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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132308/effect-of-two-non-synonymous-ecto-5-nucleotidase-variants-on-the-genetic-architecture-of-inosine-5-monophosphate-imp-and-its-degradation-products-in-japanese-black-beef
#1
Yoshinobu Uemoto, Tsuyoshi Ohtake, Nanae Sasago, Masayuki Takeda, Tsuyoshi Abe, Hironori Sakuma, Takatoshi Kojima, Shinji Sasaki
BACKGROUND: Umami is a Japanese term for the fifth basic taste and is an important sensory property of beef palatability. Inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) contributes to umami taste in beef. Thus, the overall change in concentration of IMP and its degradation products can potentially affect the beef palatability. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of IMP and its degradation products in Japanese Black beef. First, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS), candidate gene analysis, and functional analysis to detect the causal variants that affect IMP, inosine, and hypoxanthine...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124885/oleoylethanolamide-the-role-of-a-bioactive-lipid-amide-in-modulating-eating-behaviour
#2
REVIEW
J Sihag, P J H Jones
Fatty acid ethanolamides are lipid mediators that regulate a plethora of physiological functions. One such bioactive lipid mediator, oleoylethanolamide (OEA), is a potent agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), which modulates increased expression of the fatty acid translocase CD36 that enables the regulation of feeding behaviour. Consumption of dietary fat rich in oleic acid activates taste receptors in the gut activating specific enzymes that lead to the formation of OEA...
November 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111704/new-method-to-produce-kokumi-seasoning-from-protein-hydrolysates-using-bacterial-enzymes
#3
Hideyuki Suzuki, Yuko Nakafuji, Tomoki Tamura
In the present study, we demonstrate a novel use for a commercially available glutaminase that can be used as a γ-glutamyltranspeptidase in kokumi seasoning production. Soy protein and gluten were hydrolyzed using a protease isolated from Bacillus licheniformis. The resulting protein hydrolysates were γ-glutamylated with a γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, which is sold as a glutaminase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, to produce kokumi seasonings. For γ-glutamylation of soy protein hydrolysate, glutamine was added to the reaction mixture...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099943/genetic-labeling-of-car4-expressing-cells-reveals-subpopulations-of-type-iii-taste-cells
#4
Kristina Lossow, Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer, Maik Behrens, Wolfgang Meyerhof
Carbonic anhydrases form an enzyme family of 16 members, which reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. In lung, kidney, and brain, presence of carbonic anhydrases is associated with protons and bicarbonate transport in capillary endothelium of lung, reabsorption of bicarbonate in proximal renal tubules, and extracellular buffering. In contrast, their role in taste is less clear. Recently, carbonic anhydrase IV expression was detected in sour-sensing presynaptic taste cells and was associated with the taste of carbonation, yet the precise role and cell population remained uncertain...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038773/a-fusion-protein-strategy-for-soluble-expression-of-stevia-glycosyltransferase-ugt76g1-in-escherichia-coli
#5
Liangliang Chen, Ping Sun, Yan Li, Ming Yan, Lin Xu, Kequan Chen, Pingkai Ouyang
The UDP-glucosyltransferase UGT76G1 from Stevia rebaudiana converts stevioside to rebaudioside A via a one-step glycosylation reaction, which increases the amount of sweet-tasting rebaudioside A and decreases the amount of stevioside that has a bitter aftertaste. This enzyme could, therefore, conceivably be used to improve the organoleptic properties of steviol glycosides and offer a cost-effective preparation of high-purity rebaudioside A. Producing soluble enzymes by overexpression is a prerequisite for large-scale biocatalysis...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939428/cd36-is-a-candidate-lipid-sensor-involved-in-the-sensory-detection-of-fatty-acid-in-zebrafish
#6
Haiyang Liu, Yanping Xu, Ying Wang, Shenjie Zhong, Min Wang, Pengyan Lin, Hongyan Li, Zhenhui Liu
Recently more and more evidences raise the possibility for the taste system in the role of the perception of lipids in mammals, and the fatty acid receptor CD36 has been proved to be as an important candidate receptor of fat taste. Fish has different taste modality with mammals. No information was known about the function of cd36 in fish taste till now. Here, using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence technologies, we showed that fish cd36/Cd36 localized in taste buds. Real-time PCR technology demonstrated that, in zebrafish cd36 (zcd36)-transfected cells, linoleic acid (LA) increased the expression level of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1), which encodes the enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of monoamine neurotransmitter of 5-HT...
