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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748629/abnormal-reward-prediction-error-signalling-in-antipsychotic-naive-individuals-with-first-episode-psychosis-or-clinical-risk-for-psychosis
#1
Anna O Ermakova, Franziska Knolle, Azucena Justicia, Edward T Bullmore, Peter B Jones, Trevor W Robbins, Paul C Fletcher, Graham K Murray
Ongoing research suggests preliminary, though not entirely consistent, evidence of neural abnormalities in signalling prediction errors in schizophrenia. Supporting theories suggest mechanistic links between the disruption of these processes and the generation of psychotic symptoms. However, it is unknown at what stage in the pathogenesis of psychosis these impairments in prediction-error signalling develop. One major confound in prior studies is the use of medicated patients with strongly varying disease durations...
April 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737186/asymptomatic-hiv-vertical-transmitted-adolescents-brain-functional-changes-based-on-resting-state-functional-mri
#2
Panying Wang, Jielan Li, Xiangyu Wang, Guang-Yao Wu, Deepa Thapa
OBJECTIVE: Perinatal HIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents survive longer with the use of readily found combination antiretroviral therapy(cART), however, they still have the risk of developing cognitive deficits. The paper aims to explore the brain functional changes in asymptomatic PHIV+ adolescents with cART based on the resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: rs-fMRI was performed on 20 PHIV+ adolescents and 28 PHIV- controls to evaluate the regional homogeneity (ReHo) in different brain regions by calculating the Kendall harmonious coefficient(KCC)...
May 8, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709609/physiological-identification-of-cortico-striatal-projection-neurons-for-song-control-in-bengalese-finches
#3
Neal A Hessler, Kazuo Okanoya
The avian song system is a group of brain areas specialized for vocal learning and production of song. A major cortical control area, HVC, projects both to a motor output circuit and to a striatal area in the anterior forebrain pathway. These projections are made by two groups of neurons, with mainly distinct roles in either programming vocal production or regulating vocal plasticity. In order to distinguish these two types of projection neurons in singing birds, we recorded unit activity in HVC of anesthetized birds, while stimulating in the anterior forebrain nucleus Area X...
April 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651138/gene-expression-links-functional-networks-across-cortex-and-striatum
#4
Kevin M Anderson, Fenna M Krienen, Eun Young Choi, Jenna M Reinen, B T Thomas Yeo, Avram J Holmes
The human brain is comprised of a complex web of functional networks that link anatomically distinct regions. However, the biological mechanisms supporting network organization remain elusive, particularly across cortical and subcortical territories with vastly divergent cellular and molecular properties. Here, using human and primate brain transcriptional atlases, we demonstrate that spatial patterns of gene expression show strong correspondence with limbic and somato/motor cortico-striatal functional networks...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651049/gabaergic-inhibition-in-dual-transmission-cholinergic-and-gabaergic-striatal-interneurons-is-abolished-in-parkinson-disease
#5
N Lozovaya, S Eftekhari, R Cloarec, L A Gouty-Colomer, A Dufour, B Riffault, M Billon-Grand, A Pons-Bennaceur, N Oumar, N Burnashev, Y Ben-Ari, C Hammond
We report that half striatal cholinergic interneurons are dual transmitter cholinergic and GABAergic interneurons (CGINs) expressing ChAT, GAD65, Lhx7, and Lhx6 mRNAs, labeled with GAD and VGAT, generating monosynaptic dual cholinergic/GABAergic currents and an inhibitory pause response. Dopamine deprivation increases CGINs ongoing activity and abolishes GABAergic inhibition including the cortico-striatal pause because of high [Cl- ]i levels. Dopamine deprivation also dramatically increases CGINs dendritic arbors and monosynaptic interconnections probability, suggesting the formation of a dense CGINs network...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602186/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-striatal-synaptic-plasticity-relevance-to-chronic-alcohol-consumption-and-seeking
#6
Kim T Blackwell, Armando G Salinas, Parul Tewatia, Brad English, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski, David M Lovinger
The striatum, the input structure of the basal ganglia, is a major site of learning and memory for goal-directed actions and habit formation. Spiny projection neurons of the striatum integrate cortical, thalamic, and nigral inputs to learn associations, with cortico-striatal synaptic plasticity as a learning mechanism. Signaling molecules implicated in synaptic plasticity are altered in alcohol withdrawal, which may contribute to overly strong learning and increased alcohol seeking and consumption. To understand how interactions among signaling molecules produce synaptic plasticity, we implemented a mechanistic model of signaling pathways activated by dopamine D1 receptors, acetylcholine receptors, and glutamate...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569219/dopamine-d2-agonist-affects-visuospatial-working-memory-distractor-interference-depending-on-individual-differences-in-baseline-working-memory-span
#7
James M Broadway, Michael J Frank, James F Cavanagh
The interplay of dopaminergic striatal D1-D2 circuits is thought to support working memory (WM) by selectively filtering information that is to be remembered versus information to be ignored. To test this theory, we conducted an experiment in which healthy participants performed a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) task after ingesting the D2-receptor agonist cabergoline (or placebo), in a randomized, double-blinded, crossover design. Results showed greater interference from distractors under cabergoline, particularly for individuals with higher baseline dopamine (indicated by WM span)...
