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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483879/an-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-in-capsaicinoid-biosynthesis
#1
Magda Lisette Arce-Rodríguez, Neftalí Ochoa-Alejo
Capsaicinoids are responsible for the hot taste of chili peppers. They are restricted to the genus Capsicum and are synthesized by the acylation of the aromatic compound vanillylamine (derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway) with a branched-chain fatty acid by the catalysis of the putative enzyme capsaicinoid synthase. R2R3-MYB transcription factors have been reported in different species of plants as regulators of structural genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway; therefore, we hypothesized that MYB genes might be involved in the regulation of the biosynthesis of pungent compounds...
May 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472055/abdominal-symptoms-in-cystic-fibrosis-and-their-relation-to-genotype-history-clinical-and-laboratory-findings
#2
Harold Tabori, Christin Arnold, Anke Jaudszus, Hans-Joachim Mentzel, Diane M Renz, Steffen Reinsch, Michael Lorenz, Ruth Michl, Andrea Gerber, Thomas Lehmann, Jochen G Mainz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Abdominal symptoms (AS) are a hallmark of the multiorgan-disease cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the abdominal involvement in CF is insufficiently understood and, compared to the pulmonary manifestation, still receives little scientific attention. Aims were to assess and quantify AS and to relate them to laboratory parameters, clinical findings, and medical history. METHODS: A total of 131 patients with CF of all ages were assessed with a new CF-specific questionnaire (JenAbdomen-CF score 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460961/characterization-of-the-peptide-profile-in-spanish-teruel-italian-parma-and-belgian-dry-cured-hams-and-its-potential-bioactivity
#3
Leticia Mora, Elizabeth Escudero, Fidel Toldrá
Dry-cured hams are appreciated products in many European countries. One of the most important processes taking place during ham processing and responsible for its unique taste and flavour is the proteolysis of muscle proteins. Muscle peptidases play an important role in breaking down muscle proteins and generating small peptides and free amino acids. It is known that changes in genetics and processing conditions can result in differences in the action of endopeptidases and exopeptidases. In this study, the peptides generated in Spanish Teruel, Italian Parma and Belgian dry-cured hams have been identified and quantified using a label-free methodology to assess main differences in proteolysis between the 3 types of hams...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460914/food-protein-originating-peptides-as-tastants-physiological-technological-sensory-and-bioinformatic-approaches
#4
REVIEW
Anna Iwaniak, Piotr Minkiewicz, Małgorzata Darewicz, Monika Hrynkiewicz
Taste is one of the factors based on which the organism makes the selection of what to ingest. It also protects humans from ingesting toxic compounds and is one of the main attributes when thinking about food quality. Five basic taste sensations are recognized by humans: bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami. The taste of foods is affected by some molecules of some specific chemical nature. One of them are peptides derived from food proteins. Although they are not the major natural compounds originating from food sources that are responsible for the taste, they are in the area of scientific research due to the specific composition of amino acids which are well-known for their sensory properties...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423209/r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-mdmyb73-is-involved-in-malate-accumulation-and-vacuolar-acidification-in-apple
#5
Da-Gang Hu, Yuan-Yuan Li, Quan-Yan Zhang, Ming Li, Cui-Hui Sun, Jian-Qiang Yu, Yu-Jin Hao
Malate, the predominant organic acid in many fruits, is a crucial component of fruit organoleptic quality, including taste and flavor. The genetic and environmental mechanisms affecting malate metabolism in fruit cells have been studied extensively. However, the transcriptional regulation of malate-metabolizing enzymes and vacuolar transporters remains poorly understood. Our previous studies demonstrated that MdMYB1 modulates anthocyanin accumulation and vacuolar acidification, by directly activating vacuolar transporters, including MdVHA-B1, MdVHA-E, MdVHP1, and MdtDT...
April 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395898/p63-adjusts-sugar-taste-of-epidermal-layers
#6
Ivano Amelio, Gerry Melino, Eleonora Candi
p63 is a master regulator of epidermal biology, sustaining stemness and renewal capacity of the proliferating keratinocyte compartment. Hamanaka and Mutlu propose that p63 regulates the keratinocyte proliferation/differentiation switch by affecting the cellular glycolic rate through a direct transcriptional regulation of the metabolic enzyme PFKFB3. This finding sheds light on mechanisms underlining p63 function in the skin and suggests a role for energetic metabolism in epidermal biology.
April 8, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386657/study-on-the-morphology-histology-and-enzymatic-activity-of-the-digestive-tract-of-gymnocypris-eckloni-herzenstein
#7
Lizhu Yang, Jing Fang, Xi Peng, Hengmin Cui, Min He, Zhicai Zuo, Yi Zhou, Zhuangzhi Yang
The present research was conducted to study the morphology, histology and enzymatic activities of the digestive tract of Gymnocypris eckloni by light and transmission electron microscopes as well as by enzyme assays. The digestive tract of G. eckloni consisted of the oropharyngeal cavity, oesophagus and intestine. The wall of the digestive tract was composed of mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa but lacked muscularis mucosa and glands. The stratified epithelium of the oropharyngeal cavity and oesophagus contained numerous mucous cells...
