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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642076/the-effect-of-initial-organic-load-of-the-kitchen-waste-on-the-production-of-vfa-and-h2-in-dark-fermentation
#1
Radoslaw Slezak, Justyna Grzelak, Liliana Krzystek, Stanislaw Ledakowicz
Dark fermentation of kitchen wastes was studied in batch bioreactors, with no pH adjustment, to evaluate the effect of the initial organic load on the process performance in terms of volatile fatty acids and H2 production. Initial organic load of the kitchen wastes ranged from 4.1 to 48.2gVS/L. Acetic and butyric acids were produced in the largest amount. At the initial organic load of 48.2KWgVS/L the highest concentration of volatile fatty acids was 9.81g/L. The maximum production yield of H2 (76.1mL/gVS) was found for the initial organic load of kitchen wastes at 14...
June 19, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638851/mucosal-biopsy-shows-immunologic-changes-of-the-colon-in-patients-with-early-ms
#2
Adrian Mathias Moser, Walter Spindelboeck, Heimo Strohmaier, Christian Enzinger, Thomas Gattringer, Siegrid Fuchs, Franz Fazekas, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Philipp Wurm, Christoph Högenauer, Michael Khalil
OBJECTIVE: To investigate immune cells of the colonic mucosa and fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in treatment-naive patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or early relapsing MS. METHODS: In this cross-sectional proof-of-concept study, we obtained mucosal specimens during ileocolonoscopy from 15 untreated patients with CIS/MS and 10 controls. Mucosal immune cells were analyzed by FACS, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements of stool samples served to determine SCFA...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638767/novel-5-benzo-b-thiophen-3-yl-pyridine-3-carbaldehyde-btpa-functionalization-framework-for-modulating-fullerene-electronics
#3
Suru V John, Christian C De Filippo, Simone Silvestrini, Michele Maggini, Emmanuel Iwuoha
Through a cycloaddition reaction, fullerene (C60) was derivatized with a novel organic compound 5-(benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl)pyridine-3-carbaldehyde to form the processable and stable 3-(benzo[b]thiophene-3yl)-5-fullero-1-methylpyrrolidinepyridine (BTFP) compound. BTFP exhibits close similarities to phenyl-C61-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (PCBM) in terms of first reduction potential values (-0.62 and -0.61 V vs. Ag/AgCl, for BTFP and PCBM, respectively) and lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level values (3...
June 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638626/effects-of-liposomal-curcumin-on-five-opportunistic-bacterial-strains-found-in-the-equine-hindgut-preliminary-study
#4
S D Bland, E B Venable, J L McPherson, R L Atkinson
BACKGROUND: The horse intestinal tract is sensitive and contains a highly complex microbial population. A shift in the microbial population can lead to various issues such as inflammation and colic. The use of nutraceuticals in the equine industry is on the rise and curcumin is thought to possess antimicrobial properties that may help to minimize the proliferation of opportunistic bacteria. METHODS: Four cecally-cannulated horses were utilized to determine the optimal dose of liposomal-curcumin (LIPC) on reducing Streptococcus bovis/equinus complex (SBEC), Escherichia coli K-12, Escherichia coli general, Clostridium difficile, and Clostridium perfringens in the equine hindgut without adversely affecting cecal characteristics...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638460/zeb1-mediates-drug-resistance-and-emt-in-p300-deficient-crc
#5
Darina Lazarova, Michael Bordonaro
We discuss the hypothesis that ZEB1-Wnt-p300 signaling integrates epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and resistance to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. The HDACi butyrate, derived from dietary fiber, has been linked to CRC prevention, and other HDACis have been proposed as therapeutic agents against CRC. We have previously discussed that resistance to butyrate likely contributes to colonic carcinogenesis, and we have demonstrated that butyrate resistance leads to cross-resistance to cancer therapeutic HDACis...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638093/fatty-acid-composition-and-phospholipid-types-used-in-infant-formulas-modifies-the-establishment-of-human-gut-bacteria-in-germ-free-mice
#6
Rikke Guldhammer Nejrup, Tine Rask Licht, Lars Ingvar Hellgren
