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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538876/combination-therapy-with-butyrate-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-for-keloid-fibrogenesis-an-in-vitro-study
#1
Kazuhiro Torii, Noriaki Maeshige, Michiko Aoyama-Ishikawa, Makoto Miyoshi, Hiroto Terashi, Makoto Usami
Background: A single, effective therapeutic regimen for keloids has not been established yet, and the development of novel therapeutic approaches is expected. Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, play multiple anti-inflammatory and anticancer roles via their respective mechanisms of action. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the antifibrogenic effects of their single and combined use on keloid fibroblasts...
March 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538678/effects-of-commercial-apple-varieties-on-human-gut-microbiota-composition-and-metabolic-output-using-an-in-vitro-colonic-model
#2
Athanasios Koutsos, Maria Lima, Lorenza Conterno, Mattia Gasperotti, Martina Bianchi, Francesca Fava, Urska Vrhovsek, Julie A Lovegrove, Kieran M Tuohy
Apples are a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of apple polyphenols escape absorption in the small intestine and together with non-digestible polysaccharides reach the colon, where they can serve as substrates for bacterial fermentation. Animal studies suggest a synergistic interaction between apple polyphenols and the soluble fiber pectin; however, the effects of whole apples on human gut microbiota are less extensively studied. Three commercial apple varieties-Renetta Canada, Golden Delicious and Pink Lady-were digested and fermented in vitro using a batch culture colonic model (pH 5...
May 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532644/increasing-gaba-reverses-age-related-alterations-in-excitatory-receptive-fields-and-intensity-coding-of-auditory-midbrain-neurons%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-aged-mice
#3
Elliott J Brecht, Kathy Barsz, Benjamin Gross, Joseph P Walton
A key feature of age-related hearing loss is a reduction in the expression of inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central auditory system. This loss is partially responsible for changes in central auditory processing, as inhibitory receptive fields play a critical role in shaping neural responses to sound stimuli. Vigabatrin (VGB), an antiepileptic agent that irreversibly inhibits γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase, leads to increased availability of GABA throughout the brain. This study used multi-channel electrophysiology measurements to assess the excitatory frequency response areas in old CBA mice to which VGB had been administered...
April 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532421/glutamate-excitotoxicity-induced-by-orally-administered-propionic-acid-a-short-chain-fatty-acid-can-be-ameliorated-by-bee-pollen
#4
Afaf El-Ansary, Huda S Al-Salem, Alqahtani Asma, Abeer Al-Dbass
BACKGROUND: Rodent models may guide investigations towards identifying either environmental neuro-toxicants or drugs with neuro-therapeutic effects. This work aims to study the therapeutic effects of bee pollen on brain glutamate excitotoxicity and the impaired glutamine-glutamate- gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) circuit induced by propionic acid (PPA), a short chain fatty acid, in rat pups. METHODS: Twenty-four young male Western Albino rats 3-4 weeks of age, and 45-60 g body weight were enrolled in the present study...
May 22, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528117/composite-elastomeric-polyurethane-scaffolds-incorporating-small-intestinal-submucosa-for-soft-tissue-engineering
#5
Lincui Da, Mei Gong, Anjing Chen, Yi Zhang, Yizhou Huang, Zhijun Guo, Shengfu Li, Jesse Li-Ling, Li Zhang, Huiqi Xie
Although soft tissue replacement has been clinically successful in many cases, the corresponding procedure has many limitations including the lack of resilience and mechanical integrity, significant donor-site morbidity, volume loss with time, and fibrous capsular contracture. These disadvantages can be alleviated by utilizing bio-absorbable scaffolds with high resilience and large strain, which are capable of stimulating natural tissue regeneration. Hence, the chemically crosslinked tridimensional scaffolds obtained by incorporating water-based polyurethane (PU) (which was synthesized from polytetramethylene ether glycol, isophorone diisocyanate, and 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl) butyric acid) into a bioactive extracellular matrix consisting of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) have been tested in this study to develop a new approach for soft tissue engineering...
