neurotoxic anti-retroviral drugs (e.g. stavudine) have been phased out of use. Accumulating evidence indicates that the neuropathy is immune-mediated. We hypothesise that chemokines produced locally in the skin promote migration of macrophages and T-cells into the tissue, damaging cutaneous nerves causing HIV-SN. DESIGN: We assessed chemokine receptor expression on infiltrating CD14 and CD3 cells around cutaneous nerves in standardised skin biopsies from HIV-SN+ patients (n = 5), HIV-SN- patients (n = 9) and healthy controls (n = 4)...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239062/gvhd-amelioration-by-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-is-associated-with-peripheral-preservation-of-naive-t-cell-populations
#2
Sumie Fujii, Yasuo Miura, Aya Fujishiro, Takero Shindo, Yutaka Shimazu, Hideyo Hirai, Hidetoshi Tahara, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Tatsuo Ichinohe, Taira Maekawa
A substantial proportion of patients with acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) respond to cell therapy with culture-expanded human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (BM-MSCs). However, the mechanisms by which these cells can ameliorate aGVHD-associated complications remain to be clarified. We show here that BM-MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) recapitulated the therapeutic effects of BM-MSCs against aGVHD. Systemic infusion of human BM-MSC-derived EVs prolonged the survival of mice with aGVHD and reduced the pathologic damage in multiple GVHD-targeted organs...
December 14, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237831/maintenance-of-ap-2-dependent-functional-activities-of-nef-restricts-pathways-of-immune-escape-from-cd8-t-lymphocyte-responses
#3
Blake Schouest, Andrea M Weiler, Sanath Kumar Janaka, T Alix Myers, Arpita Das, Sarah C Wilder, Jessica Furlott, Melody Baddoo, Erik K Flemington, Eva G Rakasz, David T Evans, Thomas C Friedrich, Nicholas J Maness
Nef-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes (CD8TL) are linked to extraordinary control of primate lentiviral replication, but the mechanisms underlying their efficacy remain largely unknown. The immunodominant, Mamu-B*017:01+ restricted Nef195-203MW9 epitope in SIVmac239 partially overlaps a sorting motif important for interactions with host AP-2 proteins and, hence, downmodulation of several host proteins including Tetherin (CD317/BST-2), CD28, CD4, SERINC3, and SERINC5. We reasoned that CD8TL-driven evolution in this epitope might compromise Nef's ability to modulate these important molecules...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237287/early-sites-of-virus-replication-after-oral-sivmac251-infection-of-infant-macaques-implications-for-pathogenesis
#4
Angela Amedee, Bonnie Phillips, Kara Jensen, Spencer Robichaux, Nedra Lacour, Mark Burke, Michael Piatak, Jeffrey Lifson, Pamela A Kozlowski, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris
Despite optimization of preventative measures for vertical HIV-1 transmission, daily roughly 400 infants become HIV infected, most of them via breastfeeding. Viral entry has been presumed to occur in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the exact entry site(s) have not been defined. Therefore, we quantified viral RNA and DNA in oral, intestinal and systemic tissues of 15 infant macaques within 48-96 hours after oral SIVmac251 exposure. SIV DNA was detected as early as 48 hours, whereas SIV RNA was typically detected at later time points (72-96 hours)...
