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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222538/vps35-the-retromer-complex-and-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Erin T Williams, Xi Chen, Darren J Moore
Mutations in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 ortholog (VPS35) gene encoding a core component of the retromer complex, have recently emerged as a new cause of late-onset, autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD). A single missense mutation, AspD620Asn (D620N), has so far been unambiguously identified to cause PD in multiple individuals and families worldwide. The exact molecular mechanism(s) by which VPS35 mutations induce progressive neurodegeneration in PD are not yet known. Understanding these mechanisms, as well as the perturbed cellular pathways downstream of mutant VPS35, is important for the development of appropriate therapeutic strategies...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222523/anomalous-white-matter-structure-and-the-effect-of-age-in-down-syndrome-patients
#2
Raquel Fenoll, Jesus Pujol, Susanna Esteba-Castillo, Susana de Sola, Núria Ribas-Vidal, Javier García-Alba, Gonzalo Sánchez-Benavides, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Joan Deus, Mara Dierssen, Ramón Novell-Alsina, Rafael de la Torre
BACKGROUND: Neural tissue alterations in Down syndrome are fully expressed at relatively late developmental stages. In addition, there is an early presence of neurodegenerative changes in the late life stages. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were both to characterize white matter abnormalities in the brain of adult Down syndrome patients using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to investigate whether degenerative alterations in white matter structure are detectable before dementia is clinically evident...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222521/the-effects-of-lw-afc-on-the-hippocampus-transcriptome-in-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8-strain-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Jianhui Wang, Yang Liu, Xiaorui Cheng, Xiaorui Zhang, Feng Liu, Gang Liu, Shanyi Qiao, Ming Ni, Wenxia Zhou, Yongxiang Zhang, Fei Li
The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) strain is considered a robust experimental model for developing preventative and therapeutic treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease which cannot be effectively prevented, halted, or cured. Our previous studies showed that LW-AFC, a new formula derived from the classical traditional Chinese medicinal prescription Liuwei Dihuang decoction, ameliorates cognitive deterioration in PrP-hAβPPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice and SAMP8 mice. This study aims to investigate the mechanism that mediates how LW-AFC improves cognitive deficit on the basis of the transcriptome...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222515/meta-analysis-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-alzheimer-s-disease-revealed-commonly-impaired-pathways-and-dysregulation-of-nrf2-dependent-genes
#4
Qian Wang, Wen-Xing Li, Shao-Xing Dai, Yi-Cheng Guo, Fei-Fei Han, Jun-Juan Zheng, Gong-Hua Li, Jing-Fei Huang
Many lines of evidence suggest that Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have common characteristics, such as mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. As the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear, we perform a meta-analysis with 9 microarray datasets of PD studies and 7 of AD studies to explore it. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that PD and AD both showed dysfunction in the synaptic vesicle cycle, GABAergic synapses, phagosomes, oxidative phosphorylation, and TCA cycle pathways, and AD had more enriched genes...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222492/discovery-of-mieap-regulated-mitochondrial-quality-control-as-a-new-function-of-tumor-suppressor-p53
#5
REVIEW
Yasuyuki Nakamura, Hirofumi Arakawa
The tumor suppressor p53 gene is frequently mutated in human cancers, and the p53 protein suppresses cancer. However, the mechanism behind the p53-mediated tumor suppression is still unclear. Recently, Mieap (the mitochondria-eating protein) was identified as a p53-inducible protein. Mieap induces the accumulation of lysosomal proteins within mitochondria (MALM: Mieap-induced accumulation of lysosome-like organelles within mitochondria) in response to mitochondrial damage, and eliminates the oxidized mitochondrial proteins to repair unhealthy mitochondria...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222438/microrna-29b-inhibits-angiogenesis-by-targeting-vegfa-through-the-mapk-erk-and-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathways-in-endometrial-carcinoma
#6
Hong-Xia Chen, Xiao-Xia Xu, Bu-Zhen Tan, Zhi Zhang, Xiao-Dong Zhou