March 22, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534062/early-uneven-ear-input-induces-long-lasting-differences-in-left-right-motor-function
#8
Michelle W Antoine, Xiaoxia Zhu, Marianne Dieterich, Thomas Brandt, Sarath Vijayakumar, Nicholas McKeehan, Joseph C Arezzo, R Suzanne Zukin, David A Borkholder, Sherri M Jones, Robert D Frisina, Jean M Hébert
How asymmetries in motor behavior become established normally or atypically in mammals remains unclear. An established model for motor asymmetry that is conserved across mammals can be obtained by experimentally inducing asymmetric striatal dopamine activity. However, the factors that can cause motor asymmetries in the absence of experimental manipulations to the brain remain unknown. Here, we show that mice with inner ear dysfunction display a robust left or right rotational preference, and this motor preference reflects an atypical asymmetry in cortico-striatal neurotransmission...
March 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511826/efficacy-and-safety-of-amantadine-for-the-treatment-of-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia
#9
REVIEW
Santiago Perez-Lloret, Olivier Rascol
L-DOPA induced dyskinesias (LIDs) may affect up to 40% of Parkinson's disease (PD) and impact negatively health-related quality of life. Amantadine has demonstrated significant antidyskinetic effects in animal PD models and in randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) in patients with PD. These effects are thought to be related to the blockade of NMDA receptors modulating cortico-striatal glutamatergic-dopaminergic interactions involved in the genesis of LIDs. There are three pharmaceutical forms of amantadine currently available in the market: an oral immediate-release (IR) formulation, which is widely available; an extended-release (ER) formulation (ADS-5102) which has been recently developed and approved by the FDA; and an intravenous infusion (IV) solution, which is not commonly used in clinical practice...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507281/differential-effect-of-quetiapine-and-lithium-on-functional-connectivity-of-the-striatum-in-first-episode-mania
#10
Orwa Dandash, Murat Yücel, Rothanthi Daglas, Christos Pantelis, Patrick McGorry, Michael Berk, Alex Fornito
Mood disturbances seen in first-episode mania (FEM) are linked to disturbed functional connectivity of the striatum. Lithium and quetiapine are effective treatments for mania but their neurobiological effects remain largely unknown. We conducted a single-blinded randomized controlled maintenance trial in 61 FEM patients and 30 healthy controls. Patients were stabilized for a minimum of 2 weeks on lithium plus quetiapine then randomly assigned to either lithium (serum level 0.6 mmol/L) or quetiapine (dosed up to 800 mg/day) treatment for 12 months...
March 6, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487562/aripiprazole-selectively-reduces-motor-tics-in-a-young-animal-model-for-tourette-s-syndrome-and-comorbid-attention-deficit-and-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
Francesca Rizzo, Ester Nespoli, Alireza Abaei, Izhar Bar-Gad, Dinesh K Deelchand, Jörg Fegert, Volker Rasche, Bastian Hengerer, Tobias M Boeckers
Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized primarily by motor and vocal tics. Comorbidities such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are observed in over 50% of TS patients. We applied aripiprazole in a juvenile rat model that displays motor tics and hyperactivity. We additionally assessed the amount of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) as an indicator for the presence of vocal tics and evaluated the changes in the striatal neurometabolism using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 11...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480206/pridopidine-overview-of-pharmacology-and-rationale-for-its-use-in-huntington-s-disease
#12
Susanna Waters, Joakim Tedroff, Henrik Ponten, Daniel Klamer, Clas Sonesson, Nicholas Waters
Despite advances in understanding the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD), there are currently no effective pharmacological agents available to treat core symptoms or to stop or prevent the progression of this hereditary neurodegenerative disorder. Pridopidine, a novel small molecule compound, has demonstrated potential for both symptomatic treatment and disease modifying effects in HD. While pridopidine failed to achieve its primary efficacy outcomes (Modified motor score) in two trials (MermaiHD and HART) there were consistent effects on secondary outcomes (TMS)...
2018: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480205/inhibition-of-trpc1-dependent-store-operated-calcium-entry-improves-synaptic-stability-and-motor-performance-in-a-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#13
Jun Wu, Daniel Ryskamp, Lutz Birnbaumer, Ilya Bezprozvanny
BACKGROUND: Huntington disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. We previously discovered that mutant Huntingtin sensitizes type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R1) to InsP3. This causes calcium leakage from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and a compensatory increase in neuronal store-operated calcium (nSOC) entry. We previously demonstrated that supranormal nSOC leads to synaptic loss in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in YAC128 HD mice...
