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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931085/hcv-induced-autophagosomes-are-generated-via-homotypic-fusion-of-phagophores-that-mediate-hcv-rna-replication
#1
Linya Wang, Ja Yeon Kim, Helene Minyi Liu, Michael M C Lai, Jing-Hsiung James Ou
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces autophagy to promote its replication, including its RNA replication, which can take place on double-membrane vesicles known as autophagosomes. However, how HCV induces the biogenesis of autophagosomes and how HCV RNA replication complex may be assembled on autophagosomes were largely unknown. During autophagy, crescent membrane structures known as phagophores first appear in the cytoplasm, which then progress to become autophagosomes. By conducting electron microscopy and in vitro membrane fusion assay, we found that phagophores induced by HCV underwent homotypic fusion to generate autophagosomes in a process dependent on the SNARE protein syntaxin 7 (STX7)...
September 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927260/the-roles-of-the-snare-protein-sed5-in-autophagy-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Shenshen Zou, Dan Sun, Yongheng Liang
Autophagy is a degradation pathway in eukaryotic cells in which aging proteins and organelles are sequestered into double-membrane vesicles, termed autophagosomes, which fuse with vacuoles to hydrolyze cargo. The key step in autophagy is the formation of autophagosomes, which requires different kinds of vesicles, including COPII vesicles and Atg9- containing vesicles, to transport lipid double-membranes to the phagophore assembly site (PAS). In yeast, the cis-Golgi localized t-SNARE protein Sed5 plays a role in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi and intra-Golgi vesicular transport...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926135/a-spatial-approach-to-combatting-wildlife-crime
#3
Sally C Faulkner, Michael C A Stevens, Stephanie S Romañach, Peter A Lindsey, Steven C Le Comber
Poaching can have devastating impacts on animal and plant numbers, and in many countries has reached crisis levels, with illegal hunters employing increasingly sophisticated techniques. Here, we show how geographic profiling - a mathematical technique originally developed in criminology and recently applied to animal foraging and epidemiology - can be adapted for use in investigations of wildlife crime, using data from an eight-year study in Savé Valley Conservancy, Zimbabwe that in total includes more than 10,000 incidents of illegal hunting and the deaths of 6,454 wild animals...
September 19, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925353/sec17-%C3%AE-snap-and-an-sm-tethering-complex-regulate%C3%A2-the-outcome-of-snare-zippering-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#4
Matthew L Schwartz, Daniel P Nickerson, Braden T Lobingier, Rachael L Plemel, Mengtong Duan, Cortney G Angers, Michael Zick, Alexey J Merz
Zippering of SNARE complexes spanning docked membranes is essential for most intracellular fusion events. Here we explore how SNARE regulators operate on discrete zippering states. The formation of a metastable trans-complex, catalyzed by HOPS and its SM subunit Vps33, is followed by subsequent zippering transitions that increase the probability of fusion. Operating independently of Sec18 (NSF) catalysis, Sec17 (α-SNAP) either inhibits or stimulates SNARE-mediated fusion. If HOPS or Vps33 are absent, Sec17 inhibits fusion at an early stage...
September 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925337/re-snare-ride-a-bailout-technique-to-catheterize-target-vessels-with-unfriendly-anatomy-in-branched-endovascular-aortic-repair
#5
August Ysa, Ederi Mikelarena
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925335/response-to-re-snare-ride-a-bailout-technique-to-catheterize-target-vessels-with-unfriendly-anatomy-in-branched-endovascular-aortic-repair
#6
Marcelo Ferreira, Athanasios Katsargyris, Eduardo Rodrigues, Diego Ferreira, Rodrigo Cunha, Guilherme Bicalho, Gustavo Oderich, Eric L G Verhoeven
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924180/%C3%AE-snap-is-expressed-in-mouse-ovarian-granulosa-cells-and-plays-a-key-role-in-folliculogenesis-and-female-fertility
#7
Alexis Arcos, Matilde de Paola, Diego Gianetti, Diego Acuña, Zahady D Velásquez, María Paz Miró, Gabriela Toro, Bryan Hinrichsen, Rosa Iris Muñoz, Yimo Lin, Gonzalo A Mardones, Pamela Ehrenfeld, Francisco J Rivera, Marcela A Michaut, Luis Federico Batiz
The balance between ovarian folliculogenesis and follicular atresia is critical for female fertility and is strictly regulated by a complex network of neuroendocrine and intra-ovarian signals. Despite the numerous functions executed by granulosa cells (GCs) in ovarian physiology, the role of multifunctional proteins able to simultaneously coordinate/modulate several cellular pathways is unclear. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (α-SNAP) is a multifunctional protein that participates in SNARE-mediated membrane fusion events...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914590/canine-salivary-glands-analysis-of-rab-and-snare-protein-expression-and-snare-complex-formation-with-diverse-tissue-properties
#8
Hiroshi Gomi, Hiromi Osawa, Rie Uno, Tadashi Yasui, Masahiro Hosaka, Seiji Torii, Azuma Tsukise
The comparative structure and expression of salivary components and vesicular transport proteins in the canine major salivary glands were investigated. Histochemical analysis revealed that the morphology of the five major salivary glands-parotid, submandibular, polystomatic sublingual, monostomatic sublingual, and zygomatic glands-was greatly diverse. Immunoblot analysis revealed that expression levels of α-amylase and antimicrobial proteins, such as lysozyme, lactoperoxidase, and lactoferrin, differed among the different glands...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905875/structural-and-functional-characterization-of-the-interaction-of-snapin-with-the-dopamine-transporter-differential-modulation-of-psychostimulant-actions
#9
Amaia M Erdozain, Stéphanie De Gois, Véronique Bernard, Victor Gorgievski, Nicolas Pietrancosta, Sylvie Dumas, Carlos E Macedo, Peter Vanhoutte, Jorge E Ortega, J Javier Meana, Eleni T Tzavara, Vincent Vialou, Bruno Giros
The importance of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission is emphasized by its direct implication in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. The DA transporter (DAT), target of psychostimulant drugs, is the key protein that regulates spatial and temporal activity of DA in the synaptic cleft via the rapid reuptake of DA into the presynaptic terminal. There is strong evidence suggesting that DAT-interacting proteins may play a role in its function and regulation. Performing a yeast-2-hybrid screening, we identified snapin, a SNARE-associated protein implicated in synaptic transmission, as a new binding partner of the carboxyl terminal of DAT...
