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Jiyeol Bae, Hayoung Kim, Kwang Soo Kim, Heechul Choi
Oil/water separation is an important issue in the environmental field because of increasing worldwide oil pollution. In particular, emulsion under 20 μm in size causes a serious problem in water treatment. Thus, development of an effective oil/water emulsion separation membrane is required. Asymmetric wettability is one effective technique for emulsion separation due to its directional liquid transport property. In this research, wettability was controlled by adjusting the diameter of an electrospun nanofiber for a difference in surface roughness...
April 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Moulay Abdelmonaim El Hidan, Oulaid Touloun, Abdellah Bouazza, Mehdi Ait Laaradia, Ali Boumezzough
Aim: The objective of this study was to establish environmental factors related to scorpion species occurrence and their current potential geographic distributions in Morocco, to produce a current envenomation risk map and also to assess the human population at risk of envenomation. Materials and Methods: In this study, 71 georeferenced points for all scorpion species and nine environmental indicators were used to generate species distribution models in Maxent (maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions) version 3...
March 2018: Veterinary World
Kumar Sandrasegaran, Enming Cui, Reem Elkady, Pauley Gasparis, Gitasree Borthakur, Mark Tann, Suthat Liangpunsakul
OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of quantitative parameters of gadoxetate-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting prognosis in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: A cohort of 63 cirrhotic patients who had gadoxetate MRI and 2-year clinical follow-up was enrolled. Enhancement ratio (ER), contrast enhancement index (CEI) and contrast enhancement spleen index (CES) were calculated. The usefulness of these parameters and clinical scores, such as Child-Pugh score (CPS) and model for end stage liver disease (MELD), in predicting adverse outcomes, such as variceal bleeding (VB), hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and mortality at 2 years were evaluated...
April 12, 2018: European Radiology
Jianling You, Xiaoping Qin, Sailesh Ranjitkar, Stephen C Lougheed, Mingcheng Wang, Wen Zhou, Dongxin Ouyang, Yin Zhou, Jianchu Xu, Wenju Zhang, Yuguo Wang, Ji Yang, Zhiping Song
Climate change profoundly influences species distributions. These effects are evident in poleward latitudinal range shifts for many taxa, and upward altitudinal range shifts for alpine species, that resulted from increased annual global temperatures since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 22,000 BP). For the latter, the ultimate consequence of upward shifts may be extinction as species in the highest alpine ecosystems can migrate no further, a phenomenon often characterized as "nowhere to go". To predict responses to climate change of the alpine plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), we used ecological niche modelling (ENM) to estimate the range shifts of 14 Rhodiola species, beginning with the Last Interglacial (ca...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Edith A M Tarimo, Gustav Moyo, Happy Masenga, Paul Magesa, Dafroza Mzava
BACKGROUND: Tanzania is experiencing a severe shortage of human resources for health, which poses a serious threat to the quality of health care services particularly in rural areas. Task shifting has been considered a way to address this problem. However, since a large percentage of health care providers in rural setting is comprised of Enrolled Nurse/Midwives (ENMs), most of the health care tasks are shifted to them. This article analyzes the performance and self-perceived competencies of ENMs at the dispensary level; the lowest health facility in Tanzania...
April 11, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Jintao Wang, Enming Su, Hui Wang, Chiao Guo, Daniel A Lawrence, Daniel T Eitzman
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular mortality in humans. However the causal relationship between TBI and vascular disease is unclear. This study investigated the direct role of TBI on vascular disease using a murine model of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E deficient mice were placed on a western diet beginning at 10 weeks of age. Induction of TBI or a sham operation was performed at 14 weeks of age and mice were sacrificed 6 weeks later at 20 weeks of age...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amanda J Fuchs, Christopher C Gilbert, Jason M Kamilar
OBJECTIVE: Ecological niche modeling (ENM) has been used to assess how abiotic variables influence species distributions and diversity. Baboons are broadly distributed throughout Africa, yet the degree of climatic specialization is largely unexplored for individual taxa. Also, the influence of climate on baboon phylogenetic divergence is unknown. In this study, we constructed ENMs to investigate how niches vary across Papio species to understand how climatic variables have influenced their biogeography and mode of speciation...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Elizabeth A Moore, Callie W Babbitt, Gabrielle Gaustad, Sean T Moore
While engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly incorporated in diverse applications, risks of ENM adoption remain difficult to predict and mitigate proactively. Current decision-making tools do not adequately account for ENM uncertainties including varying functional forms, unique environmental behavior, economic costs, unknown supply and demand, and upstream emissions. The complexity of the ENM system necessitates a novel approach: in this study, the adaptation of an investment portfolio optimization model is demonstrated for optimization of ENM use in renewable energy technologies...
March 26, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Nasser B Alsaleh, Jared M Brown
Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are utilized in many applications due to their unique physicochemical properties. The increasing use of ENMs in consumer products raises concerns of potential adverse effects in humans and the environment. A common outcome of exposure (intentional, environmental or occupational) to ENMs is altered immune responses including inflammation, hypersensitivity, and immunosuppression. ENMs have been shown to interact with the immune system through key effector cells (i.e. mast cells and antigen presenting cells) or via complement activation leading to consequences to both innate and adaptive immunity...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Toxicology
Ashley N Parks, Mark G Cantwell, David R Katz, Michaela A Cashman, Todd P Luxton, Kay T Ho, Robert M Burgess
Little is known about the release of metal engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) from consumer goods including lumber treated with micronized copper. Micronized copper is a recent form of anti-fouling wood preservative containing nano-sized copper particles for use in pressure treated lumber. This study investigated the concentrations released and release rate of total copper over 133 days under freshwater, estuarine, and marine salinity conditions (0, 1, 10, and 30‰) for several commercially available pressure treated lumbers: micronized copper azole (MCA) at 0...
