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Bartosz Baran, Michał Krzyżowski, Mikołaj Cup, Jakub Janiec, Mateusz Grabowski, Jacek Francikowski
Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are a group of common metabolites and semiochemicals mediating information transfer between higher organisms and bacteria, either from microbiome or external environment. VFAs commonly occur among various insect orders. There are numerous studies exploring their influence on the behavior of different insect species. In relation to the papers published by J. E. McFarlane in 1985, we assessed the effects of formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and valeric acids on the spatial preference of the lesser mealworm ( Alphitobius diaperinus ), a common pest of stored food grain products and the poultry industry...
March 16, 2018: Insects
Xiaofan Liu, Yanping Wang, Richard I Duclos, George A O'Doherty
Tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), its enantiomer, and an additional six diastereomers were evaluated as inhibitors of the hydrolysis of p -nitrophenyl butyrate by porcine pancreatic lipase. IC50 s were found for all eight stereoisomers ranging from a low of 4.0 nM for THL to a high of 930 nM for the diastereomer with the inverted stereocenters at the 2,3,2'-positions. While the enantiomer of THL was also significantly less active (77 nM) the remaining five stereoisomers retained significant inhibitory activities (IC50 s = 8...
March 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Tirtsah Toledano, Alon Vitenshtein, Noam Stern-Ginossar, Einat Seidel, Ofer Mandelboim
Recognition of the human stress-induced ligand MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MICA) by the receptor NKG2D expressed on NK cells leads to NK cell-mediated killing of the target cells. Hence, the expression of MICA must be tightly regulated, and its cell surface expression needs to be quickly downregulated to avoid inappropriate activation of immune cells. In this article, we describe a transcript variant of human MICA that has not yet been studied, which contains a 3' untranslated region of 119 nt instead of 174...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Maísa Pessoa Pinheiro, Nathalia Saraiva Rios, Thiago de S Fonseca, Francisco de Aquino Bezerra, Enrique Rodríguez-Castellón, Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente, Marcos Carlos de Mattos, José C S Dos Santos, Luciana R B Gonçalves
Novozyme 435, which is a commercial immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB), has been proven to be inadequate for the kinetic resolution of rac-indanyl acetate. As it has been previously described that different immobilization protocols may greatly alter lipase features, in this work CALB was covalently immobilized on epoxy Immobead-350 (IB-350) and on glyoxyl-agarose to ascertain if better kinetic resolution would result. Afterwards, all CALB biocatalysts were utilized in the hydrolytic resolution of rac-indanyl acetate and rac-(chloromethyl)-2-(o-methoxyphenoxy)ethyl acetate...
March 14, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Helen M Golder, Jennifer M Thomson, Stuart E Denman, Chris S McSweeney, Ian J Lean
Dairy heifers were subjected to a non-life-threatening challenge designed to induce ruminal acidosis by feeding grain and sugar. Large among animal variation in clinical signs of acidosis, rumen metabolite concentrations, and the rumen microbiome occurred. This exploratory study investigates sources of the variation by examining associations between the genome, metabolome, and microbiome, albeit with a limited population. The broader objective is to provide a rationale for a larger field study to identify markers for susceptibility to ruminal acidosis...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Shoji Tsuji, Chikushi Suruda, Masaki Hashiyada, Takahisa Kimata, Sohsaku Yamanouchi, Tetsuya Kitao, Jiro Kino, Atsushi Akane, Kazunari Kaneko
BACKGROUND: While the etiology of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (idiopathic nephrotic syndrome [INS]; characterized by repeated relapses and comorbid allergic conditions) remains unknown, recent evidence suggests that dysfunction in regulatory T cells (Tregs) plays an important role in the development of INS as well as allergic diseases. We hypothesized that dysbiosis involving decreased butyric acid-producing gut microbiota leads to defective induction and differentiation of peripherally induced Tregs, resulting in INS relapse...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Wentao Huang, Yen-Hung Lin, Thomas D Anthopoulos
Combining high charge carrier mobility with ambipolar transport in light-absorbing organic semiconductors is highly desirable as it leads to enhanced charge photogeneration, and hence improved performance, in various optoelectronic devices including solar cells and photodetectors. Here we report the development of [6,6]-phenyl-C61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PC61 BM)-based ultraviolet (UV) phototransistors with balanced electron and hole transport characteristics. The latter is achieved by fine-tuning the source-drain electrode work function using a self-assembled monolayer...
