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Enzyme & taste

Jorge Del Cueto, Birger Lindberg Møller, Federico Dicenta, Raquel Sánchez-Pérez
Almond bitterness is the most important trait for breeding programs since bitter-kernelled seedlings are usually discarded. Amygdalin and its precursor prunasin are hydrolyzed by specific enzymes called β-glucosidases. In order to better understand the genetic control of almond bitterness, some studies have shown differences in the location of prunasin hydrolases (PH, the β-glucosidase that degrades prunasin) in sweet and bitter genotypes. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize different PHs in sweet- and bitter-kernelled almonds to determine whether differences in their genomic or protein sequences are responsible for the sweet or bitter taste of their seeds...
December 16, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Surendra S Agrawal, Tapasya P Yallatikar, Pravina N Gurjar
Brassica nigra belonging to the family Brassicaceae (syn - black mustard) comprises of dried seeds and is widely cultivated in Mediterranean region and various other countries like India and Europe. B. nigra contains glycosinolates which undergoes hydrolysis in the presence of myrosinase enzyme yields allyl isothiocyante. The bitter taste and pungent odor is due to the isothiocyanates. B. Nigra shows various activities that are medically important such as anticancer, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-helminthic, protection against renal and hepatic toxicity and can also be used in diabetes treatment...
March 8, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Luc Tappy
Compared with other carbohydrates, fructose-containing caloric sweeteners (sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, pure fructose and fructose-glucose mixtures) are characterized by: a sweet taste generally associated with a positive hedonic tone; specific intestinal fructose transporters, i.e. GLUT5; a two-step fructose metabolism, consisting of the conversion of fructose carbones into ubiquitous energy substrates in splanchnic organs where fructolytic enzymes are expressed, and secondary delivery of these substrates to extrasplanchnic tissues...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Dinka Rees, Grietje Holtrop, Gemma Chope, Kim M Moar, Morven Cruickshank, Nigel Hoggard
The aim of the present study was to determine if the enzyme Aspergillus niger prolyl endoprotease (ANPEP), which degrades the immunogenic proline-rich residues in gluten peptides, can be used in the development of new wheat products, suitable for gluten-sensitive (GS) individuals. We have carried out a double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial with two groups of adults; subjects, self-reporting benefits of adopting a gluten-free or low-gluten diet (GS, n 16) and a control non-GS group (n 12). For the trial, volunteers consumed four wheat breads: normal bread, bread treated with 0·8 or 1 % ANPEP and low-protein bread made from biscuit flour...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Xiaowei Lou, Yangfang Ye, Ying Wang, Yangying Sun, Daodong Pan, Jinxuan Cao
The effect of high-pressure (HP) (0.1, 150 and 300MPa, 15min) on taste profiles of vinasse-cured ducks was investigated; the metabolite profiles were determined using 1H NMR. HP at 150MPa increased the taste intensity of products compared with the controls, while HP at 300MPa did not further improve their taste compared with 150MPa treated samples. The metabonome of vinasse-cured ducks was dominated by 27 metabolites. HP increased amino acids, glucose, alkaloids and organic acids, but decreased inosine monophosphate and its derivatives, compared with the controls...
March 2018: Food Research International
Artur Conde, Flávio Soares, Richard Breia, Hernâni Gerós
Postharvest dehydration causes changes in texture, color, taste and nutritional value of food due to the high temperatures and long drying times required. In grape berries, a gradual dehydration process is normally utilized for raisin production and for making special wines. Here we applied a raisin industry-mimicking dehydration process for eleven days at 50°C to intact berry clusters from cv. Sémillon plants, and a set of molecular, cellular and biochemical analyses were performed to study the impact of postharvest dehydration in the primary metabolism...
