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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774758/evaluation-of-natural-bv-as-a-novel-feed-additive-in-fast-growing-broilers
#1
Da Hye Kim, Sang Mi Han, Moung Cheul Keum, Sang Lee, Byoung Ki An, Sang-Rak Lee, Kyung-Woo Lee
1. The present study was designed to evaluate purified bee venom (BV) as an alternative to antibiotics in broiler chickens. The experimental treatment diets were formulated by adding BV into a maize-soybean meal-based diet to give 0, 10, 50, 100, and 500 μg BV per kg of diet. 2. Dietary BV quadratically improved (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio and increased body weight gain at 1-21 days as level in diet increased. Higher BV levels lowered relative weight of spleen (linear and quadratic, P<0.05), bursa of Fabricius (quadratic, P<0...
May 18, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767145/an-increase-in-corn-resistant-starch-decreases-protein-fermentation-and-modulates-gut-microbiota-during-in-vitro-cultivation-of-pig-large-intestinal-inocula
#2
Xiangyu He, Weiwei Sun, Ting Ge, Chunlong Mu, Weiyun Zhu
High-protein diet could cause an increase in protein fermentation in the large intestine, leading to an increased production of potentially detrimental metabolites. We hypothesized that an increase in corn resistant starch content may attenuate the protein fermentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of resistant starch on protein fermentation by inocula from large intestine of pigs using in vitro cultivation. Fermentation patterns were analyzed during a 24-h incubation of cecal and colonic digesta with varying corn resistant starch contents, using casein protein as sole nitrogen source...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766722/effects-of-whole-grain-rice-and-wheat-on-composition-of-gut-microbiota-and-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-rats
#3
Fei Han, Yong Wang, Yangyang Han, Jianxin Zhao, Fenli Han, Ge Song, Ping Jiang, Haijiang Miao
Diets rich in whole grain (WG) cereals bring lower disease risks compared with refined grain-based diets. We investigated the effects of polished rice (PR), refined wheat (RW), unpolished rice (UPR), and whole wheat (WW) on short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gut microbiota in ileal, cecal, and colonic digesta of normal rats. Animals fed with UPR and WW diets exhibited higher total SCFA in cecal and colonic digesta compared with those fed with PR and RW diets. Wheat diets contributed higher total SCFA than rice diets...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762376/microbial-fermentation-of-starch-its-impact-on-the-range-of-acceptable-carbohydrate-intake
#4
Satish C Kalhan
Starch, a major source of carbohydrates in human nutrition, is extensively hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract of children and adults. A small fraction of the ingested starch reaches the cecum and colon where it is fermented by the gut microbiome into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and other products. Recent data in humans and in animal models have demonstrated the extensive effects of short-chain fatty acids on whole body energy metabolism, appetite, insulin resistance, fatty acid oxidation, fat accretion, obesity, and diabetes...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758074/comparison-of-the-effect-of-dietary-copper-nanoparticles-and-one-copper-ii-salt-on-the-copper-biodistribution-and-gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-morphology-and-function-in-a-rat-model
#5
Ewelina Cholewińska, Katarzyna Ognik, Bartosz Fotschki, Zenon Zduńczyk, Jerzy Juśkiewicz
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of two forms (CuCO3 (CuS); and Cu nanoparticles (CuNP)) and dosages (standard 6.5 mg/kg (H), half of the standard (L)) of additional dietary Cu administered to growing rats on gastrointestinal and hepatic function and morphology. Copper in the form of CuNP vs CuS caused lower Cu faecal/urinal excretion and increased Cu accumulation in the brain tissue. Hepatic high-grade hydropic degeneration and necrotic lesions were observed only in the CuNP-H animals. In the lower gut, the dietary application of CuNP stifled bacterial enzymatic activity of caecal gut microbiota and resulted in lower SCFA production...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758009/a-review-on-the-weight-loss-effects-of-oxidized-tea-polyphenols
#6
REVIEW
Dylan O'Neill Rothenberg, Caibi Zhou, Lingyun Zhang
The mechanistic systems in the body through which tea causes weight loss are complex and multi-dimensional. Additionally, the bioactive components in tea such as catechins, caffeine, and products of tea polyphenol oxidation vary greatly from one major tea type to the next. Green tea has been the primary subject of consideration for investigation into the preventative health effects of tea because it contains the highest levels of phenolic compounds and retains the highest antioxidant capabilities of any major tea type...
