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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543188/cd44-deletion-leading-to-attenuation-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-results-from-alterations-in-gut-microbiome-in-mice
#1
Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala, Hongbing Guan, Narendra P Singh, Brandon Busbee, Alexa Gandy, Pegah Mehrpouya-Bahrami, Mitra S Ganewatta, Chuanbing Tang, Saurabh Chatterjee, Prakash Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti
Dysbiosis in gut microbiome has been shown to be associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated the pivotal role played by CD44 in the regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis. In the current study, we determined whether these effects resulted from an alteration in gut microbiota and the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in CD44KO mice. Fecal transfer from naïve CD44KO but not CD44WT mice, into EAE-induced CD44WT mice, led to significant amelioration of EAE...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539734/honey-and-health-a-review-of-recent-clinical-research
#2
REVIEW
Saeed Samarghandian, Tahereh Farkhondeh, Fariborz Samini
Honey is one of the most appreciated and valued natural products introduced to humankind since ancient times. Honey is used not only as a nutritional product but also in health described in traditional medicine and as an alternative treatment for clinical conditions ranging from wound healing to cancer treatment. The aim of this review is to emphasize the ability of honey and its multitude in medicinal aspects. Traditionally, honey is used in the treatment of eye diseases, bronchial asthma, throat infections, tuberculosis, thirst, hiccups, fatigue, dizziness, hepatitis, constipation, worm infestation, piles, eczema, healing of ulcers, and wounds and used as a nutritious supplement...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539646/colonic-infusions-of-short-chain-fatty-acid-mixtures-promote-energy-metabolism-in-overweight-obese-men-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#3
Emanuel E Canfora, Christina M van der Beek, Johan W E Jocken, Gijs H Goossens, Jens J Holst, Steven W M Olde Damink, Kaatje Lenaerts, Cornelis H C Dejong, Ellen E Blaak
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), formed by microbial fermentation, are believed to be involved in the aetiology of obesity and diabetes. This study investigated the effects of colonic administration of physiologically relevant SCFA mixtures on human substrate and energy metabolism. In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study, twelve normoglycaemic men (BMI 25-35 kg/m(2)) underwent four investigational days, during which SCFA mixtures (200 mmol/L) high in either acetate (HA), propionate (HP), butyrate (HB) or placebo (PLA) were rectally administered during fasting and postprandial conditions (oral glucose load)...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539453/epigenetic-metabolite-acetate-inhibits-class-i-ii-histone-deacetylases-promotes-histone-acetylation-and-increases-hiv-1-integration-in-cd4-t-cells
#4
Jean-François Bolduc, Laurent Hany, Corinne Barat, Michel Ouellet, Michel J Tremblay
In this study, we investigated the effect of acetate, the most concentrated short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in the gut and bloodstream, on the susceptibility of primary human CD4(+) T cells to HIV-1 infection. We report that HIV-1 replication is increased in CD3/CD28-costimulated CD4(+) T cells upon acetate treatment. This enhancing effect correlates with an increased expression of the early activation marker CD69 and impaired class I/II histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. In addition, acetate enhances acetylation of histones H3 and H4 and augments HIV-1 integration in the genome of CD4(+) T cells...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536285/gut-microbiota-mediates-the-protective-effects-of-dietary-capsaicin-against-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-and-associated-obesity-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#5
Chao Kang, Bin Wang, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Xiaolan Wang, Hedong Lang, Suocheng Hui, Li Huang, Yong Zhang, Ming Zhou, Mengting Chen, Mantian Mi
Metabolic endotoxemia originating from dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) responsible for the development of obesity. Capsaicin (CAP) is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers and has potent anti-obesity functions, yet the mechanisms linking this effect to gut microbiota remain obscure. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with CAP exhibit lower levels of metabolic endotoxemia and CLGI associated with lower body weight gain...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526687/ffa2-activation-combined-with-ulcerogenic-cox-inhibition-induces-duodenal-mucosal-injury-via-the-5-ht-pathway-in-rats
