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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892854/a-comprehensive-excitatory-input-map-of-the-striatum-reveals-novel-functional-organization
#1
Barbara J Hunnicutt, Bart C Jongbloets, William T Birdsong, Katrina J Gertz, Haining Zhong, Tianyi Mao
The striatum integrates excitatory inputs from the cortex and the thalamus to control diverse functions. Although the striatum is thought to consist of sensorimotor, associative and limbic domains, their precise demarcations and whether additional functional subdivisions exist remain unclear. How striatal inputs are differentially segregated into each domain is also poorly understood. This study presents a comprehensive map of the excitatory inputs to the mouse striatum. The input patterns reveal boundaries between the known striatal domains...
November 28, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833219/neuroimaging-studies-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Arpit Parmar, Siddharth Sarkar
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively common psychiatric illness with a lifetime prevalence of 2-3% in general population. The pathophysiology of OCD is not yet fully understood, however over the last few decades, evidence for abnormalities of cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortico (CSTC) circuitry in etiopathogenesis of OCD has accumulated. Recent brain imaging techniques have been particularly convincing in suggesting that CSTC circuits are responsible for mediation of OCD symptoms. Neuroimaging studies, especially more recent studies using functional neuroimaging methods have looked for possible changes seen in the brain of patients with OCD, the specificity of the findings (as compared to other psychiatric illnesses) and the effects of treatment (pharmacotherapy/psychotherapy) on such changes were observed...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814622/interventions-in-parkinson-s-disease-role-of-executive-function
#3
Abhimanyu Mahajan, Jennifer A Deal, Michelle Carlson
The cortico-striatal network plays a major role in executive functions (EF), and is believed to play a role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the tools to assess EF are limited. This review assesses the impact of all PD interventions, namely, pharmacotherapy, physical exercise and Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery on EF. The effect of PD pharmacotherapy varies with the drug class, neuropsychological test used and the affected dopamine receptor family. There appears to be a benefit of aerobic exercise on EF, including judgment and attention...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812554/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-coincide-with-altered-striatal-connectivity
#4
Marianne Oldehinkel, Christian F Beckmann, Raimon H R Pruim, Erik S B van Oort, Barbara Franke, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk Heslenfeld, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
BACKGROUND: Cortico-striatal network dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is generally investigated by comparing functional connectivity of the main striatal sub-regions (i.e., putamen, caudate, and nucleus accumbens) between an ADHD and a control group. However, dimensional analyses based on continuous symptom measures might help to parse the high phenotypic heterogeneity in ADHD. Here, we focus on functional segregation of regions in the striatum and investigate cortico-striatal networks using both categorical and dimensional measures of ADHD...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804899/disrupted-resting-state-brain-network-properties-in-obesity-decreased-global-and-putaminal-cortico-striatal-network-efficiency
#5
K Baek, L S Morris, P Kundu, V Voon
BACKGROUND: The efficient organization and communication of brain networks underlie cognitive processing and their disruption can lead to pathological behaviours. Few studies have focused on whole-brain networks in obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Here we used multi-echo resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) along with a data-driven graph theory approach to assess brain network characteristics in obesity and BED. METHOD: Multi-echo rsfMRI scans were collected from 40 obese subjects (including 20 BED patients) and 40 healthy controls and denoised using multi-echo independent component analysis (ME-ICA)...
November 2, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792887/cortico-striatal-language-pathways-dynamically-adjust-for-syntactic-complexity-a-computational-study
#6
Krisztina Szalisznyó, David Silverstein, Marc Teichmann, Hugues Duffau, Anja Smits
A growing body of literature supports a key role of fronto-striatal circuits in language perception. It is now known that the striatum plays a role in engaging attentional resources and linguistic rule computation while also serving phonological short-term memory capabilities. The ventral semantic and the dorsal phonological stream dichotomy assumed for spoken language processing also seems to play a role in cortico-striatal perception. Based on recent studies that correlate deep Broca-striatal pathways with complex syntax performance, we used a previously developed computational model of frontal-striatal syntax circuits and hypothesized that different parallel language pathways may contribute to canonical and non-canonical sentence comprehension separately...