December 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919721/profile-of-sodium-phenylbutyrate-granules-for-the-treatment-of-urea-cycle-disorders-patient-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Luis Peña-Quintana, Marta Llarena, Desiderio Reyes-Suárez, Luis Aldámiz-Echevarria
Urea-cycle disorders are a group of rare hereditary metabolic diseases characterized by deficiencies of one of the enzymes and transporters involved in the urea cycle, which is necessary for the removal of nitrogen produced from protein breakdown. These hereditary metabolic diseases are characterized by hyperammonemia and life-threatening hyperammonemic crises. Pharmacological treatment of urea-cycle disorders involves alternative nitrogen-scavenging pathways. Sodium benzoate combines with glycine and phenylacetate/phenylbutyrate with glutamine, forming, respectively, hippuric acid and phenylacetylglutamine, which are eliminated in the urine...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917550/antidiabetic-potential-of-methanolic-and-flavonoid-rich-leaf-extracts-of-synsepalum-dulcificum-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#8
Olabisi T Obafemi, Clement A Akinmoladun, Tolulope M Olaleye, Stephen O Agboade, Amos A Onasanya
BACKGROUND: Synsepalum dulcificum is a plant indigenous to West Africa. The fruit is used to modify taste of foods to sweetness. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the antidiabetic potentials of both methanolic and flavonoid-rich leaf extracts of S. dulcificum (MSD and FSD respectively) in type 2 diabetic Wistar albino rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty three rats were randomly distributed into nine groups of seven animals each with group 1 serving as the normal control...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917225/appropriate-nutritional-management-in-patients-with-impaired-mastication-and-those-with-mild-dysphagia-a-multicenter-study-of-the-usefulness-of-novel-foods-processed-and-softened-by-enzymes
#9
Takashi Higashiguchi, Akihiro Ito, Hirofumi Nishiyama, Takashi Shigematsu, Atsuko Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Kato, Shohei Iijima, Nobuyuki Kikuchi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the safety of iEAT (a food that is softened by heat and enzyme homogeneous permeation) and iEAT-affected nutrition parameters, e.g., nutrition intake (calculated from the consumption rate in patients with impaired mastication and those with mild dysphagia). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter, randomized, cross-over study of iEAT was conducted in 50 patients (mean age 77.0±11.0 years) with dysphagia due to Occasional aspiration (4 points on the Dysphagia Severity Scale [DSS]) or Oral problems (5 points) randomly assigned to the study diet (iEAT) or its opposite (the modified traditional [control] diet) for 1 week and then switched for 1 week to the opposing diet...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876034/-purification-characterization-and-partial-primary-structure-analysis-of-rutin-degrading-enzyme-in-tartary-buckwheat-seeds
#10
Yuwei Zhang, Jie Li, Yong Yuan, Jijuan Gu, Peng Chen
Rutin-degrading enzymes (RDE) can degrade rutin into poorly water soluble compound, quercetin, and cause the bitter taste in tartary buckwheat. In the present study RDE from Yu 6-21 tartary buckwheat seeds was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl Sepharose CL-4B, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Cellulose and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-150. Purified RDE showed single band with molecular weight of 66 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature of RDE were 5...
May 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840778/structure-function-and-regulation-of-enzymes-involved-in-amino-acid-metabolism-of-bacteria-and-archaea
#11
Takeo Tomita
Amino acids are essential components in all organisms because they are building blocks of proteins. They are also produced industrially and used for various purposes. For example, L-glutamate is used as the component of "umami" taste and lysine has been used as livestock feed. Recently, many kinds of amino acids have attracted attention as biological regulators and are used for a healthy life. Thus, to clarify the mechanism of how amino acids are biosynthesized and how they work as biological regulators will lead to further effective utilization of them...
November 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734079/post-translational-palmitoylation-controls-the-voltage-gating-and-lipid-raft-association-of-the-calhm1-channel
#12
Akiyuki Taruno, Hongxin Sun, Koichi Nakajo, Tatsuro Murakami, Yasuyoshi Ohsaki, Mizuho A Kido, Fumihito Ono, Yoshinori Marunaka
KEY POINTS: Calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1), a new voltage-gated ATP- and Ca(2+) -permeable channel, plays important physiological roles in taste perception and memory formation. Regulatory mechanisms of CALHM1 remain unexplored, although the biophysical disparity between CALHM1 gating in vivo and in vitro suggests that there are undiscovered regulatory mechanisms. Here we report that CALHM1 gating and association with lipid microdomains are post-translationally regulated through the process of protein S-palmitoylation, a reversible attachment of palmitate to cysteine residues...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727112/effect-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-l-arginine-on-the-hatchability-growth-performance-gastrointestinal-hormones-and-jejunal-digestive-and-absorptive-capacity-of-posthatch-broilers
#13
T Gao, M Zhao, L Zhang, J Li, L Yu, P Lv, F Gao, G Zhou
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of Arg solution on the hatchability, growth performance, gastrointestinal hormones, serum AA, activities of digestive enzymes, and mRNA expressions of sensing receptors and nutrient transporters in the jejunum of posthatch broilers. One thousand two hundred embryonated eggs with similar weight were randomly allocated to 5 groups consisting of 8 replicates of 40 eggs each. The 5 treatments were arranged as a noninjected control, a diluent-injected (0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655616/functional-identification-of-a-lippia-dulcis-bornyl-diphosphate-synthase-that-contains-a-duplicated-inhibitory-arginine-rich-motif
#14
Matthew C Hurd, Moonhyuk Kwon, Dae-Kyun Ro
Lippia dulcis (Aztec sweet herb) contains the potent natural sweetener hernandulcin, a sesquiterpene ketone found in the leaves and flowers. Utilizing the leaves for agricultural application is challenging due to the presence of the bitter-tasting and toxic monoterpene, camphor. To unlock the commercial potential of L. dulcis leaves, the first step of camphor biosynthesis by a bornyl diphosphate synthase needs to be elucidated. Two putative monoterpene synthases (LdTPS3 and LdTPS9) were isolated from L. dulcis leaf cDNA...
