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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722751/graded-replacement-of-maize-grain-with-molassed-sugar-beet-pulp-modulated-ruminal-microbial-community-and-fermentation-profile-in-vitro
#1
Matthias Münnich, Annabella Khol-Parisini, Fenja Klevenhusen, Barbara Metzler-Zebeli, Qendrim Zebeli
BACKGROUND: Molassed sugar beet pulp (Bp) is a viable alternative to grains in cattle nutrition for reducing human edible energy input. Yet, little is known about the effects of high inclusion rates of Bp on rumen microbiota. This study used an in vitro approach and the qPCR technique to establish the effects of a graded replacement of maize grain (MG) by Bp on the ruminal microbial community, fermentation profile, and nutrient degradation. RESULTS: Six different amounts of Bp (0 to 400 g kg(-1) ) which replaced MG in the diet were tested, using the in vitro semi continuous rumen simulation technique...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721502/mucin-cross-feeding-of-infant-bifidobacteria-and-eubacterium-hallii
#2
Vera Bunesova, Christophe Lacroix, Clarissa Schwab
Mucus production is initiated before birth and provides mucin glycans to the infant gut microbiota. Bifidobacteria are the major bacterial group in the feces of vaginally delivered and breast milk-fed infants. Among the bifidobacteria, only Bifidobacterium bifidum is able to degrade mucin and to release monosaccharides which can be used by other gut microbes colonizing the infant gut. Eubacterium hallii is an early occurring commensal that produces butyrate and propionate from fermentation metabolites but that cannot degrade complex oligo- and polysaccharides...
July 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720151/supplementation-with-lactobacillus-paracasei-or-pediococcus-pentosaceus-does-not-prevent-diarrhoea-in-neonatal-pigs-infected-with-escherichia-coli-f18
#3
Anders D Andersen, Malene S Cilieborg, Charlotte Lauridsen, Anne Louise Mørkbak, Per Torp Sangild
Infectious diarrhoea is a worldwide problem in newborns. Optimal bacterial colonisation may enhance gut maturation and protect against pathogenic bacteria after birth. We hypothesised that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) administration prevents pathogen-induced diarrhoea in formula-fed newborns. Newborn caesarean-delivered, colostrum-deprived term piglets on parenteral nutrition for the first 15 h, were used as models for sensitive newborn infants. A commercially available probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei F19 (LAP, 2·6×108 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg per d) and a novel LAB isolate, Pediococcus pentosaceus (PEP, 1·3×1010 CFU/kg per d), were administered for 5 d with or without inoculation of the porcine pathogen, Escherichia coli F18 (F18, 1010 CFU/d)...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718839/dose-dependent-prebiotic-effect-of-lactulose-in-a-computer-controlled-in-vitro-model-of-the-human-large-intestine
#4
Melanie K Bothe, Annet J H Maathuis, Susann Bellmann, Jos M B M van der Vossen, Dirk Berressem, Annalena Koehler, Susann Schwejda-Guettes, Barbara Gaigg, Angelika Kuchinka-Koch, John F Stover
Lactulose, a disaccharide of galactose and fructose, used as a laxative or ammonia-lowering drug and as a functional food ingredient, enhances growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus at clinically relevant dosages. The prebiotic effect of subclinical dosages of Lactulose, however, remains to be elucidated. This study analyses changes in the microbiota and their metabolites after a 5 days Lactulose treatment using the TIM-2 system, a computer-controlled model of the proximal large intestine representing a complex, high density, metabolically active, anaerobic microbiota of human origin...
