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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885676/effect%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-deamidation-induced%C3%A2-modification%C3%A2-on%C3%A2-umami%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-bitter%C3%A2-taste-of-wheat-gluten%C3%A2-hydrolysates
#1
Bo-Ye Liu, Ke-Xue Zhu, Xiao-Na Guo, Wei Peng, Hui-Ming Zhou
BACKGROUND: Bitter taste is the main limiting factor for various applications of protein hydrolysates. Frequently-used physicochemical methods for debittering protein hydrolysates came with some undesired side effects. Deamidation-induced modification method would be a very promising technique to improve the flavor of wheat gluten hydrolysates (WGHs). This study was designed to determine the effect of deamidation with certain enzymes or acid treatment on the chemical composition, bitterness and umami properties of WGHs...
November 25, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846263/nicotine-induced-effects-on-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-nachrs-ca2-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-in-stc-1-cells
#2
Jie Qian, Shobha K Mummalaneni, Reem M Alkahtani, Sunila Mahavadi, Karnam S Murthy, John R Grider, Vijay Lyall
In addition to the T2R bitter taste receptors, neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have recently been shown to be involved in the bitter taste transduction of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. However, at present it is not clear if nAChRs are expressed in enteroendocrine cells other than beta cells of the pancreas and enterochromaffin cells, and if they play a role in the synthesis and release of neurohumoral peptides. Accordingly, we investigated the expression and functional role of nAChRs in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815133/simple-purification-method-for-a-recombinantly-expressed-native-his-tag-free-aminopeptidase-a-from-lactobacillus-delbrueckii
#3
Timo Stressler, Coralie Tanzer, Jacob Ewert, Wolfgang Claaßen, Lutz Fischer
The aminopeptidase A (PepA; EC 3.4.11.7) is an intracellular exopeptidase present in lactic acid bacteria. The PepA cleaves glutamyl/aspartyl residues from the N-terminal end of peptides and can, therefore, be applied for the production of protein hydrolysates with an increased amount of these amino acids, which results in a savory taste (umami). The first PepA from a lactobacilli strain was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli in a recently published study and harbored a C-terminal His6-tag for easier purification...
November 1, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810393/metabolic-engineering-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-for-de-novo-production-of-dihydrochalcones-with-known-antioxidant-antidiabetic-and-sweet-tasting-properties
#4
Michael Eichenberger, Beata Joanna Lehka, Christophe Folly, David Fischer, Stefan Martens, Ernesto Simón, Michael Naesby
Dihydrochalcones are plant secondary metabolites comprising molecules of significant commercial interest as antioxidants, antidiabetics, or sweeteners. To date, their heterologous biosynthesis in microorganisms has been achieved only by precursor feeding or as minor by-products in strains engineered for flavonoid production. Here, the native ScTSC13 was overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to increase its side activity in reducing p-coumaroyl-CoA to p-dihydrocoumaroyl-CoA. De novo production of phloretin, the first committed dihydrochalcone, was achieved by co-expression of additional relevant pathway enzymes...
October 31, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784922/response-surface-methodology-to-optimize-enzyme-assisted-aqueous-extraction-of-maize-germ-oil
#5
Deepika Shende, Gagandeep Kaur Sidhu
The present study was aimed at optimizing the enzyme assisted aqueous extraction (EAAE) process for extraction of maize germ oil. The different EAAE process parameter viz., pH of the slurry, seed to water ratio, the temperature of incubation and time of hydrolysis were optimized for improving oil recovery and oil quality. The combined effect of independent variables on recovery of oil, time taken for oil extraction and various quality parameters were studied using response surface methodology. The designed experimental runs were conducted to obtain the optimal conditions as 5...