May 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757343/dietary-fiber-intervention-on-gut-microbiota-composition-in-healthy-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Daniel So, Kevin Whelan, Megan Rossi, Mark Morrison, Gerald Holtmann, Jaimon T Kelly, Erin R Shanahan, Heidi M Staudacher, Katrina L Campbell
Background: Dysfunction of the gut microbiota is frequently reported as a manifestation of chronic diseases, and therefore presents as a modifiable risk factor in their development. Diet is a major regulator of the gut microbiota and certain types of dietary fiber may modify bacterial numbers and metabolism, including short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) generation. Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to assess the effect of dietary fiber interventions on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750437/green-tea-liquid-consumption-alters-the-human-intestinal-and-oral-microbiome
#8
Xiaojie Yuan, Yong Long, Zhaohua Ji, Jie Gao, Ting Fu, Min Yan, Lei Zhang, Haixia Su, Weilu Zhang, Xiaohui Wen, Zhongshu Pu, Hui Chen, Yufei Wang, Xu Gu, Binyuan Yan, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Zhongjun Shao
SCOPE: GTPs exerts anti-CRC activity. The intestinal microbiota and intestinal colonization by bacteria of oral origin has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. GT modulates the composition of mouse gut microbiota harmonious with anticancer activity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of GTL consumption on the gut and oral microbiome in healthy volunteers (n = 12). METHODS AND RESULTS: 16S sequencing and PICRUSt analysis of both fecal and saliva samples (collected before intervention, after 2 weeks of GTL (400 ml/day) and after a washout period of one week) in healthy volunteers showed changes in microbial diversity and core microbiota and difference in clear classification (PLS-DA)...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749705/fecal-clostridiales-distribution-and-short-chain-fatty-acids-reflect-bowel-habits-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#9
Giorgio Gargari, Valentina Taverniti, Claudio Gardana, Cesare Cremon, Filippo Canducci, Isabella Pagano, Maria Raffaella Barbaro, Lara Bellacosa, Anna Maria Castellazzi, Chiara Valsecchi, Sara Carlotta Tagliacarne, Massimo Bellini, Lorenzo Bertani, Dario Gambaccini, Santino Marchi, Michele Cicala, Bastianello Germanà, Elisabetta Dal Pont, Maurizio Vecchi, Cristina Ogliari, Walter Fiore, Vincenzo Stanghellini, Giovanni Barbara, Simone Guglielmetti
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, is classified according to bowel habits as IBS with constipation (IBS-C), with diarrhea (IBS-D), with alternating constipation and diarrhea (IBS-M), and unsubtyped (IBS-U). The mechanisms leading to the different IBS forms are mostly unknown. This study aims to evaluate whether specific fecal bacterial taxa and/or short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can be used to distinguish IBS subtypes and are relevant for explaining the clinical differences between IBS sub-categories...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745350/resistant-starch-reduces-large-intestinal-ph-and-promotes-fecal-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria-in-pigs
#10
B U Metzler-Zebeli, N Canibe, L Montagne, J Freire, P Bosi, J A M Prates, S Tanghe, P Trevisi
Dietary resistant starch (RS) may have prebiotic properties but its effects on fermentation and the microbial population are inconsistent. This meta-analysis aimed to quantify the relationship between RS type 2 (RS2) and intestinal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and pH as well as certain key bacterial taxa for intestinal health in pigs. From the 24 included articles with sufficient information about the animal, and dietary and physiological measurements published between 2000 and 2017, individual sub-data sets for fermentation metabolites, pH, bacterial abundances and apparent total tract digestibility were built and used to parameterize prediction models on the effect of RS2, accounting for inter- and intra-study variability...
May 10, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742146/prolonged-restraint-stressor-exposure-in-outbred-cd-1-mice-impacts-microbiota-colonic-inflammation-and-short-chain-fatty-acids
#11
Ross M Maltz, Jeremy Keirsey, Sandra C Kim, Amy R Mackos, Raad Z Gharaibeh, Cathy C Moore, Jinyu Xu, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu, Arpad Somogyi, Michael T Bailey
Stressor-exposure has been shown to exacerbate inflammation and change the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota; however stressor-induced effects on microbiota-derived metabolites and their receptors are unknown. Thus, bacterial-produced short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as well as microbial community composition, were assessed in the colons of mice exposed to stress during infection with Citrobacter rodentium. Mice were exposed to overnight restraint on 7 consecutive nights, or left undisturbed as a control...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741191/apple-pomace-improves-gut-health-in-fisher-rats-independent-of-seed-content
#12
Gitte Ravn-Haren, Britta N Krath, Jarosław Markowski, Morten Poulsen, Max Hansen, Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk, Monika Kosmala, Lars O Dragsted
The mechanism behind the cholesterol lowering effects of apple pomace, a polyphenol- and fibre rich by-product in apple juice production, was investigated. Groups of male F344 rats were fed a control feed or the same feed with 2.1% or 6.5% dry apple pomace with or without seeds for 4 weeks. Effects on plasma cholesterol concentrations, excretion of bile acids, expression of genes involved in cholesterol- and bile acid synthesis, and other markers related to gut health were investigated. We found that pomace feeding decreased total-, LDL- and IDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to control...
May 9, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722430/review-article-short-chain-fatty-acids-as-potential-therapeutic-agents-in-human-gastrointestinal-and-inflammatory-disorders
#13
REVIEW
P A Gill, M C van Zelm, J G Muir, P R Gibson
BACKGROUND: Butyrate, propionate and acetate are short chain fatty acids (SCFA), important for maintaining a healthy colon and are considered as protective in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, they may also regulate immune responses and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Consequently, their importance in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases is emerging. AIMS: To review the physiology and metabolism of SCFA in humans, cellular and molecular mechanisms by which SCFA may act in health and disease, and approaches for therapeutic delivery of SCFA...