May 17, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524627/weight-loss-interventions-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
F B Seganfredo, C A Blume, M Moehlecke, A Giongo, D S Casagrande, J V N Spolidoro, A V Padoin, B D Schaan, C C Mottin
Imbalances in the gut microbiota, the bacteria that inhabit the intestines, are central to the pathogenesis of obesity. This systematic review assesses the association between the gut microbiota and weight loss in overweight/obese adults and its potential manipulation as a target for treating obesity. This review identified 43 studies using the keywords 'overweight' or 'obesity' and 'microbiota' and related terms; among these studies, 17 used dietary interventions, 11 used bariatric surgery and 15 used microbiota manipulation...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524013/probiotic-supplementation-effects-on-milk-fatty-acid-profile-in-ewes
#7
Shahab Payandeh, Farokh Kafilzadeh, Manuela Juárez, Miguel Angel de la Fuente, Darab Ghadimi, Andrés L Martínez Marín
We hypothesised that probiotic feeding would alter the fatty acid (FA) profile of sheep's milk. Sixteen lactating ewes, kept under the same feeding and management practices, were randomly allocated to receive either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with a commercial multi-strain bacterial probiotic. Milk fat FA contents were monitored fortnightly for eight consecutive weeks from 14 d after lambing. Probiotic supplementation increased the contents of butyric and caproic acids in milk fat and had no negative effects on other relevant FA from the human's health point of view (i...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522975/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-constipation-inflammation-are-not-reflected-at-the-level-of-gut-metabolites-and-butyrate-producing-microbial-community-the-planhab-study
#8
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavic, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day) and experimental phases [21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bedrest (HBR)], and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, balanced fluid, and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden, and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522720/first-insight-into-the-genome-sequence-of-clostridium-thermobutyricum-dsm-4928-a-butyrate-producing-moderate-thermophile
#9
Anja Poehlein, Abirami Anbalagan, Alexandra Nagel, Rolf Daniel
The moderately thermophilic and Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium thermobutyricum is strictly anaerobic and forms subterminally located endospores. It was isolated from horse manure compost. C. thermobutyricum produces butyrate as the main fermentation product. The draft genome consists of one circular chromosome (3.425 Mb) and contains 3,201 predicted protein-coding genes.
May 18, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520398/multiple-states-of-nitrile-hydratase-from-rhodococcus-equi-tg328-2-structural-and-mechanistic-insights-from-epr-and-dft-studies
#10
Natalia Stein, Natalie Gumataotao, Natalia Hajnas, Rui Wu, K P Wasantha Lankathilaka, Uwe T Bornscheuer, Dali Liu, Adam T Fiedler, Richard C Holz, Brian Bennett
Iron-type nitrile hydratases (NHases) contain an Fe(III) ion coordinated in a characteristic "claw setting" by an axial cysteine thiolate; two equatorial peptide nitrogens; the sulfur atoms of equatorial cysteine-sulfenic and cysteine-sulfinic acids, respectively; and an axial water/hydroxyl moiety. The cysteine-sulfenic acid is susceptible to oxidation and the enzyme is traditionally prepared using butyric acid as an oxidative protectant. The as-prepared enzyme exhibits a complex EPR spectrum due to multiple low-spin (S = 1/2) Fe(III) species...
May 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516516/towards-long-term-stable-and-efficient-large-area-organic-solar-cells
#11
Pei-Ting Tsai, Kuan-Chu Lin, Cheng-Yu Wu, Chung-Hung Liao, Man-Chun Lin, Ying Qian Wong, Hsin-Fei Meng, Chih-Yu Chang, Chien-Lung Wang, Yi-Fan Huang, Sheng-Fu Horng, Hsiao-Wen Zan, Yu-Chiang Chao
In this study, we report that long-term stable and efficient organic solar cells (OSCs) can be obtained via the following strategies: (1) combination of rapid-drying blade-coating deposition with an appropriate thermal annealing treatment to obtain an optimized morphology of the active layer; (2) insertion of interfacial layers to optimize the interfacial properties. The resulting devices based on poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-carboxylate-2-6-diyl)] (PBDTTT-EFT):[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) blend as the active layer exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 9...
May 17, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512333/hybrid-organic-tandem-solar-cell-comprising-small-molecule-bottom-and-polymer-fullerene-top-subcells-fabricated-by-thin-film-transfer
#12
Yoonseok Ka, Hyejin Hwang, Changsoon Kim
Multilayer structures involving solution-deposited polymer films are difficult to fabricate, not allowing for unrestricted designs of polymer-based optoelectronic devices required for maximizing their performance. Here, we fabricate a hybrid organic tandem solar cell whose top and bottom subcells have polymer:fullerene and small molecules active layers, respectively, by a solvent-free process based on transferring the polymer:fullerene layer from an elastomeric stamp onto a vacuum-deposited bottom subcell. The interface between small-molecule and transferred polymer:fullerene layers is void-free at the nanoscale, allowing for efficient charge transport across the interface...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511694/ethephon-induced-oxidative-stress-in-the-olive-leaf-abscission-zone-enables-development-of-a-selective-abscission-compound
#13
S Goldental-Cohen, C Burstein, I Biton, S Ben Sasson, A Sadeh, Y Many, A Doron-Faigenboim, H Zemach, Y Mugira, D Schneider, R Birger, S Meir, S Philosoph-Hadas, V Irihomovitch, S Lavee, B Avidan, G Ben-Ari
BACKGROUND: Table olives (Olea europaea L.), despite their widespread production, are still harvested manually. The low efficiency of manual harvesting and the rising costs of labor have reduced the profitability of this crop. A selective abscission treatment, inducing abscission of fruits but not leaves, is crucial for the adoption of mechanical harvesting of table olives. In the present work we studied the anatomical and molecular differences between the three abscission zones (AZs) of olive fruits and leaves...
