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Luciana Cristina Vitorino, Matheus S Lima-Ribeiro, Levi Carina Terribile, Rosane G Collevatti
BACKGROUND: We studied the phylogeography and demographical history of Tabebuia serratifolia (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographical distribution of South American seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). We specifically tested if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the so called South American dry forest refugia hypothesis, using ecological niche modelling (ENM) and statistical phylogeography...
October 13, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Alaeddin B Abukabda, Phoebe A Stapleton, Timothy R Nurkiewicz
Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are anthropogenic materials with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. Their ubiquitous employment in biomedical and industrial applications in the absence of full toxicological assessments raises significant concerns over their safety on human health. This is a significant concern, especially for metal and metal oxide ENM as they may possess the greatest potential to impair human health. A large body of literature has developed that reflects adverse systemic effects associated with exposure to these materials, but an integrated mechanistic framework for how ENM exposure influences morbidity remains elusive...
September 29, 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
Nelson Marmiroli, Jason C White
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jiyeol Bae, Inchan Baek, Heechul Choi
The application of electrospun nanofiber membranes (ENMs) as microfilters for the process of water purification requires the substrate to possess suitable strength, permeability, and a smooth surface. Therefore, the fiber homogeneity, inter-fiber adhesion, and surface roughness of the ENMs must be carefully controlled. Concurrently, an understanding of the ENMs' rejection mechanism for contaminants is necessary for the effective application of ENMs. In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of polyethersulfone (PES) ENMs, which are useful for water purification as water treatment membranes...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Wouter Fransman, Harrie Buist, Eelco Kuijpers, Tobias Walser, David Meyer, Esther Zondervan-van den Beuken, Joost Westerhout, Rinke H Klein Entink, Derk H Brouwer
For safe innovation, knowledge on potential human health impacts is essential. Ideally, these impacts are considered within a larger life-cycle-based context to support sustainable development of new applications and products. A methodological framework that accounts for human health impacts caused by inhalation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in an indoor air environment has been previously developed. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) evaluate the feasibility of applying the CF framework for NP exposure in the workplace based on currently available data; and (ii) supplement any resulting knowledge gaps with methods and data from the life cycle approach and human risk assessment (LICARA) project to develop a modified case-specific version of the framework that will enable near-term inclusion of NP human health impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study involving nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2 )...
September 24, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Alena Gábelová, Naouale El Yamani, Tamara Iglesias Alonso, Barbora Buliaková, Annamária Srančíková, Andrea Bábelová, Elise Runden Pran, Lise Marie Fjellsbø, Elisabeth Elje, Mazyar Yazdani, Maria João Silva, Mária Dušinská
Nowadays engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly used in a wide range of commercial products and biomedical applications. Despite this, the knowledge of human potential health risk as well as comprehensive biological and toxicological information is still limited. We have investigated the capacity of two frequently used metallic ENMs, nanosilver and magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs), to induce thymidine kinase (Tk (+/-)) mutations in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells and transformed foci in Bhas 42 cells. Two types of nanosilver, spherical nanoparticles (AgNM300) and fibrous (AgNM302) nanorods/wires, and MNPs differing in surface modifications [MNPs coated with sodium oleate (SO-MNPs), MNPs coated with SO + polyethylene glycol (SO-PEG-MNPs) and MNPs coated with SO + PEG + poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) SO-PEG-PLGA-MNPs] were included in this study...
September 22, 2016: Mutagenesis
Carolyn M Wilke, Tiezheng Tong, Jean-François Gaillard, Kimberly A Gray
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are incorporated into thousands of commercial products, and their release into environmental systems creates complex mixtures with unknown toxicological outcomes. To explore this scenario, we probe the chemical and toxicological interactions of nanosilver (n-Ag) and nanotitania (n-TiO2) in Lake Michigan water, a natural aqueous medium, under dark conditions. We find that the presence of n-Ag induces a stress response in Escherichia coli, as indicated by a decrease in ATP production observed at low concentrations (in the μg L(-1) range), with levels that are environmentally relevant...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Marika Mannerström, Jing Zou, Tarja Toimela, Ilmari Pyykkö, Tuula Heinonen
Developing new, validated methods for screening of the effects of nanomaterials is a huge and expensive task. It is therefore necessary to try to employ already existing and validated methods, developed for chemicals. In the present study cytotoxicity of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NP), two different mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNP), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were investigated in BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts, NR8383 macrophages, and U937 monocytes using standard assays, namely WST-1 and NRU...
