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Enzyme & taste

Chao-Kun Wei, Kiran Thakur, Dun-Hua Liu, Jian-Guo Zhang, Zhao-Jun Wei
We aimed to simplify the enzymolysis process for flaxseed protein hydrolysates production as Maillard reaction products (MRPs) to generate different flavor characteristics. More than 50% activity of immobilized enzymes (Alcalase and Flavourzyme) was retained after repeated use. Subsequently, after five weeks, the activities of the immobilized enzymes were also observed to be higher after storage at 4 °C. The optimum conditions for production of flaxseed protein hydrolysates using sequential enzymatic hydrolysis were as follow: 3,000 U/g of Alcalase at 60 °C and pH 8...
October 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Michael A Kohanski, Alan D Workman, Neil N Patel, Li-Yin Hung, Julie P Shtraks, Bei Chen, Mariel Blasetti, Laurel Doghramji, David W Kennedy, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, De'Broski R Herbert, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: IL-25 can function as an early signal for the respiratory Type 2 response characteristic of allergic asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). In the mouse gut, tuft cells are the epithelial source of IL-25. However, the source of human airway epithelial IL-25 has remained elusive. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to determine if the solitary chemosensory cell (SCC) is the predominant source of IL-25 in the sinonasal epithelium...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Zahra Khorasanchi, Mojtaba Shafiee, Farnoush Kermanshahi, Majid Khazaei, Mikhail Ryzhikov, Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Behnoush Kermanshahi, Gordon A Ferns, Amir Avan, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian
BACKGROUND: Saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is a highly valued agricultural product that is used mainly as a food coloring and flavoring agent. Three main secondary metabolites of Crocus sativus including crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal are responsible for the color, the bitter taste and for the odor and aroma, respectively. As a component of traditional medicine, saffron has been utilized as a medicinal herb for treating various ailments including cramps, asthma, liver disease, menstruation disorders, pain, and in the pathogenesis of cancer...
April 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Hasan Hüseyin İpçak, Ahmet Alçiçek
Background: In recent years, with the prohibition of antibiotics used as growth stimulants in the nutrition of farm animals, researchers have searched for alternative natural and reliable products in order to be able to sustain the developments experienced during the use of antibiotics and to overcome the possible inconveniences. In this context, studies on evaluation of essential oils in poultry nutrition have been reported to improve the utilization of feed, stimulate the release of digestive enzymes, increase absorption in the stomach and intestines, antimicrobial and anti-parasitic effects and thus, can be an alternative to antibiotics and improve meat quality as well...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Mahbod Sahebi, Mohamed M Hanafi, Hasmah Mohidin, M Y Rafii, Parisa Azizi, Abu Seman Idris, A Fariz, Rambod Abiri, Sima Taheri, Mehdi Moradpoor
Oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq) is one of the major sources of edible oil. Reducing the effect of Ganoderma, main cause of basal stem rot (BSR) on oil palm, is the main propose of this study. Understanding the oil palm defense mechanism against Ganoderma infection through monitoring changes in the secondary metabolite compounds levels before/after infection by Ganoderma under different fertilizing treatment is required. Oil palm requires macro- and microelements for growth and yield. Manipulating the nutrient for oil palm is a method to control the disease...
2018: BioMed Research International
Chunlei Zhang, Monisola Alashi, Nisha Singh, Kun Liu, Prashen Chelikani, Rotimi E Aluko
The aim of this work was to determine the bitter taste-blocking ability of enzymatic beef protein hydrolysates and identified peptide sequences. Beef protein was hydrolyzed with each of six commercial enzymes (alcalase, chymotrypsin, trypsin, pepsin, flavourzyme, and thermoase). Electronic tongue measurements showed that the hydrolysates had significantly (p < 0.05) lower bitter scores than quinine. Addition of the hydrolysates to quinine led to reduced bitterness intensity of quinine with trypsin and pepsin hydrolysates being the most effective...
April 29, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Shunyi Li, Qiuxiang Yu, La Xiang, Yuling Zhou, Guimin Zhang
Zearalenone (ZEN) and its derivatives are non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxins mainly produced by Fusarium species. They are widely distributed in grain feeds originated from maize, barley, wheat and sorghum, causing serious harm to animal and human health. Currently, there is a pressing need of an efficient technology for ZEN degradation and detoxification. Because traditional physical and chemical methods could not effectively detoxify ZEN in grains, and might also affect the grain nutrients and food taste, and even result in secondary pollution, the biological technologies are developed to detoxify ZEN and its derivatives...
