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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447345/in-vitro-microbial-protein-synthesis-ruminal-degradation-and-post-ruminal-digestibility-of-crude-protein-of-dairy-rations-containing-quebracho-tannin-extract
#1
J Castro-Montoya, E Westreicher-Kristen, A Henke, M Diaby, A Susenbeth, U Dickhoefer
This study evaluated the effects of Quebracho tannin extract (QTE) on in vitro ruminal fermentation, chemical composition of rumen microbes, ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility of crude protein (iCPd). Three treatments were tested, the control (basal diet without QTE), the basal diet with 15 g QTE/kg dry matter (DM) and the basal diet with 30 g QTE/kg DM. The basal diet contained (g/kg DM): 339 grass silage, 317 maize silage and 344 concentrate. In vitro gas production kinetic was determined using the Hohenheim gas test (Experiment 1)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443847/the-impact-of-dietary-sn-2-palmitic-triacylglycerols-in-combination-with-docosahexaenoic-acid-or-arachidonic-acid-on-lipid-metabolism-and-host-faecal-microbiota-composition-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#2
Jianchun Wan, Songyou Hu, Jörg J Jacoby, Jie Liu, Yaqiong Zhang, Liangli Lucy Yu
Sn-2 palmitic acid triacylglycerols (sn2PA fat) and polyunsaturated fatty acids are thought to influence the metabolic status and intestinal bacterial population of the host. In this study, the impact of sn2PA fat in combination with DHA or ARA in the diet on lipid metabolism in the liver and faecal microbiota composition were investigated in rats fed diets containing sn2PA fat, 90% sn2PA fat + 10% DHA oil (wt%), or 90% sn2PA fat + 10% ARA oil (wt%). Tissue fatty acid composition was measured using gas chromatography (GC), whereas the faecal microbial composition was assessed using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology...
April 26, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410921/a-randomized-trial-to-determine-the-impact-of-a-digestion-resistant-starch-composition-on-the-gut-microbiome-in-older-and-mid-age-adults
#3
Michelle J Alfa, David Strang, Paramjit S Tappia, Morag Graham, Gary Van Domselaar, Jessica D Forbes, Vanessa Laminman, Nancy Olson, Pat DeGagne, David Bray, Brenda-Lee Murray, Brenden Dufault, Lisa M Lix
BACKGROUND: The elderly often have a diet lacking resistant starch (RS) which is thought to lead to gut microbiome dysbiosis that may result in deterioration of gut colonocytes. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to assess if elderly (ELD; ≥ 70 years age) had microbiome dysbiosis compared to mid-age (MID; 30-50 years age) adults and then determine the impact of daily consumption of MSPrebiotic(®) (a RS) or placebo over 3 months on gut microbiome composition...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408909/the-maternal-diet-gut-bacteria-and-bacterial-metabolites-during-pregnancy-influence-offspring-asthma
#4
REVIEW
Lawrence E K Gray, Martin O'Hely, Sarath Ranganathan, Peter David Sly, Peter Vuillermin
This review focuses on the current evidence that maternal dietary and gut bacterial exposures during pregnancy influence the developing fetal immune system and subsequent offspring asthma. Part 1 addresses exposure to a farm environment, antibiotics, and prebiotic and probiotic supplementation that together indicate the importance of bacterial experience in immune programming and offspring asthma. Part 2 outlines proposed mechanisms to explain these associations including bacterial exposure of the fetoplacental unit; immunoglobulin-related transplacental transport of gut bacterial components; cytokine signaling producing fetomaternal immune alignment; and immune programming via metabolites produced by gut bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402523/role-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-colonic-inflammation-carcinogenesis-and-mucosal-protection-and-healing
#5
Christina M van der Beek, Cornelis H C Dejong, Freddy J Troost, Ad A M Masclee, Kaatje Lenaerts
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate, produced by microbial fermentation of undigested food substances are believed to play a beneficial role in human gut health. Short-chain fatty acids influence colonic health through various mechanisms. In vitro and ex vivo studies show that SCFAs have anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects, play an important role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis in colonocytes, and protect colonocytes from external harm. Animal studies have found substantial positive effects of SCFAs or dietary fiber on colonic disease, but convincing evidence in humans is lacking...