Human milk fat contains high concentrations of medium-chained fatty acids (MCFA) and triacylglycerols emulsified by a sphingomyelin-rich phospholipid membrane (milk phospholipids, MPL). Infant formula comprises mainly long-chained fatty acids (LCFA) emulsified with dairy proteins and soy lecithin (SL) lacking sphingomyelin. Sphingomyelin content and saturation level of phospholipids affect the gut lipase activity, which alters the concentrations of lipid hydrolysis products in ileum and colon, and hereby putatively affects the competitive advantage of specific gut bacteria...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638068/microbiota-derived-butyrate-suppresses-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-terminal-ileal-peyer-s-patches
#7
Sae-Hae Kim, Byeol-Hee Cho, Hiroshi Kiyono, Yong-Suk Jang
The regional specialization of intestinal immune cells is affected by the longitudinal heterogeneity of environmental factors. Although the distribution of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) is well characterized in the lamina propria, it is poorly defined in Peyer's patches (PPs) along the intestine. Given that PP ILC3s are closely associated with mucosal immune regulation, it is important to characterize the regulatory mechanism of ILC3s. Here, we found that terminal ileal PPs of specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice have fewer NKp46(+) ILC3s than jejunal PPs, while there was no difference in NKp46(+) ILC3 numbers between terminal ileal and jejunal PPs in antibiotics (ABX)-treated mice...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636668/microbiota-in-anorexia-nervosa-the-triangle-between-bacterial-species-metabolites-and-psychological-tests
#8
Francesca Borgo, Alessandra Riva, Alberto Benetti, Maria Cristina Casiraghi, Sara Bertelli, Stefania Garbossa, Simona Anselmetti, Silvio Scarone, Antonio E Pontiroli, Giulia Morace, Elisa Borghi
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease with devastating physical consequences, with a pathophysiological mechanism still to be elucidated. Metagenomic studies on anorexia nervosa have revealed profound gut microbiome perturbations as a possible environmental factor involved in the disease. In this study we performed a comprehensive analysis integrating data on gut microbiota with clinical, anthropometric and psychological traits to gain new insight in the pathophysiology of AN. Fifteen AN women were compared with fifteen age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634790/cellulose-acetate-butyrate-ammonio-methacrylate-copolymer-blends-as-a-novel-coating-in-osmotic-tablets
#9
R Ali, M Walther, R Bodmeier
The objective of this work was the preparation of osmotic tablets using polymer blends of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) or ethylcellulose with ammonio methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit® RL). The advantage of these coatings in comparison to the traditionally used cellulose acetate is their solubility in safer organic solvents like ethanol. Polymer films were characterized with respect to their water uptake, dry mass loss, and mechanical properties. The effect of the polymer blend ratio on drug release and on the rupture force of the coating was investigated...
June 20, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634048/activation-volume-vs-bold-signal-change-as-measures-of-fmri-activation-its-impact-on-gaba-fmri-activation-correlation
#10
Pallab K Bhattacharyya, Micheal D Phillips, Lael A Stone, Mark J Lowe
PURPOSE: To explore the relative robustness of functional MRI (fMRI) activation volume and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change as fMRI metric, and to study the effect of relative robustness on the correlation between fMRI activation and cortical gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) in healthy controls and patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: fMRI data were acquired from healthy controls and patients with MS, with the subjects peforming self paced bilateral finger tapping in block design...
June 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633067/microbial-electrosynthesis-of-butyrate-from-carbon-dioxide-production-and-extraction
#11
Pau Batlle-Vilanova, Ramon Ganigué, Sara Ramió-Pujol, Lluís Bañeras, Gerard Jiménez, Manuela Hidalgo, M Dolors Balaguer, Jesús Colprim, Sebastià Puig
To date acetate is the main product of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) from carbon dioxide (CO2). In this work a tubular bioelectrochemical system was used to carry out MES and enhance butyrate production over the other organic products. Batch tests were performed at a fixed cathode potential of -0.8V vs SHE. The reproducibility of the results according to previous experiments was validated in a preliminary test. According to the literature butyrate production could take place by chain elongation reactions at low pH and high hydrogen partial pressure (pH2)...
