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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811235/sodium-butyrate-ameliorates-s100-fca-induced-autoimmune-hepatitis-through-regulation-of-intestinal-tight-junction-and-toll-like-receptor-signaling-pathway
#1
Jin-Lu Wu, Jia-Yun Zou, En-De Hu, Da-Zhi Chen, Lu Chen, Feng-Bin Lu, Lan-Man Xu, Ming-Hua Zheng, Hui Li, Yu Huang, Xiao-Ya Jin, Yue-Wen Gong, Zhuo Lin, Xiao-Dong Wang, Ming-Fang Zhao, Yong-Ping Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent investigation revealed that dysbiosis in the gut flora and disruption of permeability of intestinal barrier are possible causes for the development of autoimmune hepatitis. Supplementation of sodium butyrate has been suggested to protect liver injury from disrupted permeability of small intestine. In current study, we employed S100/Freund's complete adjuvant induced autoimmune hepatitis to investigate therapeutic efficacy of sodium butyrate and its mechanism in the liver and upper small intestine...
August 12, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811165/dicyanomethylene-substituted-benzothiazole-squaraines-the-efficiency-of-photodynamic-therapy-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Yongbiao Wei, Xiaoxiao Hu, Luyao Shen, Bing Jin, Xiangjun Liu, Weihong Tan, Dihua Shangguan
The lack of ideal photosensitizers limits the clinicalapplication of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Here we report the PDT efficiency of dicyanomethylene substituted benzothiazole squaraine derivatives. This class of squaraine derivatives possess strong absorption and long excitation and emission wavelengths (ex/em, 685/720nm). They show negligible dark toxicity, but can generate singlet oxygen under irradiation resulting in the apoptosis and necrosis of cells (phototoxicity). Changing the side chains of these compounds greatly influences their albumin-binding rate, cellular uptake and their phototoxicity...
August 9, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810615/detecting-serum-and-urine-metabolic-profile-changes-of-ccl4-liver-fibrosis-in-rats-at-12-weeks-based-on-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#3
Jiarong Gao, Xiu-Juan Qin, Hui Jiang, Jin-Feng Chen, Ting Wang, Ting Zhang, Shuang-Zhi Xu, Jun-Mei Song
Liver fibrosis is caused by liver injury induced by a number of chronic liver diseases, including schistosome infection, hepatitis infection, metabolic disease, alcoholism and cholestasis. The tissue damage occurring after injury or inflammation of the liver is a reversible lesion; however, liver fibrosis has become a worldwide problem and poses a threat to human health. The development of an effective drug for the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis is ongoing and uses information from different occurrences of liver fibrosis...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809557/in-silico-and-in-vitro-interactions-between-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-human-histone-deacetylases
#4
Rou Hui Ho, James Chun Yip Chan, Hao Fan, Dorinda Yan Qin Kioh, Bee Wah Lee, Eric Chun Yong Chan
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are postulated to modulate the immune development of neonates via epigenetic regulations such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition. In the context of atopic diseases, the inhibition of HDAC maintains T-cell homeostasis and induces naïve T-cell differentiation into adaptive Treg, which regulates the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of Th2 immune responses. We investigated the structure-inhibition relationships of SCFAs with class I HDAC3 and class IIa HDAC7 using in silico docking simulation and in vitro human recombinant HDAC inhibition assay...
August 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809535/ternary-organic-solar-cells-with-coumarin7-as-the-donor-exhibiting-over-10-power-conversion-efficiency-and-a-high-fill-factor-of-75
#5
Xinwei Chen, Si-Lu Tao, Cong Fan, Dongcheng Chen, Ling Zhou, Hui Lin, Cai-Jun Zheng, Shi-Jian Su
Ternary bulk heterojunction (BHJ) is a brilliant photovoltaic technology for improving the performance of organic solar cells (OSCs), since the light absorption range can be significantly extended by using multiple donors or acceptor materials. In this paper, coumarin7 (C7), a small organic molecule typical led used in organic light-emitting diodes, was initially exploited as second electron-donor component in ternary bulk heterojunction OSCs along with conventional blend system spolythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodithiophene(PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71 -butyric acid methyl(PC71 BM)...