April 10, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396623/modified-mediterranean-diet-for-enrichment-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-potential-adjunctive-therapeutic-to-target-immune-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#6
Jamie Joseph, Colin Depp, Pei-An B Shih, Kristen S Cadenhead, Geert Schmid-Schönbein
Growing interest in gut and digestive processes and their potential link to brain and peripheral based inflammation or biobehavioral phenotypes has led to an increasing number of basic and translational scientific reports focused on the role of gut microbiota within the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the effect of dietary modification on specific gut metabolites, in association with immune, metabolic, and psychopathological functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders has not been well characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396144/supplementation-of-diet-with-galacto-oligosaccharides-increases-bifidobacteria-but-not-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-prediabetic-individuals
#7
Emanuel E Canfora, Christina M van der Beek, Gerben D A Hermes, Gijs H Goossens, Johan W E Jocken, Jens J Holst, Hans M van Eijk, Koen Venema, Hauke Smidt, Erwin G Zoetendal, Cornelis H C Dejong, Kaatje Lenaerts, Ellen E Blaak
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut microbiota affects host lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety, and chronic low-grade inflammation to contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fermentation end products, in particular the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) acetate, are believed to be involved in these processes. We investigate the long-term effects of supplementation with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), an acetogenic fiber, on the composition of the human gut microbiota and human metabolism. METHODS: We performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel intervention study of 44 overweight or obese (body mass index, 28-40 kg/m2) prediabetic men and women (ages, 45-70 years) from October 2014 through October 2015 in Maastricht, The Netherlands...
April 7, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393631/prebiotic-evaluation-of-red-seaweed-kappaphycus-alvarezii-using-in-vitro-colon-model
#8
Dayang Marshitah Bajury, Muhamad Hanif Rawi, Iqbal Hakim Sazali, Aminah Abdullah, Shahrul Razid Sarbini
Red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) cultivated from Sabah (RSS) and Langkawi (RSL) were digested using in vitro mouth, gastric and duodenal model. The digested seaweed then fermented in a pH-controlled batch culture system inoculated with human faeces to mimic the distal colon. Bacterial enumeration were monitored using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, and the fermentation end products, the short chain fatty acids (SCFA), were analysed using HPLC. Both RSS and RSL showed significant increase of Bifidobacterium sp...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371380/dietary-fat-content-modulates-the-hypolipidemic-effect-of-dietary-inulin-in-rats
#9
Kyu-Ho Han, Aiko Yamamoto, Ken-Ichiro Shimada, Hiroto Kikuchi, Michihiro Fukushima
SCOPE: Dietary fat content (low versus high fat) may modulate the serum lipid-lowering effect of high-performance (HP)-inulin. This study investigated the effect of dietary HP-inulin on metabolism in rats fed a low- or high-fat diet. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats were fed a diet of 5% fat with 5% cellulose or 5% HP-inulin (average degree of polymerization = 24) (low-fat diet) or of 20% fat with 5% cellulose or 5% HP-inulin (high-fat diet) for 28 days. Total, HDL, and non-HDL cholesterols, and triglyceride concentrations in the serum were measured along with total lipid content of liver and feces...
March 29, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368356/analysis-of-the-anti-cancer-effects-of-cincau-extract-premna-oblongifolia-merr-and-other-types-of-non-digestible-fibre-using-faecal-fermentation-supernatants-and-caco-2-cells-as-a-model-of-the-human-colon
#10
Samsu U Nurdin, Richard K Le Leu, Graeme P Young, James C R Stangoulis, Claus T Christophersen, Catherine A Abbott
Green cincau (Premna oblongifolia Merr) is an Indonesian food plant with a high dietary fibre content. Research has shown that dietary fibre mixtures may be more beneficial for colorectal cancer prevention than a single dietary fibre type. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of green cincau extract on short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human faecal slurries and to compare these to results obtained using different dietary fibre types (pectin, inulin, and cellulose), singly and in combination...