#6
Yasutada Akiba, Koji Maruta, Kazuyuki Narimatsu, Hyder Said, Izumi Kaji, Ayaka Kuri, Ken-Ichi Iwamoto, Atsukazu Kuwahara, Jonathan D Kaunitz
Serotonin (5-HT), predominantly synthesized and released by enterochromaffin cells, is implicated in gastrointestinal symptoms such as emesis, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Since luminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) release 5-HT from enterochromaffin cells, which express the SCFA receptor FFA2 in rat duodenum, we examined the effects of the selective FFA2 agonist phenylacetamide-1 (PA1) on duodenal 5-HT release with consequent bicarbonate secretion (DBS) and on indomethacin (IND)-induced enteropathy. Intestinal injury was induced by IND (10 mg/kg, sc) with or without PA1...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513745/in-vivo-fermentation-of-a-pleurotus-eryngii-polysaccharide-and-its-effects-on-fecal-microbiota-composition-and-immune-response
#7
Gaoxing Ma, Benard Muinde Kimatu, Liyan Zhao, Wenjian Yang, Fei Pei, Qiuhui Hu
A novel, homogeneous Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharide (PEP) (molecular weight 426 kDa, purity 91.25 ± 3.14%) which mainly consisted of glucose with β-type glycosidic linkages was used to investigate in vivo fermentation behavior and effects on immune response in mice. Different doses (0.2, 0.4, 0.8 g per kg body weight) were orally administered to the mice for a period of six weeks. The results showed that the SCFA concentration, pH value, and moisture contents of cecum and colon contents were significantly altered with high-dose PEP treatment compared to the control group (P < 0...
May 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506328/the-effect-of-dietary-faba-bean-and-non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading-enzymes-on-the-growth-performance-and-gut-physiology-of-young-turkeys
#8
D Mikulski, J Juskiewicz, B Przybylska-Gornowicz, E Sosnowska, B A Slominski, J Jankowski, Z Zdunczyk
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary replacement of soya bean meal (SBM) with faba bean (FB) and a blend of non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) degrading enzymes on the gastrointestinal function, growth performance and welfare of young turkeys (1 to 56 days of age). An experiment with a 2×2 factorial design was performed to compare the efficacy of four diets: a SBM-based diet and a diet containing FB, with and without enzyme supplementation (C, FB, CE and FBE, respectively). In comparison with groups C, higher dry matter content and lower viscosity of the small intestinal digesta were noted in groups FB...
May 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505492/comprehensive-evaluation-of-scfa-production-in-the-intestinal-bacteria-regulated-by-berberine-using-gas-chromatography-combined-with-polymerase-chain-reaction
#9
Lu-Lu Wang, Hui-Hui Guo, Shuai Huang, Chen-Lin Feng, Yan-Xing Han, Jian-Dong Jiang
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) of intestine microbial have caught accumulating attention for their beneficial effects on human health. Botanic compounds with low bioavailability such as berberine (BBR) and resveratrol might interact with intestinal microbial ecosystem and promote gut bacteria to produce SCFA, which contribute to their biological effects. In the present study, a comprehensive assay system was built to detect SCFAs production in intestinal bacteria, in which stringent anaerobic culture was applied for in vitro bacterial fermentation, followed by direct-injection GC detection (chemical detection) in combination with real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, biological detection)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482838/beneficial-effects-on-host-energy-metabolism-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-vitamins-produced-by-commensal-and-probiotic-bacteria
#10
REVIEW
Jean Guy LeBlanc, Florian Chain, Rebeca Martín, Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán, Stéphanie Courau, Philippe Langella
The aim of this review is to summarize the effect in host energy metabolism of the production of B group vitamins and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by commensal, food-grade and probiotic bacteria, which are also actors of the mammalian nutrition. The mechanisms of how these microbial end products, produced by these bacterial strains, act on energy metabolism will be discussed. We will show that these vitamins and SCFA producing bacteria could be used as tools to recover energy intakes by either optimizing ATP production from foods or by the fermentation of certain fibers in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT)...