June 15, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631755/construction-of-a-synthetic-metabolic-pathway-for-biosynthesis-of-the-non-natural-methionine-precursor-2-4-dihydroxybutyric-acid
#12
Thomas Walther, Christopher M Topham, Romain Irague, Clément Auriol, Audrey Baylac, Hélène Cordier, Clémentine Dressaire, Luce Lozano-Huguet, Nathalie Tarrat, Nelly Martineau, Marion Stodel, Yannick Malbert, Marc Maestracci, Robert Huet, Isabelle André, Magali Remaud-Siméon, Jean Marie François
2,4-Dihydroxybutyric acid (DHB) is a molecule with considerable potential as a versatile chemical synthon. Notably, it may serve as a precursor for chemical synthesis of the methionine analogue 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butyrate, thus, targeting a considerable market in animal nutrition. However, no natural metabolic pathway exists for the biosynthesis of DHB. Here we have therefore conceived a three-step metabolic pathway for the synthesis of DHB starting from the natural metabolite malate. The pathway employs previously unreported malate kinase, malate semialdehyde dehydrogenase and malate semialdehyde reductase activities...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631469/the-chemical-composition-of-blackberry-press-cake-polyphenolic-extract-and-defatted-seeds-and-their-effects-on-cecal-fermentation-bacterial-metabolites-and-blood-lipid-profile-in-rats
#13
Monika Kosmala, Adam Jurgonski, Jerzy Juskiewicz, Elżbieta Karlińska, Jakub Macierzyński, Edward Roj, Zenon Zduńczyk
Blackberry fiber (BF), extracted blackberry fiber (EBF), defatted blackberry seeds (DBS) and blackberry polyphenols (BP) were added to diets of rats. A control diet, fiber diets (BF, EBF, DBS) with 6% addition instead of cellulose, a polyphenol diet (BP) with 1% addition were administered for 4 weeks. BF and DBS contained polyphenols (3.6%), EBF did not. DBS was free of fat. Ellagitannins were the main phenolics; mostly dimers (sanguiin H-6 with isomers) and monomers (pedunculagin, casuarictin isomer, and sanguiin H-2 isomer)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630710/hdac-inhibitor-conjugated-polymeric-prodrug-micelles-for-doxorubicin-delivery
#14
Suchithra A Senevirathne, Katherine E Washington, Jason B Miller, Michael C Biewer, David Oupicky, Daniel J Siegwart, Mihaela C Stefan
Amphiphilic diblock copolymers bearing histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) (4-phenyl butyric acid and valproic acid) were synthesized by the ring-opening polymerization of γ-4-phenylbutyrate-ε-caprolactone (PBACL), γ-valproate-ε-caprolactone (VPACL), and ε-caprolactone (CL) from a poly(ethylene glycol) macroinitiator (PEG). These amphiphilic diblock copolymers self-assembled into stable pro-drug micelles and demonstrated excellent biocompatibility. High loading of doxorubicin (DOX) up to 5.1 wt% was achieved...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630701/evaluation-of-an-in-vitro-fibre-fermentation-method-using-feline-faecal-inocula-inter-individual-variation
#15
Guido Bosch, Lisa Heesen, Karine de Melo Santos, John W Cone, Wilbert F Pellikaan, Wouter H Hendriks
The present study aimed to evaluate the inter-individual variability in fermentation of standard fibrous substrates by faecal inocula from ten healthy adult female cats. Substrates were citrus pectin (CP), fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), guar gum (GG), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and wheat middlings (WM). Each substrate was incubated with faecal inoculum from each cat. Gas production was measured continuously during the 48 h incubation and SCFA and organic matter disappearance (only SBP and WM) after incubation. Out of ten cats, nine produced faeces on the days of inoculum preparation...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629947/temporal-microbiota-changes-of-high-protein-diet-intake-in-a-rat-model
#16
Chunlong Mu, Yuxiang Yang, Zhen Luo, Weiyun Zhu
Alterations of specific microbes serve as important indicators that link gut health with specific diet intake. Although a six-week high-protein diet (45% protein) upregulates the pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress in colon of rats, the dynamic alteration of gut microbiota remains unclear. To dissect temporal changes of microbiota, dynamic analyses of fecal microbiota were conducted using a rat model. Adult rats were fed a normal-protein diet or an HPD for 6 weeks, and feces collected at different weeks were used for microbiota and metabolite analysis...
