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Gerwyn Morris, George Anderson, Michael Maes
There is evidence that immune-inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways play a role in the pathophysiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). There is also evidence that these neuroimmune diseases are accompanied by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hypoactivity as indicated by lowered baseline glucocorticoid levels. This paper aims to review the bidirectional communications between immune-inflammatory and O&NS pathways and HPA axis hypoactivity in ME/CFS, considering two possibilities: (a) Activation of immune-inflammatory pathways is secondary to HPA axis hypofunction via attenuated negative feedback mechanisms, or (b) chronic activated immune-inflammatory and O&NS pathways play a causative role in HPA axis hypoactivity...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Anna K Taylor, Maria Loades, Amberly Lc Brigden, Simon M Collin, Esther Crawley
BACKGROUND: Paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) has a prevalence of 0.4-2.4% and is defined as 'generalised disabling fatigue persisting after routine tests and investigations have failed to identify an obvious underlying cause'. One-third of young people with CFS/ME have probable depression. Little is known about why depression develops, the relationship between depression and CFS/ME, or what treatment might be helpful. METHODS: We conducted nine semi-structured interviews with young people with CFS/ME (aged 13-17 years, 8/9 female) and probable depression, covering perceived causes of depression, the relationship between CFS/ME and depression, and treatment strategies...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Ellen Brady, Julia Segar, Caroline Sanders
BACKGROUND: The ethics of research into online communities is a long-debated issue, with many researchers arguing that open-access discussion groups are publically accessible data and do not require informed consent from participants for their use for research purposes. However, it has been suggested that there is a discrepancy between the perceived and actual privacy of user-generated online content by community members. OBJECTIVE: There has been very little research regarding how privacy is experienced and enacted online...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Maria E Loades, Elizabeth A Sheils, Esther Crawley
OBJECTIVES: At least 30% of young people with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) also have symptoms of depression. This systematic review aimed to establish which treatment approaches for depression are effective and whether comorbid depression mediates outcome. SETTING: A systematic review was undertaken. The search terms were entered into MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo and the Cochrane library. PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to identify relevant papers...
October 11, 2016: BMJ Open
T Nguyen, S Johnston, L Clarke, P Smith, D Staines, S Marshall-Gradisnik
Transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily 3 (TRPM3) ion channels play a role in calcium (Ca(2+) ) cell signalling. Reduced TRPM3 has been identified in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) patients. However, the significance of TRPM3 and association with intracellular Ca(2+) mobilisation has yet to be determined. Fifteen CFS/ME patients (mean age 48.82 ± 9.83 years) and 25 health controls (mean age 39.2 ± 12.12 years) were examined. Isolated NK cells were labelled with fluorescent antibodies to determine TRPM3, CD107a, and CD69 receptors on CD56(Dim) CD16(+) NK cells and CD56(Bright) CD16(Dim/-) NK cells...
October 11, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Ludovic Giloteaux, Maureen R Hanson, Betsy A Keller
BACKGROUND Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) present with profound fatigue, flu-like symptoms, pain, cognitive impairment, orthostatic intolerance, and post-exertional malaise (PEM), and exacerbation of some or all of the baseline symptoms. CASE REPORT We report on a pair of 34-year-old monozygotic twins discordant for ME/CFS, with WELL, the non-affected twin, and ILL, the affected twin. Both twins performed a two-day cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), pre- and post-exercise blood samples were drawn, and both provided stool samples for biochemical and molecular analysis...
October 10, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Kyle W Murdock, Xin Shelley Wang, Qiuling Shi, Charles S Cleeland, Christopher P Fagundes, Suzanne D Vernon
PURPOSE: Debilitating fatigue is a core symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS); however, the utility of patient-reported symptom outcome measures of fatigue for ME/CFS patients is problematic due to ceiling effects and issues with reliability and validity. We sought to evaluate the performance of three patient-reported symptom measures in a sample of ME/CFS patients and matched controls. METHODS: Two hundred and forty ME/CFS patients and 88 age, sex, race, and zip code matched controls participated in the study...
September 6, 2016: Quality of Life Research
Anu Chacko, Donald R Staines, Samantha C Johnston, Sonya M Marshall-Gradisnik
BACKGROUND: The etiology and pathomechanism of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) are unknown. However, natural killer (NK) cell dysfunction, in particular reduced NK cytotoxic activity, is a consistent finding in CFS/ME patients. Previous research has reported significant changes in intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways from isolated NK cells. The purpose of this present investigation was to examine whether protein kinase genes have a role in abnormal NK cell intracellular signaling in CFS/ME...
2016: Gene Regulation and Systems Biology
Inger J Bakken, Kari Tveito, Kari M Aaberg, Sara Ghaderi, Nina Gunnes, Lill Trogstad, Per Magnus, Camilla Stoltenberg, Siri E Håberg
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a complex condition. Causal factors are not established, although underlying psychological or immunological susceptibility has been proposed. We studied primary care diagnoses for children with CFS/ME, with children with another hospital diagnosis (type 1 diabetes mellitus [T1DM]) and the general child population as comparison groups. METHODS: All Norwegian children born 1992-2012 constituted the study sample...
