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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220863/engineering-botulinum-neurotoxin-c1-as-a-molecular-vehicle-for-intra-neuronal-drug-delivery
#1
Edwin J Vazquez-Cintron, Phillip H Beske, Luis Tenezaca, Bao Q Tran, Jonathan M Oyler, Elliot J Glotfelty, Christopher A Angeles, Aurelia Syngkon, Jean Mukherjee, Suzanne R Kalb, Philip A Band, Patrick M McNutt, Charles B Shoemaker, Konstantin Ichtchenko
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) binds to and internalizes its light chain into presynaptic compartments with exquisite specificity. While the native toxin is extremely lethal, bioengineering of BoNT has the potential to eliminate toxicity without disrupting neuron-specific targeting, thereby creating a molecular vehicle capable of delivering therapeutic cargo into the neuronal cytosol. Building upon previous work, we have developed an atoxic derivative (ad) of BoNT/C1 through rationally designed amino acid substitutions in the metalloprotease domain of wild type (wt) BoNT/C1...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220294/chromogranin-a-regulates-vesicle-storage-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-to-influence-insulin-secretion
#2
Joshua Wollam, Sumana Mahata, Matthew Riopel, Angelina Hernandez-Carretero, Angshuman Biswas, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Nai-Wen Chi, Lee E Eiden, Nitish R Mahapatra, Angelo Corti, Nicholas J G Webster, Sushil K Mahata
Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone and a granulogenic factor that regulates secretory pathways in neuroendocrine tissues. In β-cells of the endocrine pancreas, CgA is a major cargo in insulin secretory vesicles. The impact of CgA deficiency on the formation and exocytosis of insulin vesicles is yet to be investigated. In addition, no literature exists on the impact of CgA on mitochondrial function in β-cells. Using three different antibodies, we demonstrate that CgA is processed to vasostatin- and catestatin-containing fragments in pancreatic islet cells...
February 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216217/a-double-snare-technique-for-safe-retrieval-of-embolized-left-atrial-appendage-occluders
#3
Mohamad Alkhouli, Sami Aljohani, Ryan Kucera, Naser Moiduddin, Robert Hull
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215283/why-neighborhoods-and-how-we-study-them-matter-for-adolescent-development
#4
T D Warner, R A Settersten
Adolescence is a sensitive developmental period marked by significant changes that unfold across multiple contexts. As a central context of development, neighborhoods capture-in both physical and social space-the stratification of life chances and differential distribution of resources and risks. For some youth, neighborhoods are springboards to opportunities; for others, they are snares that constrain progress and limit the ability to avoid risks. Despite abundant research on "neighborhood effects," scant attention has been paid to how neighborhoods are a product of social stratification forces that operate simultaneously to affect human development...
2017: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212588/colorectal-polypectomy-and-endoscopic-mucosal-resection-emr-european-society-of-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-esge-clinical-guideline
#5
Monika Ferlitsch, Alan Moss, Cesare Hassan, Pradeep Bhandari, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Gregorios Paspatis, Rodrigo Jover, Cord Langner, Maxime Bronzwaer, Kumanan Nalankilli, Paul Fockens, Rawi Hazzan, Ian M Gralnek, Michael Gschwantler, Elisabeth Waldmann, Philip Jeschek, Daniela Penz, Denis Heresbach, Leon Moons, Arnaud Lemmers, Konstantina Paraskeva, Juergen Pohl, Thierry Ponchon, Jaroslaw Regula, Alessandro Repici, Matthew D Rutter, Nicholas G Burgess, Michael J Bourke
1 ESGE recommends cold snare polypectomy (CSP) as the preferred technique for removal of diminutive polyps (size ≤ 5 mm). This technique has high rates of complete resection, adequate tissue sampling for histology, and low complication rates. (High quality evidence, strong recommendation.) 2 ESGE suggests CSP for sessile polyps 6 - 9 mm in size because of its superior safety profile, although evidence comparing efficacy with hot snare polypectomy (HSP) is lacking. (Moderate quality evidence, weak recommendation...