March 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kang Zhan, MaoCheng Jiang, Xiaoxiao Gong, GuoQi Zhao
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by microbial fermentation of dietary fibers are utilized by intestinal epithelial cells to provide an energy source for the ruminant. Although the regulation of mRNA expression and inflammatory response involved in SCFAs is established in other animals and tissues, the underlying mechanisms of the inflammatory response by SCFAs in goat jejunum epithelial cells (GJECs) have not been understood. Therefore, the objective of the study is to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the effects of SCFAs on SCFA transporters and inflammatory response in GJECs...
March 12, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Sophie A Poeker, Annelies Geirnaert, Laura Berchtold, Anna Greppi, Lukasz Krych, Robert E Steinert, Tomas de Wouters, Christophe Lacroix
Consumption of fermentable dietary fibers (DFs), which can induce growth and/or activity of specific beneficial populations, is suggested a promising strategy to modulate the gut microbiota and restore health in microbiota-linked diseases. Until today, inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are the best studied DFs, while little is known about the gut microbiota-modulating effects of β-glucan, α-galactooligosaccharide (α-GOS) and xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS). Here, we used three continuous in vitro fermentation PolyFermS model to study the modulating effect of these DFs on two distinct human adult proximal colon microbiota, independently from the host...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jie Zhang, Wenming Zong, Wei Hong, Zhong-Tian Zhang, Yi Wang
Although CRISPR-Cas9/Cpf1 have been employed as powerful genome engineering tools, heterologous CRISPR-Cas9/Cpf1 are often difficult to introduce into bacteria and archaea due to their severe toxicity. Since most prokaryotes harbor native CRISPR-Cas systems, genome engineering can be achieved by harnessing these endogenous immune systems. Here, we report the exploitation of Type I-B CRISPR-Cas of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for genome engineering. In silico CRISPR array analysis and plasmid interference assay revealed that TCA or TCG at the 5'-end of the protospacer was the functional protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) for CRISPR targeting...
March 9, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Stanislav Sitkin, Timur Vakhitov, Juris Pokrotnieks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Lin Yuan, Wanli Li, Qianqian Huo, Chenhong Du, Zhixiang Wang, Baodi Yi, Mingfa Wang
This study investigated the effects of xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) and flavomycin (FLA) on the performance and immune function of broiler chickens. A total of 150 ArborAcres broilers were randomly divided into three groups and fed for six weeks from one day of age in cascade cages. The diets of each test group were (1) a basal diet, (2) the basal diet supplemented with 2 mg/kg FLA, and (3) the basal diet supplemented with 2 mg/kg XOS. At 21 and 42 days, the growth performance index values and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the cecum were quantified...