August 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784874/the-effect-of-consuming-small-volumes-of-beer-on-gastric-motility-and-the-involvement-of-gene-polymorphisms
#6
Tomoyuki Shibata, Hiromi Yamashita, Tomohiko Kawamura, Yasutaka Jodai, Takafumi Omori, Kazuya Sumi, Yuichiro Ichikawa, Masaaki Okubo, Takamitsu Ishizuka, Tomomitsu Tahara, Mitsuo Nagasaka, Yoshihito Nakagawa, Ichiro Hirata, Naoki Ohmiya, Makoto Nakao
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming small amounts of beer or a nonalcoholic beer taste beverage (non-beer) on gastric emptying and the polymorphisms in alcohol metabolism-related enzyme-encoding genes. Twenty male healthy volunteers were questioned regarding their alcohol consumption status, and body measurement was performed. The genetic polymorphisms in ADH1B (rs1229984, Arg47His) and ALDH2 (rs671 Glu487Lys) were analyzed. The subjects consumed 150 mL of beer or non-beer once per week, followed by the ingestion of 200 kcal of the test nutrient containing (13)C-acetate 15 min later, after which the subjects' exhalations were collected up to 120 min...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784621/characterization-of-fermented-seaweed-sauce-prepared-from-nori-pyropia-yezoensis
#7
Motoharu Uchida, Hirotaka Kurushima, Kenji Ishihara, Yuko Murata, Ken Touhata, Noriko Ishida, Kentaro Niwa, Toshiyoshi Araki
High-salt content seaweed sauces were prepared for the first time using nori (Pyropia yezoensis) by fermentation and characterized. Components and taste of the two nori sauces (NSs) prepared separately were compared with those of soy and fish sauces. The NSs were rich in total nitrogen compounds (1.5 g N/100 ml on average) and potassium (880 mg/100 g), and had a unique free amino acid composition (e.g., taurine 617 mg/100 g), explaining their unique taste as evaluated by a taste sensing system. As for their food function, inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme was observed...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752224/a-review-of-polymers-as-multifunctional-excipients-in-drug-dosage-form-technology
#8
Bożena Karolewicz
In the article, groups of multifunctional polymers used in drug dosage form technology were classified and evaluated. These compounds, in addition to their basic function as excipients, may have additional properties, e.g. stimuli sensitivity, enzyme inhibition, intestinal epithelium penetration enhancement, efflux pump inhibition, taste-masking, pharmacological activity and the ability to interact with enzymes responsible for drug metabolism. While classifying specific groups of multifunctional polymers, special emphasis was placed on the advantages of using them when designing new drug...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746860/tyrosinase-inhibitory-properties-of-phenylpropanoid-glycosides-and-flavonoids-from-teucrium-polium-l-var-gnaphalodes
#9
Zahra Boghrati, Maryam Naseri, Mitra Rezaie, Ngoc Pham, Ronald J Quinn, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran, Mehrdad Iranshahi
OBJECTIVES: In food industry, the inhibition of tyrosinase is very important, because this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds found in fruits and vegetables into quinones, which contribute in undesirable color and taste of fruits and vegetables. Teucrium polium L. var. gnaphalodes (Lamiaceae), a wild-growing flowering plant that has many applications in food preparations and traditional medicine. In Persian language, this medicinal herb is called Kalpoureh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments were used to determine the chemical structures of the isolated compounds...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739658/a-new-descriptor-of-amino-acids-svger-and-its-applications-in-peptide-qsar
#10
Jianbo Tong, Lingxiao Li, Min Bai, Kangnan Li
In the study of peptide quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR), a new descriptor of amino acids (SVGER) was calculated. It was applied in two peptides which are angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and bitter tasting threshold of di-peptide. QSAR models were built by stepwise multiple regression-multiple linear regression (SMR-MLR) and stepwise multiple regression-partial least square regression (SMR-PLS). In the SMR-MLR models for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, the squared cross-validation correlation coefficient (QLOO(2) ) was 0...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713754/transcriptome-analysis-of-sucrose-metabolism-during-bulb-swelling-and-development-in-onion-allium-cepa-l
#11
Chunsha Zhang, Hongwei Zhang, Zongxiang Zhan, Bingjiang Liu, Zhentai Chen, Yi Liang
Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708387/plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-dietzia-natronolimnaea-modulates-the-expression-of-stress-responsive-genes-providing-protection-of-wheat-from-salinity-stress
#12
Nidhi Bharti, Shiv Shanker Pandey, Deepti Barnawal, Vikas Kumar Patel, Alok Kalra
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) hold promising future for sustainable agriculture. Here, we demonstrate a carotenoid producing halotolerant PGPR Dietzia natronolimnaea STR1 protecting wheat plants from salt stress by modulating the transcriptional machinery responsible for salinity tolerance in plants. The expression studies confirmed the involvement of ABA-signalling cascade, as TaABARE and TaOPR1 were upregulated in PGPR inoculated plants leading to induction of TaMYB and TaWRKY expression followed by stimulation of expression of a plethora of stress related genes...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688055/proteomic-analysis-of-pear-pyrus-pyrifolia-ripening-process-provides-new-evidence-for-the-sugar-acid-metabolism-difference-between-core-and-mesocarp
#13
Zhen Gao, Chengjun Zhang, Meng Luo, Yusen Wu, Shuyan Duan, Jiefa Li, Lei Wang, Shiren Song, Wenping Xu, Shiping Wang, Caixi Zhang, Chao Ma
Pears are one of the most popular nutrient-rich fruits in the world. The pear core and mesocarp have significantly different metabolism, although they display similar profiles. Most strikingly, the core is more acidic in taste. Our results showed that there is more titrated acid but lower total soluble solids in the core compared to the mesocarp, and the content of citric acid was more than 17-fold higher in the core compared to the mesocarp at the ripening stage. Proteomics was used to investigate the difference between core and mesocarp tissues during 'Cuiguan' pear ripening...