May 16, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509726/sodium-butyrate-suppresses-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension-by-inhibition-of-renal-pro-renin-receptor-and-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-system
#14
Lei Wang, Qing Zhu, Aihua Lu, Xiaofen Liu, Linlin Zhang, Chuanming Xu, Xiyang Liu, Haobo Li, Tianxin Yang
OBJECTIVES: Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid, is the end product of the fermentation of complex carbohydrates by the gut microbiota. Recently, sodium butyrate (NaBu) has been found to play a protective role in a number of chronic diseases. However, it is still unclear whether NaBu has a therapeutic potential in hypertension. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of NaBu in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and to further explore the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Ang II was infused into uninephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats with or without intramedullary infusion of NaBu for 14 days...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509531/hierarchical-porous-structured-sio2-sno2-nanofibrous-membrane-with-superb-flexibility-for-molecular-filtration
#15
Haoru Shan, Xueqin Wang, Feihao Shi, Jianhua Yan, Jianyong Yu, Bin Ding
The separation and purification of chemical molecules from organic media under harsh chemical environments are of vital importance in the fields of water treatment, biomedical engineering, and organic recycling. Herein, we report the preparation of a flexible SiO2/SnO2 nanofibrous membrane (SiO2/SnO2 NFM) with high surface area and hierarchical porous structure by selecting poly(vinyl butyral) as pore-forming agent and embedding crystalline phase into amorphous matrix without using surfactant as sacrificial template...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506328/the-effect-of-dietary-faba-bean-and-non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading-enzymes-on-the-growth-performance-and-gut-physiology-of-young-turkeys
#16
D Mikulski, J Juskiewicz, B Przybylska-Gornowicz, E Sosnowska, B A Slominski, J Jankowski, Z Zdunczyk
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary replacement of soya bean meal (SBM) with faba bean (FB) and a blend of non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) degrading enzymes on the gastrointestinal function, growth performance and welfare of young turkeys (1 to 56 days of age). An experiment with a 2×2 factorial design was performed to compare the efficacy of four diets: a SBM-based diet and a diet containing FB, with and without enzyme supplementation (C, FB, CE and FBE, respectively). In comparison with groups C, higher dry matter content and lower viscosity of the small intestinal digesta were noted in groups FB...
May 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505492/comprehensive-evaluation-of-scfa-production-in-the-intestinal-bacteria-regulated-by-berberine-using-gas-chromatography-combined-with-polymerase-chain-reaction
#17
Lu-Lu Wang, Hui-Hui Guo, Shuai Huang, Chen-Lin Feng, Yan-Xing Han, Jian-Dong Jiang
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) of intestine microbial have caught accumulating attention for their beneficial effects on human health. Botanic compounds with low bioavailability such as berberine (BBR) and resveratrol might interact with intestinal microbial ecosystem and promote gut bacteria to produce SCFA, which contribute to their biological effects. In the present study, a comprehensive assay system was built to detect SCFAs production in intestinal bacteria, in which stringent anaerobic culture was applied for in vitro bacterial fermentation, followed by direct-injection GC detection (chemical detection) in combination with real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, biological detection)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505403/prediction-of-the-wetting-behavior-of-active-and-hole-transport-layers-for-printed-flexible-electronic-devices-using-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#18
Rahul Bhowmik, Rajiv J Berry, Michael F Durstock, Benjamin J Leever
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to predict the wetting behavior of materials typical of active and hole-transport layers in organic electronics by evaluating their contact angles and adhesion energies. The active layer (AL) here consists of a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM), whereas the hole-transport layer (HTL) consists of a blend of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Simulations of the wetting of these surfaces by multiple solvents show that formamide, glycerol, and water droplet contact angle trends correlate with experimental values...
May 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504618/butyrate-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-alterations-hepatic-steatosis-and-pancreatic-beta-cell-and-intestinal-barrier-dysfunctions-in-prediabetic-mice
#19
V A Matheus, Lcs Monteiro, R B Oliveira, D A Maschio, C B Collares-Buzato
In this study, we investigated the effect of diet supplementation with sodium butyrate (5% w/w), a short-chain fatty acid produced by the intestinal microbiota, on metabolic parameters, body adiposity, hepatic and pancreatic lipid accumulation, beta cell function/mass as well as on the structure and function of the tight junction-mediated intestinal epithelial barrier in both normal and obese/prediabetic C57 mice fed a regular (control) or high-fat diet for 60 days, respectively. Butyrate treatment significantly inhibited all the high-fat-induced metabolic dysfunctions evaluated, i...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504567/effects-of-lactobacillus-casei-ccfm419-on-insulin-resistance-and-gut-microbiota-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#20
X Li, E Wang, B Yin, D Fang, P Chen, G Wang, J Zhao, H Zhang, W Chen
The antidiabetic effect of Lactobacillus is increasingly recognized worldwide. In this research, the hypoglycemic activity of Lactobacillus casei CCFM419 was investigated in mice with high-fat and low-dose streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetes. Oral L. casei CCFM419 administration favourably regulated blood glucose balance, increased glucose tolerance and protected islets in the diabetic mice, accompanied by an improvement in lipid metabolism. The homeostasis model of insulin resistance, insulin level and insulin tolerance test and mRNA expression of PI3K/Akt signalling pathway indexes revealed that L...
May 15, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
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