August 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809414/carrier-photogeneration-drift-and-recombination-in-a-semiconducting-carbon-nanotube-network
#6
A Eckstein, V Bertašius, V Jašinskas, I Namal, T Hertel, V Gulbinas
Charge carrier photogeneration, drift and recombination in thin film networks of polymer-wrapped (6,5)-single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) blended with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) have been investigated by using transient photocurrent and time-delayed collection field (TDCF) techniques. Three distinct transient photocurrent components on the nano- and microsecond timescales have been identified. We attribute the dominant (>50% of total extracted charge) ultrashort photocurrent component with a decay time below our experimental time-resolution of 2 ns to the intratube hole motion...
August 15, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808995/high-resolution-parallel-reaction-monitoring-with-electron-transfer-dissociation-for-middle-down-proteomics-an-application-to-study-the-quantitative-changes-induced-by-histone-modifying-enzyme-inhibitors-and-activators
#7
Michael J Sweredoski, Annie Moradian, Sonja Hess
With the advent of new methodologies, proteomics-based assays are increasingly used to study the efficacy of drugs on a molecular level. For these studies to be meaningful, the proteomics assays need to be sensitive, selective, accurate, and reproducible. This is often accomplished through a targeted approach, either using single or multiple reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM) or, more recently, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). In PRM, the parallel detection of all product ions in a high-resolution mass spectrometer affords higher selectivity than SRM/MRM...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803549/comparative-gut-microbiota-and-resistome-profiling-of-intensive-care-patients-receiving-selective-digestive-tract-decontamination-and-healthy-subjects
#8
Elena Buelow, Teresita D J Bello González, Susana Fuentes, Wouter A A de Steenhuijsen Piters, Leo Lahti, Jumamurat R Bayjanov, Eline A M Majoor, Johanna C Braat, Maaike S M van Mourik, Evelien A N Oostdijk, Rob J L Willems, Marc J M Bonten, Mark W J van Passel, Hauke Smidt, Willem van Schaik
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is a reservoir of opportunistic pathogens that can cause life-threatening infections in critically ill patients during their stay in an intensive care unit (ICU). To suppress gut colonization with opportunistic pathogens, a prophylactic antibiotic regimen, termed "selective decontamination of the digestive tract" (SDD), is used in some countries where it improves clinical outcome in ICU patients. Yet, the impact of ICU hospitalization and SDD on the gut microbiota remains largely unknown...
August 14, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803105/glucose-bioconversion-profile-in-the-syngas-metabolizing-species-clostridium-carboxidivorans
#9
Ánxela Fernández-Naveira, María C Veiga, Christian Kennes
Some clostridia produce alcohols (ethanol, butanol, hexanol) from gases (CO, CO2, H2) and others from carbohydrates (e.g., glucose). C. carboxidivorans can metabolize both gases as well as glucose. However, its bioconversion profile on glucose had not been reported. It was observed that C. carboxidivorans does not follow a typical solventogenic stage when grown on glucose. Indeed, at pH 6.2, it produced first a broad range of acids (acetic, butyric, hexanoic, formic, and lactic acids), several of which are generally not found, under similar conditions, during gas fermentation...
August 2, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803097/a-parametric-response-surface-study-of-fermentative-hydrogen-production-from-cheese-whey
#10
Masoumeh Akhlaghi, Maria Rosaria Boni, Giorgia De Gioannis, Aldo Muntoni, Alessandra Polettini, Raffaella Pomi, Andreina Rossi, Daniela Spiga
Batch factorial experiments were performed on cheese whey+wastewater sludge mixtures to evaluate the influence of pH and the inoculum-to-substrate ratio (ISR) on fermentative H2 production and build a related predictive model. ISR and pH affected H2 potential and rate, and the fermentation pathways. The specific H2 yield varied from 61 (ISR=0, pH=7.0) to 371L H2/kg TOCwhey (ISR=1.44gVS/g TOC, pH=5.5). The process duration range was 5.3 (ISR=1.44gVS/g TOC, pH=7.5) - 183h (ISR=0, pH=5.5). The metabolic products included mainly acetate and butyrate followed by ethanol, while propionate was only observed once H2 production had significantly decreased...