May 8, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481190/dietary-inclusion-of-arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides-in-response-to-broilers-challenged-with-subclinical-necrotic-enteritis
#11
C Keerqin, N K Morgan, S B Wu, R A Swick, M Choct
1. This study investigated the prebiotic properties of arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) produced both in situ and in vitro for their activity against the onset of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. 2. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement was applied, including necrotic enteritis challenge (challenged/unchallenged) and three dietary treatments from d 10-21. A wheat-soy commercial type basal grower diet was fed with 2% of the wheat proportion replaced by the same amount of either arabinoxylan (AX), AXOS produced from hydrolysing AX with 16000 BXU xylanase in vitro, or AX fed with 16000 BXU xylanase (AX + E)...
May 8, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469542/dietary-intake-of-fibers-differential-effects-in-men-and-women-on-perceived-general-health-and-immune-functioning
#12
Amanda M Fernstrand, Didi Bury, Johan Garssen, Joris C Verster
Background: It has been reported previously that dietary fiber intake provides health benefits. Nevertheless, only a limited number of human studies have investigated whether gender differences exist in the relationship between fiber intake and perceived health and immune status. Objective: To investigate potential gender differences in the effects of dietary fiber intake on perceived health and immune status of healthy young adults. Design: A survey was conducted among university students in Utrecht, the Netherlands...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460652/the-microbial-community-of-the-gut-differs-between-piglets-fed-sow-milk-milk-replacer-or-bovine-colostrum
#13
Ann-Sofie R Poulsen, Nadieh de Jonge, Sugiharto Sugiharto, Jeppe L Nielsen, Charlotte Lauridsen, Nuria Canibe
The aim of this study was to characterise the gut microbiota composition of piglets fed bovine colostrum (BC), milk replacer (MR) or sow milk (SM) in the post-weaning period. Piglets (n 36), 23-d old, were randomly allocated to the three diets. Faecal samples were collected at 23, 25, 27 and 30 d of age. Digesta from the stomach, ileum, caecum and mid-colon was collected at 30 d of age. Bacterial DNA from all samples was subjected to amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial enumerations by culture and SCFA analysis were conducted as well...
May 2, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455781/reduction-in-fecal-microbiota-diversity-and-short-chain-fatty-acid-producers-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infected-individuals-as-revealed-by-pacbio-single-molecule-real-time-sequencing-technology
#14
J Zhao, L Nian, L Y Kwok, T Sun, J Zhao
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) may cause potentially lethal infections. Increasing evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is associated with human health. Yet, whether patients with MRSA infections carry specific signatures in their fecal microbiota composition has not been determined. Thus, this study aimed to compare the fecal microbiota profile of MRSA-positive patients (n=15) with individuals without MRSA infection (n=15) by using the PacBio single molecule, real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing system and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
April 28, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455617/progressive-response-of-large-intestinal-bacterial-community-and-fermentation-to-the-stepwise-decrease-of-dietary-crude-protein-level-in-growing-pigs
#15
Yu Peng, Kaifan Yu, Chunlong Mu, Suqin Hang, Lianqiang Che, Weiyun Zhu
The study aimed to determine the effects of reduction of dietary crude protein (CP) level with balanced essential amino acids (EAA) on intestinal bacteria and their metabolites of growing pigs. Forty pigs (initial BW 13.50 ± 0.50 kg, 45 ± 2 days of age) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments containing CP levels at 20.00% (normal crude protein, NP); 17.16% (medium crude protein, MP); 15.30% (low crude protein, LP); and 13.90% (extremely low crude protein, ELP), respectively. Crystalline AAs were added to meet the EAA requirement of pigs...
