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Emi Fukai, Haruna Sato, Masatoshi Watanabe, Dai Nakae, Yukari Totsuka
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are now used in a wide variety of fields, and thus their safety should urgently be assessed and secured. It has been suggested that inflammatory responses via the phagocytosis of ENMs by macrophages is a key mechanism for their genotoxicity. The present study was conducted to establish a mechanism-based assay to evaluate the genotoxicity of ENMs under conditions simulating an in vivo situation, featuring a co-culture system of murine lung resident cells (GDL1) and immune cells (RAW264...
February 14, 2018: Cancer Science
Eric Warren Vejerano, Guiying Rao, Lavrent Khachatryan, Stephania A Cormier, Slawomir M Lomnicki
Environmentally persistent free radicals, EPFRs, exist in significant concentration in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). EPFRs are primarily emitted from combustion and thermal processing of organic materials, in which the organic combustion by-products interact with transition metal-containing particles to form a free radical-particle pollutant. While the existence of persistent free radicals in combustion has been known for over half-a-century, only recently that their presence in environmental matrices and health effects have started significant research, but still in its infancy...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Mark D Ihrie, James C Bonner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The explosive growth of the nanotechnology industry has necessitated the examination of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) for their toxicity. The unique properties that make ENMs useful also make them a health risk, and individuals with pre-existing diseases such as asthma are likely more susceptible. This review summarizes the current literature on the ability of ENMs to both exacerbate and directly cause asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies highlight the ability of metal nanoparticles (NPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to not only exacerbate pre-existing asthma in animal models but also initiate allergic airway disease directly...
February 13, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Yujuan Zhao, Genshen Yin, Yuezhi Pan, Xun Gong
Understanding of the processes of divergence and speciation is a major task for biodiversity researches and may offer clearer insight into mechanisms generating biological diversity. Here, we employ an integrative approach to explore genetic and ecological differentiation of Leucomeris decora and Nouelia insignis distributed allopatrically along the two sides of the biogeographic boundary 'Tanaka Line' in Southwest China. We addressed these questions using ten low-copy nuclear genes and nine plastid DNA regions sequenced among individuals sampled from 28 populations across their geographic ranges in China...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Carolyn M Wilke, Bettina Wunderlich, Jean-François Gaillard, Kimberly A Gray
Due to their widespread use and subsequent release, engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) will create complex mixtures and emergent systems in the natural environment where their chemical interactions may cause toxic stress to microorganisms. We previously showed that under dark conditions n-TiO2 attenuated bacterial stress caused by low concentrations of n-Ag (<20 μg L-1) due to Ag+ adsorption. Yet, since both n-Ag and n-TiO2 are photoactive, their photochemistries may play a key role in their interactions. In this work, we study the chemical interactions of n-Ag and n-TiO2 mixtures in a natural aqueous medium under simulated solar irradiation to investigate the effects of photoinduced stress...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jordana Moura Caetano, Geiziane Tessarolo, Guilherme de Oliveira, Kelly da Silva E Souza, José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho, João Carlos Nabout
The impacts of global climate change have been a worldwide concern for several research areas, including those dealing with resources essential to human well being, such as agriculture, which directly impact economic activities and food security. Here we evaluate the relative effect of climate (as indicated by the Ecological Niche Model-ENM) and agricultural technology on actual soybean productivity in Brazilian municipalities and estimate the future geographic distribution of soybeans using a novel statistical approach allowing the evaluation of partial coefficients in a non-stationary (Geographically Weighted Regression; GWR) model...
2018: PloS One
Roberta Ruotolo, Elena Maestri, Luca Pagano, Marta Marmiroli, Jason C White, Nelson Marmiroli
The increasing use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) raises questions over their environmental impact. Improving the level of understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of the response to ENM exposure in biota is necessary to accurately assess true risk to sensitive receptors. The aim of this review is to compare the plant response to several metal-based ENMs widely used, such as quantum dots, metal oxides and silver nanoparticles (NPs), integrating available 'omics' data (transcriptomics, miRNAs and proteomics)...
January 29, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Kannan Sankar, Sambit K Mishra, Robert L Jernigan
Predicting protein motions is important for bridging the gap between protein structure and function. With growing numbers of structures of the same, or closely related proteins becoming available, it is now possible to understand more about the intrinsic dynamics of a protein with principal component analysis (PCA) of the motions apparent within ensembles of experimental structures. In this paper, we compare the motions extracted from experimental ensembles of 50 different proteins with the modes of motion predicted by several types of coarse-grained elastic network models (ENMs) which additionally take into account more details of either the protein geometry or the amino acid specificity...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Bernd Giese, Fred Klaessig, Barry Park, Ralf Kaegi, Michael Steinfeldt, Henning Wigger, Arnim von Gleich, Fadri Gottschalk
For frequently used engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) CeO2-, SiO2-, and Ag, past, current, and future use and environmental release are investigated. Considering an extended period (1950 to 2050), we assess ENMs released through commercial activity as well as found in natural and technical settings. Temporal dynamics, including shifts in release due to ENM product application, stock (delayed use), and subsequent end-of-life product treatment were taken into account. We distinguish predicted concentrations originating in ENM use phase and those originating from end-of-life release...
January 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Temel Tirkes, Chen Lin, Enming Cui, Yu Deng, Paul R Territo, Kumaresan Sandrasegaran, Fatih Akisik
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if extracellular volume fraction and T1 mapping can be used to diagnose chronic pancreatitis (CP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This HIPAA-compliant study analyzed 143 consecutive patients with and without CP who underwent MR imaging between May 2016 and February 2017. Patients were selected for the study according to inclusion and exclusion criteria that considered history and clinical and laboratory findings. Eligible patients (n = 119) were grouped as normal (n = 60) or with mild (n = 22), moderate (n = 27), or severe (n = 10) CP on the basis of MRCP findings using the Cambridge classification as the reference standard...
