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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734079/post-translational-palmitoylation-controls-the-voltage-gating-and-lipid-raft-association-of-calhm1-channel
#1
Akiyuki Taruno, Hongxin Sun, Koichi Nakajo, Tatsuro Murakami, Yasuyoshi Ohsaki, Mizuho A Kido, Fumihito Ono, Yoshinori Marunaka
Emerging roles of CALHM1, a recently discovered voltage-gated ion channel, include purinergic neurotransmission of tastes in taste buds and memory formation in the brain, highlighting its physiological importance. However, the regulatory mechanisms of the CALHM1 channel remain entirely unexplored, hindering full understanding of its contribution in vivo. In fact, the different gating properties of CALHM1 in vivo and in vitro suggest undiscovered regulatory mechanisms. Here, in searching for post-translational regulatory mechanisms, we discovered the regulation of CALHM1 gating and association with lipid microdomains via protein S-palmitoylation, the only reversible lipid modification of proteins on cysteine residues...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727112/effect-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-l-arginine-on-the-hatchability-growth-performance-gastrointestinal-hormones-and-jejunal-digestive-and-absorptive-capacity-of-posthatch-broilers
#2
T Gao, M Zhao, L Zhang, J Li, L Yu, P Lv, F Gao, G Zhou
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of Arg solution on the hatchability, growth performance, gastrointestinal hormones, serum AA, activities of digestive enzymes, and mRNA expressions of sensing receptors and nutrient transporters in the jejunum of posthatch broilers. One thousand two hundred embryonated eggs with similar weight were randomly allocated to 5 groups consisting of 8 replicates of 40 eggs each. The 5 treatments were arranged as a noninjected control, a diluent-injected (0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655616/functional-identification-of-a-lippia-dulcis-bornyl-diphosphate-synthase-that-contains-a-duplicated-inhibitory-arginine-rich-motif
#3
Matthew C Hurd, Moonhyuk Kwon, Dae-Kyun Ro
Lippia dulcis (Aztec sweet herb) contains the potent natural sweetener hernandulcin, a sesquiterpene ketone found in the leaves and flowers. Utilizing the leaves for agricultural application is challenging due to the presence of the bitter-tasting and toxic monoterpene, camphor. To unlock the commercial potential of L. dulcis leaves, the first step of camphor biosynthesis by a bornyl diphosphate synthase needs to be elucidated. Two putative monoterpene synthases (LdTPS3 and LdTPS9) were isolated from L. dulcis leaf cDNA...
June 24, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605941/application-and-possible-benefits-of-high-hydrostatic-pressure-or-high-pressure-homogenization-on-beer-processing-a-review
#4
Lígia Mr Santos, Fabiano A Oliveira, Elisa Hr Ferreira, Amauri Rosenthal
Beer is the most consumed beverage in the world, especially in countries such as USA, China and Brazil.It is an alcoholic beverage made from malted cereals, and the barley malt is the main ingredient, added with water, hops and yeast. High-pressure processing is a non-traditional method to preserve food and beverages. This technology has become more interesting compared to heat pasteurization, due to the minimal changes it brings to the original nutritional and sensory characteristics of the product, and it comprises two processes: high hydrostatic pressure, which is the most industrially used process, and high-pressure homogenization...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576361/multiple-microbial-cell-free-extracts-improve-the-microbiological-biochemical-and-sensory-features-of-ewes-milk-cheese
#5
Maria Calasso, Leonardo Mancini, Maria De Angelis, Amalia Conte, Cristina Costa, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile, Marco Gobbetti
This study used cell-free enzyme (CFE) extracts from Lactobacillus casei, Hafnia alvei, Debaryomyces hansenii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to condition or accelerate Pecorino-type cheese ripening. Compositional, microbiological, and biochemical analyses were performed, and volatile and sensory profiles were obtained. Lactobacilli and cocci increased during ripening, especially in cheeses containing CFE from L. casei, H. alvei and D. hansenii (LHD-C) and L. casei, H. alvei and S. cerevisiae (LHS-C). Compared to control cheese (CC), several enzymatic activities were higher (P < 0...
September 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551231/enzyme-assisted-extraction-enhancing-the-umami-taste-amino-acids-recovery-from-several-cultivated-mushrooms
#6
Mahesha M Poojary, Vibeke Orlien, Paolo Passamonti, Karsten Olsen
In this study, enzyme-assisted extraction was performed to extract umami taste and total free amino acids (FAAs) from the six different mushrooms including shiitake (Lentinus edodes), oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus), tea tree (Agrocybe aegerita) and, white, brown and portobello champignons (Agaricus bisporus). β-Glucanase and Flavourzyme® were used as the enzymes for cell wall and proteins hydrolysis, respectively. It was found that β-glucanase treatment alone did not enhance the extraction efficiency, however in combination, β-glucanase and Flavourzyme® enhanced the extraction efficiency significantly up to 20-fold compared to conventional HCl mediated extraction, depending on the mushroom species...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483879/an-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-regulates-capsaicinoid-biosynthesis
#7
Magda L Arce-Rodríguez, Neftalí Ochoa-Alejo
Capsaicinoids are responsible for the hot taste of chili peppers. They are restricted to the genus Capsicum and are synthesized by the acylation of the aromatic compound vanillylamine (derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway) with a branched-chain fatty acid by the catalysis of the putative enzyme capsaicinoid synthase. R2R3-MYB transcription factors have been reported in different species of plants as regulators of structural genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway; therefore, we hypothesized that MYB genes might be involved in the regulation of the biosynthesis of pungent compounds...