April 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367709/the-microbial-fermentation-characteristics-depend-on-both-carbohydrate-source-and-heat-processing-a-model-experiment-with-ileo-cannulated-pigs
#11
Tina Skau Nielsen, Henry Jørgensen, Knud Erik Bach Knudsen, Helle Nygaard Lærke
The effects of carbohydrate (CHO) source and processing (extrusion cooking) on large intestinal fermentation products were studied in ileo-cannulated pigs as a model for humans. Pigs were fed diets containing barley, pea or a mixture of potato starch:wheat bran (PSWB) either raw or extrusion cooked. Extrusion cooking reduced the amount of starch fermented in the large intestine by 52-96% depending on the CHO source and the total pool of butyrate in the distal small intestine + large intestine by on average 60% across diets...
April 2, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359948/effect-of-dietary-clostridium-butyricum-on-growth-intestine-health-status-and-resistance-to-ammonia-stress-in-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#12
Yafei Duan, Yue Zhang, Hongbiao Dong, Yun Wang, Xiaoting Zheng, Jiasong Zhang
The present study evaluated the effect of dietary Clostridium butyricum (CB) on growth, intestine microstructure, intestine digestive and immune function, intestine short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) content and body composition of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The shrimp was fed for 56 d with diets containing different levels of C. butyricum (1 × 10(9) cfu/g): 0% (Control), 0.25% (CB1), 0.5% (CB2) and 1.0% (CB3) as treatment groups, followed by an acute ammonia stress test for 72 h. The results indicated that dietary supplementation of C...
March 27, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351710/sodium-acetate-inhibits-staphylococcus-aureus-internalization-into-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#13
Zhengkai Wei, Chong Xiao, Changming Guo, Xu Zhang, Yanan Wang, Jingjing Wang, Zhengtao Yang, Yunhe Fu
Bovine mastitis is one of the most costly and prevalent disease affecting dairy cows worldwide. It was reported that Staphylococcus aureus could internalize into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and induce mastitis. Some short chain fatty acids (SCFA) have shown to suppress S. aureus invasion into bMEC and regulate antimicrobial peptides expression. But it has not been evaluated that sodium acetate has the similar effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium acetate on the invasion of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) by S...
March 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349418/comparing-the-effects-of-different-dietary-organic-acids-on-the-growth-intestinal-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-liver-histopathology-of-red-hybrid-tilapia-oreochromis-sp-and-potential-use-of-these-as-preservatives
#14
Mahdi Ebrahimi, Nor Hafizah Daeman, Chou Min Chong, Ali Karami, Vikas Kumar, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Nicholas Romano
Dietary organic acids are increasingly being investigated as a potential means of improving growth and nutrient utilization in aquatic animals. A 9-week study was performed to compare equal amounts (2%) of different organic acids (sodium butyrate, acetate, propionate, or formate) on the growth, muscle proximate composition, fatty acid composition, cholesterol and lipid peroxidation, differential cell counts, plasma biochemistry, intestinal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) level, and liver histopathology to red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp...
March 27, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346392/impact-of-novel-sorghum-bran-diets-on-dss-induced-colitis
#15
Lauren E Ritchie, Stella S Taddeo, Brad R Weeks, Raymond J Carroll, Linda Dykes, Lloyd W Rooney, Nancy D Turner
We have demonstrated that polyphenol-rich sorghum bran diets alter fecal microbiota; however, little is known regarding their effect on colon inflammation. Our aim was to characterize the effect of sorghum bran diets on intestinal homeostasis during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 20/diet) were provided diets containing 6% fiber from cellulose, or Black (3-deoxyanthocyanins), Sumac (condensed tannins) or Hi Tannin Black (both) sorghum bran. Colitis was induced (N = 10/diet) with three separate 48-h exposures to 3% DSS, and feces were collected...