July 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718724/black-raspberries-and-their-anthocyanin-and-fiber-fractions-alter-the-composition-and-diversity-of-gut-microbiota-in-f-344-rats
#5
Pan Pan, Vy Lam, Nita Salzman, Yi-Wen Huang, Jianhua Yu, Jianying Zhang, Li-Shu Wang
Natural compounds can alter the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome, potentially benefiting our health. We previously demonstrated chemopreventive effects of black raspberries (BRBs) in colorectal cancer, which is associated with gut dysbiosis. To investigate the effects of whole BRBs and their fractions on gut microbiota, we fed F-344 rats a control diet, 5% BRBs, the BRB anthocyanin fraction, or the BRB residue fraction for 6 weeks. Feces were collected at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6, and bacterial sequence counts were analyzed...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718290/enhanced-long-term-and-thermal-stability-of-polymer-solar-cells-in-air-at-high-humidity-with-the-formation-of-unusual-quantum-dot-networks
#6
Long Tan, Fan Yang, Mee Rahn Kim, Pandeng Li, Deepak Thrithamarassery Gangadharan, Joelle Margot, Ricardo Izquierdo, Mohamed Chaker, Dongling Ma
Due to the practical applications of polymer solar cells (PSCs), their stability recently has received increasing attention. Herein, a new strategy was developed to largely enhance the long-term and thermal stability of PSCs in air with a relatively high humidity of 50-60% without any encapsulation. In this strategy, semiconductor PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) were incorporated into the photoactive blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). By replacing the initial ligands of oleic acid with halide ligands on the surface of PbS/CdS QDs via solution-phase-ligand-exchange, we were able to form unusual, continuous QD networks in the film of P3HT:PCBM, which effectively stabilized the photoactive layer...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717312/effect-of-high-and-low-roughage-total-mixed-ration-diets-on-rumen-metabolites-and-enzymatic-profiles-in-crossbred-cattle-and-buffaloes
#7
S K Sinha, V B Chaturvedi, Putan Singh, L C Chaudhary, Mayukh Ghosh, Swati Shivani
AIM: A comparative study was conducted on crossbred cattle and buffaloes to investigate the effect of feeding high and low roughage total mixed ration (TMR) diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three rumen-fistulated crossbred cattle and buffalo were randomly assigned as per 3×3 switch over design for 21-days. Three TMR diets consisting of concentrate mixture, wheat straw and green maize fodder in the ratios of (T1) 60:20:20, (T2) 40:30:30, and (T3) 20:40:40, respectively, were fed to the animals ad libitum...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715007/the-covalently-bound-diazo-group-as-an-infrared-probe-for-hydrogen-bonding-environments
#8
Min You, Liyuan Liu, Wenkai Zhang
Covalently bound diazo groups are frequently found in biomolecular substrates. The C[double bond, length as m-dash]N[double bond, length as m-dash]N asymmetric stretching vibration (νas) of the diazo group has a large extinction coefficient and appears in an uncongested spectral region. To evaluate the solvatochromism of the C[double bond, length as m-dash]N[double bond, length as m-dash]N νas band for studying biomolecules, we recorded the infrared (IR) spectra of a diazo model compound, 2-diazo-3-oxo-butyric acid ethyl ester, in different solvents...
