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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166320/exercise-alters-gut-microbiota-composition-and-function-in-lean-and-obese-humans
#1
Jacob M Allen, Lucy J Mailing, Grace M Niemiro, Rachel Moore, Mark D Cook, Bryan A White, Hannah D Holscher, Jeffrey A Woods
PURPOSE: Exercise is associated with altered gut microbial composition, but studies have not investigated whether the gut microbiota and associated metabolites are modulated by exercise training in humans. We explored the impact of six weeks of endurance exercise on the composition, functional capacity, and metabolic output of the gut microbiota in lean and obese adults with multiple-day dietary controls prior to outcome variable collection. METHODS: Thirty-two lean (n=18 [9 female]) and obese (n=14 [11 female]), previously sedentary subjects participated in six weeks of supervised, endurance-based exercise training (3 days/wk) that progressed from 30 to 60 minutes/day and from moderate (60% of heart rate reserve [HRR]) to vigorous intensity (75% HRR)...
November 20, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158587/analysis-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-plasma-short-chain-fatty-acid-profiles-in-a-spontaneous-mouse-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Kazuchika Nishitsuji, Jinzhong Xiao, Ryosuke Nagatomo, Hitomi Umemoto, Yuki Morimoto, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Koichi Inoue, Koichi Tsuneyama
Male Tsumura Suzuki obese diabetes (TSOD) mice spontaneously develop obesity and obesity-related metabolic syndrome. Gut dysbiosis, an imbalance of gut microbiota, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, but its mechanisms are unknown. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the main fermentation products of gut microbiota and a link between the gut microbiota and the host's physiology. Here, we investigated a correlation among gut dysbiosis, SCFAs, and metabolic syndrome in TSOD mice. We detected enriched levels of Gram-positive bacteria and corresponding decreases in Gram-negative bacteria in 24-wk-old metabolic syndrome-affected TSOD mice compared with age-matched controls...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152318/gut-microbiota-composition-may-relate-to-weight-loss-rate-in-obese-pet-dogs
#3
Ida N Kieler, Shamrulazhar Shamzir Kamal, Anne D Vitger, Dennis S Nielsen, Charlotte Lauridsen, Charlotte R Bjornvad
Obese dogs seem to have a different gut microbiome (GM) composition compared to lean dogs, and in humans, GM composition may negatively impact the ability to lose weight in some individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between exercise, weight-loss and the composition of GM in dogs. Eighteen obese pet dogs were recruited for a 12-week weight-loss intervention. All dogs were fed restrictively with a commercial high-protein/high-fibre dry diet, and eight of these dogs were enrolled in an exercise program in addition to the diet intervention...
November 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152255/effects-of-monobutyrin-and-tributyrin-on-liver-lipid-profile-caecal-microbiota-composition-and-scfa-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#4
Thao Duy Nguyen, Olena Prykhodko, Frida Fåk Hållenius, Margareta Nyman
Butyric acid has been shown to have suppressive effects on inflammation and diseases related to the intestinal tract. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether supplementation of two glycerol esters, monobutyrin (MB) and tributyrin (TB), would reach the hindgut of rats, thus having an effect on the caecal profile of SCFA, microbiota composition and some risk markers associated with chronic inflammation. For this purpose, rats were fed high-fat diets after adding MB (1 and 5 g/kg) and TB (5 g/kg) to a diet without any supplementation (high-fat control; HFC)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152247/effects-of-different-protein-sources-on-fermentation-metabolites-and-nutrient-digestibility-of-brachycephalic-dogs
#5
Maria Isabel Gonzalez Urrego, Laura Fantucci de O Matheus, Karine de Melo Santos, Mariane Ceschin Ernandes, Mariana Monti, Danilo Ferreira de Souza, Júlio Cesar de Carvalho Balieiro, Lúcio Francelino Araújo, Cristiana F Ferreira Pontieri, Márcio Antonio Brunetto
Benefits to microbial fermentation in the colon and as a consequence less flatulence can be promoted for the health of adult dogs according to the amount and protein source. The present study evaluated different protein sources in dry food for brachycephalic dogs regarding microbial fermentation and nutrient digestibility. Four dry dog foods with similar protein content were formulated for adult maintenance: poultry meal (PM) diet; wheat gluten (WG) diet; PM + WG diet; and PM + WG + hydrolysed protein (HP) diet...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152240/nutrient-digestibility-hindgut-metabolites-and-antioxidant-status-of-dogs-supplemented-with-pomegranate-peel-extract
#6
Tony Jose, Ashok K Pattanaik, Sunil E Jadhav, Narayan Dutta, Shalini Sharma
The present study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of pomegranate peel (methanolic) extract (PPE) on the nutrient digestibility, faecal fermentative metabolites and antioxidant status of dogs. Six medium-sized dogs of mixed breeds were allocated to two groups in a replicated cross-over design and fed a basal diet with and without supplementation of PPE at 50 mg/kg body weight. Each of the experimental periods consisted of 30 d, with a 21 d washout period in between. Results indicated that PPE supplementation led to no significant changes in nutrient digestibility except a trend of improvement (P = 0·070) in crude fibre digestibility...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140465/short-chain-arabinoxylans-prepared-from-enzymatically-treated-wheat-grain-exert-prebiotic-effects-during-the-broiler-starter-period
#7
N Yacoubi, L Saulnier, E Bonnin, E Devillard, V Eeckhaut, L Rhayat, R Ducatelle, F Van Immerseel
Carbohydrate-degrading multi-enzyme preparations (MEP) are used to improve broiler performances. Their mode of action is complex and not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effect of water-soluble fractions isolated at the pilot scale from wheat grain incubated with (WE) and without (WC) MEP. The fractions were incorporated in a wheat-based diet (0.1% w/w) to feed Ross PM3 broilers and compared with a non-supplemented control group (NC). The body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) until d 14 were determined...