April 29, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447345/in-vitro-microbial-protein-synthesis-ruminal-degradation-and-post-ruminal-digestibility-of-crude-protein-of-dairy-rations-containing-quebracho-tannin-extract
#16
J Castro-Montoya, E Westreicher-Kristen, A Henke, M Diaby, A Susenbeth, U Dickhoefer
This study evaluated the effects of Quebracho tannin extract (QTE) on in vitro ruminal fermentation, chemical composition of rumen microbes, ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility of crude protein (iCPd). Three treatments were tested, the control (basal diet without QTE), the basal diet with 15 g QTE/kg dry matter (DM) and the basal diet with 30 g QTE/kg DM. The basal diet contained (g/kg DM): 339 grass silage, 317 maize silage and 344 concentrate. In vitro gas production kinetic was determined using the Hohenheim gas test (Experiment 1)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443847/the-impact-of-dietary-sn-2-palmitic-triacylglycerols-in-combination-with-docosahexaenoic-acid-or-arachidonic-acid-on-lipid-metabolism-and-host-faecal-microbiota-composition-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#17
Jianchun Wan, Songyou Hu, Jörg J Jacoby, Jie Liu, Yaqiong Zhang, Liangli Lucy Yu
Sn-2 palmitic acid triacylglycerols (sn2PA fat) and polyunsaturated fatty acids are thought to influence the metabolic status and intestinal bacterial population of the host. In this study, the impact of sn2PA fat in combination with DHA or ARA in the diet on lipid metabolism in the liver and faecal microbiota composition were investigated in rats fed diets containing sn2PA fat, 90% sn2PA fat + 10% DHA oil (wt%), or 90% sn2PA fat + 10% ARA oil (wt%). Tissue fatty acid composition was measured using gas chromatography (GC), whereas the faecal microbial composition was assessed using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology...
May 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410921/a-randomized-trial-to-determine-the-impact-of-a-digestion-resistant-starch-composition-on-the-gut-microbiome-in-older-and-mid-age-adults
#18
Michelle J Alfa, David Strang, Paramjit S Tappia, Morag Graham, Gary Van Domselaar, Jessica D Forbes, Vanessa Laminman, Nancy Olson, Pat DeGagne, David Bray, Brenda-Lee Murray, Brenden Dufault, Lisa M Lix
BACKGROUND: The elderly often have a diet lacking resistant starch (RS) which is thought to lead to gut microbiome dysbiosis that may result in deterioration of gut colonocytes. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to assess if elderly (ELD; ≥ 70 years age) had microbiome dysbiosis compared to mid-age (MID; 30-50 years age) adults and then determine the impact of daily consumption of MSPrebiotic(®) (a RS) or placebo over 3 months on gut microbiome composition...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408909/the-maternal-diet-gut-bacteria-and-bacterial-metabolites-during-pregnancy-influence-offspring-asthma
#19
REVIEW
Lawrence E K Gray, Martin O'Hely, Sarath Ranganathan, Peter David Sly, Peter Vuillermin
This review focuses on the current evidence that maternal dietary and gut bacterial exposures during pregnancy influence the developing fetal immune system and subsequent offspring asthma. Part 1 addresses exposure to a farm environment, antibiotics, and prebiotic and probiotic supplementation that together indicate the importance of bacterial experience in immune programming and offspring asthma. Part 2 outlines proposed mechanisms to explain these associations including bacterial exposure of the fetoplacental unit; immunoglobulin-related transplacental transport of gut bacterial components; cytokine signaling producing fetomaternal immune alignment; and immune programming via metabolites produced by gut bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402523/role-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-colonic-inflammation-carcinogenesis-and-mucosal-protection-and-healing
#20
Christina M van der Beek, Cornelis H C Dejong, Freddy J Troost, Ad A M Masclee, Kaatje Lenaerts
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate, produced by microbial fermentation of undigested food substances are believed to play a beneficial role in human gut health. Short-chain fatty acids influence colonic health through various mechanisms. In vitro and ex vivo studies show that SCFAs have anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects, play an important role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis in colonocytes, and protect colonocytes from external harm. Animal studies have found substantial positive effects of SCFAs or dietary fiber on colonic disease, but convincing evidence in humans is lacking...
April 10, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
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