July 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472055/abdominal-symptoms-in-cystic-fibrosis-and-their-relation-to-genotype-history-clinical-and-laboratory-findings
#8
Harold Tabori, Christin Arnold, Anke Jaudszus, Hans-Joachim Mentzel, Diane M Renz, Steffen Reinsch, Michael Lorenz, Ruth Michl, Andrea Gerber, Thomas Lehmann, Jochen G Mainz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Abdominal symptoms (AS) are a hallmark of the multiorgan-disease cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the abdominal involvement in CF is insufficiently understood and, compared to the pulmonary manifestation, still receives little scientific attention. Aims were to assess and quantify AS and to relate them to laboratory parameters, clinical findings, and medical history. METHODS: A total of 131 patients with CF of all ages were assessed with a new CF-specific questionnaire (JenAbdomen-CF score 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460961/characterization-of-the-peptide-profile-in-spanish-teruel-italian-parma-and-belgian-dry-cured-hams-and-its-potential-bioactivity
#9
Leticia Mora, Elizabeth Escudero, Fidel Toldrá
Dry-cured hams are appreciated products in many European countries. One of the most important processes taking place during ham processing and responsible for its unique taste and flavour is the proteolysis of muscle proteins. Muscle peptidases play an important role in breaking down muscle proteins and generating small peptides and free amino acids. It is known that changes in genetics and processing conditions can result in differences in the action of endopeptidases and exopeptidases. In this study, the peptides generated in Spanish Teruel, Italian Parma and Belgian dry-cured hams have been identified and quantified using a label-free methodology to assess main differences in proteolysis between the 3 types of hams...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460914/food-protein-originating-peptides-as-tastants-physiological-technological-sensory-and-bioinformatic-approaches
#10
REVIEW
Anna Iwaniak, Piotr Minkiewicz, Małgorzata Darewicz, Monika Hrynkiewicz
Taste is one of the factors based on which the organism makes the selection of what to ingest. It also protects humans from ingesting toxic compounds and is one of the main attributes when thinking about food quality. Five basic taste sensations are recognized by humans: bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami. The taste of foods is affected by some molecules of some specific chemical nature. One of them are peptides derived from food proteins. Although they are not the major natural compounds originating from food sources that are responsible for the taste, they are in the area of scientific research due to the specific composition of amino acids which are well-known for their sensory properties...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423209/the-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-mdmyb73-is-involved-in-malate-accumulation-and-vacuolar-acidification-in-apple
#11
Da-Gang Hu, Yuan-Yuan Li, Quan-Yan Zhang, Ming Li, Cui-Hui Sun, Jian-Qiang Yu, Yu-Jin Hao
Malate, the predominant organic acid in many fruits, is a crucial component of the organoleptic quality of fruit, including taste and flavor. The genetic and environmental mechanisms affecting malate metabolism in fruit cells have been studied extensively. However, the transcriptional regulation of malate-metabolizing enzymes and vacuolar transporters remains poorly understood. Our previous studies demonstrated that MdMYB1 modulates anthocyanin accumulation and vacuolar acidification by directly activating vacuolar transporters, including MdVHA-B1, MdVHA-E, MdVHP1 and MdtDT...
August 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395898/p63-adjusts-sugar-taste-of-epidermal-layers
#12
Ivano Amelio, Gerry Melino, Eleonora Candi
p63 is a master regulator of epidermal biology, sustaining stemness and renewal capacity of the proliferating keratinocyte compartment. Hamanaka and Mutlu propose that p63 regulates the keratinocyte proliferation/differentiation switch by affecting the cellular glycolic rate through a direct transcriptional regulation of the metabolic enzyme PFKFB3. This finding sheds light on mechanisms underlining p63 function in the skin and suggests a role for energetic metabolism in epidermal biology.
April 8, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386657/study-on-the-morphology-histology-and-enzymatic-activity-of-the-digestive-tract-of-gymnocypris-eckloni-herzenstein
#13
Lizhu Yang, Jing Fang, Xi Peng, Hengmin Cui, Min He, Zhicai Zuo, Yi Zhou, Zhuangzhi Yang
The present research was conducted to study the morphology, histology and enzymatic activities of the digestive tract of Gymnocypris eckloni by light and transmission electron microscopes as well as by enzyme assays. The digestive tract of G. eckloni consisted of the oropharyngeal cavity, oesophagus and intestine. The wall of the digestive tract was composed of mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa but lacked muscularis mucosa and glands. The stratified epithelium of the oropharyngeal cavity and oesophagus contained numerous mucous cells...
