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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022708/dynamic-model-for-the-stocks-and-release-flows-of-engineered-nanomaterials
#1
Runsheng Song, Yuwei Qin, Sangwon Suh, Arturo A Keller
Most existing life-cycle release models for engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are static, ignoring the dynamics of stock and flows of ENMs. Our model, nanoRelease, estimates the annual releases of ENMs from manufacturing, use, and disposal of a product explicitly taking stock and flow dynamics into account. Given the variabilities in key parameters (e.g., service life of products and annual release rate during use) nanoRelease is designed as a stochastic model. We apply nanoRelease to three ENMs (TiO¬2, SiO2 and FeOx) used in paints and coatings through seven product applications, including construction and building, household and furniture, and automotive for the period from 2000 to 2020 using production volume and market projection information...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017502/the-presence-of-residual-gold-nanoparticles-in-samples-interferes-with-the-rt-qpcr-assay-used-for-gene-expression-profiling
#2
Natasha M Sanabria, Mary Gulumian
BACKGROUND: RT-qPCR is routinely used in expression profiling of toxicity pathway genes. However, genetic and molecular level studies used to determine, understand and clarify potential risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are still incomplete. Concerns regarding possible interference caused by intracellular ENMs during analyses have been raised. The aim of this study was to verify a qPCR procedure for gene expression assays, which can be used in toxicity and exposure assessments...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017014/effect-of-initial-speciation-of-copper-and-silver-based-nanoparticles-on-their-long-term-fate-and-phytoavailability-in-freshwater-wetland-mesocosms
#3
John P Stegemeier, Astrid Avellan, Gregory V Lowry
Ag0 and CuO engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), or their sulfidized forms are introduced into freshwater wetlands through wastewater effluent and agricultural runoff. Knowledge about the rates of transformations of these ENMs in realistic environments, and the impact of the form of the incoming ENM (i.e. sulfidized or pristine) on bioavailability and fate is limited. Here, five freshwater wetland mesocosms were exposed to 3g of total metal as CuO, CuS, Ag0 or Ag2S ENMs, or soluble CuNO3, added weekly for one month...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984415/mechanisms-of-carbon-nanotube-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-physicochemical-characteristic-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Katherine S Duke, James C Bonner
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) with numerous beneficial applications. However, they could pose a risk to human health from occupational or consumer exposures. Rodent models demonstrate that exposure to CNTs via inhalation, instillation, or aspiration results in pulmonary fibrosis. The severity of the fibrogenic response is determined by various physicochemical properties of the nanomaterial such as residual metal catalyst content, rigidity, length, aggregation status, or surface charge...
October 6, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978203/silver-engineered-nanomaterials-and-ions-elicit-species-specific-o2-consumption-responses-in-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria
#5
Ricky W Lewis, Jason Unrine, Paul M Bertsch, David H McNear
Metal containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are now commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications. Many of these materials can be transformed during waste water treatment and ultimately enter terrestrial ecosystems via agriculturally applied biosolids. It is unclear how agriculturally important soil microbes will be affected by exposure to environmentally relevant, sublethal concentrations of ENMs and their transformation products (i.e., ions, aggregates, etc.). A method was developed, which puts O2 consumption responses in terms of viability, and tested by examining the toxic effects of Ag(+), Zn(2+), and Ni(2+) ions on the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GB03...
October 4, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976354/exciton-transport-in-the-pe545-complex-insight-from-atomistic-qm-mm-based-quantum-master-equations-and-elastic-network-models
#6
Sima Pouyandeh, Stefano Iubini, Sandro Jurinovich, Yasser Omar, Benedetta Mennucci, Francesco Piazza
In this paper we work out a parameterization of the environment noise within the Haken-Strobl-Reinenker (HSR) model for the PE545 light-harvesting complex based on atomic-level quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations. We use this approach to investigate the role of different auto- and cross-correlations in the HSR noise tensor, confirming that site-energy autocorrelations (pure dephasing) terms dominate the noise-induced exciton mobility enhancement, followed by site energy-coupling cross-correlations for specific triplets of pigments...
October 4, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966106/fish-cell-lines-as-a-tool-for-the-ecotoxicity-assessment-and-ranking-of-engineered-nanomaterials
#7
A Bermejo-Nogales, M L Fernández-Cruz, J M Navas
Risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is being hindered by the sheer production volume of these materials. In this regard, the grouping and ranking of ENMs appears as a promising strategy. Here we sought to evaluate the usefulness of in vitro systems based on fish cell lines for ranking a set of ENMs on the basis of their cytotoxicity. We used the topminnow (Poeciliopsis lucida) liver cell line (PLHC-1) and the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fibroblast-like gonadal cell line (RTG-2). ENMs were obtained from the EU Joint Research Centre repository...
