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preeclampsia pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223622/airway-changes-following-labor-and-delivery-in-preeclamptic-parturients-a-prospective-case-control-study
#1
P Ahuja, D Jain, N Bhardwaj, K Jain, S Gainder, M Kang
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is associated with greater narrowing of the airway than normal pregnancy, but it is not known if these changes worsen during labor and delivery. The aim of the study was to evaluate the airway during and after labor in women with or without preeclampsia. METHODS: Twenty-five normal and 25 severely preeclamptic pregnant women in early labor were recruited in this single-center, prospective, case-control study. Airway assessment was performed (a) before active labor (b) within one hour of delivery and (c) 24-48 h postpartum...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222249/thrombocytopenia-in-pregnancy
#2
REVIEW
Douglas B Cines, Lisa D Levine
Thrombocytopenia develops in 5% to 10% of women during pregnancy or in the immediate postpartum period. A low platelet count is often an incidental feature, but it might also provide a biomarker of a coexisting systemic or gestational disorder and a potential reason for a maternal intervention or treatment that might pose harm to the fetus. This chapter reflects our approach to these issues with an emphasis on advances made over the past 5 to 10 years in understanding and managing the more common causes of thrombocytopenia in pregnancy...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222068/foetoplacental-communication-via-extracellular-vesicles-in-normal-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#3
REVIEW
Delia I Chiarello, Rocío Salsoso, Fernando Toledo, Alfonso Mate, Carmen M Vázquez, Luis Sobrevia
Intercellular communication is a critical process in biological mechanisms. During pregnancy foetoplacental tissues release a heterogeneous group of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that include exosomes, microvesicles, apoptotic bodies, and syncytial nuclear aggregates. These vesicles contain a complex cargo (proteins, DNA, mRNA transcripts, microRNAs, noncoding RNA, lipids, and other molecules) that actively participate in the maternal-foetal communication by modulating different processes during gestation for a successful foetal development...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219889/the-value-of-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-and-platelet-to-lymphocyte-ratio-for-detecting-early-onset-neonatal-sepsis
#4
Emrah Can, Şahin Hamilcikan, Ceren Can
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between neonate early-onset sepsis (EOS) and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) of term neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted with term neonates diagnosed with EOS compared with 44 healthy controls. Exclusion criteria were prematurity, postmaturity, small or large for gestational age according to week of pregnancy, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, chorioamnionitis, congenital major anomalies, and cyanotic congenital heart disease...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217650/serum-and-urine-vitamin-d-metabolite-analysis-in-early-preeclampsia
#5
Jennifer Tamblyn, Carl Jenkinson, Dean Larner, Martin Hewison, Mark Kilby
Vitamin D-deficiency is common in pregnant women, and may contribute to adverse events in pregnancy such as preeclampsia (PET). To date, studies of vitamin D and PET have focused primarily on serum concentrations vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) later in pregnancy. The aim here was to determine whether a more comprehensive analysis of vitamin D metabolites earlier in pregnancy could provide predictors of PET. Using samples from the SCOPE pregnancy cohort, multiple vitamin D metabolites were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in paired serum and urine prior to the onset of PET symptoms...
December 7, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216770/maternal-age-over-40-years-and-pregnancy-outcome-a-hospital-based-survey
#6
Luca Marozio, Elisa Picardo, Claudia Filippini, Erika Mainolfi, Paola Berchialla, Franco Cavallo, Annalisa Tancredi, Chiara Benedetto
OBJECTIVE: Increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes with advancing maternal age has been described but the strength of association remains debated, particularly in presence of confounding factors such as parity, twin pregnancy and pregnancy from assisted reproductive technologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in a large cohort of women aged over 40 years. The hypothesis was that advanced maternal age may be an independent risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216009/the-first-trimester-aneuploidy-biochemical-markers-in-ivf-icsi-patients-have-no-additional-benefit-compared-to-spontaneous-conceptions-in-the-prediction-of-pregnancy-complications
#7
Iwona Szymusik, Przemyslaw Kosinski, Katarzyna Kosinska-Kaczynska, Damian Warzecha, Anetta Karwacka, Bartosz Kaczynski, Miroslaw Wielgos
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if the levels of biochemical aneuploidy markers in in vitro fertilisation (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) pregnancies differ from those in spontaneous pregnancies and to verify if biochemical markers could predict pregnancy outcome in IVF/ICSI gestations. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study performed in a group of 551 patients who underwent a combined first trimester prenatal screening (ultrasound scan and serum markers)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215520/preeclampsia-and-long-term-renal-function-in-women-who-underwent-kidney-transplantation
#8
Valerie Vannevel, Kathleen Claes, David Baud, Yvan Vial, Delaviz Golshayan, Eugene W Yoon, Ryan Hodges, Anne Le Nepveu, Peter G Kerr, Claire Kennedy, Mary Higgins, Elisabeth Resch, Philipp Klaritsch, Tim Van Mieghem
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia often complicates pregnancies after maternal kidney transplantation. We aimed to assess whether preeclampsia is associated with kidney function decline either during the pregnancy or in the long term. METHODS: We performed an international multicenter retrospective cohort study. Renal function at conception, pregnancy outcomes, and short- and long-term graft outcomes were collected for women who were pregnant after renal transplantation and had transplant and obstetric care at the participating centers...
