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Xin Zhou, Qingfang Deng, Huaguo Chen, Enming Hu, Chao Zhao, Xiaojian Gong
Crude polysaccharides of Mori Fructus (MFPs) are found to have anti-inflammatory antioxidant, and immuno-enhancing activities. However, the structure of the polysaccharides was ambiguous and its holistic hepatic protection evaluation was defective. This study was conducted to illustrate the characterization of MFPs, and evaluate its hepatoprotective activities. The results found that MFPs contained 67.93±1.18% carbohydrates, 31.03±0.54% uronic acid, and little protein and sulfate. The average molecular weight was ranging from 112...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Estefany I Medina-Reyes, Danae Garcia-Viacobo, Franklin A Carrero-Martinez, Yolanda Irasema Chirino
Recent advances in nanotechnology have transformed the biomedicine field, in which the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) has provided the foundation for novel applications. For this reason, the number of ENMs has increased rapidly, and here we provide a classification of ENMs based on chemical composition and biomedical applications, which include regenerative medicine, delivery systems, theranostics, and therapy. These have been identified as the most advanced and promising areas for further studies with humans...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Narkis S Morales, Ignacio C Fernández, Victoria Baca-González
Environmental niche modeling (ENM) is commonly used to develop probabilistic maps of species distribution. Among available ENM techniques, MaxEnt has become one of the most popular tools for modeling species distribution, with hundreds of peer-reviewed articles published each year. MaxEnt's popularity is mainly due to the use of a graphical interface and automatic parameter configuration capabilities. However, recent studies have shown that using the default automatic configuration may not be always appropriate because it can produce non-optimal models; particularly when dealing with a small number of species presence points...
2017: PeerJ
Rune Hjorth, Lilian van Hove, Fern Wickson
"Safety by design" (SbD) is an intuitively appealing concept that is on the rise within nanotoxicology and nanosafety research, as well as within nanotechnology research policy. It leans on principles established within drug discovery and development (DDD) and seeks to address safety early, as well as throughout product development. However, it remains unclear what the concept of SbD exactly entails for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) or how it is envisioned to be implemented. Here, we review the concept as it is emerging in European research and compare its resemblance with the safety testing and assessment practices in DDD...
March 17, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Jacqueline S Lima, Liliana Ballesteros-Mejia, Matheus S Lima-Ribeiro, Rosane G Collevatti
The high rates of future climatic changes, compared with the rates reported for past changes, may hamper species adaptation to new climates or the tracking of suitable conditions, resulting in significant loss of genetic diversity. Trees are dominant species in many biomes and because they are long-lived, they may not be able to cope with ongoing climatic changes. Here, we coupled Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) and genetic simulations to forecast the effects of climatic changes on the genetic diversity and the structure of genetic clusters...
March 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
Daniel J C Skinner, Sophie A Rocks, Simon J T Pollard
A means for identifying and prioritising the treatment of uncertainty (UnISERA) in environmental risk assessments (ERAs) is tested, using three risk domains where ERA is an established requirement and one in which ERA practice is emerging. UnISERA's development draws on 19 expert elicitations across genetically modified higher plants, particulate matter, and agricultural pesticide release and is stress tested here for engineered nanomaterials (ENM). We are concerned with the severity of uncertainty; its nature; and its location across four accepted stages of ERAs...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Muhammad Bilal, Haven Liu, Rong Liu, Yoram Cohen
An approach is presented describing the development of a Bayesian network (BN) based tool for rapid assessment of the distribution of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The methodology was demonstrated via the construction of a BN model for estimating the exposure concentrations of nanomaterials (BN-nanoExpo) based on simulation data derived from a mechanistic multimedia compartmental fate and transport model. The results of simulations of the distribution of six ENMs in eight different regions were generated for a broad range of geographical and meteorological parameters as well as ENM release rates to the air, water and soil major compartments...