August 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379983/flavour-enhanced-cortisol-release-during-gum-chewing
#14
Yoko Hasegawa, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Takahiro Ono, Hiromitsu Kishimoto
There is some evidence to suggest that chewing gum reduces chronic stress. However, it remains controversial how the taste and odour properties of chewing gum influence stress. The present study was designed to investigate this issue in human subjects. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we tested salivary cortisol concentration, which is thought to be a stress marker, in 96 adults who chewed gum with different combinations of taste and odour. Subjects could discriminate between the types of gum without prior information...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359205/quality-stability-and-sensory-attributes-of-apple-juice-processed-by-thermosonication-pulsed-electric-field-and-thermal-processing
#15
Alifdalino Sulaiman, Mohammed Farid, Filipa Vm Silva
Worldwide, apple juice is the second most popular juice, after orange juice. It is susceptible to enzymatic browning spoilage by polyphenoloxidase, an endogenous enzyme. In this study, Royal Gala apple juice was treated by thermosonication (TS: 1.3 W/mL, 58 ℃, 10 min), pulsed electric field (PEF: 24.8 kV/cm, 60 pulses, 169 µs treatment time, 53.8 ℃) and heat (75 ℃, 20 min) and stored at 3.0 ℃ and 20.0 ℃ for 30 days. A sensory analysis was carried out after processing. The polyphenoloxidase activity, antioxidant activity and total color difference of the apple juice were determined before and after processing and during storage...
April 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348546/dementia-with-lewy-bodies-molecular-pathology-in-the-frontal-cortex-in-typical-and-rapidly-progressive-forms
#16
Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Irene López-González, Oriol Grau-Rivera, María Francisca García-Garrido, Anusha Konetti, Franc Llorens, Saima Zafar, Margarita Carmona, José Antonio Del Rio, Inga Zerr, Ellen Gelpi, Isidro Ferrer
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess mitochondrial function, energy, and purine metabolism, protein synthesis machinery from the nucleolus to the ribosome, inflammation, and expression of newly identified ectopic olfactory receptors (ORs) and taste receptors (TASRs) in the frontal cortex of typical cases of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and cases with rapid clinical course (rpDLB: 2 years or less) compared with middle-aged non-affected individuals, in order to learn about the biochemical abnormalities underlying Lewy body pathology...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337691/purification-and-characterization-of-elizabethkingia-l-amino-acid-esterase-an-enzyme-useful-for-enzymatic-synthesis-of-the-dipeptide-valyl-glycine
#17
Takahiro Tanaka, Kazuyoshi Takagi, Hossain Md Saddam, Yoichi Takeda, Mamoru Wakayama
Valyl-glycine (Val-Gly) is useful as a synthetic substrate of γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine (γ-Glu-Val-Gly), which exhibits a strong taste of "kokumi." For efficient enzymatic synthesis of Val-Gly from valine methylester and glycine using L-amino acid esterase (LAE), we screened microorganisms producing LAE with synthetic activity toward Val-Gly. Among 17 isolates showing LAE activity, Elizabethkingia sp. TT1, which was identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis, showed the highest synthetic activity toward Val-Gly...
March 24, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231561/structural-analysis-of-rebaudioside-a-derivatives-obtained-by-lactobacillus-reuteri-180-glucansucrase-catalyzed-trans-%C3%AE-glucosylation
#18
Gerrit J Gerwig, Evelien M Te Poele, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Johannis P Kamerling
The wild-type Gtf180-ΔN glucansucrase enzyme from Lactobacillus reuteri 180 was found to catalyze the α-glucosylation of the steviol glycoside rebaudioside A, using sucrose as glucosyl donor in a transglucosylation process. Structural analysis of the formed products by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy showed that rebaudioside A is specifically α-d-glucosylated at the steviol C-19 β-d-glucosyl moiety (55% conversion). The main product is a mono-(α1 → 6)-glucosylated derivative (RebA-G1)...
February 22, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231182/overview-on-the-general-approaches-to-improve-gluten-free-pasta-and-bread
#19
REVIEW
Lucia Padalino, Amalia Conte, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile
The use of gluten-free products is increasing since a growing number of people are suffering from celiac disease and thereby need gluten-free diet. Gluten is responsible for the visco-elastic characteristics of wheat-based products; therefore, its lack makes the gluten-free products not similar to wheat-based product, with scarce textural properties. This reason constitutes the major industrial limitation. Thus, obtaining good-quality gluten-free products represents a technological challenge. This review reports the main strategies adopted to produce high quality gluten-free pasta and bread...
December 9, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073471/biochemistry-and-genetics-of-taste-and-odor-producing-cyanobacteria
#20
REVIEW
Susan B Watson, Paul Monis, Peter Baker, Steven Giglio
Cyanobacteria are one of the principal sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which cause offensive taste and odor (T&O) in drinking and recreational water, fish, shellfish and other seafood. Although non-toxic to humans, these T&O compounds severely undermine public trust in these commodities, resulting in substantial costs in treatment, and lost revenue to drinking water, aquaculture, food and beverage and tourist/hospitality industries. Mitigation and control have been hindered by the complexity of the communities and processes which produce and modify T&O events, making it difficult to source-track the major producer(s) and the factors governing VOC production and fate...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
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