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of microRNA-29b (miR-29b) regulating MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways on angiogenesis in endometrial carcinoma (EC) by targeting VEGFA. METHODS: Between February 2013 and April 2015, 126 EC patients admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University were randomly selected, with 126 EC tissues and the corresponding adjacent normal tissues collected after surgery. The human EC cell lines RL-95-2 and HEC-1-B and human endometrial cells were assigned to the normal group (human endometrial cells), the blank group (untransfected RL-95-2 or HEC-1-B cells), the pMIR-control group (RL-95-2 or HEC-1-B cells transfected with an empty vector), the pMIR-miR-29b group (RL-95-2 or HEC-1-B cells transfected with the miR-29b plasmid), LNA-control group (RL-95-2 or HEC-1-B cells transfected with an oligonucleotide inhibitors control), the LNA-miR-29b inhibitors group (RL-95-2 or HEC-1-B cells transfected with miRCURY LNATM miR-29b inhibitors), the LNA-miR-29b inhibitors + PD98059 group (RL-95-2 or HEC-1-B cells transfected with miRCURY LNATM miR-29b inhibitors and PD98059, an inhibitor of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway) and the LNA-miR-29b inhibitors + wortmannin group (RL-95-2 or HEC-1-B cells transfected with miRCURY LNATM miR-29b inhibitors and wortmannin, an inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway)...
February 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222435/extracorporal-shock-waves-activate-migration-proliferation-and-inflammatory-pathways-in-fibroblasts-and-keratinocytes-and-improve-wound-healing-in-an-open-label-single-arm-study-in-patients-with-therapy-refractory-chronic-leg-ulcers
#7
Ilknur Aschermann, Seema Noor, Sascha Venturelli, Tobias Sinnberg, Christian Busch, Christian D Mnich
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic leg ulcers (CLUs) are globally a major cause of morbidity and mortality with increasing prevalence. Their treatment is highly challenging, and many conservative, surgical or advanced therapies have been suggested, but with little overall efficacy. Since the 1980s extracorporal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has gained interest as treatment for specific indications. Here, we report that patients with CLU showed wound healing after ESWT and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222433/high-glucose-induces-mouse-mesangial-cell-overproliferation-via-inhibition-of-hydrogen-sulfide-synthesis-in-a-tlr-4-dependent-manner
#8
Tao Ding, Wei Chen, Juan Li, Jiarong Ding, Xiaobin Mei, Haiyan Hu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Overproliferation of mesangial cells was believed to play an important role in the progress of diabetic nephropathy, one of the primary complications of diabetes. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a well-known and pungent gas with the distinctive smell of rotten eggs, was discovered to play a protective role in diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: MTT assay was used to examine the viability of mesangial cells. Small interfering RNA was used to knock down the expression of TLR4 while specific inhibitor LY294002 to suppress the function of PI3K...
February 22, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222421/luteolin-enhances-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-ca2-atpase-activity-through-p38-mapk-signaling-thus-improving-rat-cardiac-function-after-ischemia-reperfusion
#9
Shasha Zhu, Tongda Xu, Yuanyuan Luo, Yingying Zhang, Haochen Xuan, Yanfeng Ma, Defeng Pan, Dongye Li, Hong Zhu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A major challenge for current therapeutic strategies against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is the lack of effective drugs. Considering luteolin enhances the activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) to improve the systolic/diastolic function of rat hearts and cardiomyocytes during the I/R process, we studied the regulatory function of the p38 MAPK pathway in this protective mechanism. METHODS: Isolated cardiomyocytes and perfused hearts were separately divided into five groups and used to investigate I/R...
February 21, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222396/lawsone-suppresses-azoxymethane-mediated-colon-cancer-in-rats-and-reduces-proliferation-of-dld-1-cells-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#10
Shi-Bin Wang, Zhenzhou Tao, Ping Li
Lawsone (LS) a colored napthoquinone compound obtained from the plant Lawsonia inermis L. (Lythraceae) is known for its usefulness of being a precursor for synthesis of some anticancer compounds. Literatures support potent anticancer activity of napthoquinone derivatives in human colon cancer, present study evaluates the effect and mechanism of LS on chemical induced colon cancerous rats and human colon cancer DLD-1 cells, the study was supported by endoscopy, histological and immunohistochemistry analysis...