March 10, 2017: Nanoscale
Guang Hu, Lei He, Federico Iacovelli, Mattia Falconi
DNA is a fundamental component of living systems where it plays a crucial role at both functional and structural level. The programmable properties of DNA make it an interesting building block for the construction of nanostructures. However, molecular mechanisms for the arrangement of these well-defined DNA assemblies are not fully understood. In this paper, the intrinsic dynamics of a DNA octahedron has been investigated by using two types of Elastic Network Models (ENMs). The application of ENMs to DNA nanocages include the analysis of the intrinsic flexibilities of DNA double-helices and hinge sites through the calculation of the square fluctuations, as well as the intrinsic collective dynamics in terms of cross-collective map calculation coupled with global motions analysis...
January 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Christian Santschi, Nadia Von Moos, Volodymyr B Koman, Vera I Slaveykova, Paul Bowen, Olivier J F Martin
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are key drivers for the development of highly sophisticated new technologies. As all new attainments, the rapidly increasing used of ENMs raise concerns about their safety for the environment and humans. There is growing evidence showing that if engineered nanomaterials are released into the environment, there is a possibility that they could cause harm to aquatic microorganisms. Among the divers effects triggering their toxicity the ability of ENMs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) capable of oxidizing biomolecules is currently considered a central mechanism of toxicity...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Achyut J Raghavendra, Nasser Alsaleh, Jared M Brown, Ramakrishna Podila
Upon introduction into a biological system, engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) rapidly associate with a variety of biomolecules such as proteins and lipids to form a biocorona. The presence of "biocorona" influences nano-bio interactions considerably, and could ultimately result in altered biological responses. Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), the major constituent of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), is one of the most prevalent proteins found in ENM-biocorona irrespective of ENM nature, size, and shape. Given the importance of ApoA-I in HDL and cholesterol transport, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of ApoA-I adsorption and the associated structural changes for assessing consequences of ENM exposure...
March 7, 2017: Biointerphases
Monica M Johnson, Ryan Mendoza, Achyut J Raghavendra, Ramakrishna Podila, Jared M Brown
The rapid development of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) has grown dramatically in the last decade, with increased use in consumer products, industrial materials, and nanomedicines. However, due to increased manufacturing, there is concern that human and environmental exposures may lead to adverse immune outcomes. Mast cells, central to the innate immune response, are one of the earliest sensors of environmental insult and have been shown to play a role in ENM-mediated immune responses. Our laboratory previously determined that mast cells are activated via a non-FcεRI mediated response following silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) exposure, which was dependent upon key physicochemical properties...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Guang Hu, Luisa Di Paola, Zhongjie Liang, Alessandro Giuliani
The overall topology and interfacial interactions play key roles in understanding structural and functional principles of protein complexes. Elastic Network Model (ENM) and Protein Contact Network (PCN) are two widely used methods for high throughput investigation of structures and interactions within protein complexes. In this work, the comparative analysis of ENM and PCN relative to hemoglobin (Hb) was taken as case study. We examine four types of structural and dynamical paradigms, namely, conformational change between different states of Hbs, modular analysis, allosteric mechanisms studies, and interface characterization of an Hb...