September 28, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959641/reviews-of-the-toxicity-behavior-of-five-potential-engineered-nanomaterials-enms-into-the-aquatic-ecosystem
#8
REVIEW
Shanaz Jahan, Ismail Bin Yusoff, Yatimah Binti Alias, Ahmad Farid Bin Abu Bakar
Presently, engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are used in a wide variety of commercial applications, resulting in an uncontrolled introduction into the aquatic environment. The purpose of this review is to summarize the pathways and factors that controlling the transport and toxicity of five extensively used ENMs. These toxicological pathways are of great importance and need to be addressed for sustainable implications of ENMs without environmental liabilities. Here we discuss five potentially utilized ENMs with their possible toxicological risk factors to aquatic plants, vertebrates model and microbes...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951331/design-development-and-characterization-of-synthetic-bruch-s-membranes
#9
Denver C Surrao, Ursula Greferath, Yu-Qian Chau, Stuart J Skabo, Mario Huynh, Kinnari J Shelat, Ioannis J Limnios, Erica L Fletcher, Qin Liu
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness, and dry AMD has no effective treatment. Retinal constructs comprising retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells supported by electrospun scaffolds have been investigated to treat dry AMD. However, electrospun scaffolds studied to-date do not mimic the structural microenvironment of human Bruch's membrane (BM), essential for native-like RPE monolayers. The aim of this study was to develop a structurally biomimetic scaffold designed to support a functional RPE monolayer, comprising porous, electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENMs), coated with laminin, mimicking the inner collagenous layer (ICL) and basal RPE lamina respectively, the cell supporting layers of the BM...
September 23, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919504/cryptic-elevational-zonation-in-trapdoor-spiders-araneae-antrodiaetidae-aliatypus-janus-complex-from-the-california-southern-sierra-nevada
#10
James Starrett, Cheryl Y Hayashi, Shahan Derkarabetian, Marshal Hedin
The relative roles of ecological niche conservatism versus niche divergence in promoting montane speciation remains an important topic in biogeography. Here, our aim was to test whether lineage diversification in a species complex of trapdoor spiders corresponds with riverine barriers or with an ecological gradient associated with elevational tiering. Aliatypus janus was sampled from throughout its range, with emphasis on populations in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. We collected multi-locus genetic data to generate a species tree for A...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888790/evolution-in-australia-s-mesic-biome-under-past-and-future-climates-insights-from-a-phylogenetic-study-of-the-australian-rock-orchids-dendrobium-speciosum-complex-orchidaceae
#11
Lalita Simpson, Mark A Clements, Darren M Crayn, Katharina Nargar
The Australian mesic biome spans c. 33° of latitude along Australia's east coast and ranges and is dissected by historical and contemporary biogeographical barriers. To investigate the impact of these barriers on evolutionary diversification and to predict the impact of future climate change on the distribution of species and genetic diversity within this biome, we inferred phylogenetic relationships within the Dendrobium speciosum complex (Orchidaceae) across its distribution and undertook environmental niche modelling (ENM) under past, contemporary and projected future climates...
September 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888166/sub-lethal-effects-of-waterborne-exposure-to-copper-nanoparticles-compared-to-copper-sulphate-on-the-shore-crab-carcinus-maenas
#12
Lisa M Rossbach, Benjamin J Shaw, Dawid Piegza, William F Vevers, Andrew J Atfield, Richard D Handy
The toxicity of soluble copper (Cu) to marine organisms is reasonably well described. However, the hazard of Cu engineered nanomaterial (ENMs) is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare the toxicity of Cu ENMs to Cu as CuSO4 in the shore crab, Carcinus maenas. The crabs were exposed via the water using a semi-static approach to 0.2 or 1mgL(-1) of Cu ENMs or 1mgL(-1) of Cu as CuSO4. Gills, hepatopancreas, chela muscle and haemolymph were collected at days 0, 4 and 7 for the body burden of Cu, histology and biochemical analysis [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total glutathione (GSH)]...
August 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887895/impact-of-climate-change-on-vector-transmission-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-chagas-1909-in-north-america
#13
O Carmona-Castro, D A Moo-Llanes, J M Ramsey
Climate change can influence the geographical range of the ecological niche of pathogens by altering biotic interactions with vectors and reservoirs. The distributions of 20 epidemiologically important triatomine species in North America were modelled, comparing the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP) and maximum entropy (MaxEnt), with or without topographical variables. Potential shifts in transmission niche for Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) (Chagas, 1909) were analysed for 2050 and 2070 in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4...
