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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812838/forced-migration-and-global-responsibility-for-health-comment-on-defining-and-acting-on-global-health-the-case-of-japan-and-the-refugee-crisis
#1
Kayvan Bozorgmehr, Oliver Razum
Forced migration has become a world-wide phenomenon in the past century, affecting increasing numbers of countries and people. It entails important challenges from a global health perspective. Leppold et al have critically discussed the Japanese interpretation of global responsibility for health in the context of forced migration. This commentary complements their analysis by outlining three priority areas of global health responsibility for European Union (EU) countries. We highlight important stages of the migration phases related to forced migration and propose three arguments...
November 5, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812828/how-the-spectre-of-societal-homogeneity-undermines-equitable-healthcare-for-refugees-comment-on-defining-and-acting-on-global-health-the-case-of-japan-and-the-refugee-crisis
#2
Oliver Razum, Judith Wenner, Kayvan Bozorgmehr
Recourse to a purported ideal of societal homogeneity has become common in the context of the refugee reception crisis - not only in Japan, as Leppold et al report, but also throughout Europe. Calls for societal homogeneity in Europe originate from populist movements as well as from some governments. Often, they go along with reduced social support for refugees and asylum seekers, for example in healthcare provision. The fundamental right to health is then reduced to a citizens' right, granted fully only to nationals...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812743/cross-realm-assessment-of-climate-change-impacts-on-species-abundance-trends
#3
Diana E Bowler, Christian Hof, Peter Haase, Ingrid Kröncke, Oliver Schweiger, Rita Adrian, Léon Baert, Hans-Günther Bauer, Theo Blick, Rob W Brooker, Wouter Dekoninck, Sami Domisch, Reiner Eckmann, Frederik Hendrickx, Thomas Hickler, Stefan Klotz, Alexandra Kraberg, Ingolf Kühn, Silvia Matesanz, Angelika Meschede, Hermann Neumann, Robert O'Hara, David J Russell, Anne F Sell, Moritz Sonnewald, Stefan Stoll, Andrea Sundermann, Oliver Tackenberg, Michael Türkay, Fernando Valladares, Kok van Herk, Roel van Klink, Rikjan Vermeulen, Karin Voigtländer, Rüdiger Wagner, Erik Welk, Martin Wiemers, Karen H Wiltshire, Katrin Böhning-Gaese
Climate change, land-use change, pollution and exploitation are among the main drivers of species' population trends; however, their relative importance is much debated. We used a unique collection of over 1,000 local population time series in 22 communities across terrestrial, freshwater and marine realms within central Europe to compare the impacts of long-term temperature change and other environmental drivers from 1980 onwards. To disentangle different drivers, we related species' population trends to species- and driver-specific attributes, such as temperature and habitat preference or pollution tolerance...
February 17, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812655/the-placenta-as-a-model-for-understanding-the-origin-and-evolution-of-vertebrate-organs
#4
REVIEW
Oliver W Griffith, Günter P Wagner
How organs originate and evolve is a question fundamental to understanding the evolution of complex multicellular life forms. Vertebrates have a relatively standard body plan with more or less the same conserved set of organs. The placenta is a comparatively more recently evolved organ, derived in many lineages independently. Using placentas as a model, we discuss the genetic basis for organ origins. We show that the evolution of placentas occurs by acquiring new functional attributes to existing tissues, changes in the patterning and development of tissues, and the evolution of novel cell types...
March 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812589/connecting-earth-observation-to-high-throughput-biodiversity-data
#5
Alex Bush, Rahel Sollmann, Andreas Wilting, Kristine Bohmann, Beth Cole, Heiko Balzter, Christopher Martius, András Zlinszky, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Christina A Cobbold, Terence P Dawson, Brent C Emerson, Simon Ferrier, M Thomas P Gilbert, Martin Herold, Laurence Jones, Fabian H Leendertz, Louise Matthews, James D A Millington, John R Olson, Otso Ovaskainen, Dave Raffaelli, Richard Reeve, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Torrey W Rodgers, Stewart Snape, Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers, Alfried P Vogler, Piran C L White, Martin J Wooster, Douglas W Yu
Understandably, given the fast pace of biodiversity loss, there is much interest in using Earth observation technology to track biodiversity, ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. However, because most biodiversity is invisible to Earth observation, indicators based on Earth observation could be misleading and reduce the effectiveness of nature conservation and even unintentionally decrease conservation effort. We describe an approach that combines automated recording devices, high-throughput DNA sequencing and modern ecological modelling to extract much more of the information available in Earth observation data...