February 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222393/caffeine-prevents-changes-in-muscle-caused-by-high-intensity-interval-training
#11
Juliano M Vieira, Jessié M Gutierres, Fabiano B Carvalho, Luciane B Pereira, Liziele S Oliveira, Vera Maria Morsch, Maria Rosa C Schetinger, Marília V Rodrigues, Jossiele Leitemperger, Vânia Loro, Cristina C Krewer, Marina S Vencato, Roselia M Spanevello
The use of ergogenic substances such as caffeine has become a strategy to enhance sports performance. In the present study we evaluated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) associated with caffeine intake on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Ca(2+)ATPase activity and glycogen levels in the muscles of rats were evaluated. The animals were divided in groups: control, caffeine 4 or 8mg/kg, HIIT, HIIT plus caffeine 4 or caffeine 8mg/kg. Our results showed a decrease in glycogen levels in muscle in all trained groups after acute session exercise, while that an increase in glycogen levels was observed in all groups in relation to control in chronic exercise protocol...
February 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222387/baicalein-enhances-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-periodontal-ligament-cells-by-activating-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#12
Li-Jiao Chen, Bi-Bo Hu, Xin-Lian Shi, Man-Man Ren, Wen-Bin Yu, Sheng-Dan Cen, Rong-Dang Hu, Hui Deng
OBJECTIVE: Periodontium regeneration is one of the most important processes for periodontitis therapy. Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) play a vital role in the repair and regeneration of periodontal tissues. Our study aimed to investigated the mechanisms underlying the promotion of hPLDCs osteogenic differentiation by baicalein. DESIGN: hPDLCs were obtained from periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues by primary culture. The MTT assay was used to determine the growth curves of hPDLCs treated with different concentrations of baicalein (1...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222377/identification-of-autophagy-related-genes-lc3-and-atg4-from-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-and-their-transcriptional-responses-to-waterborne-and-dietborne-zinc-exposure
#13
Chuan-Chuan Wei, Zhi Luo, Yu-Feng Song, Ya-Xiong Pan, Kun Wu, Wen-Jing You
Autophagy mediates the regulation of lipid metabolism. Moreover, our recent study indicated that waterborne and dietborne zinc (Zn) exposure differentially influenced lipid metabolism in a fish species of significance for aquaculture, yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, but further mechanism remained unknown. The hypothesis of the present study is that autophagy mediated the Zn-induced changes of lipid metabolism of yellow catfish subjected to different exposure pathways. To this end, we cloned key genes involved in autophagy in yellow catfish, explored their mRNA expressions in responses to different Zn exposure pathways...
February 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222357/mangiferin-antagonizes-tnf-%C3%AE-mediated-inflammatory-reaction-and-protects-against-dermatitis-in-a-mice-model
#14
Yunpeng Zhao, Wenhan Wang, Xihai Wu, Xiaoqian Ma, Ruize Qu, Xiaomin Chen, Chenghao Liu, Yaoge Liu, Xiaokai Wang, Pengcheng Yan, Hao Zhang, Jingrui Pan, Weiwei Li
This study aimed to investigate whether mangiferin played a protective role in a well-established dermatitis mouse model and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. Contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease in the clinic, while its underlying mechanism still remains to be elucidated. Mangiferin, 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-β-d-glucoside (C-glucosyl xanthone), a natural antioxidant that was reported to inhibit inflammatory reactions, has been recently proved to be a potential therapy for inflammation...
February 18, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222310/circulating-mirna-associated-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-a-cohort-of-military-combat-veterans
#15
Christiana G Martin, Hyungsuk Kim, Sijung Yun, Whitney Livingston, Joseph Fetta, Vincent Mysliwiec, Tristin Baxter, Jessica M Gill
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects many returning combat veterans, but underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. In order to compare circulating micro RNA (miRNA) of combat veterans with and without PTSD, peripheral blood from 24 subjects was collected following deployment, and isolated miRNA was sequenced. PTSD was associated with 8 differentially expressed miRNA. Pathway analysis shows that PTSD is related to the axon guidance and Wnt signaling pathways, which work together to support neuronal development through regulation of growth cones...