September 9, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886075/incorporating-abundance-information-and-guiding-variable-selection-for-climate-based-ensemble-forecasting-of-species-distributional-shifts
#14
Evan P Tanner, Monica Papeş, R Dwayne Elmore, Samuel D Fuhlendorf, Craig A Davis
Ecological niche models (ENMs) have increasingly been used to estimate the potential effects of climate change on species' distributions worldwide. Recently, predictions of species abundance have also been obtained with such models, though knowledge about the climatic variables affecting species abundance is often lacking. To address this, we used a well-studied guild (temperate North American quail) and the Maxent modeling algorithm to compare model performance of three variable selection approaches: correlation/variable contribution (CVC), biological (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876911/interaction-of-engineered-nanoparticles-with-the-agri-environment
#15
Saheli Pradhan, Damodhara Rao Mailapalli
Nanoparticles with their unique surface properties can modulate the physiological, biochemical, and physicochemical pathways, such as photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen metabolism, and solute transport. In this context, researchers have developed a wide range of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) for the improvement of growth and productivity by modulating the metabolic pathways in plants. This class of tailor-made materials can potentially lead to the development of a new group of agrochemical nanofertilizers...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858269/a-review-of-recent-advances-towards-the-development-of-quantitative-structure-activity-relationships-for-metallic-nanomaterials
#16
REVIEW
Guangchao Chen, Martina G Vijver, Yinlong Xiao, Willie J G M Peijnenburg
Gathering required information in a fast and inexpensive way is essential for assessing the risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The extension of conventional (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ((Q)SARs) approach to nanotoxicology, i.e., nano-(Q)SARs, is a possible solution. The preliminary attempts of correlating ENMs' characteristics to the biological effects elicited by ENMs highlighted the potential applicability of (Q)SARs in the nanotoxicity field. This review discusses the current knowledge on the development of nano-(Q)SARs for metallic ENMs, on the aspects of data sources, reported nano-(Q)SARs, and mechanistic interpretation...
August 31, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854238/elastic-network-model-of-learned-maintained-contacts-to-predict-protein-motion
#17
Ines Putz, Oliver Brock
We present a novel elastic network model, lmcENM, to determine protein motion even for localized functional motions that involve substantial changes in the protein's contact topology. Existing elastic network models assume that the contact topology remains unchanged throughout the motion and are thus most appropriate to simulate highly collective function-related movements. lmcENM uses machine learning to differentiate breaking from maintained contacts. We show that lmcENM accurately captures functional transitions unexplained by the classical ENM and three reference ENM variants, while preserving the simplicity of classical ENM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825871/resistance-of-type-5-chemical-protective-clothing-against-nanometric-airborne-particles-behaviour-of-seams-and-zipper
#18
Ludwig Vinches, Stéphane Hallé
In the field of dermal protection, the use of chemical protective clothing (CPC) (including coveralls) are considered as the last barrier against airborne engineered nanomaterials (ENM). In the majority of cases, type 5 CPC, used against solid particles (ISO 13982-1), perform well against ENM. But in a recent study, a penetration level (PL) of up to 8.5% of polydisperse sodium chloride airborne nanoparticles has been measured. Moreover, in all the previous studies, tests were performed on a sample of protective clothing material without seams or zippers...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816564/cytotoxicity-screening-and-cytokine-profiling-of-nineteen-nanomaterials-enables-hazard-ranking-and-grouping-based-on-inflammogenic-potential
#19
Kunal Bhattacharya, Gözde Kiliç, Pedro M Costa, Bengt Fadeel
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are being produced for an increasing number of applications. Therefore, it is important to assess and categorize ENMs on the basis of their hazard potential. The immune system is the foremost defence against foreign bodies. Here we performed cytokine profiling of a panel of nineteen representative ENMs procured from the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and commercial sources. Physicochemical characterization was performed using dynamic light scattering. The ENMs were all shown to be endotoxin content free...
August 17, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812890/jaqpot-quattro-a-novel-computational-web-platform-for-modeling-and-analysis-in-nanoinformatics
#20
Charalampos Chomenidis, Georgios Drakakis, Georgia Tsiliki, Evangelia Anagnostopoulou, Angelos Valsamis, Philip Doganis, Pantelis Sopasakis, Haralambos Sarimveis
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly infiltrating our lives as a result of their applications across multiple fields. However, ENM formulations may result in the modulation of pathways and mechanisms of toxic action that endanger human health and the environment. Alternative testing methods such as in silico approaches are becoming increasingly popular for assessing the safety of ENMs, as they are cost- and time-effective. Additionally, computational approaches support the industrial safer-by-design challenge and the REACH legislation objective of reducing animal testing...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
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