March 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335773/oral-administration-of-propionic-acid-during-lactation-enhances-the-colonic-barrier-function
#16
Zhaobo Xia, Yijiang Han, Ke Wang, Shikun Guo, Dazhou Wu, Xiaozhong Huang, Zhongrong Li, Libin Zhu
BACKGROUND: Propionic acid is a three-carbon short chain fatty acid (SCFA) that has various effects on colonic functions. Although several studies have shown the effects of propionic acid on intestinal mucosal barrier function, studies of the promotion effect during pre-weaning are rare in the literature as far as we know. METHODS: Pre-weaning male Sprague-Dawley rats 7 days after birth were given an oral 0.2 mL/10 g of 200 mM propionic acid solution in the propionic acid group or normal saline solution in the control group by gavage twice a day for ten days...
March 23, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332163/fermentation-of-dietetic-fiber-from-green-bean-and-prickly-pear-shell-by-pure-and-mixture-culture-of-lactobacillus-acidophilus-la-5-and-bifidobacterium-bifidum-450b
#17
Y N Mora-Cura, N P Meléndez-Rentería, M Delgado-García, J C Contreras-Esquivel, J A Morlett-Chávez, C N Aguilar, R Rodríguez-Herrera
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentation of dietary fiber from green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and prickly pear shell (Opuntia ficus-indica) by Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum 450B growing as mono-culture and co-culture, the fermentation products, and proteins expressed during this process. The analysis of the fermentation profile showed a major growth of bacteria in the culture media of each dietary fiber supplemented with glucose, and particularly B. bifidum 450B at 48 h showed the highest growth...
March 23, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322790/short-chain-fatty-acids-gpr41-and-gpr43-ligands-inhibit-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-mcp-1-expression-by-modulating-p38-and-jnk-signaling-pathways-in-human-renal-cortical-epithelial-cells
#18
Mamiko Kobayashi, Daisuke Mikami, Hideki Kimura, Kazuko Kamiyama, Yukie Morikawa, Seiji Yokoi, Kenji Kasuno, Naoki Takahashi, Takanobu Taniguchi, Masayuki Iwano
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced predominantly by gut microbiota fermentation of dietary fiber. SCFAs are newly identified as endogenous ligands of two orphan G protein-coupled receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, which have the potential to modulate inflammation. Therefore, GPR41 and GPR43 may mediate the link between the gut microbiome status and various disease conditions including renal inflammation. This study aimed at investigating whether SCFAs activate GPR41 and GPR43, and thereby exert anti-inflammatory effects in human renal cortical epithelial cells (HRCEs) as a main component of kidney tissue...
March 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301146/effect-of-whole-grain-qingke-tibetan-hordeum-vulgare-l-zangqing-320-on-the-serum-lipid-levels-and-intestinal-microbiota-of-rats-under-high-fat-diet
#19
Xuejuan Xia, Guannan Li, Yongbo Ding, Tingyuan Ren, Jiong Zheng, Jianquan Kan
This study investigated the hypolipidemic effect of whole grain Qingke (WGQ) and its influence on intestinal microbiota. Changes in the serum lipid, intestinal environment, and microbiota of Sprague-Dawley rats fed high-fat diets supplemented with different doses of WGQ were determined. Results showed that high doses of WGQ significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the Lee's index, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels whereas they increased the body weight of the rats...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286497/fine-flounder-paralichthys-adspersus-microbiome-showed-important-differences-between-wild-and-reared-specimens
#20
Carolina Ramírez, Jaime Romero
The intestinal microbiota is involved in a wide range of biological processes that benefit the host, including providing nutrition and modulating the immune system. Fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) is a flatfish of commercial interest that is native to the Chilean coast. The high value of this flatfish has prompted the development of stock enhancement and aquaculture activities. Knowledge of microbiota may help to improve the cultivation of this species; however, few comparative studies have evaluated the intestinal microbiota composition in farmed versus wild fishes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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