December 14, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237087/type-frequency-and-spatial-distribution-of-immune-cell-infiltrates-in-cns-germinomas-evidence-for-inflammatory-and-immunosuppressive-mechanisms
#5
Pia Zapka, Evelyn Dörner, Verena Dreschmann, Noriaki Sakamato, Glen Kristiansen, Gabriele Calaminus, Christian Vokuhl, Ivo Leuschner, Torsten Pietsch
Central nervous system germinomas are characterized by a massive immune cell infiltrate. We systematically characterized these immune cells in 28 germinomas by immunophenotyping and image analysis. mRNA expression was analyzed by Nanostring technology and in situ RNA hybridization. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were composed of 61.8% ± 3.1% (mean ± SE) CD3-positive T cells, including 45.2% ± 3.5% of CD4-positive T-helper cells, 23.4% ± 1.5% of CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells, 5.5% ± 0...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236750/identification-of-gad65-aa-114-122-reactive-memory-like-nk-cells-in-newly-diagnosed-type-1-diabetic-patients-by-hla-class-i-pentamers
#6
Valentina Perri, Elena Gianchecchi, Loredana Cifaldi, Marsha Pellegrino, Ezio Giorda, Marco Andreani, Marco Cappa, Alessandra Fierabracci
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, in which pancreatic β cells are destroyed by autoreactive T cells in genetically predisposed individuals. Serum beta cell autoantibody specificities have represented the mainstay for classifying diabetes as autoimmune-mediated and for stratifying risk in first-degree relatives. In recent years, approaches were attempted to solve the difficult issue of detecting rare antigen-specific autoreactive T cells and their significance to etiopathogenesis such as the use of the MHC multimer technology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236656/secondary-syphilis-associated-with-membranous-nephropathy-and-acute-hepatitis-in-a-patient-with-hiv-a-case-report
#7
Zhou Zhang, Aviv Hever, Nitin Bhasin, Dean A Kujubu
INTRODUCTION: We present a case of membranous nephropathy associated with a secondary syphilis infection in a patient with HIV. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old white man with HIV who was receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy presented to the Emergency Department with 6 weeks of rectal pain. He had a CD3-CD4 count of 656 cells/mm3 and an undetectable viral load. On admission, he was found to have an anal ulcer, a serum creatinine of 1.4 mg/dL (baseline 0...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236128/nk-and-nkt-like-cells-in-patients-with-recurrent-furunculosis
#8
Danuta Nowicka, Ewelina Grywalska, Elżbieta Fitas, Michał Mielnik, Jacek Roliński
To analyze changes in the number and percentage of NK and NKT-like cells in relation to other immune cells as well as to examine associations between increased susceptibility to infections and NK and NKT-like status in patients with recurrent furunculosis (RF) and healthy controls. Thirty patients with RF and 20 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers were recruited. Blood samples were examined. Lymphocyte count and cytometric analyses were conducted. For statistical analysis, the Student's t test, F test, and Brown-Forsythe test were used for comparison between groups of variables...
December 13, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235064/induction-of-neuroinflammatory-response-and-histopathological-alterations-caused-by-quinolinic-acid-administration-in-the-striatum-of-glutaryl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficient-mice
#9
Alexandre Umpierrez Amaral, Bianca Seminotti, Janaína Camacho da Silva, Francine Hehn de Oliveira, Rafael Teixeira Ribeiro, Carmen Regla Vargas, Guilhian Leipnitz, Abel Santamaría, Diogo Onofre Souza, Moacir Wajner
Glutaric acidemia type I (GA I) is an inherited neurometabolic disorder caused by a severe deficiency of the mitochondrial glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) activity. Patients usually present progressive cortical leukodystrophy and commonly develop acute bilateral striatal degeneration mainly during infections that markedly worse their prognosis. A role for quinolinic acid (QA), a key metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, which is activated during inflammatory processes, on the pathogenesis of the acute striatum degeneration occurring in GA I was proposed but so far has not yet been evaluated...
December 12, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231339/-efficacy-of-acupoint-catgut-embedding-combined-with-ginger-partitioned-moxibustion-on-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-of-spleen-kidney-yang-deficiency-syndrome-and-its-effects-on-t-lymphocyte-subsets-and-activity-of-nk-cell
#10
Depeng Xia, Peifang Chen, Peixue Du, Lijun Ding, Anli Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy differences between acupoint catgut embedding combined with ginger-partitioned moxibustion and regular acupuncture on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) of spleen-kidney yang deficiency syndrome, and to explore its effects on T lymphocyte subsets and activity of NK cell. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with CFS of spleen-kidney yang deficiency syndrome were randomly divided into a catgut embedding combined with ginger-partitioned moxibustion (CECGP) group and a regular acupuncture group, 30 cases in each one...