February 17, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205029/stray-energy-transfer-during-endoscopy
#6
Edward L Jones, Amin Madani, Douglas M Overbey, Asimina Kiourti, Satheesh Bojja-Venkatakrishnan, Dean J Mikami, Jeffrey W Hazey, Todd R Arcomano, Thomas N Robinson
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopy is the standard tool for the evaluation and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. While the risk of complication is low, the use of energy devices can increase complications by 100-fold. The mechanism of increased injury and presence of stray energy is unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine if stray energy transfer occurs during endoscopy and if so, to define strategies to minimize the risk of energy complications. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A gastroscope was introduced into the stomach of an anesthetized pig...
February 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204826/pathway-deviation-based-biomarker-and-multi-effect-target-identification-in-asbestos-related-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-lung
#7
Jiang Du, Lin Zhang
Asbestos-related lung carcinoma is one of the most devastating occupational cancers, and effective techniques for early diagnosis are still lacking. In the present study, a systematic approach was applied to detect a potential biomarker for asbestos-related lung cancer (ARLC); in particular asbestos-related squamous cell carcinoma (ARLC-SCC). Microarray data (GSE23822) were retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 26 ARLC-SCCs and 30 non-asbestos-related squamous cell lung carcinomas (NARLC-SCCs)...
March 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203131/brunner-s-gland-adenoma-a-rare-cause-of-gastrointestinal-bleeding-case-report-and-systematic-review
#8
Michele Sorleto, Annette Timmer-Stranghöner, Helge Wuttig, Oliver Engelhard, Carsten Gartung
Brunner's gland adenoma is an extremely rare benign small bowel neoplasm, often discovered incidentally during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy or radiological diagnostics. In few cases, it tends to cause gastrointestinal hemorrhage or intestinal obstruction. We report here our experience with a 47-year-old woman with a Brunner's gland adenoma of more than 6 cm in size, located in the first part of the duodenum and causing gastrointestinal bleeding. Initially, we performed a partial endoscopic resection using endoloop and snare alternatively to prevent severe bleeding...
January 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202687/oxidized-phagosomal-nox2-is-replenished-from-lysosomes
#9
Ilse Dingjan, Peter T A Linders, Luuk van den Bekerom, Maksim V Baranov, Partho Halder, Martin Ter Beest, Geert van den Bogaart
In dendritic cells, the NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) is recruited to the phagosomal membrane during antigen uptake. NOX2 produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lumen of the phagosome which kill ingested pathogens, delay antigen breakdown and alter the peptide repertoire for presentation to T cells. How the integral membrane component of NOX2, cytochrome b558, traffics to phagosomes is incompletely understood. In this study, we show in dendritic cells derived from human blood-isolated monocytes that cytochrome b558 is initially recruited to the phagosome from the plasma membrane during phagosome formation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192823/incomplete-resection-rate-of-cold-snare-polypectomy-a-prospective-single-arm-observational-study
#10
Noriko Matsuura, Yoji Takeuchi, Takeshi Yamashina, Takashi Ito, Kenji Aoi, Kengo Nagai, Takashi Kanesaka, Fumi Matsui, Mototsugu Fujii, Tomofumi Akasaka, Noboru Hanaoka, Koji Higashino, Yasuhiko Tomita, Yuri Ito, Ryu Ishihara, Hiroyasu Iishi, Noriya Uedo
Background and study aims Cold snare polypectomy (CSP) is considered to be safe for the removal of subcentimeter colorectal polyps. This study aimed to determine the rate of incomplete CSP resection for subcentimeter neoplastic polyps at our center. Patients and methods Patients with small or diminutive adenomas (diameter 1 - 9 mm) were recruited to undergo CSP until no polyp was visible. After CSP, a 1 - 3 mm margin around the resection site was removed using endoscopic mucosal resection. The polyps and resection site marginal specimens were microscopically evaluated...