September 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904763/winter-bait-stations-as-a-multispecies-survey-tool
#10
Lacy Robinson, Samuel A Cushman, Michael K Lucid
Winter bait stations are becoming a commonly used technique for multispecies inventory and monitoring but a technical evaluation of their effectiveness is lacking. Bait stations have three components: carcass attractant, remote camera, and hair snare. Our 22,975 km(2) mountainous study area was stratified with a 5 × 5 km sampling grid centered on northern Idaho and including portions of Washington, Montana, and British Columbia. From 2010-14, we conducted 563 sampling sessions at 497 bait stations in 453 5 × 5 km cells...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898922/cold-versus-hot-endoscopic-mucosal-resection-for-nonpedunculated-colorectal-polyps-sized-6-10-mm-a-randomized-trial
#11
Vasilios Papastergiou, Konstantina D Paraskeva, Maria Fragaki, Ioannis Dimas, Emmanouil Vardas, Angeliki Theodoropoulou, Nicoletta Mathou, Athanasios Giannakopoulos, Konstantinos Karmiris, Afroditi Mpitouli, Dimitra Apessou, Linda Giannikaki, John A Karagiannis, Grigorios Chlouverakis, Gregorios A Paspatis
Background and study aims Cold snare polypectomy is an established method for the resection of small colorectal polyps; however, significant incomplete resection rates still leave room for improvement. We aimed to assess the efficacy of cold snare endoscopic mucosal resection (CS-EMR), compared with hot snare endoscopic mucosal resection (HS-EMR), for nonpedunculated polyps sized 6 - 10 mm. Patients and methods This study was a dual-center, randomized, noninferiority trial. Consecutive adult patients with at least one nonpedunculated polyp sized 6 - 10 mm were enrolled...
September 12, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895532/a-synaptotagmin-suppressor-screen-indicates-snare-binding-controls-the-timing-and-ca-2-cooperativity-of-vesicle-fusion
#12
Zhuo Guan, Maria Bykhovskaia, Ramon A Jorquera, Roger Bryan Sutton, Yulia Akbergenova, J Troy Littleton
The synaptic vesicle Ca(2+) sensor Synaptotagmin binds Ca(2+) through its two C2 domains to trigger membrane interactions. Beyond membrane insertion by the C2 domains, other requirements for Synaptotagmin activity are still being elucidated. To identify key residues within Synaptotagmin required for vesicle cycling, we took advantage of observations that mutations in the C2B domain Ca(2+)-binding pocket dominantly disrupt release from invertebrates to humans. We performed an intragenic screen for suppressors of lethality induced by expression of Synaptotagmin C2B Ca(2+)-binding mutants in Drosophila...
September 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894611/cigarette-lighter-fluid-induced-gastric-ulcer-a-severe-complication-of-delayed-foreign-body-removal
#13
Ciel Harris, Lauren Stemboroski, Asim Shuja
The majority of foreign bodies ingested pass uneventfully through the gastrointestinal tract without endoscopic intervention. Nevertheless, certain ingested objects pose a greater risk for complications and are more challenging to remove than others. This case report describes a 49-year-old male who swallowed a cigarette lighter causing a gastric ulcer. The lighter was successfully removed by flexible endoscopy using a polypectomy snare. Urgent removal is required due to the shape of the object and its hazardous contents...