2018: PeerJ
P Górka, Z M Kowalski, R Zabielski, P Guilloteau
Promotion of microbial butyrate production in the reticulorumen is a widely used method for enhancing forestomach development in calves. Additional acceleration of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, both the forestomach and lower parts of the GIT (e.g., abomasum, intestine, and also pancreas), can be obtained by dietary butyrate supplementation. For this purpose, different sources (e.g., butyrate salts or butyrins), forms (e.g., protected or unprotected), methods (e.g., in liquid feed or solid feed), and periods (e...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Pan Pan, Kiyoko Oshima, Yi-Wen Huang, Kimberle A Agle, William R Drobyski, Xiao Chen, Jianying Zhang, Martha M Yearsley, Jianhua Yu, Li-Shu Wang
Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2, also named GPR43), is activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, that are produced when gut bacteria ferment dietary fiber. FFAR2 has been suggested to regulate colonic inflammation, which is a major risk factor for the development of colon cancer and is also linked to epigenetic dysregulation in colon carcinogenesis. The current study assessed whether FFAR2, acting as an epigenetic regulator, protects against colon carcinogenesis. To mimic the mild inflammation that promotes human colon cancer, we treated mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) overnight, which avoids excessive inflammation but induces mild inflammation that promotes colon carcinogenesis in the ApcMin/+ and the azoxymethane (AOM)-treated mice...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Jun-Yu Xu, Zhen Xu, Xin-Xin Liu, Minjia Tan, Bang-Ce Ye
Clostridium acetobutylicum is a strict anaerobic, endospore-forming bacterium, which is used for the production of the high energy biofuel butanol in metabolic engineering. The life cycle of C. acetobutylicum can be divided into two phases, with acetic and butyric acids being produced in the exponential phase (acidogenesis) and butanol formed in the stationary phase (solventogenesis). During the transitional phase from acidogenesis to solventogenesis and latter stationary phase, concentration peaks of the<br />metabolic intermediates butyryl phosphate and acetyl phosphate are observed...
March 9, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Christina Li-Ping Thio, Po-Yu Chi, Alan Chuan-Ying Lai, Ya-Jen Chang
BACKGROUND: Allergic asthma is characterized airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and inflammation driven by aberrant TH 2 response. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a critical source of TH 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 which promote acute asthma exacerbation. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been shown to attenuate T cell-mediated allergic airway inflammation. Their role in the regulation of ILC2-driven AHR and lung inflammation, however, remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the immunomodulatory role of SCFAs in the regulation of ILC2-induced AHR and airway inflammation and delineated the mechanism involved...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Izuki Amano, Yusuke Takatsuru, Miski Aghnia Khairinisa, Michifumi Kokubo, Asahi Haijima, Noriyuki Koibuchi
Mild perinatal hypothyroidism may result from inadequate iodine intake, insufficient treatment of congenital hypothyroidism, or exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Because thyroid hormone is critical for brain development, severe hypothyroidism that is untreated in infancy causes irreversible cretinism. Milder hypothyroidism may also affect cognitive development; however, the effects of mild and/or moderate hypothyroidism on brain development are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the behavior of adult male mice rendered mildly hypothyroid during the perinatal period using low-dose propylthiouracil (PTU)...
March 7, 2018: Endocrinology
Lore Becker, Melanie Schmitt Nogueira, Caroline Klima, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Shahaf Peleg
Epigenetic deregulation, such as the reduction of histone acetylation levels, is thought to be causally linked to various maladies associated with aging. Consequently, histone deacetylase inhibitors are suggested to serve as epigenetic therapy by increasing histone acetylation. However, previous work suggests that many non-histone proteins, including metabolic enzymes, are also acetylated and that post transitional modifications may impact their activity. Furthermore, deacetylase inhibitors were recently shown to impact the acetylation of a variety of proteins...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
L F Ferraretto, W I Silva Filho, T Fernandes, D H Kim, H Sultana
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rehydrating and ensiling dry ground corn (DGC) with varying concentrations of wet brewers grain (WBG) on fermentation profile and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivSD; 7-h incubations on dried and 4-mm ground samples). Samples of DGC and WBG were weighed separately and mixed into 100% WBG (WBG); mixture of DGC and WBG targeting 60 (RC60), 65 (RC65), or 70% (RC70) of dry matter (DM); and DGC rehydrated with distilled water targeting for 70% of DM (REH)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Manisha Chownk, Jashandeep Kaur, Kashmir Singh, Jagdeep Kaur
AIM: mbtJ from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv is a member of mbt A-J operon required for mycobactin biogenesis. MATERIALS & METHODS: The esterase/acetyl-hydrolase activity of mbtJ was determined by pNP-esters/native-PAGE and expression under iron stress by quantitative-PCR. Effect of gene on growth/survival of Mycobacterium was studied using antisense. Its effect on morphology, growth/infection was studied in Mycobacterium smegmatis. RESULTS: It showed acetyl hydrolase/esterase activity at pH 8...
March 9, 2018: Future Microbiology
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