2018: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459720/controlling-striatal-function-via-anterior-frontal-cortex-stimulation
#14
Mieke van Holstein, Monja I Froböse, Jacinta O'Shea, Esther Aarts, Roshan Cools
Motivational, cognitive and action goals are processed by distinct, topographically organized, corticostriatal circuits. We aimed to test whether processing in the striatum is under causal control by cortical regions in the human brain by investigating the effects of offline transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over distinct frontal regions associated with motivational, cognitive and action goal processing. Using a three-session counterbalanced within-subject crossover design, continuous theta burst stimulation was applied over the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or premotor cortex, immediately after which participants (N = 27) performed a paradigm assessing reward anticipation (motivation), task (cognitive) switching, and response (action) switching...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445767/serotonin-differentially-regulates-l5-pyramidal-cell-classes-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-rats-and-mice
#15
Mary C Elliott, Peter M Tanaka, Ryan W Schwark, Rodrigo Andrade
The prefrontal cortex receives a dense serotonergic innervation that plays an important role in its regulation. However, how serotonin regulates different pyramidal and interneuron cell classes in this area is incompletely understood. Previous work in rats has shown that serotonin differentially regulates two classes of pyramidal cells in layer 5. It excites one class by activating 5-HT2A receptors, whereas it more subtly modulates the integrative properties of the other by co-activating 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438731/neuroprotective-effect-of-the-group-iii-mglu-receptor-agonist-acpt-i-after-ischemic-stroke-in-rats-with-essential-hypertension
#16
Helena Domin, Łukasz Przykaza, Ewa Kozniewska, Paweł M Boguszewski, Maria Śmiałowska
Our previous studies have shown that ACPT-I [(1S, 3R,4S)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid], a blood-brain barrier permeable agonist of group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, was neuroprotective against middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) in normotensive rats. Preclinical studies are typically performed on healthy animals, whereas stroke patients predominately exhibit comorbidities, such as hypertension; therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of ACPT-I in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after MCAO/R...
June 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381484/hypoglycemia-unawareness-in-type-1-diabetes-suppresses-brain-responses-to-hypoglycemia
#17
Janice Jin Hwang, Lisa Parikh, Cheryl Lacadie, Dongju Seo, Wai Lam, Muhammad Hamza, Christian Schmidt, Feng Dai, Anne-Sophie Sejling, Renata Belfort-DeAguiar, R Todd Constable, Rajita Sinha, Robert Sherwin
BACKGROUND: Among nondiabetic individuals, mild glucose decrements alter brain activity in regions linked to reward, motivation, and executive control. Whether these effects differ in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients with and without hypoglycemia awareness remains unclear. METHODS: Forty-two individuals (13 healthy control [HC] subjects, 16 T1DM individuals with hypoglycemia awareness [T1DM-Aware], and 13 T1DM individuals with hypoglycemia unawareness [T1DM-Unaware]) underwent blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI brain imaging during a 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic (90 mg/dl)-hypoglycemic (60 mg/dl) clamp for assessment of neural responses to mild hypoglycemia...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352027/the-thalamus-in-drug-addiction-from-rodents-to-humans
#18
REVIEW
Anna S Huang, Jameson A Mitchell, Suzanne N Haber, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z Goldstein
Impairments in response inhibition and salience attribution (iRISA) have been proposed to underlie the clinical symptoms of drug addiction as mediated by cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical networks. The bulk of evidence supporting the iRISA model comes from neuroimaging research that has focused on cortical and striatal influences with less emphasis on the role of the thalamus. Here, we highlight the importance of the thalamus in drug addiction, focusing on animal literature findings on thalamic nuclei in the context of drug-seeking, structural and functional changes of the thalamus as measured by imaging studies in human drug addiction, particularly during drug cue and non-drug reward processing, and response inhibition tasks...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317605/non-invasive-modulation-reduces-repetitive-behavior-in-a-rat-model-through-the-sensorimotor-cortico-striatal-circuit
#19
Henriette Edemann-Callesen, Bettina Habelt, Franziska Wieske, Mark Jackson, Niranjan Khadka, Daniele Mattei, Nadine Bernhardt, Andreas Heinz, David Liebetanz, Marom Bikson, Frank Padberg, Ravit Hadar, Michael A Nitsche, Christine Winter
Involuntary movements as seen in repetitive disorders such as Tourette Syndrome (TS) results from cortical hyperexcitability that arise due to striato-thalamo-cortical circuit (STC) imbalance. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a stimulation procedure that changes cortical excitability, yet its relevance in repetitive disorders such as TS remains largely unexplored. Here, we employed the dopamine transporter-overexpressing (DAT-tg) rat model to investigate behavioral and neurobiological effects of frontal tDCS...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301872/prefrontal-corticostriatal-disconnection-blocks-the-acquisition-of-goal-directed-action
#20
Genevra Hart, Laura A Bradfield, Bernard W Balleine
The acquisition of goal-directed action requires encoding of the association between an action and its specific consequences or outcome. At a neural level, this encoding has been hypothesized to involve a prefrontal corticostriatal circuit involving the projection from the prelimbic cortex (PL) to the posterior dorsomedial striatum (pDMS); however, no direct evidence for this claim has been reported. In a series of experiments, we performed functional disconnection of this pathway using targeted lesions of the anterior corpus callosum to disrupt contralateral corticostriatal projections with asymmetrical lesions of the PL and/or pDMS to block plasticity in this circuit in rats...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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