April 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Antonella Di Pizio, Yaron Ben Shoshan-Galeczki, John E Hayes, Masha Y Niv
"Bitter" and "sweet" are frequently framed in opposition, both functionally and metaphorically, in regard to affective responses, emotion, and nutrition. This oppositional relationship is complicated by the fact that some molecules are simultaneously bitter and sweet. In some cases, a small chemical modification, or a chirality switch, flips the taste from sweet to bitter. Molecules humans describe as bitter are recognized by a 25 member subfamily of class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as TAS2Rs...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Anthony Sclafani, Karen Ackroff
Fatty acid receptors in the mouth and gut are implicated in the appetite for fat-rich foods. The role of lipolysis in oral- and postoral-based fat preferences of C57BL/6J mice was investigated by inhibiting lipase enzymes with orlistat. Experiment 1 showed that postoral lipolysis is required: mice learned to prefer (by 70%) a flavored solution paired with intragastric infusions of 5% soybean oil but not a flavor paired with soybean oil + orlistat (4 mg/g fat) infusions. Experiments 2-4 tested the oral attraction to oil in mice given brief choice tests that minimize postoral effects...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Jana Pexová Kalinová, Naděžda Vrchotová, Jan Tříska
Tartary buckwheat achenes are rich in rutin. However, its utilisation as a food is low due to the bitter taste of the products because of the transformation of rutin to quercetin. The aim of this study was to determine the stability of rutin and selected flavonoids, which are influenced by the different sample preparations exposing the achenes to higher temperatures (60 °C, 100 °C, and 140 °C), and also to determine the specificity of the rutin degrading enzymes in Tartary buckwheat. The achenes were directly extracted with methanol pre-extracted with hexane, or lyophilised before extraction...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Mareike Siebert, Ralf G Berger, Annabel Nieter
A p-coumaroyl esterase from Rhizoctonia solani was used to decrease 5-O-chlorogenic acid (5-CQA) content in coffee powder. HPLC-UV showed a decline of up to 98% of 5-CQA after the enzyme treatment. Effects on aroma were determined by means of aroma extract dilution analysis. Flavour dilution factors of treated and control extract differed in four volatile compounds only. Effect on aroma and taste was evaluated by sensory tests. No significant differences were perceived, and no off-flavour nor off-taste was noted...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yu Fu, Jing Liu, Erik T Hansen, Wender L P Bredie, René Lametsch
The aim of this study was to use different enzyme mixtures to investigate the influence of peptide characteristics and taste of protein hydrolysates from bovine muscle and porcine plasma. Minced beef and porcine plasma were hydrolysed using 10 food-grade enzymes, including Protease A, Protease P, ProteAX, Flavourzyme, Alcalase, Papain, Bromelain, Protamex, Neutrase and Sumizyme BNP-L. The relationship between degree of hydrolysis (DH), molecular weight (MW) distribution, enzyme specificity, and sensory characteristics of hydrolysates were investigated...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Shweta Tewari, Kriti Kumari Dubey, Rekha S Singhal
Ready-to-drink (RTD) ice tea is a ready prepared tea, produced from green and black tea originating from same plant Camellia sinensis . The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prebiotics [galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), and inulin] or synbiotic ingredients (GOS, FOS, inulin, and Lactobacillus acidophilus ) on the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of RTD. The quality of green tea extract (GTE) and black tea extract (BTE) was improved with pretreatment of cellulase and pectinase enzymes...
April 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Luke Bell, Omobolanle O Oloyede, Stella Lignou, Carol Wagstaff, Lisa Methven
Brassicaceae plants are renowned for their taste, aroma and trigeminal characteristics; predominantly bitter taste, sulfurous aroma and pungency. Compounds responsible for these sensations include the glucosinolates (GSLs) and their hydrolysis products, particularly isothiocyanates (ITCs), but also sulfur-containing volatile compounds. This article reviews the relative importance of taste and flavour perceptions resulting from such compounds; collating evidence from papers where findings are based on sensory analytical correlations, and those that have extracted specific compounds prior to sensory evaluation...
