Read by QxMD icon Read


Ali Azimi, Marina Ali, Kimberley L Kaufman, Graham J Mann, Pablo Fernandez-Penas
PURPOSE: Actinic keratoses (AK) are premalignant tumors that can be clinically difficult to differentiate from skin cancer. An easy, quick and reliable non-invasive alternative to biopsy is needed to definitively confirm the clinical diagnoses. This study evaluates Tape Stripping (TS) of stratum corneum (SC) for non-invasive biomarker analysis of AK. METHOD: Lesional and non-lesional human SC samples were obtained by application of stripping tapes on the skin of five AK patients...
September 24, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Inhye Jeong, Sun Kyoung Kang, Woo Sun Kwon, Hyun Jeong Kim, Kyoo Hyun Kim, Hyun Myong Kim, Andre Lee, Suk Kyeong Lee, Thomas Bogenrieder, Hyun Cheol Chung, Sun Young Rha
Several carcinomas including gastric cancer have been reported to contain Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV-associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC) is classified as one of four molecular subtypes of gastric cancer by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) group with increased immune-related signatures. Identification of EBV-dependent pathways with significant biological roles is needed for EBVaGC. To compare the biological changes between AGS gastric epithelial cells and EBV-infected AGS (AGS-EBV) cells, proliferation assay, CCK-8 assay, invasion assay, cell cycle analysis, RT-PCR, Western blot and ELISA were performed...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Yvonne Mödinger, Anna Rapp, Julia Pazmandi, Anna Vikman, Karlheinz Holzmann, Melanie Haffner-Luntzer, Markus Huber-Lang, Anita Ignatius
The anaphylatoxin C5a is generated upon activation of the complement system, a crucial arm of innate immunity. C5a mediates proinflammatory actions via the C5a receptor C5aR1 and thereby promotes host defence, but also modulates tissue homeostasis. There is evidence that the C5a/C5aR1 axis is critically involved both in physiological bone turnover and in inflammatory conditions affecting bone, including osteoarthritis, periodontitis, and bone fractures. C5a induces the migration and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines of osteoblasts...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Qi-Jian Su, Xu Wang, Run-Hong Zhou, Le Guo, Hang Liu, Jie-Liang Li, Wen-Zhe Ho
The recently discovered IFN-λ4 has been found to have antiviral activity against several viruses. However, it's unknown whether IFN-λ4 can inhibit HIV infection. Here, we show that IFN-λ4 could suppress HIV infection of macrophages. This IFN-λ4-mediated HIV inhibition was compromised by the antibodies against IFN-λ receptor complex, IFN-λR1/IL-10R2. IFN-λ4 enhanced the phosphorylation of STAT1, and induced antiviral interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). These findings indicated that IFN-λ4 can inhibit HIV via JAK/STAT signaling pathway...
September 22, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Cristina Cosentino, Sanna Toivonen, Esteban Diaz Villamil, Mohamed Atta, Jean-Luc Ravanat, Stéphane Demine, Andrea Alex Schiavo, Nathalie Pachera, Jean-Philippe Deglasse, Jean-Christophe Jonas, Diego Balboa, Timo Otonkoski, Ewan R Pearson, Piero Marchetti, Décio L Eizirik, Miriam Cnop, Mariana Igoillo-Esteve
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are non-coding RNA molecules essential for protein synthesis. Post-transcriptionally they are heavily modified to improve their function, folding and stability. Intronic polymorphisms in CDKAL1, a tRNA methylthiotransferase, are associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. Loss-of-function mutations in TRMT10A, a tRNA methyltransferase, are a monogenic cause of early onset diabetes and microcephaly. Here we confirm the role of TRMT10A as a guanosine 9 tRNA methyltransferase, and identify tRNAGln and tRNAiMeth as two of its targets...
September 21, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Zhaolong Li, Shanshan Ning, Xing Su, Xin Liu, Hong Wang, Yue Liu, Wenwen Zheng, Baisong Zheng, Xiao-Fang Yu, Wenyan Zhang
Although the host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G) has broad spectrum antiviral activity, whether A3G inhibits enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been unclear until now. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that A3G could inhibit EV71 virus replication. Silencing A3G in H9 cells enhanced EV71 replication, and EV71 replication was lower in H9 cells expressing A3G than in Jurkat cells without A3G expression, indicating that the EV71 inhibition was A3G-specific. Further investigation revealed that A3G inhibited the 5'UTR activity of EV71 by competitively binding to the 5'UTR through its nucleic acid binding activity...