August 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605941/application-and-possible-benefits-of-high-hydrostatic-pressure-or-high-pressure-homogenization-on-beer-processing-a-review
#15
Lígia Mr Santos, Fabiano A Oliveira, Elisa Hr Ferreira, Amauri Rosenthal
Beer is the most consumed beverage in the world, especially in countries such as USA, China and Brazil.It is an alcoholic beverage made from malted cereals, and the barley malt is the main ingredient, added with water, hops and yeast. High-pressure processing is a non-traditional method to preserve food and beverages. This technology has become more interesting compared to heat pasteurization, due to the minimal changes it brings to the original nutritional and sensory characteristics of the product, and it comprises two processes: high hydrostatic pressure, which is the most industrially used process, and high-pressure homogenization...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576361/multiple-microbial-cell-free-extracts-improve-the-microbiological-biochemical-and-sensory-features-of-ewes-milk-cheese
#16
Maria Calasso, Leonardo Mancini, Maria De Angelis, Amalia Conte, Cristina Costa, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile, Marco Gobbetti
This study used cell-free enzyme (CFE) extracts from Lactobacillus casei, Hafnia alvei, Debaryomyces hansenii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to condition or accelerate Pecorino-type cheese ripening. Compositional, microbiological, and biochemical analyses were performed, and volatile and sensory profiles were obtained. Lactobacilli and cocci increased during ripening, especially in cheeses containing CFE from L. casei, H. alvei and D. hansenii (LHD-C) and L. casei, H. alvei and S. cerevisiae (LHS-C). Compared to control cheese (CC), several enzymatic activities were higher (P < 0...
September 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551231/enzyme-assisted-extraction-enhancing-the-umami-taste-amino-acids-recovery-from-several-cultivated-mushrooms
#17
Mahesha M Poojary, Vibeke Orlien, Paolo Passamonti, Karsten Olsen
In this study, enzyme-assisted extraction was performed to extract umami taste and total free amino acids (FAAs) from the six different mushrooms including shiitake (Lentinus edodes), oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus), tea tree (Agrocybe aegerita) and, white, brown and portobello champignons (Agaricus bisporus). β-Glucanase and Flavourzyme® were used as the enzymes for cell wall and proteins hydrolysis, respectively. It was found that β-glucanase treatment alone did not enhance the extraction efficiency, however in combination, β-glucanase and Flavourzyme® enhanced the extraction efficiency significantly up to 20-fold compared to conventional HCl mediated extraction, depending on the mushroom species...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483879/an-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-regulates-capsaicinoid-biosynthesis
#18
Magda L Arce-Rodríguez, Neftalí Ochoa-Alejo
Capsaicinoids are responsible for the hot taste of chili peppers. They are restricted to the genus Capsicum and are synthesized by the acylation of the aromatic compound vanillylamine (derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway) with a branched-chain fatty acid by the catalysis of the putative enzyme capsaicinoid synthase. R2R3-MYB transcription factors have been reported in different species of plants as regulators of structural genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway; therefore, we hypothesized that MYB genes might be involved in the regulation of the biosynthesis of pungent compounds...
July 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472055/abdominal-symptoms-in-cystic-fibrosis-and-their-relation-to-genotype-history-clinical-and-laboratory-findings
#19
Harold Tabori, Christin Arnold, Anke Jaudszus, Hans-Joachim Mentzel, Diane M Renz, Steffen Reinsch, Michael Lorenz, Ruth Michl, Andrea Gerber, Thomas Lehmann, Jochen G Mainz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Abdominal symptoms (AS) are a hallmark of the multiorgan-disease cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the abdominal involvement in CF is insufficiently understood and, compared to the pulmonary manifestation, still receives little scientific attention. Aims were to assess and quantify AS and to relate them to laboratory parameters, clinical findings, and medical history. METHODS: A total of 131 patients with CF of all ages were assessed with a new CF-specific questionnaire (JenAbdomen-CF score 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460961/characterization-of-the-peptide-profile-in-spanish-teruel-italian-parma-and-belgian-dry-cured-hams-and-its-potential-bioactivity
#20
Leticia Mora, Elizabeth Escudero, Fidel Toldrá
Dry-cured hams are appreciated products in many European countries. One of the most important processes taking place during ham processing and responsible for its unique taste and flavour is the proteolysis of muscle proteins. Muscle peptidases play an important role in breaking down muscle proteins and generating small peptides and free amino acids. It is known that changes in genetics and processing conditions can result in differences in the action of endopeptidases and exopeptidases. In this study, the peptides generated in Spanish Teruel, Italian Parma and Belgian dry-cured hams have been identified and quantified using a label-free methodology to assess main differences in proteolysis between the 3 types of hams...
November 2016: Food Research International
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