April 7, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379983/flavour-enhanced-cortisol-release-during-gum-chewing
#8
Yoko Hasegawa, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Takahiro Ono, Hiromitsu Kishimoto
There is some evidence to suggest that chewing gum reduces chronic stress. However, it remains controversial how the taste and odour properties of chewing gum influence stress. The present study was designed to investigate this issue in human subjects. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we tested salivary cortisol concentration, which is thought to be a stress marker, in 96 adults who chewed gum with different combinations of taste and odour. Subjects could discriminate between the types of gum without prior information...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359205/quality-stability-and-sensory-attributes-of-apple-juice-processed-by-thermosonication-pulsed-electric-field-and-thermal-processing
#9
Alifdalino Sulaiman, Mohammed Farid, Filipa Vm Silva
Worldwide, apple juice is the second most popular juice, after orange juice. It is susceptible to enzymatic browning spoilage by polyphenoloxidase, an endogenous enzyme. In this study, Royal Gala apple juice was treated by thermosonication (TS: 1.3 W/mL, 58 ℃, 10 min), pulsed electric field (PEF: 24.8 kV/cm, 60 pulses, 169 µs treatment time, 53.8 ℃) and heat (75 ℃, 20 min) and stored at 3.0 ℃ and 20.0 ℃ for 30 days. A sensory analysis was carried out after processing. The polyphenoloxidase activity, antioxidant activity and total color difference of the apple juice were determined before and after processing and during storage...
April 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348546/dementia-with-lewy-bodies-molecular-pathology-in-the-frontal-cortex-in-typical-and-rapidly-progressive-forms
#10
Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Irene López-González, Oriol Grau-Rivera, María Francisca García-Garrido, Anusha Konetti, Franc Llorens, Saima Zafar, Margarita Carmona, José Antonio Del Rio, Inga Zerr, Ellen Gelpi, Isidro Ferrer
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess mitochondrial function, energy, and purine metabolism, protein synthesis machinery from the nucleolus to the ribosome, inflammation, and expression of newly identified ectopic olfactory receptors (ORs) and taste receptors (TASRs) in the frontal cortex of typical cases of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and cases with rapid clinical course (rpDLB: 2 years or less) compared with middle-aged non-affected individuals, in order to learn about the biochemical abnormalities underlying Lewy body pathology...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337691/purification-and-characterization-of-elizabethkingia-l-amino-acid-esterase-an-enzyme-useful-for-enzymatic-synthesis-of-the-dipeptide-valyl-glycine
#11
Takahiro Tanaka, Kazuyoshi Takagi, Hossain Md Saddam, Yoichi Takeda, Mamoru Wakayama
Valyl-glycine (Val-Gly) is useful as a synthetic substrate of γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine (γ-Glu-Val-Gly), which exhibits a strong taste of "kokumi." For efficient enzymatic synthesis of Val-Gly from valine methylester and glycine using L-amino acid esterase (LAE), we screened microorganisms producing LAE with synthetic activity toward Val-Gly. Among 17 isolates showing LAE activity, Elizabethkingia sp. TT1, which was identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis, showed the highest synthetic activity toward Val-Gly...
March 24, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231561/structural-analysis-of-rebaudioside-a-derivatives-obtained-by-lactobacillus-reuteri-180-glucansucrase-catalyzed-trans-%C3%AE-glucosylation
#12
Gerrit J Gerwig, Evelien M Te Poele, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Johannis P Kamerling
The wild-type Gtf180-ΔN glucansucrase enzyme from Lactobacillus reuteri 180 was found to catalyze the α-glucosylation of the steviol glycoside rebaudioside A, using sucrose as glucosyl donor in a transglucosylation process. Structural analysis of the formed products by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy showed that rebaudioside A is specifically α-d-glucosylated at the steviol C-19 β-d-glucosyl moiety (55% conversion). The main product is a mono-(α1 → 6)-glucosylated derivative (RebA-G1)...
February 22, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231182/overview-on-the-general-approaches-to-improve-gluten-free-pasta-and-bread
#13
REVIEW
Lucia Padalino, Amalia Conte, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile
The use of gluten-free products is increasing since a growing number of people are suffering from celiac disease and thereby need gluten-free diet. Gluten is responsible for the visco-elastic characteristics of wheat-based products; therefore, its lack makes the gluten-free products not similar to wheat-based product, with scarce textural properties. This reason constitutes the major industrial limitation. Thus, obtaining good-quality gluten-free products represents a technological challenge. This review reports the main strategies adopted to produce high quality gluten-free pasta and bread...