2016: BMC Family Practice
Emmanuel Fenouillet, Aude Vigouroux, Jean Guillaume Steinberg, Alexandre Chagvardieff, Frédérique Retornaz, Regis Guieu, Yves Jammes
BACKGROUND: Myalgic encephalomyelitis chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a common debilitating disorder associated with an intense fatigue, a reduced physical activity, and an impaired quality of life. There are no established biological markerof the syndrome. The etiology is unknown and its pathogenesis appears to be multifactorial. Various stressors, including intense physical activity, severe infection, and emotional stress are reported in the medical history of ME/CFS patients which raises the question whether any physiological and biological abnormalities usually found in these patients could be indicative of the etiology and/or the quality-of-life impairment...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Robert K Naviaux, Jane C Naviaux, Kefeng Li, A Taylor Bright, William A Alaynick, Lin Wang, Asha Baxter, Neil Nathan, Wayne Anderson, Eric Gordon
More than 2 million people in the United States have myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). We performed targeted, broad-spectrum metabolomics to gain insights into the biology of CFS. We studied a total of 84 subjects using these methods. Forty-five subjects (n = 22 men and 23 women) met diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS by Institute of Medicine, Canadian, and Fukuda criteria. Thirty-nine subjects (n = 18 men and 21 women) were age- and sex-matched normal controls. Males with CFS were 53 (±2...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sigrid Lunde, Einar K Kristoffersen, Dipak Sapkota, Kristin Risa, Olav Dahl, Ove Bruland, Olav Mella, Øystein Fluge
Myalgic Encephalopathy/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disease of unknown etiology. We have previously suggested clinical benefit from B-cell depletion using the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab in a randomized and placebo-controlled study. Prolonged responses were then demonstrated in an open-label phase-II study with maintenance rituximab treatment. Using blood samples from patients in the previous two clinical trials, we investigated quantitative changes in T-lymphocyte subsets, in immunoglobulins, and in serum levels of two B-cell regulating cytokines during follow-up...
2016: PloS One
Sarah Densham, Deborah Williams, Anne Johnson, Julie M Turner-Cobb
OBJECTIVE: Psychological Flexibility (PF) is a relatively new concept in physical health. It can be defined as an overarching process of being able to accept the presence of wanted/unwanted experiences, choosing whether to change or persist in behaviour in response to those experiences. Associations between processes of PF and quality of life (QoL) have been found in long-term health conditions such as chronic pain, PF has not yet been applied to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)...
September 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Amolak S Bansal
Unexplained fatigue is not infrequent in the community. It presents a number of challenges to the primary care physician and particularly if the clinical examination and routine investigations are normal. However, while fatigue is a feature of many common illnesses, it is the main problem in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). This is a poorly understood condition that is accompanied by several additional symptoms which suggest a subtle multisystem dysfunction. Not infrequently it is complicated by sleep disturbance and alterations in attention, memory and mood...
2016: BMC Family Practice
G Lewith, B Stuart, T Chalder, C McDermott, P D White
BACKGROUND: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is characterised by persistent fatigue, disability and a range of other symptoms. The PACE trial was randomised to compare four non-pharmacological treatments for patients with CFS in secondary care clinics. The aims of this sub study were to describe the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the trial sample and to test whether CAM use correlated with an improved outcome. METHOD: CAM use was recorded at baseline and 52weeks...
August 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Kunihisa Miwa
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system dysfunction associated with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) has been postulated as the cause of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). A small heart or reduced left ventricular volume with reduced cardiac output has been reported to be common in patients with ME. The main circulatory blood volume regulators may be down-regulated. METHODS: Plasma levels of the neurohumoral factors that regulate circulatory blood volume were determined in 18 patients with ME and 15 healthy subjects (Controls)...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
Amberly Brigden, Lucy Beasant, William Hollingworth, Chris Metcalfe, Daisy Gaunt, Nicola Mills, Russell Jago, Esther Crawley
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a relatively common and disabling condition, yet there is a limited evidence base for treatment. There is good evidence that graded exercise therapy is moderately effective in adults with CFS/ME, but there is little evidence for the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, acceptability or best method of delivery for paediatric CFS/ME. This study aims to investigate the acceptability and feasibility of carrying out a multicentre randomised controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of graded exercise therapy compared with activity management for children/teenagers who are mildly or moderately affected with CFS/ME...
2016: BMJ Open
Thao Nguyen, Samantha Johnston, Anu Chacko, Damien Gibson, Julia Cepon, Peter Smith, Donald Staines, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik
BACKGROUND: Mast cells (MCs) mediate inflammation through neuropeptides and cytokines, along with histamine and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is an illness characterized by an unexplained disabling fatigue with multiple physiological impairments as well as dysregulated cytokine profiles. OBJECTIVE: To determine mast cell phenotypes in isolated human PBMCs, in healthy controls and in CFS/ME patients. Second, determine receptor expression of RAGE and its ligand high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1)...
June 30, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Ellen Brady, Julia Segar, Caroline Sanders
The internet is increasingly being used as a source of health advice and information by individuals with long term conditions (LTCs). Specifically, online forums allow people to interact with others with similar conditions. However, it is not clear how online health information is assessed by those with LTCs. This study aims to address this gap by exploring how individuals with contested and uncontested LTCs utilise internet forums. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 participants with ME/CFS and 21 participants with type 1 and 2 diabetes and analysed using thematic analysis...
August 2016: Social Science & Medicine
T K Huth, E W Brenu, D R Staines, S M Marshall-Gradisnik
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes encode for activating and inhibitory surface receptors, which are correlated with the regulation of Natural Killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity. Reduced NK cell cytotoxic activity has been consistently reported in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) patients, and KIR haplotypes and allelic polymorphism remain to be investigated. The aim of this article was to conduct a pilot study to examine KIR genotypes, haplotypes, and allelic polymorphism in CFS/ME patients and nonfatigued controls (NFCs)...
2016: Gene Regulation and Systems Biology
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