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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330887/loss-of-vamp5-in-mice-results-in-duplication-of-the-ureter-and-insufficient-expansion-of-the-lung
#1
Maiko Ikezawa, Yuki Tajika, Hitoshi Ueno, Tohru Murakami, Naokazu Inoue, Hiroshi Yorifuji
BACKGROUND: VAMP5 is a member of the SNARE protein family, which regulate the docking and fusion of membrane vesicles within cells. Previously, we reported ubiquitous expression of VAMP5 proteins in various organs except the brain and small intestine. However, the precise roles of VAMP5 in each organ remain unclear. To explore the roles of VAMP5 in vivo, we generated VAMP5 knockout (KO) mice. RESULTS: VAMP5 KO mice showed low birth rate and low body weight. KO embryos grew normally in the uterus, and tended to die around birth...
January 13, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320738/trapping-of-syntaxin1a-in-presynaptic-nanoclusters-by-a-clinically-relevant-general-anesthetic
#2
Adekunle T Bademosi, James Steeves, Shanker Karunanithi, Oressia H Zalucki, Rachel S Gormal, Shu Liu, Elsa Lauwers, Patrik Verstreken, Victor Anggono, Frederic A Meunier, Bruno van Swinderen
Propofol is the most commonly used general anesthetic in humans. Our understanding of its mechanism of action has focused on its capacity to potentiate inhibitory systems in the brain. However, it is unknown whether other neural mechanisms are involved in general anesthesia. Here, we demonstrate that the synaptic release machinery is also a target. Using single-particle tracking photoactivation localization microscopy, we show that clinically relevant concentrations of propofol and etomidate restrict syntaxin1A mobility on the plasma membrane, whereas non-anesthetic analogs produce the opposite effect and increase syntaxin1A mobility...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318373/segmental-clamp-and-distal-perfusion-technique-for-reducing-myocardial-ischemia-during-coronary-onlay-grafting-on-a-beating-heart
#3
Naoki Minato, Takayuki Okada, Shinya Kanemoto, Nobuya Zempo
We present a segmental clamp with distal perfusion technique to reduce myocardial ischemia during onlay grafting, on a beating heart. After a proximal coronary arteriotomy for 2-3 cm, the distal artery is perfused through a cannula, with femoral arterial blood (distal perfusion with external shunt). During proximal and distal coronary snare clamping with distal perfusion, onlay anastomosis is performed, from the heel toward the point of cannula insertion. We then move the proximal clamp to the onlay area and open the graft, to get early proximal coronary reperfusion...
January 9, 2018: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317735/syntaxins-on-granules-promote-docking-of-granules-via-interactions-with-munc18
#4
Maria Borisovska
SNAREs and SNARE-binding accessory proteins are believed to be central molecular components of neurotransmitter release, although the precise sequence of molecular events corresponding to distinct physiological states is unclear. The mechanism of docking of vesicles to the plasma membrane remains elusive, as the anchoring protein residing on vesicles is unknown. Here I show that targeting small amounts of syntaxin to granules by transmembrane domain alteration leads to a substantial enhancement of syntaxin clustering beneath granules, as well as of morphological granule docking...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317270/clinical-outcome-of-endoscopic-mucosal-resection-of-sporadic-nonampullary-duodenal-adenoma-a-10-year-retrospective
#5
Yutaka Tomizawa, Gregory G Ginsberg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sporadic non-ampullary duodenal adenomas (SNADAs), although uncommon, pose clinical challenges. Because SNADAs have malignant potential, endoscopic or surgical resection is generally recommended. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is increasingly used for resection of SNADAs, but large-scale data on natural history after EMR are scarce. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical outcome of EMR for SNADAs and the natural history after EMR from a large single-operator experience with dedicated follow-up...
January 6, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314555/lost-and-found-coronary-stent-retrieval-and-review-of-literature
#6
Shahbaz A Malik, Emmanouil S Brilakis, Vincent Pompili, Yiannis S Chatzizisis
A 61-year-old man with a history of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the mid right coronary artery (RCA) with a drug eluting stent (DES), presented with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography demonstrated complex disease of the distal RCA as well as in-stent stenosis of the previously placed mid RCA stent. The patient underwent bifurcation PCI of the distal RCA followed by attempted intervention with a DES on the mid RCA lesion. The stent could not cross the lesion and eventually became dissociated from its delivery system...