November 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137150/in-vitro-fermentation-patterns-of-rice-bran-components-by-human-gut-microbiota
#8
Tung Pham, Keat Thomas Teoh, Brett J Savary, Ming-Hsuan Chen, Anna McClung, Sun-Ok Lee
Whole grain rice is a rich source of fiber, nutrients, and phytochemicals that may promote gastrointestinal health, but such beneficial components are typically removed with the bran during polishing. Soluble feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and polyphenols (RBPP) isolated from rice bran are hypothesized to have positive impacts on human gut microbiota through a prebiotic function. Using an in vitro human fecal fermentation bioassay, FAXO and RBPP treatments were assessed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production patterns and by evaluating their impacts on the phylogentic composition of human gut microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
November 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134744/acute-oral-sodium-propionate-supplementation-raises-resting-energy-expenditure-and-lipid-oxidation-in-fasted-humans
#9
Edward S Chambers, Claire S Byrne, Karen Aspey, Yanjie Chen, Saadiyah Khan, Douglas J Morrison, Gary Frost
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced from fermentation of dietary fibre by the gut microbiota, have been suggested to modulate energy metabolism. Previous work using rodent models have demonstrated that oral supplementation of the SCFA propionate raises resting energy expenditure (REE) by promoting lipid oxidation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oral sodium propionate on REE and substrate metabolism in humans. Eighteen healthy volunteers (9 females and 9 males; Age: 25±1 y; Body Mass Index: 24...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112792/biochanin-a-improves-fiber-fermentation-by-cellulolytic-bacteria
#10
Brittany E Harlow, Michael D Flythe, Glen E Aiken
AIMS: The objective was to determine the effect of the isoflavone biochanin A (BCA) on rumen cellulolytic bacteria and consequent fermentative activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: When bovine microbial rumen cell suspensions (n = 3) were incubated (24 h, 39 °C) with ground hay, cellulolytic bacteria proliferated, short chain fatty acids were produced and pH declined. Biochanin A (30 μg mL(-1) ) had no effect on the number of cellulolyic bacteria or pH, but increased acetate, propionate and total SCFA production...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105186/dietary-fibre-alleviates-hepatic-fat-deposition-via-inhibiting-lipogenic-gene-expression-in-meat-ducks
#11
S Qin, H Han, K Zhang, X Ding, S Bai, J Wang, Q Zeng
This study investigated the effect of dietary fibre (DF) supplementation on hepatic fat deposition of Cherry Valley meat ducks. A total of 600 1-d-old ducks were randomly allotted to five dietary fibre diets (1.46 (basal diet), 3.09, 4.15, 6.18 and 7.52% (analysed)) for 14 days. Growth performance decreased with increasing DF concentrations, when the DF level more than 6.18% the average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (F/G) markedly decreased in meat ducks. Meat ducks supplemented over 4.15% DF had lower percentage of liver reported to live weight, liver lipid contents, hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations as well as decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations at 14 days...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094671/reducing-agent-can-be-omitted-in-the-incubation-medium-of-the-batch-in-vitro-fermentation-model-of-the-pig-intestines
#12
C Poelaert, G Nollevaux, C Boudry, B Taminiau, C Nezer, G Daube, Y-J Schneider, D Portetelle, A Théwis, J Bindelle
Over the past decade, in vitro methods have been developed to study intestinal fermentation in pigs and its influence on the digestive physiology and health. In these methods, ingredients are fermented by a bacterial inoculum diluted in a mineral buffer solution. Generally, a reducing agent such as Na2S or cysteine-HCl generates the required anaerobic environment by releasing metabolites similar to those produced when protein is fermented, possibly inducing a dysbiosis. An experiment was conducted to study the impact of two reducing agents on results yielded by such in vitro fermentation models...