July 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713353/functional-characterization-of-novel-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-strains-isolated-from-healthy-volunteers-a-step-forward-in-the-use-of-f-prausnitzii-as-a-next-generation-probiotic
#9
Rebeca Martín, Sylvie Miquel, Leandro Benevides, Chantal Bridonneau, Véronique Robert, Sylvie Hudault, Florian Chain, Olivier Berteau, Vasco Azevedo, Jean M Chatel, Harry Sokol, Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán, Muriel Thomas, Philippe Langella
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a major member of the Firmicutes phylum and one of the most abundant bacteria in the healthy human microbiota. F. prausnitzii depletion has been reported in several intestinal disorders, and more consistently in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. Despite its importance in human health, only few microbiological studies have been performed to isolate novel F. prausnitzii strains in order to better understand the biodiversity and physiological diversity of this beneficial commensal species...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713349/the-gut-microbiota-of-healthy-chilean-subjects-reveals-a-high-abundance-of-the-phylum-verrucomicrobia
#10
Sayaka Fujio-Vejar, Yessenia Vasquez, Pamela Morales, Fabien Magne, Patricia Vera-Wolf, Juan A Ugalde, Paola Navarrete, Martin Gotteland
The gut microbiota is currently recognized as an important factor regulating the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and influencing the energetic metabolism of the host as well as its immune and central nervous systems. Determining the gut microbiota composition of healthy subjects is therefore necessary to establish a baseline allowing the detection of microbiota alterations in pathologic conditions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Chilean subjects using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712316/disturbed-bovine-mitochondrial-lipid-metabolism-a-review
#11
J H van der Kolk, J J Gross, V Gerber, R M Bruckmaier
In mammals, excess energy is stored primarily as triglycerides, which are mobilized when energy demands arise and cannot be covered by feed intake. This review mainly focuses on the role of long chain fatty acids in disturbed energy metabolism of the bovine species. Long chain fatty acids regulate energy metabolism as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. β-Oxidation is the process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the mitochondria or peroxisomes to generate acetyl-CoA. Carnitine acts as a carrier of fatty acyl groups as long-chain acyl-CoA derivatives do not penetrate the mitochondrial inner membrane...
July 17, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712043/effects-of-fibre-digestibility-and-level-of-roughage-on-performance-and-rumen-fermentation-of-finishing-beef-cattle
#12
Dannylo Oliveira Sousa, Bruno de Sousa Mesquita, Alexandre Vaz Pires, Miguel Henrique de Almeida Santana, Luis Felipe Prada Silva
The objective was to evaluate effects of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility and level of fresh sugarcane on intake, body fatness, carcass characteristics, and rumen kinetics and fermentation of beef cattle. Forty-eight Nellore young bulls were used in a complete randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Eight rumen-cannulated Nellore steers were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Two sugarcane genotypes divergent for stalk NDF digestibility (NDFD) were used...
July 15, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711611/biochemical-characterization-and-stability-assessment-of-rhizopus-oryzae-lipase-covalently-immobilized-on-amino-functionalized-magnetic-nanoparticles
#13
Kh Pashangeh, M Akhond, H R Karbalaei-Heidari, G Absalan
Amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) have been investigated as a support for covalent immobilization of lipase. The nanoparticles were prepared by chemical coprecipitation method and subsequently were coated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) via silanization reaction. With glutaraldehyde, as the coupling agent, the lipase from Rhizopus oryzae was successfully immobilized onto the amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. The synthesized support was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711599/arachidonic-acid-sex-dependently-affects-obesity-through-linking-gut-microbiota-driven-inflammation-to-hypothalamus-adipose-liver-axis
#14
Pan Zhuang, Qiyang Shou, Yanhua Lu, Guangfa Wang, Jieni Qiu, Jun Wang, Lilin He, Jingnan Chen, Jingjing Jiao, Yu Zhang
Unraveling the role of dietary lipids is beneficial to treat obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Nonetheless, how dietary lipids affect existing obesity remains unknown. Arachidonic acid (AA), a derivative of linoleic acid, is one of the crucial n-6 fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AA affects obesity through associating microbiota-driven inflammation with hypothalamus-adipose-liver axis. Four-week old C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) for 10 weeks to induce obesity, and then fed a HFD enriched with 10 g/kg of AA or a continuous HFD in the following 15 weeks...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711253/the-capacity-of-silage-inoculant-bacteria-to-bind-aflatoxin-b1-in-vitro-and-in-artificially-contaminated-corn-silage