September 30, 2016: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683267/effects-of-daily-exposure-to-saccharin-and-sucrose-on-testicular-biologic-functions-in-mice
#14
Ting Gong, Quan-Wei Wei, Da-Gan Mao, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe, Kazuyoshi Taya, Fang-Xiong Shi
Saccharin sodium consumption is considered safe and beneficial, owing to its very intense sweetness without any associated calories, but supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Herein, we demonstrate that dose-response relationships existed with regard to administration of saccharin or sucrose to mice for 35 days, and this association involved testis-expressed sweet-tasting molecules (taste receptor type 1 subunit 3 [T1R3]; G protein alpha-gustducin [Galpha]). Mouse body weights and testis weights in middle- and low-dose saccharin-treated groups were increased with up-expressions of molecules involved in testicular sweet taste and steroidogenic (middle saccharin: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein [StAR]; P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme [CYP11A1]; 17-alpha-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase [CYP17A1]; low saccharin: StAR)...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662835/the-effect-of-adenosine-monophosphate-deaminase-overexpression-on-the-accumulation-of-umami-related-metabolites-in-tomatoes
#15
Bee Lynn Chew, Ian D Fisk, Rupert Fray, Gregory A Tucker, Zsuzsanna Bodi, Alison Ferguson, Wei Xia, Graham B Seymour
This study highlights the changes in umami-related nucleotide and glutamate levels when the AMP deaminase gene was elevated in transgenic tomato. Taste is perceived as one of a combination of five sensations, sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. The umami taste is best known as a savoury sensation and plays a central role in food flavour, palatability, and eating satisfaction. Umami flavour can be imparted by the presence of glutamate and is greatly enhanced by the addition of ribonucleotides, such as inosine monophosphate (IMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP)...
September 23, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641253/synthesis-of-taste-active-%C3%AE-glutamyl-dipeptides-during-sourdough-fermentation-by-lactobacillus-reuteri
#16
Cindy J Zhao, Michael G Gänzle
This study aimed to assess whether peptides influence the taste of sourdough bread. γ-Glutamyl dipeptides with known kokumi taste threshold, namely γ-Glu-Glu, γ-Glu-Leu, γ-Glu-Ile, γ-Glu-Phe, γ-Glu-Met, and γ-Glu-Val, were identified in sourdough by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in MRM mode. γ-Glutamyl dipeptides were found in higher concentrations in sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus reuteri when compared to the chemically acidified controls. Proteolysis was an important factor for generation of γ-glutamyl dipeptides...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594096/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-agonists-trigger-avoidance-of-novel-food-in-rats
#17
Selma Mahiout, Raimo Pohjanvirta
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the toxicity of dioxins, but also plays important physiological roles, which are only beginning to unfold. Previous studies have surprisingly unveiled that low doses of the potent AHR agonist TCDD induce a strong and persistent avoidance of novel food items in rats. Here, we further examined the involvement of the AHR in the avoidance response in Sprague-Dawley rats with three established AHR agonists: 6-formylindolo(3,2-b)carbazole (FICZ), β-naphthoflavone (BNF) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP); with a novel selective AHR modulator (C2); and with an activator of another nuclear receptor, CAR: 2,4,6-tryphenyldioxane-1,3 (TPD)...
September 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558786/insight-into-prodrugs-of-quinolones-and-fluoroquinolones
#18
Prabodh Chandere Sharma, Mona Piplani, Monika Mittal, Rakesh Pahwa
Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are principal weapons against variety of bacterial infections and exert their antibacterial potential by interfering the activities of bacterial enzymes. As these agents are associated with some limitations, an important approach to overcome these major constraints is to prepare covalent derivatives, i.e. prodrugs. Prodrug design has been employed to improve the limitations of these drugs such as less aqueous solubility, poor absorption and distribution, toxicity, disagreeable taste, poor lipophilicity etc and for improving their pharmacological profile...
August 24, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535766/synthetic-genome-engineering-forging-new-frontiers-for-wine-yeast
#19
Isak S Pretorius
Over the past 15 years, the seismic shifts caused by the convergence of biomolecular, chemical, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences alongside cutting-edge developments in information technology and engineering have erupted into a new field of scientific endeavor dubbed Synthetic Biology. Recent rapid advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis techniques are enabling the design and construction of new biological parts (genes), devices (gene networks) and modules (biosynthetic pathways), and the redesign of biological systems (cells and organisms) for useful purposes...
August 18, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509299/salt-taste-enhancing-l-arginyl-dipeptides-from-casein-and-lysozyme-released-by-peptidases-of-basidiomycota
#20
Lisa Harth, Ulrike Krah, Diana Linke, Andreas Dunkel, Thomas Hofmann, Ralf G Berger
Some L-arginyl dipeptides were recently identified as salt taste enhancers, thus opening the possibility to reduce the dietary sodium uptake without compromising on palatability. A screening of 15 basidiomycete fungi resulted in the identification of five species secreting a high peptidolytic activity (>3 kaU/mL; azocasein assay). PFP-LC-MS/MS and HILIC-MS/MS confirmed that L-arginyl dipeptides were liberated, when casein or lysozyme served as substrates. Much higher yields of dipeptides (42-75 µmol/g substrate) were released from lysozyme than from casein...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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