June 22, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812379/dietary-polyphenols-for-atherosclerosis-a-comprehensive-review-and-future-perspectives
#6
Roodabeh Bahramsoltani, Farnaz Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Armaghan Baratpourmoghaddam, Pardis Ahmadi Borkani, Pourouchista Rostamiasrabadi, Amir Hosein Rasouli Amirabadi, Roja Rahimi
Atherosclerosis is one of the most prevalent reasons for premature death in adults. Despite the several conventional drugs in the market; many patients are not completely treated. Here we comprehensively review current clinical evidence regarding the efficacy of dietary polyphenols in atherosclerosis and related complications. PubMed, Cochrane library and Scopus were searched from inception until August 2016 to obtain clinical trials in which polyphenols were evaluated in cardiovascular parameters related to atherosclerosis...
August 16, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812266/oxytocin-and-social-relationships-from-attachment-to-bond-disruption
#7
Oliver J Bosch, Larry J Young
Social relationships throughout life are vital for well-being and physical and mental health. A significant amount of research in animal models as well as in humans suggests that oxytocin (OT) plays an important role in the development of the capacity to form social bonds, the mediation of the positive aspects of early-life nurturing on adult bonding capacity, and the maintenance of social bonding. Here, we focus on the extensive research on a socially monogamous rodent model organism, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812046/extra-virgin-olive-oil-ameliorates-cognition-and-neuropathology-of-the-3xtg-mice-role-of-autophagy
#8
Elisabetta Lauretti, Luigi Iuliano, Domenico Praticò
OBJECTIVE: Consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), a major component of the Mediterranean diet, has been associated with reduced incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms involved in this protective action remain to be fully elucidated. METHODS: Herein, we investigated the effect of daily consumption of EVOO on the AD-like phenotype of a mouse mode of the disease with plaques and tangles. RESULTS: Triple transgenic mice (3xTg) received either regular chow or a chow diet supplemented with EVOO starting at 6 months of age for 6 months, then assessed for the effect of the diet on the AD-like neuropathology and behavioral changes...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811875/ecosystem-size-predicts-eco-morphological-variability-in-a-postglacial-diversification
#9
Hans Recknagel, Oliver E Hooker, Colin E Adams, Kathryn R Elmer
Identifying the processes by which new phenotypes and species emerge has been a long-standing effort in evolutionary biology. Young adaptive radiations provide a model to study patterns of morphological and ecological diversification in environmental context. Here, we use the recent radiation (ca. 12k years old) of the freshwater fish Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) to identify abiotic and biotic environmental factors associated with adaptive morphological variation. Arctic charr are exceptionally diverse, and in postglacial lakes there is strong evidence of repeated parallel evolution of similar morphologies associated with foraging...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811750/availability-of-a-sports-dietitian-may-lead-to-improved-performance-and-recovery-of-ncaa-division-i-baseball-athletes
#10
Michael V Hull, Jonathan Neddo, Andrew R Jagim, Jonathan M Oliver, Mike Greenwood, Margaret T Jones
BACKGROUND: The purpose was to survey dietary habits (DH) and nutrient timing (NT) practices of baseball student-athletes (mean ± SD; 20.7 ± 1.4 yr.) from three NCAA Division I institutions, and examine the effect of a sports dietitian (SD) in regard to nutrition practices. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and Pearson X(2) analyses were run. Responses on 10 DH and 5 NT items differed (p ≤ 0.10) between athletes who sought dietary planning from a SD (n = 36) versus those who consulted a strength and conditioning coach (SCC, n = 42)...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811277/david-oliver-in-support-of-acute-internal-medicine