December 4, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215518/angiogenic-factor-profiles-in-pregnant-women-with-a-history-of-early-onset-severe-preeclampsia-receiving-low-molecular-weight-heparin-prophylaxis
#9
Edouard Lecarpentier, Jean Christophe Gris, Eva Cochery-Nouvellon, Erick Mercier, Cyril Touboul, Ravi Thadhani, S Ananth Karumanchi, Bassam Haddad
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether daily low-molecular-weight (LMW) heparin prophylaxis during pregnancy alters profile of circulating angiogenic factors that have been linked with the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. METHODS: This is a planned ancillary study of the Heparin-Preeclampsia trial, a randomized trial in pregnant women with a history of severe early-onset preeclampsia (less than 34 weeks of gestation). In the parent study, all women were treated with aspirin and then randomized to receive LMW heparin or aspirin alone...
December 4, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215510/timing-and-risk-factors-of-postpartum-stroke
#10
Gloria Too, Timothy Wen, Amelia K Boehme, Eliza C Miller, Lisa R Leffert, Frank J Attenello, William J Mack, Mary E DʼAlton, Alexander M Friedman
OBJECTIVE: To characterize risk and timing of postpartum stroke readmission after delivery hospitalization discharge. METHODS: The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Readmissions Database for calendar years 2013 and 2014 was used to perform a retrospective cohort study evaluating risk of readmission for stroke within 60 days of discharge from a delivery hospitalization. Risk was characterized as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs based on whether patients had hypertensive diseases of pregnancy (gestational hypertension or preeclampsia), or chronic hypertension, or neither disorder during the index hospitalization...
December 4, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212865/the-placenta-controls-the-physiology-of-pregnancy-by-increasing-the-half-life-in-blood-and-receptor
#11
Phil Lowry, Russell Woods
An efficient functioning placenta is essential for a healthy pregnancy and yet the way this is achieved has been the subject of much discussion and confusion, particularly with the occurrence of pathological conditions such as preeclampsia, morning sickness and hyperemesis/ptyalism gravidarum. We will attempt to explain the underlying physiology and the potential roles played by the placental tachykinins, neurokinin B and endokinin.
December 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212810/heme-oxygenase-1-is-a-potent-inhibitor-of-placental-ischemia-mediated-endothelin-1-production-in-cultured-human-glomerular-endothelial-cells
#12
Bhavisha A Bakrania, Frank T Spradley, Simon C Satchell, David E Stec, John M Rimoldi, Rama S V Gadepalli, Joey P Granger
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of maternal hypertension and reduced renal hemodynamics linked to reduced endothelial function. Placental ischemia is thought to be the culprit of this disease, as it causes the release of factors like tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α that induce vascular endothelin-1 (ET-1) production. Interestingly, placental ischemia-induced hypertension in rats (reduced uterine perfusion pressure, RUPP model) is abolished by ETA receptor blockade, suggesting a critical role for ET-1...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212809/animal-models-of-preeclampsia-translational-failings-and-why
#13
Sarah A Marshall, Natalie J Hannan, Maria Jelinic, Thy P H Nguyen, Jane E Girling, Laura J Parry
Preeclampsia affects up to 8% of pregnancies worldwide and is a leading cause of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Our current understanding of the cause(s) of preeclampsia is far from complete, and the lack of a single reliable animal model that recapitulates all aspects of the disease further confounds our understanding. This is partially due to the heterogeneous nature of the disease, coupled with our evolving understanding of its etiology. Nevertheless, animal models are still highly relevant and useful tools that help us better understand the pathophysiology of specific aspects of preeclampsia...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212079/plasma-et-1-concentrations-are-elevated-in-pregnant-women-with-hypertension-meta-analysis-of-clinical-studies
#14
Yong-Ping Lu, Ahmed Abdallah Hasan, Shufei Zeng, Berthold Hocher
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The ET system might be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. The objective is to analyse the impact of ET-1 in hypertensive pregnant women by a strict meta-analysis of published human clinical studies. METHODS: Based on the principle of Cochrane systematic reviews, Cohort studies in PubMed (Medline), Google Scholar and China Biological Medicine Database (CBM-disc) designed to identify the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the pathophysiology of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia were screened...