March 26, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Daniel Gonzalez, Stéphane Fraichard, Paul Grassein, Patrice Delarue, Patrick Senet, Adrien Nicolaï, Evelyne Chavanne, Elodie Mucher, Yves Artur, Jean-François Ferveur, Jean-Marie Heydel, Loïc Briand, Fabrice Neiers
Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are ubiquitous key enzymes that catalyse the conjugation of glutathione to xenobiotic compounds in the detoxification process. GSTs have been proposed to play a dual role in the signal termination of insect chemodetection by modifying odorant and tasting molecules and by protecting the chemosensory system. Among the 40 GSTs identified in Drosophila melanogaster, the Delta and Epsilon groups are insect-specific. GSTs Delta and Epsilon may have evolved to serve in detoxification, and have been associated with insecticide resistance...
March 22, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Na-Hyun Kim, Jeong-Doo Heo, Jung-Rae Rho, Min Hye Yang, Eun Ju Jeong
Background: In traditional folk medicine, Limonium tetragonum is used in the treatment of uterine hemorrhage, tinnitus, and oligomenorrhea. Objective: This study aimed to identify the therapeutic effect of L. tetragonum EtOAc extract (EALT) on liver of mice with chronic alcohol poisoning. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were administered 100 mg/kg of EALT with a single binge ethanol/Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 8 weeks. Results: The chronic-binge ethanol diet induced a significant increase in liver marker enzyme activities...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Charles M Denby, Rachel A Li, Van T Vu, Zak Costello, Weiyin Lin, Leanne Jade G Chan, Joseph Williams, Bryan Donaldson, Charles W Bamforth, Christopher J Petzold, Henrik V Scheller, Hector Garcia Martin, Jay D Keasling
Flowers of the hop plant provide both bitterness and "hoppy" flavor to beer. Hops are, however, both a water and energy intensive crop and vary considerably in essential oil content, making it challenging to achieve a consistent hoppy taste in beer. Here, we report that brewer's yeast can be engineered to biosynthesize aromatic monoterpene molecules that impart hoppy flavor to beer by incorporating recombinant DNA derived from yeast, mint, and basil. Whereas metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways is commonly enlisted to maximize product titers, tuning expression of pathway enzymes to affect target production levels of multiple commercially important metabolites without major collateral metabolic changes represents a unique challenge...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Jorge Del Cueto, Birger Lindberg Møller, Federico Dicenta, Raquel Sánchez-Pérez
Almond bitterness is the most important trait for breeding programs since bitter-kernelled seedlings are usually discarded. Amygdalin and its precursor prunasin are hydrolyzed by specific enzymes called β-glucosidases. In order to better understand the genetic control of almond bitterness, some studies have shown differences in the location of prunasin hydrolases (PH, the β-glucosidase that degrades prunasin) in sweet and bitter genotypes. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize different PHs in sweet- and bitter-kernelled almonds to determine whether differences in their genomic or protein sequences are responsible for the sweet or bitter taste of their seeds...
May 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Surendra S Agrawal, Tapasya P Yallatikar, Pravina N Gurjar
Brassica nigra belonging to the family Brassicaceae (syn - black mustard) comprises of dried seeds and is widely cultivated in Mediterranean region and various other countries like India and Europe. B. nigra contains glycosinolates which undergoes hydrolysis in the presence of myrosinase enzyme yields allyl isothiocyante. The bitter taste and pungent odor is due to the isothiocyanates. B. Nigra shows various activities that are medically important such as anticancer, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-helminthic, protection against renal and hepatic toxicity and can also be used in diabetes treatment...
March 8, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Luc Tappy
Compared with other carbohydrates, fructose-containing caloric sweeteners (sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, pure fructose and fructose-glucose mixtures) are characterized by: a sweet taste generally associated with a positive hedonic tone; specific intestinal fructose transporters, i.e. GLUT5; a two-step fructose metabolism, consisting of the conversion of fructose carbones into ubiquitous energy substrates in splanchnic organs where fructolytic enzymes are expressed, and secondary delivery of these substrates to extrasplanchnic tissues...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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