December 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Xuankun Li, Minoru Yoneda, Yoko Shimada, Yasuto Matsui
The high likelihood of the coexistence of surfactants and engineered nano-materials (ENMs) in aqueous environments redoubles the need to study the effects of surfactants on the behavior and transport of nano-materials. In this study, we chose anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and nonionic nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO, Tergitol NP-9) to study the effect of surfactants on the behaviors of a typical TiO2 ENM in water environment. An adsorption isotherm and zeta potential study showed that both surfactants could be adsorbed onto the surface of nano-TiO2 but that only SDS can significantly decrease the zeta potential of TiO2...
September 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Zhihai Liu, Zongda Zhu, Lu Liu, Yu Zhang, Yong Wei, Yushan Wang, Yaxun Zhang, Enming Zhao, Xinghua Yang, Jun Yang, Libo Yuan
We propose and demonstrate an effective method to adjust the dynamic range of a fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor by introducing a multimode fiber-sensing probe with a dual-truncated-cone (DTC) structure. When the grind angle of the DTC structure increases, the dynamic range redshifts. Based on this result, we fabricate a quasi-distributed two-channel multimode fiber SPR sensor by cascaded-connecting a DTC-sensing probe of 14° grind angle and a traditional transmitted multimode fiber (TMF)-sensing probe in the same fiber...
September 15, 2016: Optics Letters
Yunli Zhao, Lingtong Zhi, Qiuli Wu, Yonglin Yu, Qiqing Sun, Dayong Wang
Biological barrier plays a crucial role for organisms against the possible toxicity from engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Graphene oxide (GO) has been proven to cause potential toxicity on organisms. However, the molecular mechanisms for intestinal barrier of animals against GO toxicity are largely unclear. Using in vivo assay system of Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that mutation of genes encoding core p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway caused susceptible property to GO toxicity and enhanced translocation of GO into the body of nematodes...
September 10, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Vasilios Tsiridis, Maria Petala, Chris Koukiotis, Efthymios Darakas
The complex nature and behavior of Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) has led to adoption of customized experimental ecotoxicity practices that are prone to possible artefacts in the inherent toxic properties of ENMs. In addition, the lack of standardized handling procedures for the ecotoxicity testing of ENMs prevents the development of experimental protocols for regulatory purposes. In this study, a suite of techniques for dispersion of ENMs was adopted and tested for two types of surface-modified alumina nanoparticles-one hydrophobic and one hydrophilic-towards the bacteria, Vibrio fischeri...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Ali Haghania, Mansour Aliabadian, Jalil Sarhangzadeh, Ahad Setoodehc
In this study, maximum entropy models were developed in four seasons to evaluate habitat suitability and factors affecting Asian Houbara in Iran. Environmental variables used in modeling consisted of 42 environmental and climate variables for Nayband wildlife refuge and 36 environmental and climate variables for Petregan protected area. Also, seasonal overlap area were obtained using the ENM TOOLS software. The results showed that the most important factors affecting habitat suitability of the Asian Houbara in all seasons included the ratio of distance to hill, the type of Artemisia-Gymnocarpus, distance to the slope (8-12%) in the Nayband wildlife refuge, distance to the type of Artemisia aucheri, distance to the Land Passion, and distance to the dry land farming in the Petregan region...
August 2016: Heliyon
Veena D Singh, Sanjay J Daharwal
Three multivariate calibration spectrophotometric methods were developed for simultaneous estimation of Paracetamol (PARA), Enalapril maleate (ENM) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in tablet dosage form; namely multi-linear regression calibration (MLRC), trilinear regression calibration method (TLRC) and classical least square (CLS) method. The selectivity of the proposed methods were studied by analyzing the laboratory prepared ternary mixture and successfully applied in their combined dosage form. The proposed methods were validated as per ICH guidelines and good accuracy; precision and specificity were confirmed within the concentration range of 5-35μgmL(-1), 5-40μgmL(-1) and 5-40μgmL(-1)of PARA, HCTZ and ENM, respectively...