February 13, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186166/selective-molecular-impairment-of-spontaneous-neurotransmission-modulates-synaptic-efficacy
#11
Devon C Crawford, Denise M O Ramirez, Brent Trauterman, Lisa M Monteggia, Ege T Kavalali
Recent studies suggest that stimulus-evoked and spontaneous neurotransmitter release processes are mechanistically distinct. Here we targeted the non-canonical synaptic vesicle SNAREs Vps10p-tail-interactor-1a (vti1a) and vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP7) to specifically inhibit spontaneous release events and probe whether these events signal independently of evoked release to the postsynaptic neuron. We found that loss of vti1a and VAMP7 impairs spontaneous high-frequency glutamate release and augments unitary event amplitudes by reducing postsynaptic eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) activity subsequent to the reduction in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity...
February 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183176/retraction-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-cooperate-to-block-snare-dependent-vesicle-fusion
#12
Bong-Kyu Choi, Jae-Yeol Kim, Moon-Yong Cha, Inhee Mook-Jung, Yeon-Kyun Shin, Nam Ki Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179460/vamp-7-dependent-secretion-at-the-immune-synapse-regulates-antigen-extraction-and-presentation-in-b-lymphocytes
#13
Dorian Obino, Jheimmy Diaz, Juan José Sáez, Jorge Ibañez-Vega, Pablo J Sáez, Martina Alamo, Danielle Lankar, Maria-Isabel Yuseff
Recognition of surface-tethered antigens (Ag) by B cells leads to the formation of an immune synapse that promotes Ag uptake for presentation onto MHC-II molecules. Extraction of immobilized antigens at the immune synapse of B cells relies on the local secretion of lysosomes, which are recruited to the antigen contact site by polarization of their microtubule network. Although conserved polarity proteins have been implicated in coordinating cytoskeleton remodeling with lysosome trafficking, the cellular machinery associated with lysosomal vesicles that regulates their docking and secretion at the synaptic interface has not been defined...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179089/a-snare-assisted-peroral-direct-choledochoscopy-and-pancreatoscopy-using-an-ultra-slim-upper-endoscope-a-case-series-study
#14
Yong-Hui Huang, Hong Chang, Wei Yao, Yao-Peng Zhang, Ke Li, Ye Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness and safety of a new snare-assisted peroral direct choledochoscopy/pancreatoscopy (PDCPS) technique. METHODS: From November 2014 through December 2016, 20 consecutive patients with indications for PDCPS were enrolled in this observational study. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography was initially performed using a conventional duodenoscope, and endoscopic papillary balloon dilation was performed. Next, an ultra-slim endoscope was inserted to perform the PDCPS; a snare tightened around the end of the scope's bending section facilitated its entry into the common bile duct (CBD)...
January 20, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168212/novel-synaptobrevin-1-mutation-causes-fatal-congenital-myasthenic-syndrome
#15
Xin-Ming Shen, Rosana H Scola, Paulo J Lorenzoni, Cláudia S K Kay, Lineu C Werneck, Joan Brengman, Duygu Selcen, Andrew G Engel
OBJECTIVE: To identify the molecular basis and elucidate the pathogenesis of a fatal congenital myasthenic syndrome. METHODS: We performed clinical electrophysiology studies, exome and Sanger sequencing, and analyzed functional consequences of the identified mutation. RESULTS: Clinical electrophysiology studies of the patient revealed several-fold potentiation of the evoked muscle action potential by high frequency nerve stimulation pointing to a presynaptic defect...