January 4, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311726/cannula-guided-snare-combined-with-endoclip-a-novel-technique-to-assist-in-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-with-mucosal-traction
#7
Qiang Zhang, Zhen Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300985/disruption-of-ossec3a-increases-the-content-of-salicylic-acid-and-induces-plant-defense-responses-in-rice
#8
Jin Ma, Jun Chen, Min Wang, Yulong Ren, Shuai Wang, Cailin Lei, Zhijun Cheng, Sodmergen
The exocyst, an evolutionarily conserved octameric protein complex involved in exocytosis, has been reported to be involved in diverse aspects of morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. However, the molecular functions of such exocytotic molecules in rice are poorly understood. Here, we examined the molecular function of OsSEC3A, an important subunit of the exocyst complex in rice. The OsSEC3A gene is expressed in various organs, and OsSEC3A has the potential ability to participate in the exocyst complex by interacting with several other exocyst subunits...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298905/gliotransmission-beyond-black-and-white
#9
Iaroslav Savtchouk, Andrea Volterra
Astrocytes are highly complex cells with many emerging putative roles in brain function. Of these, gliotransmission (active information transfer from glia to neurons) has probably the widest implications on our understanding of how the brain works: do astrocytes really contribute to information processing within the neural circuitry? "Positive evidence" for this stems from work of multiple laboratories reporting many examples of modulatory chemical signaling from astrocytes to neurons in the timeframe of hundreds of milliseconds to several minutes...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288506/the-usefulness-of-argon-plasma-coagulation-ablation-subsequent-to-endoscopic-snare-papillectomy-for-ampullary-adenoma
#10
Kwangwoo Nam, Tae Jun Song, Raymond E Kim, Dong Hui Cho, Min Keun Cho, Dongwook Oh, Do Hyun Park, Sang Soo Lee, Dong-Wan Seo, Sung Koo Lee, Myung-Hwan Kim, Seunghee Baek
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Endoscopic snare papillectomy (ESP) is an effective treatment for ampullary adenoma. Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is widely used as an additional method to control bleeding or ablate the residual tumor. However, the efficacy of this procedure has not yet been fully evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of APC as an additional method to ESP. METHODS: The patients who underwent ESP for ampullary adenoma between September 2005 and September 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
December 29, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284677/munc18c-depletion-attenuates-caerulein-hyperstimulation-induced-pancreatitis
#11
Subhankar Dolai, Tao Liang, Abrahim I Orabi, Li Xie, Douglas Holmyard, Tanveer A Javed, Nestor A Fernandez, Huanli Xie, Mark S Cattral, Debbie C Thurmond, Peter Thorn, Herbert Y Gaisano
Epithelial pancreatic acinar cells perform crucial functions in food digestion, and acinar cell homoeostasis required for secretion of digestive enzymes relies on SNARE-mediated exocytosis. The ubiquitously expressed Sec1/Munc18 protein mammalian uncoordinated-18c (Munc18c) regulates membrane fusion by activating syntaxin-4 (STX-4) to bind cognate SNARE proteins to form a SNARE complex that mediates exocytosis in many cell types. However, in the acinar cell, Munc18c's functions in exocytosis and homeostasis remain inconclusive...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281629/loss-of-function-of-the-ciliopathy-protein-cc2d2a-disorganizes-the-vesicle-fusion-machinery-at-the-periciliary-membrane-and-indirectly-affects-rab8-trafficking-in-zebrafish-photoreceptors
#12
Irene Ojeda Naharros, Matthias Gesemann, José M Mateos, Gery Barmettler, Austin Forbes, Urs Ziegler, Stephan C F Neuhauss, Ruxandra Bachmann-Gagescu
Ciliopathies are human disorders caused by dysfunction of primary cilia, ubiquitous organelles involved in transduction of environmental signals such as light sensation in photoreceptors. Concentration of signal detection proteins such as opsins in the ciliary membrane is achieved by RabGTPase-regulated polarized vesicle trafficking and by a selective barrier at the ciliary base, the transition zone (TZ). Dysfunction of the TZ protein CC2D2A causes Joubert/Meckel syndromes in humans and loss of ciliary protein localization in animal models, including opsins in retinal photoreceptors...
December 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274147/doc2b-acts-as-a-calcium-sensor-for-vesicle-priming-requiring-synaptotagmin-1-munc13-2-and-snares
#13
Sébastien Houy, Alexander J Groffen, Iwona Ziomkiewicz, Matthijs Verhage, Paulo S Pinheiro, Jakob Balslev Sørensen
Doc2B is a cytosolic protein with binding sites for Munc13 and Tctex-1 (dynein light chain), and two C2-domains that bind to phospholipids, Ca2+ and SNAREs. Whether Doc2B functions as a calcium sensor akin to synaptotagmins, or in other calcium-independent or calcium-dependent capacities is debated. We here show by mutation and overexpression that Doc2B plays distinct roles in two sequential priming steps in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells. Mutating Ca2+-coordinating aspartates in the C2A-domain localizes Doc2B permanently at the plasma membrane, and renders an upstream priming step Ca2+-independent, whereas a separate function in downstream priming depends on SNARE-binding, Ca2+-binding to the C2B-domain of Doc2B, interaction with ubMunc13-2 and the presence of synaptotagmin-1...