June 16, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629710/anaerobic-digestion-of-tuna-waste-for-the-production-of-volatile-fatty-acids
#17
Noela Bermúdez-Penabad, Christian Kennes, Maria C Veiga
Fish canning industries generate a significant amount of solid waste that can be digested anaerobically into volatile fatty acids (VFA). The aim of this research was to study the effect of various pHs, ranging from 5.0 to 10.0, and percentage of total solids on the anaerobic digestion of tuna waste into VFA, both in batch assays and continuous reactor. The production of VFA was affected by pH and was significantly higher under alkaline conditions. At pH 8.0, the VFA production reached 30,611mgCOD/L. The VFA mainly consisted of acetic, propionic, n-butyric and i-valeric acids...
June 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624272/effects-of-partial-replacement-of-corn-grain-with-lactose-in-calf-starters-on-ruminal-fermentation-and-growth-performance
#18
A Saegusa, K Inouchi, M Ueno, Y Inabu, S Koike, T Sugino, M Oba
The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of partial replacement of dry ground corn with lactose in calf starters on dry matter intake, growth rate, ruminal pH, and volatile fatty acid profile. Sixty Holstein bull calves were raised on a high plane of nutrition program until 55 d of age. Calves were fed texturized calf starters containing 30.1% steam-flaked grains and lactose at 0 (control), 5, or 10% (n = 20 for each treatment) on a dry matter basis. All calves were fed treatment calf starters ad libitum from d 7 and kleingrass hay from d 35...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622455/intestinal-metabolites-are-profoundly-altered-in-the-context-of-hla-b27-expression-and-functionally-modulate-disease-in-a-rat-model-of-spondyloarthropathy
#19
Mark Asquith, Sean Davin, Patrick Stauffer, Claire Michell, Cathleen Janowitz, Phoebe Lin, Joe Ensign-Lewis, Jason M Kinchen, Dennis R Koop, Jim Rosenbaum
Objective HLA-B27 associated spondyloarthropathies are associated with an altered intestinal microbiota and bowel inflammation. Therefore, we sought to identify B27-dependent changes in both host and microbial metabolites in the HLA-B27/β2m rat and whether microbiota-derived metabolites could impact disease in this major model of spondyloarthropathy. Methods Cecal contents were collected from 6wk (pre-diseased) and 16wk (diseased) Fischer 344 HLA-B27/β2m transgenic rats and WT controls. Metabolomic profiling was performed by high-throughput gas- and liquid-chromatography-based mass spectrometry...
June 16, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622430/enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-produces-outer-membrane-vesicles-as-an-active-defense-system-against-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37
#20
Akiko Urashima, Ayano Sanou, Hilo Yen, Toru Tobe
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the innate immune system. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a food-borne pathogen causing serious diarrheal diseases, must overcome attack by AMPs. Here, we show that resistance of EHEC against human cathelicidin LL-37, a primary AMP, was enhanced by butyrate, which has been shown to act as a stimulant for the expression of virulence genes. The increase of resistance depended on the activation of the ompT gene, which encodes the outer membrane protease OmpT for LL-37...
June 16, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
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