July 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802265/syntrophomonas-wolfei-uses-a-nadh-dependent-ferredoxin-independent-fefe-hydrogenase-to-reoxidize-nadh
#11
Nathaniel A Losey, Florence Mus, John W Peters, Huynh M Le, Michael J McInerney
Syntrophomonas wolfei syntrophically oxidizes short-chain fatty acids (four to eight carbon in length) when grown in coculture with a hydrogen- and/or formate-using methanogen. The oxidation of 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, formed during butyrate metabolism, results in the production of NADH. The enzyme systems involved in NADH reoxidation in S. wolfei are not well understood. The genome of S. wolfei contains a multimeric [FeFe]-hydrogenase that may be a mechanism for NADH reoxidation. The S. wolfei genes for the multimeric [FeFe]-hydrogenase (hyd1ABC; SWOL_RS05165, SWOL_RS05170, SWOL_RS05175) and [FeFe]-hydrogenase maturation proteins (SWOL_RS05180, SWOL_RS05190, SWOL_RS01625) were co-expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant Hyd1ABC was purified and characterized...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802151/sodium-butyrate-inhibits-the-nf-kappa-b-signaling-pathway-and-histone-deacetylation-and-attenuates-experimental-colitis-in-an-il-10-independent-manner
#12
Changhyun Lee, Byeong Gwan Kim, Jee Hyun Kim, Jaeyoung Chun, Jong Pil Im, Joo Sung Kim
Butyrate is a bacterial metabolite of dietary fiber in the colon that has been used to treat inflammatory disease. However, the effect of oral supplementation with butyrate on colitis has not been fully explored. We evaluated the effects of and mechanisms underlying oral supplementation with butyrate on experimental murine colitis. In an in vitro study, we found that LPS induced the secretion of cytokines (i.e., IL-8 in COLO 205; TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-10 in RAW 264.7; and TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12 in peritoneal macrophages obtained from IL-10-deficient [IL-10(-/-)] mice)...
August 9, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801242/oxidant-species-are-involved-in-t-b-mediated-erk1-2-phosphorylation-that-activates-p53-p21-axis-to-promote-kshv-lytic-cycle-in-pel-cells
#13
Roberta Gonnella, Shivangi Yadav, Maria Saveria Gilardini Montani, Marisa Granato, Roberta Santarelli, Alessia Garufi, Gabriella D'Orazi, Alberto Faggioni, Mara Cirone
KSHV is a gammaherpesvirus strongly associated to human cancers such as Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL) and Kaposi's Sarcoma. The naturally virus-infected tumor cells usually display latent infection since a minority of cells undergoes spontaneous viral replication. The lytic cycle can be induced in vitro upon appropriate stimuli such as TPA (T), alone or in combination with butyrate (B), (T/B). In previous studies, Protein Kinase C (PKC) δ, Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and p53-p21 axis have been separately reported to play a role in KSHV reactivation from latency...
August 8, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800679/the-short-chain-fatty-acid-sodium-butyrate-exerts-protective-effects-through-ameliorating-blood-milk-barrier-disruption-and-modulating-inflammatory-response-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-mastitis-model
#14
Jing-Jing Wang, Zheng-Kai Wei, Xu Zhang, Ya-Nan Wang, Yun-He Fu, Zheng-Tao Yang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are fermentation end products produced by the gut bacteria,which have been shown to ameliorate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and allergic asthma. However, the mechanism involved remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of sodium butyrate (SB) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis model. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Effects of increasing doses of SB on blood-milk barrier function and inflammation are studied in LPS-induced mastitis...
August 11, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799057/expression-patterns-of-key-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-components-in-the-developing-and-adult-mouse-midbrain-and-in-the-mn9d-cell-line
#15
Melanie Feuerstein, Enaam Chleilat, Shokoufeh Khakipoor, Konstantinos Michailidis, Christian Ophoven, Eleni Roussa
The temporal dynamic expression of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and signaling during early midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neuron development is one of the key players in establishing mDA progenitor diversity. However, whether SHH signaling is also required during later developmental stages and in mature mDA neurons is less understood. We study the expression of SHH receptors Ptch1 and Gas1 (growth arrest-specific 1) and of the transcription factors Gli1, Gli2 and Gli3 in mouse midbrain during embryonic development [embryonic day (E) 12...