May 3, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721832/core-gut-microbiota-in-jinhua-pigs-and-its-correlation-with-strain-farm-and-weaning-age
#14
Hua Yang, Yingping Xiao, Junjun Wang, Yun Xiang, Yujie Gong, Xueting Wen, Defa Li
Gut microbial diversity and the core microbiota of the Jinhua pig, which is a traditional, slow-growing Chinese breed with a high body-fat content, were examined from a total of 105 fecal samples collected from 6 groups of pigs at 3 weaning ages that originated from 2 strains and were raised on 3 different pig farms. The bacterial community was analyzed following high-throughput pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and the fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by gas chromatograph...
May 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710519/effects-of-shenling-baizhu-powder-herbal-formula-on-intestinal-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-induced-nafld-rats
#15
Yupei Zhang, Kairui Tang, Yuanjun Deng, Runsen Chen, Shu Liang, Huijun Xie, Yifang He, Yanning Chen, Qinhe Yang
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease closely associated with obesity, diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Shenling Baizhu powder (SLBZP), a formulation of a variety of natural medicinal plants, has hepatoprotective properties and clinical efficacy in treating non-infectious intestinal disease. SLBZP has improved NAFLD symptoms; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. METHODS: We established an NAFLD model in rats given a high-fat diet (HFD), administered different interventions and measured serum biochemical indices and inflammatory factors...
April 3, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702431/short-chain-fatty-acids-suppress-food-intake-by-activating-vagal-afferent-neurons
#16
Chayon Goswami, Yusaku Iwasaki, Toshihiko Yada
Fermentable carbohydrates including dietary fibers and resistant starch produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate and butyrate, through microbial fermentation in the intestine of rodents and humans. Consumption of fermentable carbohydrate and SCFAs suppress food intake, an effect involving the brain. However, their signaling pathway to the brain remains unclear. Vagal afferents serve to link intestinal information to the brain. In the present study, we explored possible role of vagal afferents in the anorexigenic effect of SCFAs...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702420/enhanced-short-chain-fatty-acids-production-from-waste-activated-sludge-by-combining-calcium-peroxide-with-free-ammonia-pretreatment
#17
Dongbo Wang, Kun Shuai, Qiuxiang Xu, Xuran Liu, Yifu Li, Yiwen Liu, Qilin Wang, Xiaoming Li, Guangming Zeng, Qi Yang
This study reported a new low-cost and high-efficient combined method of CaO2  + free ammonia (FA) pretreatment for sludge anaerobic fermentation. Experimental results showed that the optimal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) yield of 338.6 mg COD/g VSS was achieved when waste activated sludge (WAS) was pretreated with 0.05 g/g VSS of CaO2  + 180 mg/L of FA for 3 d, which was 2.5-fold of that from CaO2 pretreatment and 1.5-fold of that from FA pretreatment. The mechanism investigations exhibited that the CaO2  + FA could provided more biodegradable substrates, this combination accelerated the disintegration of sludge cells, which thereby providing more organics for subsequent SCFA production...
April 24, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702167/pumpkin-polysaccharide-modifies-the-gut-microbiota-during-alleviation-of-type-2-diabetes-in-rats
#18
Guimei Liu, Li Liang, Guoyong Yu, Quanhong Li
Pumpkin polysaccharide is able to alleviate diabetes, but understanding of the underlining mechanism is still limited. In this study, we hypothesized that the alleviating effects of pumpkin polysaccharide is modulated via changes in the gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in type 2 diabetic rats. After the type 2 diabetic model successfully was established, three groups of high-fat diet induced diabetic rats were intragastrically administered pumpkin polysaccharide, metformin, or saline solution respectively...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700505/modifications-in-gut-microbiota-and-fermentation-metabolites-in-the-hindgut-of-rats-after-the-consumption-of-galactooligosaccharide-glycated-with-a-fish-peptide
#19
Weiya Jin, Kaining Han, Shiyuan Dong, Yuhong Yang, Zhenjie Mao, Mingyue Su, Mingyong Zeng
The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of a diet containing galactooligosaccharide (GOS)-fish peptide (FP) conjugates prepared via Maillard reaction on the colonic fermentation properties and the composition of gut microbiota in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed the GOS diet, FP diet, GOS and FP mixture (GOS/FP) diet, GOS glycated with FP (80 °C for 120 min, G-GOS/FP) diet, or control (CK) diet for three weeks. Compared to the GOS/FP diet, the G-GOS/FP diet greatly changed the pattern of SCFA production in the hindgut of rats, by increasing the total SCFA (44%), butyrate (55%) and propionate (1...
April 27, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694938/short-chain-fatty-acids-administration-is-protective-in-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer-development
#20
Yun Tian, Qing Xu, Liqun Sun, Ying Ye, Guozhong Ji
Reduced short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been reported in patients with ulcerative colitis, and increased intake of dietary fiber has shown to be clinically beneficial for colitis. Whether SCFAs suppress tumorigenesis in colitis-associated colorectal cancer remains unknown. The chemopreventive effect of SCFAs in colitis-associated colorectal cancer was evaluated in this study. Model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer in male BALB/c mice was induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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