2017: BioMed Research International
Christian Riebeling, Harald Jungnickel, Andreas Luch, Andrea Haase
The assessment of potential health risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is a challenging task due to the high number and great variety of already existing and newly emerging ENMs. Reliable grouping or categorization of ENMs with respect to hazards could help to facilitate prioritization and decision making for regulatory purposes. The development of grouping criteria, however, requires a broad and comprehensive data basis. A promising platform addressing this challenge is the systems biology approach. The different areas of systems biology, most prominently transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, each of which provide a wealth of data that can be used to reveal novel biomarkers and biological pathways involved in the mode-of-action of ENMs...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ceyda Oksel, Cai Y Ma, Jing J Liu, Terry Wilkins, Xue Z Wang
Despite the clear benefits that nanotechnology can bring to various sectors of industry, there are serious concerns about the potential health risks associated with engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), intensified by the limited understanding of what makes ENMs toxic and how to make them safe. As the use of ENMs for commercial purposes and the number of workers/end-users being exposed to these materials on a daily basis increases, the need for assessing the potential adverse effects of multifarious ENMs in a time- and cost-effective manner becomes more apparent...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Araceli Sánchez Jiménez, Martie van Tongeren
Human exposure assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is hampered, among other factors, by the difficulty to differentiate ENM from other nanomaterials (incidental to processes or naturally occurring) and the lack of a single metric that can be used for health risk assessment. It is important that the exposure assessment is carried out throughout the entire life-cycle as releases can occur at the different stages of the product life-cycle, from the synthesis, manufacture of the nano-enable product (occupational exposure) to the professional and consumer use of nano-enabled product (consumer exposure) and at the end of life...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Rambabu Atluri, Keld Alstrup Jensen
Numerous types of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are commercially available and developments move towards producing more advanced nanomaterials with tailored properties. Such advanced nanomaterials may include chemically doped or modified derivatives with specific surface chemistries; also called higher generation or multiconstituent nanomaterials. To fully enjoy the benefits of nanomaterials, appropriate characterisation of ENMs is necessary for many aspects of their production, use, testing and reporting to regulatory bodies...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ran Wang, Xinlu Zhang, Zhilin Zhang, Hujiang Zhong, Yujin Chen, Enming Zhao, Steven Vasilescu, Lu Liu
The FIR (fluorescence intensity ratio) technique for optical thermometry has attracted considerable attention over recent years due to its high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. However, it is thought that a heating effect induced by incident light may lead to temperature overestimations, which in turn impedes the reliability of this technique for applications which require high levels of accuracy. To further improve the FIR technique, this paper presents a modified calibration expression, which is suitable for surface temperature sensing, based on the temperature distribution (calculated through COMSOL software)...
January 23, 2017: Optics Express
Tian Yin Sun, Denise M Mitrano, Nikolaus A Bornhöft, Martin Scheringer, Konrad Hungerbühler, Bernd Nowack
The need for an environmental risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials (ENM) necessitates the knowledge about their environmental emissions. Material flow models (MFA) have been used to provide predicted environmental emissions but most current nano-MFA models consider neither the rapid development of ENM production nor the fact that a large proportion of ENM are entering an in-use stock and are released from products over time (i.e., have a lag phase). Here we use dynamic probabilistic material flow modeling to predict scenarios of the future flows of four ENM (nano-TiO2, nano-ZnO, nano-Ag and CNT) to environmental compartments and to quantify their amounts in (temporary) sinks such as the in-use stock and ("final") environmental sinks such as soil and sediment...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Eli Goldberg, Coy McNew, Martin Scheringer, Thomas D Bucheli, Peter Nelson, Konrad Hungerbühler
A fundamental problem associated with the vertical transport of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in saturated porous media is the occurrence of nonexponential, for example, nonmonotonic or linearly increasing, retention profiles. To investigate this problem, we compiled an extensive database of ENMs transport experiments in saturated porous media. Using this database we trained a decision tree that shows the order of importance, and range of influence, of the physicochemical factors that control the retention profile shape...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Weihua Xu, Yi Xiao, Jingjing Zhang, Wu Yang, Lu Zhang, Vanessa Hull, Zhi Wang, Hua Zheng, Jianguo Liu, Stephen Polasky, Ling Jiang, Yang Xiao, Xuewei Shi, Enming Rao, Fei Lu, Xiaoke Wang, Gretchen C Daily, Zhiyun Ouyang
Recent expansion of the scale of human activities poses severe threats to Earth's life-support systems. Increasingly, protected areas (PAs) are expected to serve dual goals: protect biodiversity and secure ecosystem services. We report a nationwide assessment for China, quantifying the provision of threatened species habitat and four key regulating services-water retention, soil retention, sandstorm prevention, and carbon sequestration-in nature reserves (the primary category of PAs in China). We find that China's nature reserves serve moderately well for mammals and birds, but not for other major taxa, nor for these key regulating ecosystem services...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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