August 11, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798125/microbiota-activated-ppar-%C3%AE-signaling-inhibits-dysbiotic-enterobacteriaceae-expansion
#16
Mariana X Byndloss, Erin E Olsan, Fabian Rivera-Chávez, Connor R Tiffany, Stephanie A Cevallos, Kristen L Lokken, Teresa P Torres, Austin J Byndloss, Franziska Faber, Yandong Gao, Yael Litvak, Christopher A Lopez, Gege Xu, Eleonora Napoli, Cecilia Giulivi, Renée M Tsolis, Alexander Revzin, Carlito B Lebrilla, Andreas J Bäumler
Perturbation of the gut-associated microbial community may underlie many human illnesses, but the mechanisms that maintain homeostasis are poorly understood. We found that the depletion of butyrate-producing microbes by antibiotic treatment reduced epithelial signaling through the intracellular butyrate sensor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ). Nitrate levels increased in the colonic lumen because epithelial expression of Nos2, the gene encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase, was elevated in the absence of PPAR-γ signaling...
August 11, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797656/plant-associated-odor-perception-and-processing-in-two-parasitoid-species-with-different-degrees-of-host-specificity-implications-for-host-location-strategies
#17
Prithwiraj Das, Tolulope Morawo, Henry Fadamiro
Microplitis croceipes and Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are parasitoids of lepidopteran larvae with different degrees of host specificity. Both parasitoid species rely on host-related plant volatiles as odor cues to locate their herbivore hosts. To better understand mechanisms of odor processing in parasitoids, we tested responses of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the antennal sensilla placodea of female parasitoids to select plant volatiles and mixtures. The compounds tested include two green leaf volatiles (i...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796793/characterizing-the-gut-gallus-gallus-microbiota-following-the-consumption-of-an-iron-biofortified-rwandan-cream-seeded-carioca-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-bean-based-diet
#18
Spenser Reed, Hadar Neuman, Raymond P Glahn, Omry Koren, Elad Tako
Biofortification is a plant breeding method that introduces increased concentrations of minerals in staple food crops (e.g., legumes, cereal grains), and has shown success in alleviating insufficient Fe intake in various human populations. Unlike other strategies utilized to alleviate Fe deficiency, studies of the gut microbiota in the context of Fe biofortification have not yet been reported, although the consumption of Fe biofortified staple food crops has increased significantly over time. Hence, in this study, we performed a 6-week feeding trial in Gallus gallus (n = 14), aimed to investigate the alterations in the gut microbiome following administration of an Fe biofortified bean-based diet (biofortified, BFe) versus a bean based diet with poorly-bioavailable Fe (standard, SFe)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796490/amorphous-ternary-charge-cascade-molecules-for-bulk-heterojunction-photovoltaics
#19
Xavier A Jeanbourquin, Aiman Rahmanudin, Xiaoyun Yu, Melissa Johnson, Néstor Guijarro, Liang Yao, Kevin Sivula
Ternary bulk heterojunctions with cascade-type energy-level configurations are of significant interest for further improving the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells. However, controlling the self-assembly in solution-processed ternary blends remains a key challenge. Herein, we leverage the ability to control the crystallinity of molecular semiconductors via a spiro linker to demonstrate a simple strategy suggested to drive the self-assembly of an ideal charge-cascade morphology. Spirobifluorene (SF) derivatives with optimized energy levels from diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) or perylenediimide (PDI) components, coded as SF-(DPP)4 and SF-(PDI)4, are synthesized and investigated for application as ternary components in the host blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM)...
August 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796169/cell-surface-and-nuclear-receptors-in-the-colon-as-targets-for-bacterial-metabolites-and-its-relevance-to-colon-health
#20
REVIEW
Sathish Sivaprakasam, Yangzom D Bhutia, Sabarish Ramachandran, Vadivel Ganapathy
The symbiotic co-habitation of bacteria in the host colon is mutually beneficial to both partners. While the host provides the place and food for the bacteria to colonize and live, the bacteria in turn help the host in energy and nutritional homeostasis, development and maturation of the mucosal immune system, and protection against inflammation and carcinogenesis. In this review, we highlight the molecular mediators of the effective communication between the bacteria and the host, focusing on selective metabolites from the bacteria that serve as messengers to the host by acting through selective receptors in the host colon...
August 10, 2017: Nutrients
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