2017: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893709/novel-application-of-branched-endograft-for-preservation-of-pelvic-circulation
#14
Roy Miler, Jeanwan Kang, Patrick Sowa, Matthew Eagleton, F Ezequiel Parodi
INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: Endovascular repair of a proximal anastomotic pseudoaneurysm of an end-to-side aortobifemoral bypass (ABF) can lead to pelvic ischemia. We present a novel application of branched aortic endograft to repair such pseudoaneurysm while preserving flow into the ABF and native aortoiliac system. METHODS: A 71 year old male with history of aortoiliac occlusive disease resulting in lifestyle limiting claudication was treated with an aortobifemoral bypass in 1999...
September 8, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887593/v-snare-function-in-chromaffin-cells
#15
REVIEW
Madhurima Dhara, Ralf Mohrmann, Dieter Bruns
Vesicle fusion is elementary for intracellular trafficking and release of signal molecules, thus providing the basis for diverse forms of intercellular communication like hormonal regulation or synaptic transmission. A detailed characterization of the mechanisms underlying exocytosis is key to understand how the nervous system integrates information and generates appropriate responses to stimuli. The machinery for vesicular release employs common molecular players in different model systems including neuronal and neuroendocrine cells, in particular members of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) protein family, Sec1/Munc18-like proteins, and other accessory factors...
September 8, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887151/altered-synaptobrevin-ii-trafficking-in-neurons-expressing-a-synaptophysin-mutation-associated-with-a-severe-neurodevelopmental-disorder
#16
Callista B Harper, Grazia M S Mancini, Marjon van Slegtenhorst, Michael A Cousin
Following exocytosis, synaptic vesicles (SVs) have to be reformed with the correct complement of proteins in the correct stoichiometry to ensure continued neurotransmission. Synaptophysin is a highly abundant, integral SV protein necessary for the efficient retrieval of the SV SNARE protein, synaptobrevin II (sybII). However the molecular mechanism underpinning synaptophysin-dependent sybII retrieval is still unclear. We recently identified a male patient with severe intellectual disability, hypotonia, epilepsy and callosal agenesis who has a point mutation in the juxtamembrane region of the fourth transmembrane domain of synaptophysin (T198I)...
September 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885722/astrocytic-signaling-supports-hippocampal-prefrontal-theta-synchronization-and-cognitive-function
#17
Vanessa Morais Sardinha, Sónia Guerra-Gomes, Inês Caetano, Gabriela Tavares, Manuella Martins, Joana Santos Reis, Joana Sofia Correia, Andreia Teixeira-Castro, Luísa Pinto, Nuno Sousa, João Filipe Oliveira
Astrocytes interact with neurons at the cellular level through modulation of synaptic formation, maturation, and function, but the impact of such interaction into behavior remains unclear. Here, we studied the dominant negative SNARE (dnSNARE) mouse model to dissect the role of astrocyte-derived signaling in corticolimbic circuits, with implications for cognitive processing. We found that the blockade of gliotransmitter release in astrocytes triggers a critical desynchronization of neural theta oscillations between dorsal hippocampus and prefrontal cortex...
September 8, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882577/assessing-colon-polypectomy-competency-and-its-association-with-established-quality-metrics
#18
Anna M Duloy, Tonya R Kaltenbach, Rajesh N Keswani
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inadequate polypectomy leads to incomplete resection, interval colorectal cancer, and adverse events. However, polypectomy competency is rarely reported and quality metrics are lacking. The primary aims of this study were to (1) assess polypectomy competency among a cohort of gastroenterologists, and (2) measure the correlation between polypectomy competency and established colonoscopy quality metrics (adenoma detection rate [ADR] and withdrawal time [WT]). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study to assess polypectomy competency amongst 13 high-volume screening colonoscopists at an academic medical center...
September 4, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880475/recent-new-insights-into-the-role-of-snare-and-associated-proteins-in-insulin-granule-exocytosis
#19
REVIEW
Herbert Y Gaisano
Initial work on the exocytotic machinery of predocked insulin secretory granules (SGs) in pancreatic β-cells mimicked the SNARE hypothesis work in neurons, which includes SM/SNARE complex and associated priming proteins, fusion clamps and Ca(2+) sensors. However, β-cell SGs, unlike neuronal synaptic vesicles, exhibit a biphasic secretory response that requires additional distinct features in exocytosis including newcomer SGs that undergo minimal docking time at the plasma membrane (PM) before fusion and multi-SG (compound) fusion...
September 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880148/reconciling-isothermal-titration-calorimetry-analyses-of-interactions-between-complexin-and-truncated-snare-complexes
#20
Eric A Prinslow, Chad A Brautigam, Josep Rizo
Neurotransmitter release depends on the SNARE complex formed by syntaxin-1, synaptobrevin and SNAP-25, as well as on complexins, which bind to the SNARE complex and play active and inhibitory roles. A crystal structure of a Complexin-I fragment bearing a so-called 'superclamp' mutation bound to a truncated SNARE complex lacking the C-terminus of the synaptobrevin SNARE motif (SNAREΔ60) suggested that an 'accessory' α-helix of Complexin-I inhibits release by inserting into the C-terminus of the SNARE complex...
September 7, 2017: ELife
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