October 25, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773690/interactive-roles-of-the-cerebellum-and-striatum-in-sub-second-and-supra-second-timing-support-for-an-initiation-continuation-adjustment-and-termination-icat-model-of-temporal-processing
#7
REVIEW
Elijah A Petter, Nicholas A Lusk, Germund Hesslow, Warren H Meck
The contributions of cortico-cerebellar and cortico-striatal circuits to timing and time perception have often been a point of contention. In this review we propose that the cerebellum principally functions to reduce variability, through the detection of stimulus onsets and the sub-division of longer durations, thus contributing to both sub-second and supra-second timing. This sensitivity of the cerebellum to stimulus dynamics and subsequent integration with motor control allows it to accurately measure intervals within a range of 100-2000ms...
October 20, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730703/subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-alters-prefrontal-correlates-of-emotion-induction
#8
Sarah K B Bick, Bradley S Folley, Jutta S Mayer, Sohee Park, P David Charles, Corrie R Camalier, Srivatsan Pallavaram, Peter E Konrad, Joseph S Neimat
OBJECTIVES: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor symptoms in advanced Parkinson's disease. STN DBS may also affect emotion, possibly by impacting a parallel limbic cortico-striatal circuit. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in prefrontal cortical activity related to DBS during an emotion induction task. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used near infrared spectroscopy to monitor prefrontal cortex hemodynamic changes during an emotion induction task...
October 12, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725727/cerebral-activity-associated-with-transient-sleep-facilitated-reduction-in-motor-memory-vulnerability-to-interference
#9
Geneviève Albouy, Bradley R King, Christina Schmidt, Martin Desseilles, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu, Evelyne Balteau, Christophe Phillips, Christian Degueldre, Pierre Orban, Habib Benali, Philippe Peigneux, André Luxen, Avi Karni, Julien Doyon, Pierre Maquet, Maria Korman
Motor memory consolidation is characterized, in part, by a sleep-facilitated decrease in susceptibility to subsequent interfering experiences. Surprisingly, the cerebral substrates supporting this phenomenon have never been examined. We used fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of the influence of sleep on interference to motor memory consolidation. Healthy young adults were trained on a sequential motor task, and subsequently practiced a second competing sequence after an interval including diurnal sleep or wakefulness...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717835/a-resting-state-fmri-study-on-early-stage-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-drooling
#10
Yanbing Hou, Chunyan Luo, Jing Yang, Wei Song, Ruwei Ou, Wanglin Liu, Qiyong Gong, Huifang Shang
OBJECTIVE: Drooling is a common symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study used resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to evaluate the brain connectivity of cortico-striatal circuits in PD patients with drooling. METHOD: We enrolled 30 early-stage drug-naïve PD patients and 30 matched normal controls. Among the PD patients, 15 patients were classified as "droolers" with the presence of drooling and 15 patients as "non-droolers" with the absence of drooling. All participants underwent resting-state fMRI scans on a 3-T MR system, focusing on the functional connectivity of striatum subregions...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677776/habit-formation-and-the-striatum
#11
Barbara J Knowlton, Tara K Patterson
Data from experimental animals and human subjects has provided convergent evidence for the key role of the striatum in the formation of stimulus-response habits. Habits can be distinguished from associative memories that support goal-directed actions based on their insensitivity to reward devaluation and contingency degradation. Behavior on many instrumental learning tasks can be supported by both declarative knowledge and habits, and these contributions shift with the amount of training. This shift appears to be accompanied by the involvement of different cortico-striatal loops in controlling behavior...