March 2018: Food Research International
Matthew A Cutulle, Gregory R Armel, Dean Adam Kopsell, Henry P Wilson, James Brosnan, Jose J Vargas, Thomas E Hines, Rebecca M Koepke-Hill
Herbicides are pesticides used to eradicate unwanted plants in both crop and non-crop environments. These chemistries are toxic to weeds due to inhibition of key enzymes or disruption of essential biochemical processes required for weedy plants to survive. Crops can survive systemic herbicide applications through various forms of detoxification including metabolism that can be enhanced by safeners. Field studies were conducted near Louisville, TN and Painter, VA to determine how the herbicides mesotrione, topramezone, nicosulfuron, and atrazine applied with or without the safener isoxadifen-ethyl would impact the nutritional quality of 'Incredible' sweet corn (Zea mays L...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Niamh M Murray, Dolores O'Riordan, Jean-Christophe Jacquier, Michael O'Sullivan, Thérèse A Holton, Kieran Wynne, Randall C Robinson, Daniela Barile, Søren D Nielsen, David C Dallas
Sodium caseinate hydrolysates (NaCaH) contain biologically active peptides that can positively influence human health. However, their intense bitterness hinders their inclusion in food products. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated whether a correlation between bitterness and bioactivity exists in NaCaH, so it is not yet known what effect selective removal of bitterness has on NaCaH bioactivity. A deeper understanding of the physicochemical characteristics affecting both bitterness and bioactivity is therefore needed...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Sean D Schoville, Yolanda H Chen, Martin N Andersson, Joshua B Benoit, Anita Bhandari, Julia H Bowsher, Kristian Brevik, Kaat Cappelle, Mei-Ju M Chen, Anna K Childers, Christopher Childers, Olivier Christiaens, Justin Clements, Elise M Didion, Elena N Elpidina, Patamarerk Engsontia, Markus Friedrich, Inmaculada García-Robles, Richard A Gibbs, Chandan Goswami, Alessandro Grapputo, Kristina Gruden, Marcin Grynberg, Bernard Henrissat, Emily C Jennings, Jeffery W Jones, Megha Kalsi, Sher A Khan, Abhishek Kumar, Fei Li, Vincent Lombard, Xingzhou Ma, Alexander Martynov, Nicholas J Miller, Robert F Mitchell, Monica Munoz-Torres, Anna Muszewska, Brenda Oppert, Subba Reddy Palli, Kristen A Panfilio, Yannick Pauchet, Lindsey C Perkin, Marko Petek, Monica F Poelchau, Éric Record, Joseph P Rinehart, Hugh M Robertson, Andrew J Rosendale, Victor M Ruiz-Arroyo, Guy Smagghe, Zsofia Szendrei, Gregg W C Thomas, Alex S Torson, Iris M Vargas Jentzsch, Matthew T Weirauch, Ashley D Yates, George D Yocum, June-Sun Yoon, Stephen Richards
The Colorado potato beetle is one of the most challenging agricultural pests to manage. It has shown a spectacular ability to adapt to a variety of solanaceaeous plants and variable climates during its global invasion, and, notably, to rapidly evolve insecticide resistance. To examine evidence of rapid evolutionary change, and to understand the genetic basis of herbivory and insecticide resistance, we tested for structural and functional genomic changes relative to other arthropod species using genome sequencing, transcriptomics, and community annotation...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jagadeesh Sundaramoorthy, Gyu Tae Park, Kyosuke Mukaiyama, Chigen Tsukamoto, Jeong Ho Chang, Jeong-Dong Lee, Jeong Hoe Kim, Hak Soo Seo, Jong Tae Song
In soybean, triterpenoid saponin is one of the major secondary metabolites and is further classified into group A and DDMP saponins. Although they have known health benefits for humans and animals, acetylation of group A saponins causes bitterness and gives an astringent taste to soy products. Therefore, several studies are being conducted to eliminate acetylated group A saponins. Previous studies have isolated and characterized the Sg-5 (Glyma.15g243300) gene, which encodes the cytochrome P450 72A69 enzyme and is responsible for soyasapogenol A biosynthesis...
2018: PloS One
Evelien M Te Poele, Tim Devlamynck, Manuel Jäger, Gerrit J Gerwig, Davy Van de Walle, Koen Dewettinck, Anna K H Hirsch, Johannis P Kamerling, Wim Soetaert, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
Steviol glycosides from the leaves of the plant Stevia rebaudiana are high-potency natural sweeteners but suffer from a lingering bitterness. The Lactobacillus reuteri 180 wild-type glucansucrase Gtf180-ΔN, and in particular its Q1140E-mutant, efficiently α-glucosylated rebaudioside A (RebA), using sucrose as donor substrate. Structural analysis of the products by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy showed that both enzymes exclusively glucosylate the Glc(β1→C-19 residue of RebA, with the initial formation of an (α1→6) linkage...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anne S Bertelsen, Anne Laursen, Tine A Knudsen, Stine Møller, Ulla Kidmose
BACKGROUND: Bioactive protein hydrolysates are often very bitter. To overcome this challenge xylitol, sucrose, α-cyclodextrin, maltodextrin and combinations of these were tested systematically as bitter masking agents of an enzyme-treated soy protein in an aqueous model and in a bread model. Sensory descriptive analysis was used to reveal the bitter masking effect of the taste masking blends on the enzyme-treated soy protein. RESULTS: In water xylitol, sucrose and maltodextrin reduced bitterness significantly, whereas α-cyclodextrin did not...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Yan-Jun Liu, Guang-Long Wang, Jing Ma, Zhi-Sheng Xu, Feng Wang, Ai-Sheng Xiong
BACKGROUND: Carrot which contains lots of nutrients has a large demand around the world. The soluble sugar content in fleshy root of carrot directly influences its taste and quality. Sucrose, as an important member of soluble sugar, is the main product of photosynthesis in higher plants and it plays pivotal roles in physiological processes including energy supply, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, starch and cellulose synthesis, and stress tolerance. Sucrose synthase is a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism and is closely related to sucrose content...