January 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Jonatan Sjölander, Elin Byman, Klaudia Kulak, Sara C Nilsson, Enming Zhang, Ulrika Krus, Gunilla T Westermark, Petter Storm, Ben C King, Erik Renström, Anna M Blom
C4b-binding protein (C4BP) is a polymer of 7 identical alpha chains and one unique beta chain synthesized in liver and pancreas. We showed previously that C4BP enhances islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) fibril formation in vitro. Now we report that polymeric C4BP strongly inhibited lysis of human erythrocytes incubated with monomeric IAPP while no lysis was observed after incubation with preformed IAPP fibrils. In contrast, incubation with the monomeric α-chain of C4BP was less effective. These data indicate that polymeric C4BP with multiple binding sites for IAPP enhances polymerization and neutralization of lytic activity of IAPP...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Mathieu Fossépré, Laurence Leherte, Aatto Laaksonen, Daniel P Vercauteren
Despite progress in computer modeling, most biological processes are still out of reach when using all-atom (AA) models. Coarse-grained (CG) models allow classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to be accelerated. Although simplification of spatial resolution at different levels is often investigated, simplification of the CG potential in itself has been less common. CG potentials are often similar to AA potentials. In this work, we consider the design and reliability of purely mechanical CG models of the μ opioid receptor (μOR), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)...
September 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Bryant C Nelson, Christa W Wright, Yuko Ibuki, Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Hanna L Karlsson, Giel Hendriks, Christopher M Sims, Neenu Singh, Shareen H Doak
The rapid development of the engineered nanomaterial (ENM) manufacturing industry has accelerated the incorporation of ENMs into a wide variety of consumer products across the globe. Unintentionally or not, some of these ENMs may be introduced into the environment or come into contact with humans or other organisms resulting in unexpected biological effects. It is thus prudent to have rapid and robust analytical metrology in place that can be used to critically assess and/or predict the cytotoxicity, as well as the potential genotoxicity of these ENMs...
August 26, 2016: Mutagenesis
Xiao-Long Chen, Lin-Yong Zhao, Lian Xue, Yu-Hui Xu, Wei-Han Zhang, Kai Liu, Xin-Zu Chen, Kun Yang, Bo Zhang, Zhi-Xin Chen, Jia-Ping Chen, Zong-Guang Zhou, Jian-Kun Hu
The role of extranodal metastasis (ENM) in TNM stage in gastric carcinoma (GC) is controversial. This study was aimed to make a detailed investigation of the prognostic significance and the role in TNM stage of ENM in GC. The patients with primary GC, who underwent gastrectomy with curative intention in West China Hospital from January 2005 to December 2011, were retrospectively enrolled. The prognosis and clinicopathological traits were compared between ENM positive (ENMP) and negative (ENMN) groups in all patients, TNM I-II, III and IV stages, respectively...
August 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Patrick Thomas Gormley, Neal Ingraham Callaghan, Tyson James MacCormack, Christopher Anthony Dieni
Citrated Sprague-Dawley rat blood plasma was used as a biologically relevant exposure medium to assess the acellular toxic potential of two metal oxide engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), zinc oxide (nZnO), and cerium oxide (nCeO2). Plasma was incubated at 37 °C for up to 48 h with ENM concentrations ranging between 0 and 200 mg/L. The degree of ENM-induced oxidation was assessed by assaying for reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels using dichlorofluorescein (DCF), pH, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), lipase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyls (PC)...
August 25, 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Marshall J Heap
Environmental niche modeling outputs a biological species' potential distribution. Further work is needed to arrive at a species' realized distribution. The Biological Species Approximate Realized Niche (BioSARN) application provides the ecological modeler with a toolset to refine Environmental niche models (ENMs). These tools include soil and land class filtering, niche area quantification and novelties like enhanced temporal corridor definition, and output to a high spatial resolution land class model. BioSARN is exemplified with a study on Fraser fir, a tree species with strong land class and edaphic correlations...
August 2016: Ecology and Evolution
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