November 28, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207177/regulation-of-steroid-hormones-in-the-placenta-and-serum-of-women-with-preeclampsia
#15
Ye Young Shin, Jea Sic Jeong, Mee-Na Park, Jae-Eon Lee, Sung-Min An, Wan-Seob Cho, Seung Chul Kim, Beum-Soo An, Kyu-Sup Lee
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy‑specific hypertensive syndrome that results in substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The exact cause of PE has not been completely elucidate, although abnormal formation of the placenta has been considered. The placenta connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall, producing a large quantity of steroid hormones to maintain pregnancy. Although steroid hormones, particularly progesterone (P4) and estrogen (E2), in the serum of women with PE have been studied, steroidogenesis in the placenta has not well been established...
November 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205625/vitamin-d-facilitates-trophoblast-invasion-through-induction-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#16
Ryang Hee Kim, Byung Jun Ryu, Ki Mo Lee, Jae Won Han, Sung Ki Lee
PROBLEM: Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of developing pregnancy-related complications, including preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age infants. Vitamin D was demonstrated to promote the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). However, whether vitamin D induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of EVTs remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether vitamin D promotes EMT and the related signaling pathways. METHOD OF STUDY: In this study, we performed EMT experiments using JAR cells based on the expression of the mesenchymal markers and vitamin D receptor...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203625/fetal-microsatellite-in-the-heme-oxygenase-1-promoter-is-associated-with-severe-and-early-onset-preeclampsia
#17
Tea Kaartokallio, Siddheshwar Utge, Miira M Klemetti, Jussi Paananen, Kari Pulkki, Jarkko Romppanen, Ilkka Tikkanen, Seppo Heinonen, Eero Kajantie, Juha Kere, Katja Kivinen, Anneli Pouta, Päivi Lakkisto, Hannele Laivuori
Preeclampsia is a vascular pregnancy disorder that often involves impaired placental development. HO-1 (heme oxygenase 1, encoded by HMOX1) is a stress response enzyme crucial for endothelial and placental function. Long version of the guanine-thymine (GTn) microsatellite in the HMOX1 promoter decreases HO-1 expression, and the long maternal repeat is associated with late-onset preeclampsia. Our aim was to study whether the length of fetal repeat is associated with mother's preeclampsia, whether the length of fetal and maternal repeats affect HO-1 levels in placenta and maternal serum, and whether HO-1 levels are altered in preeclampsia...
December 4, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201670/coexistent-circumvallate-placenta-and-battledore-insertion-of-umbilical-cord-resulting-in-grave-obstetric-outcome-a-case-report
#18
Nalini Sharma, Rituparna Das, Sushila Salam, Roma Jethani, Ahanthem Santa Singh
Background: Various placental and cord abnormalities have been known to adversely affect the obstetric outcome. Circumvallate placenta and Battledore insertion of the umbilical cord are both rare and known to be associated with poor obstetric outcome individually. Case Presentation: In this case report, the woman presented at 8 months of gestation with preeclampsia with IUFD to North Easter Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Science Shillong on 22/7/16 and delivered a macerated fetus vaginally...
October 2017: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199169/treatment-of-reflux-disease-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#19
Ülkü Dağlı, İsmail Hakkı Kalkan
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is frequently seen during pregnancy. In the medical treatment of pregnant women with GERD, alginic acid and sucralfate can be used. Calcium- and magnesium-based antacids can also be used, particularly for patients with preeclampsia. In particular, ranitidine -a histamine-2 receptor blocker- is preferred. In the case of non-responsiveness to the abovementioned treatments, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), except omeprazole, can be given considering the benefit-harm ratio for the mother and fetus after the first trimester...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199029/the-effect-of-customization-and-use-of-a-fetal-growth-standard-on-the-association-between-birthweight-percentile%C3%A2-and-adverse-perinatal-outcome
#20
Ulla Sovio, Gordon C S Smith
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that correction of offspring weight percentiles (customization) might improve the prediction of adverse pregnancy outcome; however, the approach is not accepted universally. A complication in the interpretation of the data is that the main method for calculation of customized percentiles uses a fetal growth standard, and multiple analyses have compared the results with birthweight-based standards. OBJECTIVES: First, we aimed to determine whether women who deliver small-for-gestational-age infants using a customized standard differed from other women...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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