January 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222271/pathways-to-lung-cancer-diagnosis-a-qualitative-study-of-patients-and-general-practitioners-about-diagnostic-and-pre-treatment-intervals
#16
Nicole M Rankin, Sarah York, Emily Stone, David Barnes, Deborah McGregor, Michelle Lai, Tim Shaw, Phyllis N Butow
RATIONALE: Pathways to lung cancer diagnosis and treatment are complex. International evidence shows significant variations in pathways. Qualitative research investigating pathways to lung cancer diagnosis rarely considers both patient and general practitioner views simultaneously. OBJECTIVES: To describe the lung cancer diagnostic pathway, focusing on the perspective of patients and general practitioners about diagnostic and pre-treatment intervals. METHODS: This qualitative study of lung cancer patients and general practitioners in Australia used qualitative interviews or a focus group in which participants responded to a semistructured questionnaire designed to explore experiences of the diagnostic pathway...
February 21, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222266/kinetic-and-diffusion-driven-instabilities-in-the-bromate-sulfite-ferrocyanide-system
#17
István Molnár, Istvan Szalai
The spatiotemporal dynamics of the Bromate-Sulfite-Ferrocyanide (BSF) reaction-diffusion system in a open one-side-fed reactor (OSFR) is investigated by numerical simulations. The results of the simulations are compared with experiments performed in an annular shape OSFR. Both kinetic and diffusion driven instabilities are identified in the model. There are two hydrogen ion consuming pathways in the mechanism, the partial oxidation of sulfite to dithionate and the oxidation of ferrocyanide by bromate ions. The dynamical effects of them are similar as they support the same negative feedback loop via sulfite ion...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222247/bile-acids-and-cardiovascular-function-in-cirrhosis
#18
Andrei Voiosu, Signe Wiese, Theodor Voiosu, Flemming Bendtsen, Søren Møller
Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and the hyperdynamic syndrome are clinically important complications of cirrhosis but their exact pathogenesis is still partly unknown. Experimental models have proven the cardiotoxic effects of bile acidsand recent studies of their varied receptor-mediated functions offer new insight into their involvement in cardiovascular dysfunction in cirrhosis. Bile acid receptors such as farnesoid X-activated receptor and TGR5 are currently under investigation as potential therapeutic targets in a variety of pathological conditions...
February 21, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222234/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-brassica-napus-leptosphaeria-maculans-pathosystem-identifies-receptor-signalling-and-structural-genes-underlying-plant-resistance
#19
Michael G Becker, Xuehua Zhang, Philip L Walker, Joey C Wan, Jenna L Millar, Deirdre Khan, Matthew J Granger, Jacob D Cavers, Ainsley C Chan, Dilantha W G Fernando, Mark F Belmonte
The hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans is the causal agent of blackleg disease in Brassica napus (canola, oilseed rape) and causes significant yield loss worldwide. While genetic resistance has been used to mitigate the disease using traditional breeding strategies, there is little knowledge about the genes contributing to blackleg resistance. RNA sequencing and a streamlined bioinformatics pipeline identified unique genes and plant defense pathways specific to plant resistance in the B. napus-L...
February 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222204/comparative-transcriptome-and-potential-antiviral-signaling-pathways-analysis-of-the-gills-in-the-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii-infected-with-white-spot-syndrome-virus-wssv
#20
Zhi-Qiang Du, Yan-Hui Jin
Red swamp crayfish is an important model organism for research of the invertebrate innate immunity mechanism. Its excellent disease resistance against bacteria, fungi, and viruses is well-known. However, the antiviral mechanisms of crayfish remain unclear. In this study, we obtained high-quality sequence reads from normal and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-challenged crayfish gills. For group normal (GN), 39,390,280 high-quality clean reads were randomly assembled to produce 172,591 contigs; whereas, 34,011,488 high-quality clean reads were randomly assembled to produce 182,176 contigs for group WSSV-challenged (GW)...
February 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
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