#11
David Oliver
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811074/management-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-set-gesitra-seimc-reipi-recommendations
#12
REVIEW
J M Aguado, J T Silva, M Fernández-Ruiz, E Cordero, J Fortún, C Gudiol, L Martínez-Martínez, E Vidal, L Almenar, B Almirante, R Cantón, J Carratalá, J J Caston, E Cercenado, C Cervera, J M Cisneros, M G Crespo-Leiro, V Cuervas-Mons, J Elizalde-Fernández, M C Fariñas, J Gavaldà, M J Goyanes, B Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, D Hernández, O Len, R López-Andujar, F López-Medrano, P Martín-Dávila, M Montejo, A Moreno, A Oliver, A Pascual, E Pérez-Nadales, A Román-Broto, R San-Juan, D Serón, A Solé-Jover, M Valerio, P Muñoz, J Torre-Cisneros
Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are especially at risk of developing infections by multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), as they are frequently exposed to antibiotics and the healthcare setting, and are regulary subject to invasive procedures. Nevertheless, no recommendations concerning prevention and treatment are available. A panel of experts revised the available evidence; this document summarizes their recommendations: (1) it is important to characterize the isolate's phenotypic and genotypic resistance profile; (2) overall, donor colonization should not constitute a contraindication to transplantation, although active infected kidney and lung grafts should be avoided; (3) recipient colonization is associated with an increased risk of infection, but is not a contraindication to transplantation; (4) different surgical prophylaxis regimens are not recommended for patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant GNB; (5) timely detection of carriers, contact isolation precautions, hand hygiene compliance and antibiotic control policies are important preventive measures; (6) there is not sufficient data to recommend intestinal decolonization; (7) colonized lung transplant recipients could benefit from prophylactic inhaled antibiotics, specially for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; (8) colonized SOT recipients should receive an empirical treatment which includes active antibiotics, and directed therapy should be adjusted according to susceptibility study results and the severity of the infection...
July 26, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810411/wellness-among-african-american-and-caucasian-students-attending-a-predominantly-white-institution
#13
Michael D Oliver, Subimal Datta, Debora R Baldwin
The wellness movement is growing on college campuses; however, the examination of race is lacking. We examined aspects of physical and emotional well-being as a function of race in 197 college students at a predominantly White institution. Results revealed racial differences on diet, F(1, 196) = 7.537, p = 0.007 and resilient coping, F(1, 196) = 8.614, p = 0.004. Furthermore, regression analyses revealed that the association between stress and coping was moderated by race ( F(1, 196) = 8...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808957/differential-effect-of-tgf%C3%AE-on-the-proteome-of-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-and-cancer-epithelial-cells-in-a-co-culture-approach-a-short-report
#14
Maria Magdalena Koczorowska, Charlotte Friedemann, Klaus Geiger, Marie Follo, Martin Lothar Biniossek, Oliver Schilling
BACKGROUND: Solid tumors contain various components that together form the tumor microenvironment. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are capable of secreting and responding to signaling molecules and growth factors. Due to their role in tumor development, CAFs are considered as potential therapeutic targets. A prominent tumor-associated signaling molecule is transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), an inducer of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The differential action of TGFβ on CAFs and ETCs (epithelial tumor cells) has recently gained interest...