January 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Yan Wang, Bernd Nowack
Static environmental exposure assessment models based on material flow analysis (MFA) have previously been used to estimate flows of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to the environment. However, such models do not account for changes in the system behavior over time. Dynamic MFA used in this study includes the time-dependent development of the modelling system by considering accumulation of ENMs in stocks and the environment, and the dynamic release of ENMs from nano-products. In addition, this study also included regional variations in population, waste management systems, and environmental compartments, which subsequently influence the environmental release and concentrations of ENMs...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
P A Stapleton, Q A Hathaway, C E Nichols, A B Abukabda, M V Pinti, D L Shepherd, C R McBride, J Yi, V C Castranova, J M Hollander, T R Nurkiewicz
BACKGROUND: The integration of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) is well-established and widespread in clinical, commercial, and domestic applications. Cardiovascular dysfunctions have been reported in adult populations after exposure to a variety of ENM. As the diversity of these exposures continues to increase, the fetal ramifications of maternal exposures have yet to be determined. We, and others, have explored the consequences of ENM inhalation during gestation and identified many cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes in the F1 generation...
January 10, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Yan Wang, Bernd Nowack
A lot of research studies have endeavored to investigate the ecotoxicological hazards of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). However, little is known regarding the actual environmental risks of ENMs, combining both hazard and exposure data. The aim of this study is to quantify the environmental risks for nano-Al2 O3 , nano-SiO2 , nano iron oxides, nano-CeO2 , and quantum dots by comparing the predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) with the predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC). The PEC values of these five ENMs in fresh waters in 2020 for northern Europe and southeastern Europe were taken from a published dynamic probabilistic material flow analysis model...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Alberto Clemente, M Pilar Lobera, Francisco Balas, Jesus Santamaria
The increasing presence of nanotechnology on the market entails a growing probability of finding ENMs in the environment. Nanoparticles aerosols are a yet unknown risk for human and environmental exposure that may normally occur at any point during the nanomaterial lifecycle. There is a research gap in standardized methods to assess the exposure to airborne nanoparticles in different environments. The controllable generation of nanoparticle aerosols has long been a challenging objective for researchers and industries dealing with airborne nanoparticles...
January 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Cody E Nichols, Danielle L Shepherd, Quincy A Hathaway, Andrya J Durr, Dharendra Thapa, Alaeddin Abukabda, Jinghai Yi, Timothy R Nurkiewicz, John M Hollander
Nanotechnology offers innovation in products from cosmetics to drug delivery, leading to increased engineered nanomaterial (ENM) exposure. Unfortunately, health impacts of ENM are not fully realized. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is among the most widely produced ENM due to its use in numerous applications. Extrapulmonary effects following pulmonary exposure have been identified and may involve reactive oxygen species (ROS). The goal of this study was to determine the extent of ROS involvement on cardiac function and the mitochondrion following nano-TiO2 exposure...
December 15, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Kelin Xia
In this paper, a multiscale virtual particle based elastic network model (MVP-ENM) is proposed for the normal mode analysis of large-sized biomolecules. The multiscale virtual particle (MVP) model is proposed for the discretization of biomolecular density data. With this model, large-sized biomolecular structures can be coarse-grained into virtual particles such that a balance between model accuracy and computational cost can be achieved. An elastic network is constructed by assuming "connections" between virtual particles...
December 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Feng Dong, Chih-Ming Hung, Xin-Lei Li, Jian-Yun Gao, Qiang Zhang, Fei Wu, Fu-Min Lei, Shou-Hsien Li, Xiao-Jun Yang
BACKGROUND: The glacial-interglacial cycles in the Pleistocene caused repeated range expansion and contraction of species in several regions in the world. However, it remains uncertain whether such climate oscillations had similar impact on East Asian biota, despite its widely recognized importance in global biodiversity. Here we use both molecular and ecological niche profiles on 11 East Asian avian species with various elevational ranges to reveal their response to the late Pleistocene climate changes...
December 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Irina Guseva Canu, Paul A Schulte, Michael Riediker, Liliya Fatkhutdinova, Enrico Bergamaschi
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) raise questions among the scientific community and public health authorities about their potential risks to human health. Studying a prospective cohort of workers exposed to ENMs would be considered the gold standard for identifying potential health effects of nanotechnology and confirming the 'no effect' levels derived from cellular and animal models. However, because only small, cross-sectional studies have been conducted in the past 5 years, questions remain about the health risks of ENMs...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Shinya Suzuki, Florian Part, Yasushi Matsufuji, Marion Huber-Humer
To date construction materials that contain engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are available at the markets, but at the same time very little is known about their environmental fate. Therefore, this study aimed at modeling the potential fate of ENMs by using the example of the Japanese construction sector and by conducting a dynamic material flow analysis. Expert interviews and national reports revealed that about 3920-4660 tons of ENMs are annually used for construction materials in Japan. Nanoscale TiO2, SiO2, Al2O3 and carbon black have already been applied for decades to wall paints, road markings or concrete...
November 28, 2017: Waste Management
Arzu Uyar, Vardan Karamyan, Alex Dickson
Crystal structures of neurolysin, a zinc metallopeptidase, do not show a significant conformational change upon the binding of an allosteric inhibitor. Neurolysin has a deep channel where it hydrolyzes a short neuropeptide neurotensin to create inactive fragments and thus controls its level in the tissue. Neurolysin is of interest as a therapeutic target since changes in neurotensin level have been implicated in cardiovascular disorders, neurological disorders and cancer, and inhibitors of neurolysin have been developed...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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