February 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163686/the-multifaceted-role-of-snare-proteins-in-membrane-fusion
#16
REVIEW
Jing Han, Kristyna Pluhackova, Rainer A Böckmann
Membrane fusion is a key process in all living organisms that contributes to a variety of biological processes including viral infection, cell fertilization, as well as intracellular transport, and neurotransmitter release. In particular, the various membrane-enclosed compartments in eukaryotic cells need to exchange their contents and communicate across membranes. Efficient and controllable fusion of biological membranes is known to be driven by cooperative action of SNARE proteins, which constitute the central components of the eukaryotic fusion machinery responsible for fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163431/removal-of-a-retained-intracardiac-radiolucent-guidewire-fragment-using-an-atrieve%C3%A2-vascular-snare-using-combined-fluoroscopy-and-transesophageal-echocardiography-guidance-in-an-infant
#17
Asif Padiyath, Eudice E Fontenot, Boban P Abraham
Retained intravascular foreign body is a well-known complication of central venous access placement in children as well as adults. Most of these foreign bodies are radio-opaque and hence are removed under fluoroscopy guidance. In our case, we describe the removal of an intracardiac radiolucent foreign body in an infant utilizing a combination technique - transesophageal echocardiogram and fluoroscopy.
January 2017: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163042/munc18b-increases-insulin-granule-fusion-restoring-deficient-insulin-secretion-in-type-2-diabetes-human-and-goto-kakizaki-rat-islets-with-improvement-in-glucose-homeostasis
#18
Tairan Qin, Tao Liang, Dan Zhu, Youhou Kang, Li Xie, Subhankar Dolai, Shuzo Sugita, Noriko Takahashi, Claes-Goran Ostenson, Kate Banks, Herbert Y Gaisano
Reduced pancreatic islet levels of Munc18a/SNARE complex proteins have been postulated to contribute to the deficient glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in type-2 diabetes (T2D). Whereas much previous work has purported Munc18a/SNARE complex (Syntaxin-1A/VAMP-2/SNAP25) to be primarily involved in predocked secretory granule (SG) fusion, less is known about newcomer SGs that undergo minimal docking time at the plasma membrane before fusion. Newcomer SG fusion has been postulated to involve a distinct SM/SNARE complex (Munc18b/Syntaxin-3/VAMP8/SNAP25), whose levels we find also reduced in islets of T2D humans and T2D Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats...
January 22, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160332/histopathological-analysis-of-cold-snare-polypectomy-and-its-indication-for-colorectal-polyps-10-14mm-in-diameter
#19
Ryohei Hirose, Naohisa Yoshida, Takaaki Murakami, Kiyoshi Ogiso, Yutaka Inada, Osamu Dohi, Tetsuya Okayama, Kazuhiro Kamada, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Osamu Handa, Takeshi Ishikawa, Hideyuki Konishi, Yuji Naito, Yasuko Fujita, Mitsuo Kishimoto, Akio Yanagisawa, Yoshito Itoh
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cold snare polypectomy (CSP) is commonly used for treating colorectal polyps <10 mm in diameter. We evaluated the histopathological and safety of CSP for larger polyps. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 1,006 colorectal polyps resected with CSP. The indication for CSP was polyps 2-14 mm that were diagnosed as benign neoplastic polyp by magnifying endoscopy. Various clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. Multivariate analyses were utilized to determine the independent risk factors for failure of complete CSP resection...
February 3, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160149/dynamic-reorganization-of-the-endomembrane-system-during-spermatogenesis-in-marchantia-polymorpha
#20
Naoki Minamino, Takehiko Kanazawa, Ryuichi Nishihama, Katsuyuki T Yamato, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Takayuki Kohchi, Akihiko Nakano, Takashi Ueda
The processes involved in sexual reproduction have been diversified during plant evolution. Whereas charales, bryophytes, pteridophytes, and some gymnosperms utilize motile sperm as male gametes, in other gymnosperms and angiosperms the immotile sperm cells are delivered to the egg cells through elongated pollen tubes. During formation of the motile sperms, cells undergo a dynamic morphological transformation including drastic changes in shape and the generation of locomotor architecture. The molecular mechanism involved in this process remains mostly unknown...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
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