September 21, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Shunsuke Kawamura, Toshiaki Ohteki
Monocytes are a widely conserved cell population in vertebrates with important roles in both inflammation and homeostasis. Under both settings, monocytes continuously arise from hematopoietic progenitors in the bone marrow and, on demand, migrate into tissues through the bloodstream. Monocytes are classified into three subsets - classical, intermediate and non-classical - based on their cell-surface expression of CD14 and CD16 in humans and Ly6C, CX3CR1 and CCR2 in mice. In tissues, monocytes differentiate further into monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells to mediate innate and adaptive immune responses and maintain tissue homeostasis...
September 21, 2018: International Immunology
Jinning Suo, Cuili Zhang, Pin Wang, Liyan Hou, Qingshan Wang, Xiulan Zhao
Chronic exposure to 1-bromopropane (1-BP), an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents, produces potential neurotoxicity in occupational populations. However, no therapeutic strategy is available currently. Accumulating evidence suggests that cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) is critical for the active metabolism of 1-BP. The purpose of this study is aimed to test whether inhibition of CYP2E1 by allyl sulfide, a specific inhibitor of CYP2E1, could be able to protect against 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were intoxicated with 1-BP for 9 continuous weeks with or without allyl sulfide pre-treatment...
September 22, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Josh C Quarterman, Patricia J Slininger, Ronald E Hector, Bruce S Dien
Candida phangngensis is an ascomycetous yeast and a phylogenetic relative of the industrial workhorse Yarrowia lipolytica. Here, we report that genetic tools already established for use in the latter organism-including promoters, expression vectors, antibiotic resistance genes, a transformation protocol, and the Cre/lox system for marker recycle-can be transferred to the newer member of the Yarrowia clade with little or no need for modifications. Using these tools, we engineered C. phangngensis for improved cellulosic lipid production by introducing two heterologous yeast genes...
September 21, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Mariana Mohr, Charlotte Krahé, Brianna Beck, Aikaterini Fotopoulou
Pain is modulated by social context. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that romantic partners can provide a potent form of social support during pain. However, such studies have only focused on passive support, finding a relatively late-onset modulation of pain-related neural processing. In this study, we examine for the first time dynamic touch by one's romantic partner as an active form of social support. Specifically, 32 partners provided social, active, affective (versus active but neutral) touch according to the properties of a specific C tactile afferent pathway to their romantic partners, who then received laser-induced pain...
September 24, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Michael San Jose, Camiel Doorenweerd, Luc Leblanc, Norman Barr, Scott Geib, Daniel Rubinoff
Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are important pests of many fruits. These flies have been spread across the world through global travel and trade, and new areas are at risk of invasion. Whenever new invasive populations are discovered, quick and accurate identification is needed to mitigate the damage they can cause. Determining invasive pathways can prevent further spread of pests as well as subsequent reinvasions through the same pathway. Molecular markers can be used for both species identification and pathway analysis...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jessie M Sutherland, Emily R Frost, Emmalee A Ford, Alexandra E Peters, Natalie L Reed, Alexandra N Seldon, Bettina P Mihalas, Darryl L Russel, Kylie R Dunning, Eileen A McLaughlin
STUDY QUESTION: Is the Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signalling pathway involved in ovarian follicle development and primordial follicle activation? SUMMARY ANSWER: JAK1 is a key factor involved in the regulation of primordial follicle activation and maintenance of the ovarian reserve. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A series of integrated, intrinsic signalling pathways (including PI3K/AKT, mTOR and KITL) are responsible for regulating the ovarian reserve of non-growing primordial follicles and ultimately female fertility...