August 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229400/tumor-necrosis-factor-producing-t-regulatory-cells-are-associated-with-severe-liver-injury-in-patients-with-acute-hepatitis-a
#11
Yoon Seok Choi, Min Kyung Jung, Jeewon Lee, Seong Jin Choi, Sung Hoon Choi, Hyun Woong Lee, Jong-Joo Lee, Hyung Joon Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn, Dong Hyeon Lee, Won Kim, Su-Hyung Park, Jun R Huh, Hyoung-Pyo Kim, Jun Yong Park, Eui-Cheol Shin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T-regulatory (Treg) cells control immune responses and maintain immune homeostasis. However, under inflammatory conditions, Treg cells produce cytokines that promote inflammation. We investigated production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by Treg cells in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA), and examined the characteristics of these cells and association with clinical factors. METHODS: We analyzed blood samples collected from 63 patients with AHA at the time of hospitalization (and some at later time points) and 19 healthy donors in South Korea...
December 8, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229308/lymphocyte-dominant-encephalitis-and-meningitis-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-macaques-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
Lisa M Mangus, Sarah E Beck, Suzanne E Queen, Samuel A Brill, Erin N Shirk, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Dillon C Muth, Robert J Adams, Lucio Gama, Janice E Clements, Joseph L Mankowski
A retrospective neuropathologic review of 30 SIV-infected pigtailed macaques receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was conducted. Seventeen animals with lymphocyte-dominant inflammation in the brain and/or meninges that clearly was morphologically distinct from prototypic SIV encephalitis and human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis were identified. Central nervous system (CNS) infiltrates in cART-treated macaques primarily comprised CD20+ B cells and CD3+ T cells with fewer CD68+ macrophages...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224277/-clinicopathologic-analysis-of-micronodular-thymoma-with-lymphoid-stroma
#13
X Y Wang, M Xu, L G Shi, Y Z Ding, Q Cheng, Y W Zhao
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic features of micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma(MNT). Methods: Five cases of MNT diagnosed from January 2007 to December 2016 in Henan Provincial People's Hospital were collected.Hematoxylin-Eosin staining and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the histological and immunophenotypic characteristics in 5 MNT cases. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status was detected by in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER). Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes...
December 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223444/association-of-vedolizumab-level-anti-drug-antibodies-and-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7-occupancy-with-response-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#14
Bella Ungar, Uri Kopylov, Miri Yavzori, Ella Fudim, Orit Picard, Adi Lahat, Daniel Coscas, Matti Waterman, Ola Haj-Natour, Noam Orbach-Zingboim, Ren Mao, Minhu Chen, Yehuda Chowers, Rami Eliakim, Shomron Ben-Horin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are few data available on the real-life pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics features of vedolizumab, a monoclonal antibody against integrin α4β7. We performed a prospective study of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) treated with vedolizumab to determine serum drug concentrations, formation of anti-vedolizumab antibodies (AVAs), and integrin α4β7 saturation. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 106 patients with IBD (67 with Crohn's disease and 39 with ulcerative colitis) treated with vedolizumab from September 2014 through March 2017 at 2 tertiary medical centers in Israel...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222872/comparison-of-therapeutic-effects-of-egfr-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-on-19del-and-l858r-mutations-in-advanced-lung-adenocarcinoma-and-effect-on-cellular-immune-function
#15
Juan Zhou, Suqin Ben
BACKGROUND: We compared the therapeutic effect of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) on 19Del and L858R mutations in advanced lung adenocarcinoma on cellular immune function and explored the factors influencing the curative effect and prognosis. METHODS: Clinical efficacy in the selected 71 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, including 52 patients with 19Del and L858R mutations and 19 wild type patients treated with EGFR-TKIs was retrospectively analyzed. The response rate (RR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and cellular immune function were analyzed...