December 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250685/atretic-aortic-coarctation-transradial-approach-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Elena Eliza Cinteză, Cristina Filip, Andrada Bogdan, Alin Marcel Nicolescu, Hyam Mahmoud
Stenting of aortic coarctation became the method of choice. In severe aortic coarctation, when retrograde crossing of the coarctation is impossible, a secondary approach with antegrade arterial crossing proved to be the solution in many cases. Here we report two cases of severe aortic coarctation in males aged 12 and 14, respectively, in which we used a secondary transradial approach (right and left) followed by guidewire snaring. For the first case, a right radial-right femoral arterio-arterial circuit was created, which offered a stable position during stent implantation...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250580/a-prospective-comparison-of-cold-snare-polypectomy-using-traditional-or-dedicated-cold-snares-for-the-resection-of-small-sessile-colorectal-polyps
#15
Jeremy P Dwyer, Jonathan Y C Tan, Paul Urquhart, Robyn Secomb, Catherine Bunn, John Reynolds, Richard La Nauze, William Kemp, Stuart Roberts, Gregor Brown
Background and study aims:  The evidence for efficacy and safety of cold snare polypectomy is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the completeness of resection and safety of cold snare polypectomy, using either traditional or dedicated cold snares. Patients and methods:  This was a prospective, non-randomized study performed at a single tertiary hospital. Adult patients with at least one colorectal polyp (size ≤ 10 mm) removed by cold snare were included...
November 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249913/new-strategies-to-improve-polypectomy-during-colonoscopy
#16
Michael B Wallace
In the United States, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The most effective strategy for prevention of CRC is to screen for and remove precancerous polyps. There are various ways to screen for CRC. In the United States, the most common method is colonoscopy. Polyps are classified primarily through pathology. Size is the primary risk factor for malignancy. In general, the bigger the polyp, the greater the risk for malignancy. There are 3 basic options for removal: standard polypectomy; advanced resection techniques, known as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD); and surgical removal...
October 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238583/a-modified-wire-loop-snare-technique-for-the-retrieval-of-inferior-vena-cava-filter-with-embedded-hook
#17
Yuewei Wang, Xiaomei Guan, Haofu Wang
Common obstacles to successful retrieval of retrievable inferior vena cave filter include embedded filter hook and severe tilt of the filter. We described a modified wire-loop snare technique using self-made fishhook-like pigtail catheter and 11-F-long sheath to retrieve a severe tilted filter with embedded hook successfully. The modified wire-loop snare technique is simple and effective requiring only standard equipment and single venous access. This technique may be suitable for some types of retrievable filter with embedded hook...
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237821/sequential-actions-of-phosphatidylinositol-phosphates-regulate-phagosome-lysosome-fusion
#18
Andreas Jeschke, Albert Haas
Phagosomes mature into phagolysosomes by sequential fusion with early endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes. Phagosome-with-lysosome fusion (PLF) results in the delivery of lysosomal hydrolases into phagosomes and in digestion of the cargo. The machinery that drives PLF has been little investigated. Using a cell-free system, we recently identified the phosphoinositide lipids (PIPs) phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] as regulators of PLF. We now report the identification and the PIP requirements of four distinct sub-reactions of PLF...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235384/technique-for-fenestrated-stent-graft-implantation-as-a-proximal-extension-to-a-previous-fenestrated-endovascular-repair-for-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#19
Konstantinos Spanos, Nikolaos Tsilimparis, Franziska Heidemann, Fiona Rohlffs, Christian-Alexander Behrendt, Eike Sebastian Debus, Tilo Kölbel
PURPOSE: To describe planning and a technique for fenestrated endovascular repair of a large Crawford type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm after previous 2-fenestration endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR). TECHNIQUE: The first FEVAR procedure performed at another center implanted a standard Zenith device with 2 fenestrations and 1 scallop for a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. The diameter of the Crawford type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm had progressed from 68 to 75 mm within a year after the FEVAR...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234672/vamp8-mucin-exocytosis-attenuates-intestinal-pathogenesis-by-entamoeba-histolytica
#20
COMMENT
Steve Cornick, France Moreau, Herbert Y Gaisano, Kris Chadee
The intestinal mucosa encounters a barrage of ingested insults within the host yet under homeostasis elegantly facilitates nutrient absorption and sustenance of the commensal microbiota. An essential defence mechanism employed by the host is limiting the spatial niche various microbes may occupy as executed by the fluid mucus layer. Pathogens that violate their restricted niche within the intestinal mucosa are first expelled by robust mucus secretion from goblet cells thus by-passing the need for an immune response...
November 27, 2017: Microbial Cell
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