November 2, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079812/olfactory-detection-of-a-bacterial-short-chain-fatty-acid-acts-as-an-orexigenic-signal-in-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae
#13
Ana Depetris-Chauvin, Diego Galagovsky, Charlene Chevalier, Gerard Maniere, Yael Grosjean
Microorganisms inhabiting fermenting fruit produce chemicals that elicit strong behavioral responses in flies. Depending on their ecological niche, individuals confer a positive or a negative valence to a chemical and, accordingly, they trigger either attractive or repulsive behaviors. We studied the case of bacterial short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) that trigger opposite behaviors in adult and larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. We determined that SCFA-attractive responses depend on two larval exclusive chemoreceptors, Or30a and Or94b...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078812/dietary-changes-in-nutritional-studies-shape-the-structural-and-functional-composition-of-the-pigs-fecal-microbiome-from-days-to-weeks
#14
Bruno Tilocca, Katharina Burbach, Charlotte M E Heyer, Ludwig E Hoelzle, Rainer Mosenthin, Volker Stefanski, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Jana Seifert
BACKGROUND: The possible impact of changes in diet composition on the intestinal microbiome is mostly studied after some days of adaptation to the diet of interest. The question arises if a few days are enough to reflect the microbial response to the diet by changing the community composition and function. The present study investigated the fecal microbiome of pigs during a time span of 4 weeks after a dietary change to obtain insights regarding the time required for adaptation. Four different diets were used differing in either protein source (field peas meal vs...
October 27, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074485/animal-models-of-chemotherapy-induced-mucositis-translational-relevance-and-challenges
#15
Per T Sangild, René Liang Shen, Peter Erik Lotko Pontoppidan, Mathias Rathe
Chemotherapy for cancer patients induces damaging tissue reactions along the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This chemotherapy-induced mucositis (CIM) is a serious side effect of cytotoxic drugs and several animal models of CIM have been developed to help understand the progression of CIM, and how to prevent it. Animal models allow highly controlled experimental conditions, detailed organ (e.g. GIT) insights, standardized, clinically-relevant treatment regimens and discovery of new biomarkers...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072072/acemannan-and-fructans-from-aloe-vera-aloe-barbadensis-miller-plants-as-novel-prebiotics
#16
Maria Paz Quezada, Carlos Salinas, Martin Gotteland, Liliana Cardemil
The nutraceutical properties of Aloe vera have been attributed to a glucomannan known as acemannan. Recently information has been published about the presence of fructans in Aloe vera but there are no publications about acemannan and fructans as prebiotic compounds. This study investigated in vitro the prebiotic properties of these polysaccharides. Our results demonstrated that fructans from Aloe vera induced bacterial growth better than inulin (commercial FOS). Acemannan stimulated bacterial growth less than fructans, and as much as commercial FOS...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065325/novel-stepwise-ph-control-strategy-to-improve-short-chain-fatty-acid-production-from-sludge-anaerobic-fermentation
#17
Jianwei Zhao, Dongbo Wang, Yiwen Liu, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Qi Yang, Xiaoming Li
This study reports an innovative strategy known as stepwise pH fermentation, developed to enhance the production of short chain volatile fatty acids (SCFA) from waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic fermentation. Experimental results confirmed the optimal pH for WAS disruption and acidification was 11 and 9, respectively, and corresponding optimal time was, respectively, 5 d and 2 d. In this scenario, the optimal SCFA yield was 2356 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L, which was much higher than that derived from alkaline fermentation system...
October 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045805/triclocarban-enhances-short-chain-fatty-acids-production-from-anaerobic-fermentation-of-waste-activated-sludge
#18
Yali Wang, Dongbo Wang, Yiwen Liu, Qilin Wang, Fei Chen, Qi Yang, Xiaoming Li, Guangming Zeng, Hailong Li
Triclocarban (TCC), one typical antibacterial agent being widely used in various applications, was found to be present in waste activated sludge at significant levels. To date, however, its effect on anaerobic fermentation of sludge has not been investigated. This work therefore aims to fill this knowledge gap. Experimental results showed that when TCC content in sludge increased from 26.7 ± 5.3 to 520.5 ± 12.6 mg per kilogram total suspended solids, the maximum concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) increased from 32...
October 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038988/can-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-be-modulated-by-dietary-fibre-to-treat-obesity
#19
H C Davis
Recent research suggests that the human gastrointestinal microbiota is greatly involved in yielding, storing and expending energy from the diet; therefore, it may be a further factor in linking diet to obesity. The gut microbial composition is affected by diet throughout the human lifespan, and is highly dynamic and efficient in response to dietary alterations in particular to dietary fibre intake. Short-chained fatty acids (SCFA) are the bi-product of fibre fermentation and have both obesogenic and anti-obesogenic properties...
October 16, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037268/probiotics-prebiotics-synbiotics-and-insulin-sensitivity
#20
Y A Kim, J B Keogh, P M Clifton
Animal studies indicate that the composition of gut microbiota may be involved in the progression of insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be a promising approach to improve insulin sensitivity by favourably modifying the composition of the gut microbial community, reducing intestinal endotoxin concentrations and decreasing energy harvest. The aim of the present review was to investigate the effects of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics (a combination of probiotics and prebiotics) on insulin resistance in human clinical trials and to discuss the potential mechanisms whereby probiotics and prebiotics improve glucose metabolism...
October 17, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
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