December 9, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220358/minimally-invasive-monitoring-of-cd4-t-cells-at-multiple-mucosal-tissues-after-intranasal-vaccination-in-rhesus-macaques
#16
Stephanie Dorta-Estremera, Pramod N Nehete, Guojun Yang, Hong He, Bharti P Nehete, Kathryn K Shelton, Michael A Barry, K Jagannadha Sastry
Studies in nonhuman primates (NHP) for prospective immune cell monitoring subsequent to infection and/or vaccination usually rely on periodic sampling of the blood samples with only occasional collections of biopsies from mucosal tissues because of safety concerns and practical constraints. Here we present evidence in support of cytobrush sampling of oral, rectal, and genital mucosal tissues as a minimally invasive approach for the phenotypic analyses of different T cells subsets de novo as well as prospectively after intranasal immunization in rhesus macaques...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218079/vegf-c-mediated-enhancement-of-lymphatic-drainage-reduces-intestinal-inflammation-by-regulating-il-9-il-17-balance-and-improving-gut-microbiota-in-experimental-chronic-colitis
#17
Xiaolei Wang, Jin Zhao, Li Qin
BACKGROUND: Inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis (IAL) induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C/VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) pathway plays a crucial role in chronic intestinal inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of VEGF-C mediated enhancement of lymphatic drainage on the intestinal inflammation in experimental chronic colitis (CC) and the potential mechanism was explored. METHODS: Mouse CC model was established by three cycles of 2% DSS administration for 5 days following water administration for 5 days...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216915/rheumatoid-arthritis-bone-marrow-environment-supports-th17-response
#18
Ewa Kuca-Warnawin, Weronika Kurowska, Monika Prochorec-Sobieszek, Anna Radzikowska, Tomasz Burakowski, Urszula Skalska, Magdalena Massalska, Magdalena Plebańczyk, Barbara Małdyk-Nowakowska, Iwona Słowińska, Robert Gasik, Włodzimierz Maśliński
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, autoimmune disease leading to joint destruction and ultimately disability. Bone marrow (BM) is an important compartment in RA, where pathological processes from "outside the joint" can occur. IL-17 is a cytokine that exerts proinflammatory effects and participates in the process of bone destruction. It is believed that IL-17 is involved in pathogenesis of RA. However, little is known about the biology of this cytokine in BM. In the present study we investigated Th17-related cytokines in RA BM...
December 8, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216473/the-natural-sesquiterpene-lactones-arglabin-grosheimin-agracin-parthenolide-and-estafiatin-inhibit-t-cell-receptor-tcr-activation
#19
Igor A Schepetkin, Liliya N Kirpotina, Pete T Mitchell, Аnarkul S Kishkentaeva, Zhanar R Shaimerdenova, Gayane A Atazhanova, Sergazy M Adekenov, Mark T Quinn
Inhibition of the T cell receptor (TCR) pathway represents an effective strategy for the treatment of T cell-mediated inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. To identify natural compounds that could inhibit inflammatory T cell responses, we screened 13 sesquiterpene lactones, including achillin, arglabin, argolide, argracin, 3β-hydroxyarhalin, artesin, artemisinin, estafiatin, grosheimin, grossmisin, leucomisine, parthenolide, and taurine, for their ability to modulate activation-induced Ca2+ mobilization in Jurkat T cells...
December 4, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215791/protective-effects-of-carbonyl-iron-against-multiple-low-dose-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rodents
#20
Milica Vujicic, Tamara Saksida, Marija Mostarica Stojkovic, Neda Djedovic, Ivana Stojanovic, Stanislava Stosic-Grujicic
Particulate adjuvants have shown increasing promise as effective, safe and durable agents for the stimulation of immunity, or alternatively, the suppression of autoimmunity. Here we examined the potential of the adjuvant carbonyl iron (CI) for the modulation of organ-specific autoimmune disease - type 1 diabetes (T1D). T1D was induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) that initiates beta cell death and triggers immune cell infiltration into the pancreatic islets. The results of this study indicate that the single in vivo application of CI to MLDS-treated DA rats, CBA/H mice, or C57BL/6 mice successfully counteracted the development of insulitis and hyperglycemia...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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