#15
Z X Ma, F X Amaro, J J Romero, O G Pereira, K C Jeong, A T Adesogan
The objectives were to examine the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-binding capacity of silage bacteria and factors affecting the responses. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effects of bacterial strain and population on the AFB1-binding capacity of 10 bacteria. When applied at 10(6) cfu/mL to an in vitro medium, only Lactobacillus plantarum PT5B bound the AFB1 and the binding capacity was low (4%). When applied at 10(9) cfu/mL, all 10 bacteria bound AFB1, but L. plantarum R2014 (Lp) and EQ12, Lactobacillus buchneri R1102 (Lb), and Pediococcus acidilactici R2142 and EQ01 (Pa) had the greatest capacity (23...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708614/design-and-optimization-of-hydrogen-production-from-hydrothermally-pretreated-sugarcane-bagasse-using-response-surface-methodology
#16
Lais Américo Soares, Juliana Kawanishi Braga, Fabrício Motteran, Isabel Kimiko Sakamoto, Edson Luiz Silva, Maria Bernadete Amâncio Varesche
Hydrogen production from hydrothermally pretreated (200 °C for 10 min at 16 bar) sugarcane bagasse was analyzed using response surface methodology. The yeast extract concentration and the temperature had a significant influence for hydrogen production (p-value 0.027 and 0.009, respectively). Maximum hydrogen production (17.7 mmol/L) was observed with 3 g/L yeast extract at 60 °C (C10). In this conditions were produced acetic acid (50.44 mg/L), butyric acid (209.71 mg/L), ethanol (38.4 mg/L), and methane (6...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707762/pharmacokinetics-and-tissue-distribution-study-of-clevidipine-and-its-primary-metabolite-h152-81-in-rats
#17
Yan Wang, Lanting Zhao, Tengfei Li, Wen Yang, Qian Li, Luning Sun, Li Ding
This present study was designed to investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles and tissue distribution characteristics of clevidipine and its primary metabolite H152/81 in rats following a single intravenous administration of clevidipine butyrate injectable emulsion (CBIE). For this study, a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of clevidipine and H152/81 in rat whole blood and various tissues. A Hedera ODS-2 column with two gradient elution programs was employed for the troubleshooting of matrix effect on the detection of analytes among different biological samples...
July 14, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706487/pekinenin-e-inhibits-the-growth-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-promoting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-cell-death
#18
Lu Fan, Qingling Xiao, Yanyan Chen, Gang Chen, Jinao Duan, Weiwei Tao
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant primary liver cancer with poor prognosis. In the present study, we report that pekinenin E (PE), a casbane diterpenoid derived from the roots of Euphorbia pekinensis, has a strong antitumor activity against human HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. PE suppressed the growth of human HCC cells Hep G2 and SMMC-7721. In addition, PE-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused increasing expressions of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), leading to apoptosis in HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705641/design-synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-molecular-modelling-studies-of-novel-diaryl-substituted-pyrazolyl-thiazolidinediones-as-potent-pancreatic-lipase-inhibitors
#19
Sridhar S N C, Deendyal Bhurta, Dharmvir Kantiwal, Ginson George, Vikramdeep Monga, Atish T Paul
A series of novel diaryl substituted pyrazolyl 2,4-thiazolidinediones were synthesized via reaction of appropriate pyrazolecarboxaldehydes with 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) and nitrobenzyl substituted 2,4-thiazolidinedione. The resulting compounds were screened in vitro for pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activity. Two assay protocols were performed viz., methods A and B using p-nitrophenyl butyrate and tributyrin as substrates, respectively. Compound 11e exhibited potent PL inhibitory activity (IC50=4.81µM and Xi50=10...
June 28, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705292/a-case-of-ischemia-induced-perianal-ulceration-mimicking-pyoderma-gangrenosum
#20
Michael Joseph Lavery, Nicola Cooke
A 68-year-old woman, with a 75-pack-year smoking history and a history of chronic excess alcohol intake, presented with a 5-week history of worsening perianal pain and ulceration. She recently had an inpatient admission with back pain and urinary tract infection during which she developed diarrhea and fecal incontinence. Initially, the perianal ulceration was diagnosed as severe irritant contact dermatitis and treated with barrier creams and topical clobetasone 17-butyrate 0.05% weight for weight, oxytetracycline 3...
2017: Skinmed
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