January 5, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Li Jun Li, Zhe Yu Wu, Yue Yu, Lu Jia Zhang, Yan Bing Zhu, Hui Ni, Feng Chen
The glycoside hydrolase, α-l-rhamnosidase, could remove the bitter taste of naringin from citrus juices. However, most α-l-rhamnosidases are easily deactivated at high temperatures, limiting the practice in debittering citrus juices. The V529A mutant of the α-l-rhamnosidase r-Rha1 from Aspergillus niger JMU-TS528 was developed with improved thermostability using directed evolution technology and site-directed mutagenesis. The enzyme mutant had a half-live of thermal inactivation T(1/2) of 1.92 h, 25.00 min, and 2 min at 60, 65, and 70 °C, respectively...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Jikang Wu, Anice Sabag-Daigle, Thomas O Metz, Brooke L Deatherage Kaiser, Venkat Gopalan, Edward J Behrman, Vicki H Wysocki, Brian M M Ahmer
The food-borne bacterial pathogen, Salmonella enterica, can utilize fructose-asparagine (F-Asn) as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. F-Asn is the product of an Amadori rearrangement following the nonenzymatic condensation of glucose and asparagine. Heating converts F-Asn via complex Maillard reactions to a variety of molecules that contribute to the color, taste, and aroma of heated foods. Among these end derivatives is acrylamide, which is present in some foods, especially in fried potatoes. The F-Asn utilization pathway in Salmonella, specifically FraB, is a potential drug target because inhibition of this enzyme would lead to intoxication of Salmonella in the presence of F-Asn...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Xuecheng Zhao, Xinlong Dai, Liping Gao, Lina Guo, Juhua Zhuang, Yajun Liu, Xiubing Ma, Rui Wang, Tao Xia, Yunsheng Wang
Polyphenols are one of the largest groups of compounds that confer benefits to the health of plants and humans. Flavonol glycosides are a major ingredient of polyphenols in Camellia sinensis. Flavonol-3-O-glycosides are characteristic astringent taste compounds in tea infusion. A polyphenolic glycosyltransferase (CsUGT72AM1) belonging to cluster IIIb was isolated from the tea plant. The full-length cDNA of CsUGT72AM1 is 1416 bp. It encodes 472 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 50.92 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yoshinobu Uemoto, Tsuyoshi Ohtake, Nanae Sasago, Masayuki Takeda, Tsuyoshi Abe, Hironori Sakuma, Takatoshi Kojima, Shinji Sasaki
BACKGROUND: Umami is a Japanese term for the fifth basic taste and is an important sensory property of beef palatability. Inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) contributes to umami taste in beef. Thus, the overall change in concentration of IMP and its degradation products can potentially affect the beef palatability. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of IMP and its degradation products in Japanese Black beef. First, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS), candidate gene analysis, and functional analysis to detect the causal variants that affect IMP, inosine, and hypoxanthine...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
J Sihag, P J H Jones
Fatty acid ethanolamides are lipid mediators that regulate a plethora of physiological functions. One such bioactive lipid mediator, oleoylethanolamide (OEA), is a potent agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), which modulates increased expression of the fatty acid translocase CD36 that enables the regulation of feeding behaviour. Consumption of dietary fat rich in oleic acid activates taste receptors in the gut activating specific enzymes that lead to the formation of OEA...
November 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Hideyuki Suzuki, Yuko Nakafuji, Tomoki Tamura
In the present study, we demonstrate a novel use for a commercially available glutaminase that can be used as a γ-glutamyltranspeptidase in kokumi seasoning production. Soy protein and gluten were hydrolyzed using a protease isolated from Bacillus licheniformis. The resulting protein hydrolysates were γ-glutamylated with a γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, which is sold as a glutaminase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, to produce kokumi seasonings. For γ-glutamylation of soy protein hydrolysate, glutamine was added to the reaction mixture...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kristina Lossow, Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer, Maik Behrens, Wolfgang Meyerhof
Carbonic anhydrases form an enzyme family of 16 members, which reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. In lung, kidney, and brain, presence of carbonic anhydrases is associated with protons and bicarbonate transport in capillary endothelium of lung, reabsorption of bicarbonate in proximal renal tubules, and extracellular buffering. In contrast, their role in taste is less clear. Recently, carbonic anhydrase IV expression was detected in sour-sensing presynaptic taste cells and was associated with the taste of carbonation, yet the precise role and cell population remained uncertain...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
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