March 25, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
P A Schulte, E D Kuempel, N M Drew
The commercialization of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) began in the early 2000's. Since then the number of commercial products and the number of workers potentially exposed to ENMs is growing, as is the need to evaluate and manage the potential health risks. Occupational exposure limits (OELs) have been developed for some of the first generation of ENMs. These OELs have been based on risk assessments that progressed from qualitative to quantitative as nanotoxicology data became available. In this paper, that progression is characterized...
March 21, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Sandeep Kumar Verma, Ashok Kumar Das, Manoj Kumar Patel, Ashish Shah, Vinay Kumar, Saikat Gantait
With the overwhelmingly rapid advancement in the field of nanotechnology, the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been extensively used in various areas of the plant system, including quality improvement, growth and nutritional value enhancement, gene preservation etc. There are several recent reports on the ENMs' influence on growth enhancements, growth inhibition as well as certain toxic impacts on plant. However, translocation, growth responses and stress modulation mechanisms of ENMs in the plant systems call for better and in-depth understanding...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Imelda Galván Márquez, Mergan Ghiyasvand, Andrey Massarsky, Mohan Babu, Bahram Samanfar, Katayoun Omidi, Thomas W Moon, Myron L Smith, Ashkan Golshani
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly incorporated into a variety of commercial applications and consumer products; however, ENMs may possess cytotoxic properties due to their small size. This study assessed the effects of two commonly used ENMs, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A collection of ≈4600 S. cerevisiae deletion mutant strains was used to deduce the genes, whose absence makes S. cerevisiae more prone to the cytotoxic effects of ZnONPs or AgNPs...
2018: PloS One
Kaitlin C Maguire, Douglas J Shinneman, Kevin M Potter, Valerie D Hipkins
Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America...
March 14, 2018: Systematic Biology
P A Stapleton, C R McBride, J Yi, A B Abukabda, T R Nurkiewicz
Preconceptive health encompasses male and female reproductive capability. In females, this takes into account each of the stages of the estrous cycle. Microvascular reactivity varies throughout the estrous cycle in response to hormonal changes and in preparation for pregnancy. Microvascular alterations in response to engineered nanomaterial (ENM) exposure have been described within 24-hours of inhalation; however, the impact upon the uterine vasculature at differing estrous stages and at late-stage pregnancy is unclear...
March 12, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Vahid Mirshafiee, Bingbing Sun, Chong Hyun Chang, Yu-Pei Liao, Wen Jiang, Jinhong Jiang, Xiangsheng Liu, Xiang Wang, Tian Xia, Andre E Nel
The liver and the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) is a frequent target for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), either as a result of particle uptake and spread from primary exposure sites or systemic administration of therapeutic and imaging nanoparticles. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the toxicological impact of 29 metal oxide (MOx) nanoparticles (NPs), some commonly used in consumer products, in transformed or primary Kupffer cells (KCs) and hepatocytes. Not only did we observe differences between KC and hepatocytes, but also differences in the toxicological profiles of transition metal oxides (TMOs, e...
March 15, 2018: ACS Nano
Laxman Khanal, Mukesh K Chalise, Kai He, Bipin K Acharya, Yoshi Kawamoto, Xuelong Jiang
Genetic diversity of a species is influenced by multiple factors, including the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles and geophysical barriers. Such factors are not yet well documented for fauna from the southern border of the Himalayan region. This study used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and ecological niche modeling (ENM) to explore how the late Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex geography of the Himalayan region have shaped genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and demographic history of the Nepalese population of Assam macaques (Macaca assamensis) in the Himalayan foothills...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Kevin H Dunn, Adrienne C Eastlake, Michael Story, Eileen D Kuempel
Control banding (CB) has been widely recommended for the selection of exposure controls for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the absence of ENM-specific occupational exposure limits (OELs). Several ENM-specific CB strategies have been developed but have not been systematically evaluated. In this article, we identify the data inputs and compare the guidance provided by eight CB tools, evaluated on six ENMs, and assuming a constant handling/use scenario. The ENMs evaluated include nanoscale silica, titanium dioxide, silver, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and cellulose...
February 23, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Jin-Mei Zhang, Jordi López-Pujol, Xun Gong, Hua-Feng Wang, Roser Vilatersana, Shi-Liang Zhou
According to the present taxonomical treatment, Paeonia subsect. Delavayanae consists of only two species (P. delavayi and P. ludlowii) endemic to the Himalayan-Hengduan Mountains. Although P. ludlowii can be distinguished from P. delavayi on the basis of a series of morphological characters, the species delimitation remains controversial because the more widespread one, P. delavayi, exhibits considerable morphological diversity. Both chloroplast DNA markers and nuclear microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (nSSR) are used herein to reveal genetic diversity and relationships of the two taxa included in this subsection, and ecological niche modeling (ENM) is employed to get insights into their paleodistribution...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Peter C Ambe, Daniel Gödde, Stephan Störkel, Hubert Zirngibl, Lars Bönicke
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause for cancer-related death in industrialized nations. Nodal involvement has been identified as a relevant prognostic feature in CRC. Extra nodal metastasis (ENM) describes the spread of malignant cells beyond the nodal capsule. ENM is thought to be an independent risk factor for poor survival. This study examined ENM as an independent risk factor for poor overall survival in patients with node-positive CRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from a prospectively maintained CRC database was retrospectively analyzed...
April 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
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