September 24, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Sasja A Schepers, Yuko Okado, Kathryn Russell, Alanna M Long, Sean Phipps
Objectives: Aims were to (1) determine whether the associations between parent psychological functioning and adjustment outcomes of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) were mediated by the parent-child relationship and (2) examine possible differences in pathways for CCS and healthy peers. Method: The study included CCS (n = 206), healthy peers (n = 132), and their primary caregivers. Youth (8-21 years) reported on the quality of the parent-child relationship and on their positive and negative adjustment outcomes...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Linmei Wang, Min Cao, Tinglin Pu, Huang Huang, Charles Marshall, Ming Xiao
Background: Social isolation (SI) in the elderly is one of the principal health risks in an ageing society. Physical environmental enrichment (EE) is shown to improve sensory, cognitive and motor functions, but it is unknown whether or not EE could protect against brain impairments caused by SI. Methods: Eighteen-month-old mice were housed in either grouped or isolated, in a standard or enriched environment for 2 months, respectively. Behavioral tests were performed to evaluate cognitive functional and social interaction ability...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Allan Peter Davis, Cynthia J Grondin, Robin J Johnson, Daniela Sciaky, Roy McMorran, Jolene Wiegers, Thomas C Wiegers, Carolyn J Mattingly
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; is a premier public resource for literature-based, manually curated associations between chemicals, gene products, phenotypes, diseases, and environmental exposures. In this biennial update, we present our new chemical-phenotype module that codes chemical-induced effects on phenotypes, curated using controlled vocabularies for chemicals, phenotypes, taxa, and anatomical descriptors; this module provides unique opportunities to explore cellular and system-level phenotypes of the pre-disease state and allows users to construct predictive adverse outcome pathways (linking chemical-gene molecular initiating events with phenotypic key events, diseases, and population-level health outcomes)...
September 24, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Miao Li, Han Zhao, Shi-Gang Zhao, Dai-Min Wei, Yue-Ran Zhao, Tao Huang, Tahir Muhammad, Lei Yan, Fei Gao, Lei Li, Gang Lu, Andrea Dunaif, Hong-Bin Liu, Zi-Jiang Chen
Context: The high mobility group AT hook 2 (HMGA2) gene was previously identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) as a candidate risk gene that might be related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Whether HMGA2 contributes to promoting granulosa cell (GC) proliferation in PCOS remains unknown. Objective: We sought to determine whether HMGA2 is involved in the ovarian dysfunction of PCOS and in the mechanism of increased GC proliferation. Patients and Cells: mRNA expression was analyzed in ovarian GCs from 96 women with PCOS and 58 healthy controls...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ann-Kathrin Mix, Ugo Cenci, Thomas Heimerl, Pia Marter, Marie-Louise Wirkner, Daniel Moog
Peroxisomes are single-membrane-bound organelles with a huge metabolic versatility, including the degradation of fatty acids (β-oxidation) and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species as most conserved functions. Although peroxisomes seem to be present in the majority of investigated eukaryotes, where they are responsible for many eclectic and important spatially separated metabolic reactions, knowledge about their existence in the plethora of protists (eukaryotic microorganisms) is scarce.Here we investigated genomic data of organisms containing complex plastids with red algal ancestry (so-called 'chromalveolates') for the presence of genes encoding peroxins - factors specific for the biogenesis, maintenance and division of peroxisomes in eukaryotic cells...
September 22, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Changwen Zhang, Yunkai Qie, Tong Yang, Li Wang, E Du, Yan Liu, Yong Xu, Baomin Qiao, Zhihong Zhang
Ribosomal stress is known to increase cancer risk, however, the molecular mechanism underlying its various effects on cancer remains unclear. To decipher this puzzle, we investigated the upstream signaling pathway that might be involved in promoting ribosomal stress that leads to tumor progression. Our results suggested that inhibition of kinase PIM1 attenuated PC3 cell growth and motility following the condensed cellular body and decreased protein translation in PIM1-inhibited cells. In addition, PIM1 was found to be a component of the small 40S ribosomal subunit, and could regulate the expression of RPS7...
September 21, 2018: Carcinogenesis
S M Rehan, K M Glastad, M A Steffen, C R Fay, B G Hunt, A L Toth
Despite a strong history of theoretical work on the mechanisms of social evolution, relatively little is known of the molecular genetic changes that accompany transitions from solitary to eusocial forms. Here we provide the first genome of an incipiently social bee that shows both solitary and social colony organization in sympatry, the Australian carpenter bee Ceratina australensis. Through comparative analysis, we provide support for the role of conserved genes and cis-regulation of gene expression in the phenotypic plasticity observed in nest-sharing, a rudimentary form of sociality...
September 22, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Ya-Fei Yan, Yong-Fa Zheng, Ping-Po Ming, Xiao-Xi Deng, Wei Ge, Yao-Gui Wu
Since 2015, immunotherapies, especially immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), have made great breakthroughs in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Among them, nivolumab, pembrolizumab and atezolizumab have been granted US Food and Drug Administration approval for NSCLC. It is imperative to combine ICIs with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, antivascular therapy and targeted therapy. But in the bright future, there are two problems. One is how to use biomarkers to select the beneficiaries. The other is how to achieve a balance between drug effectiveness and safety...
September 20, 2018: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"