August 14, 2017: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808791/consumption-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil-improves-body-composition-and-blood-pressure-in-women-with-excess-body-fat-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#15
Flávia Galvão Cândido, Flávia Xavier Valente, Laís Emilia da Silva, Olívia Gonçalves Leão Coelho, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
PURPOSE: Despite the fact that extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is widely used in obese individuals to treat cardiovascular diseases, the role of EVOO on weight/fat reduction remains unclear. We investigated the effects of energy-restricted diet containing EVOO on body composition and metabolic disruptions related to obesity. METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 41 adult women with excess body fat (mean ± SD 27...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808475/yacon-smallanthus-sonchifolius-leaf-extract-attenuates-hyperglycemia-and-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-diabetic-rats
#16
Klinsmann Carolo Dos Santos, Bianca Guerra Bueno, Luana Ferreira Pereira, Fabiane Valentini Francisqueti, Mariana Gobbo Braz, Lahis Fernandes Bincoleto, Lilian Xavier da Silva, Ana Lúcia A Ferreira, Ana Cláudia de Melo Stevanato Nakamune, C-Y Oliver Chen, Jeffrey B Blumberg, Camila Renata Corrêa
The effects of hydroethanolic extract of Yacon leaves (HEYL) on antioxidant, glycemic, and inflammatory biomarkers were tested in diabetic rats. Outcome parameters included glucose, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and hydrophilic antioxidant capacity (HAC) in serum and IL-6, HAC, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in soleus. The rats (10/group) were divided as follows: C, controls; C + Y, HEYL treated; DM, diabetic controls; and DM + Y, diabetic rats treated with HEYL...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808204/safety-immunogenicity-and-cross-species-protection-of-a-plasmid-dna-encoding-plasmodium-falciparum-sera5-polypeptide-microbial-epitopes-and-chemokine-genes-in-mice-and-olive-baboons
#17
Nyamongo Onkoba, Ruth M Mumo, Horace Ochanda, Charles Omwandho, Hastings S Ozwara, Thomas G Egwang
Incorporation of biomolecular epitopes to malarial antigens should be explored in the development of strain-transcending malarial vaccines. The present study sought to determine safety, immunogenicity and cross-species efficacy ofPlasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen 5 polypeptide co-expressed with epitopes of Bacille-Calmette Guerin (BCG), tetanus toxoid (TT) and a chemokine gene. Olive baboons and BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into vaccine and control groups. The vaccine group animals were primed and boosted twice with pIRES plasmids encoding the SERA5+ BCG+ TT alone, or with either CCL5 or CCL20 and the control group with pIRES plasmid vector backbone...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807749/high-dose-rate-interstitial-brachytherapy-boost-in-inoperable-locally-advanced-tongue-carcinoma
#18
Miguel Angel Santos, Jose Luis Guinot, Maria Isabel Tortajada, Paula Santamaría, Valentin Campo, Laura Oliver, Marina Peña, Leoncio Arribas
PURPOSE: Locally advanced tongue carcinomas (LATCs) in inoperable lesions are managed with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and chemotherapy. In our institution, the boost to the gross tumor volume is delivered with high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) after EBRT. We review the outcome of these patients when HDR-BT is added as a boost. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From May 2000 to December 2014, a total of 24 patients with LATC, nonsurgical oral tongue, and base of tongue carcinomas were treated with EBRT and with interstitial plastic tubes for brachytherapy; median dose was 18-24 Gy in 6-8 fractions after 50-60 Gy of EBRT...
August 11, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807613/identification-and-quantification-and-antioxidant-activity-of-flavonoids-in-different-strains-of-silk-cocoon-bombyx-mori
#19
Supamas Napavichayanun, Oliver Lutz, Martin Fischnaller, Thomas Jakschitz, Günther Bonn, Pornanong Aramwit
Silk cocoon is produced from silkworm (Bombyx mori) to protect itself from outer environment. Various strains of cocoon contain different forms and amounts of flavonoids, which may affect on their antioxidant activity. Moreover, the extraction method would influence the amount of flavonoids extracted. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify and quantify the flavonoids in 3 strains of bivoltine Bombyx mori silk cocoon (Chul 1/1; white cocoon, Chul 3/2; greenish cocoon, and Chul 4/2; yellow cocoon) extracted by 6 different solvents including acetone, ethyl acetate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, methanol, and purified water...
August 11, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807555/improving-biogas-production-from-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-sewage-sludge-with-a-thermal-dried-mixture-of-food-waste-cheese-whey-and-olive-mill-wastewater
#20
A E Maragkaki, I Vasileiadis, M Fountoulakis, A Kyriakou, K Lasaridi, T Manios
Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and other organic wastes at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is a promising method for both energy and material recovery. However, transportation and storage of wastes to WWTP may be the bottleneck for the successful implementation of this technology. In case of wet wastes and wastewater it is possible to reduce their volume and as a result the transportation and storage cost by using a drying process. During this study, the optimization of biogas production from sewage sludge (SS) was attempted by co-digesting with a dried mixture of food waste, cheese whey and olive mill wastewater (FCO)...
August 11, 2017: Waste Management
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