December 9, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073471/biochemistry-and-genetics-of-taste-and-odor-producing-cyanobacteria
#14
REVIEW
Susan B Watson, Paul Monis, Peter Baker, Steven Giglio
Cyanobacteria are one of the principal sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which cause offensive taste and odor (T&O) in drinking and recreational water, fish, shellfish and other seafood. Although non-toxic to humans, these T&O compounds severely undermine public trust in these commodities, resulting in substantial costs in treatment, and lost revenue to drinking water, aquaculture, food and beverage and tourist/hospitality industries. Mitigation and control have been hindered by the complexity of the communities and processes which produce and modify T&O events, making it difficult to source-track the major producer(s) and the factors governing VOC production and fate...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065722/peripheral-endocannabinoid-signaling-controls-hyperphagia-in-western-diet-induced-obesity
#15
Donovan A Argueta, Nicholas V DiPatrizio
The endocannabinoid system in the brain and periphery plays a major role in controlling food intake and energy balance. We reported that tasting dietary fats was met with increased levels of the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, in the rat upper small intestine, and pharmacological inhibition of this local signaling event dose-dependently blocked sham feeding of fats. We now investigated the contribution of peripheral endocannabinoid signaling in hyperphagia associated with chronic consumption of a western-style diet in mice ([WD] i...
March 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923373/microbial-production-of-next-generation-stevia-sweeteners
#16
Kim Olsson, Simon Carlsen, Angelika Semmler, Ernesto Simón, Michael Dalgaard Mikkelsen, Birger Lindberg Møller
BACKGROUND: The glucosyltransferase UGT76G1 from Stevia rebaudiana is a chameleon enzyme in the targeted biosynthesis of the next-generation premium stevia sweeteners, rebaudioside D (Reb D) and rebaudioside M (Reb M). These steviol glucosides carry five and six glucose units, respectively, and have low sweetness thresholds, high maximum sweet intensities and exhibit a greatly reduced lingering bitter taste compared to stevioside and rebaudioside A, the most abundant steviol glucosides in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana...
December 7, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916586/selaginella-uncinata-flavonoids-ameliorated-ovalbumin-induced-airway-inflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-asthma
#17
Bing Yu, Wei Cai, Huan-Huan Zhang, Yu-Sen Zhong, Jie Fang, Wen-You Zhang, Li Mo, Lu-Chen Wang, Chen-Huan Yu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Selaginella uncinata (Desv.) Spring, known as "Cuiyuncao", is a perennial herb widely distributed in the Southeast Asian countries. In the folk medicine, the local minority commonly use it to treat cough and asthma for centuries. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was carried out to investigate the protective mechanisms of total flavonoids from S. uncinata (SUF) on airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokine release and bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) signaling with emphasis on inflammatory responses in a rat model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885676/effect%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-deamidation-induced%C3%A2-modification%C3%A2-on%C3%A2-umami%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-bitter%C3%A2-taste-of-wheat-gluten%C3%A2-hydrolysates
#18
Bo-Ye Liu, Ke-Xue Zhu, Xiao-Na Guo, Wei Peng, Hui-Ming Zhou
BACKGROUND: Bitter taste is the main limiting factor for various applications of protein hydrolysates. Frequently-used physicochemical methods for debittering protein hydrolysates came with some undesired side effects. Deamidation-induced modification method would be a very promising technique to improve the flavor of wheat gluten hydrolysates (WGHs). This study was designed to determine the effect of deamidation with certain enzymes or acid treatment on the chemical composition, bitterness and umami properties of WGHs...
November 25, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846263/nicotine-induced-effects-on-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-nachrs-ca2-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-in-stc-1-cells
#19
Jie Qian, Shobha K Mummalaneni, Reem M Alkahtani, Sunila Mahavadi, Karnam S Murthy, John R Grider, Vijay Lyall
In addition to the T2R bitter taste receptors, neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have recently been shown to be involved in the bitter taste transduction of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. However, at present it is not clear if nAChRs are expressed in enteroendocrine cells other than beta cells of the pancreas and enterochromaffin cells, and if they play a role in the synthesis and release of neurohumoral peptides. Accordingly, we investigated the expression and functional role of nAChRs in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815133/simple-purification-method-for-a-recombinantly-expressed-native-his-tag-free-aminopeptidase-a-from-lactobacillus-delbrueckii
#20
Timo Stressler, Coralie Tanzer, Jacob Ewert, Wolfgang Claaßen, Lutz Fischer
The aminopeptidase A (PepA; EC 3.4.11.7) is an intracellular exopeptidase present in lactic acid bacteria. The PepA cleaves glutamyl/aspartyl residues from the N-terminal end of peptides and can, therefore, be applied for the production of protein hydrolysates with an increased amount of these amino acids, which results in a savory taste (umami). The first PepA from a lactobacilli strain was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli in a recently published study and harbored a C-terminal His6-tag for easier purification...
November 1, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
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