September 28, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672363/probing-the-role-of-medication-dbs-electrode-position-and-antidromic-activation-on-impulsivity-using-a-computational-model-of-basal-ganglia
#12
Alekhya Mandali, V Srinivasa Chakravarthy
Everyday, we encounter situations where available choices are nearly equally rewarding (high conflict) calling for some tough decision making. Experimental recordings showed that the activity of Sub Thalamic Nucleus (STN) increases during such situations providing the extra time needed to make the right decision, teasing apart the most rewarding choice from the runner up closely trailing behind. This prolonged deliberation necessary for decision making under high conflict was absent in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who underwent Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery of STN...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650055/disrupted-brain-metabolic-connectivity-in-a-6-ohda-induced-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-examined-using-persistent-homology-based-analysis
#13
Hyung-Jun Im, Jarang Hahm, Hyejin Kang, Hongyoon Choi, Hyekyoung Lee, Do Won Hwang, E Edmund Kim, June-Key Chung, Dong Soo Lee
Movement impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) are caused by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and the consequent disruption of connectivity in the cortico-striatal-thalamic loop. This study evaluated brain metabolic connectivity in a 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced mouse model of PD using (18)F-fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Fourteen PD-model mice and ten control mice were used for the analysis. Voxel-wise t-tests on FDG PET results yielded no significant regional metabolic differences between the PD and control groups...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646291/rodent-models-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-evaluating-validity-to-interpret-emerging-neurobiology
#14
Isaac Zike, Tim Xu, Natalie Hong, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with unknown molecular underpinnings. Identification of genetic and non-genetic risk factors has largely been elusive, primarily because of a lack of power. In contrast, neuroimaging has consistently implicated the cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits in OCD. Pharmacological treatment studies also show specificity, with consistent response of OCD symptoms to chronic treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors; although most patients are left with residual impairment...
September 16, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611959/altered-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-striatum-in-parkinson-s-disease-after-levodopa-administration
#15
Wanqun Yang, Bin Liu, Biao Huang, Ruiwang Huang, Lijuan Wang, Yuhu Zhang, Xiong Zhang, Kai Wu
BACKGROUND: Despite improvement in motor symptoms, the effect of dopaminergic medications on cognition in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is less clear. The purpose of this study was to reveal levodopa-induced acute changes in the functional connectivity of the striatum in patients with PD compared with matched untreated patients and healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with PD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging both ON and OFF dopamine-replacement therapy on two consecutive days...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609824/pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-exacerbation-and-obstructive-hydrocephalus-a-case-report
#16
Aldrich Leung, Clare Bleakley, Adrian Loh, Kelly Saran, S Evelyn Stewart
We present the case of an 11 year-old boy with a previous history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), who experienced a dramatic and acute worsening of OCD symptoms in temporal association with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to a tectal low-grade glioma. Management and resolution of the hydrocephalus was temporally associated with an improvement in his OCD compulsion symptoms. The present case does not establish proof of cause and effect, but highlights potential multifactorial influences on OCD onset and clinical course...
September 8, 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603573/uncovering-cortico-striatal-correlates-of-cognitive-fatigue-in-pediatric-acquired-brain-disorder-evidence-from-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Nicholas P Ryan, Miriam H Beauchamp, Richard Beare, Lee Coleman, Michael Ditchfield, Michael Kean, Timothy J Silk, Sila Genc, Cathy Catroppa, Vicki A Anderson
Cognitive fatigue is among the most profound and disabling sequelae of pediatric acquired brain disorders, however the neural correlates of these symptoms in children remains unexplored. One hypothesis suggests that cognitive fatigue may arise from dysfunction of cortico-striatal networks (CSNs) implicated in effort output and outcome valuation. Using pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a model, this study investigated (i) the sub-acute effect of brain injury on CSN volume; and (ii) potential relationships between cognitive fatigue and sub-acute volumetric abnormalities of the CSN...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559306/sensory-entrainment-mechanisms-in-auditory-perception-neural-synchronization-cortico-striatal-activation
#18
REVIEW
Catia M Sameiro-Barbosa, Eveline Geiser
The auditory system displays modulations in sensitivity that can align with the temporal structure of the acoustic environment. This sensory entrainment can facilitate sensory perception and is particularly relevant for audition. Systems neuroscience is slowly uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying the behaviorally observed sensory entrainment effects in the human sensory system. The present article summarizes the prominent behavioral effects of sensory entrainment and reviews our current understanding of the neural basis of sensory entrainment, such as synchronized neural oscillations, and potentially, neural activation in the cortico-striatal system...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549605/can-neuroimaging-provide-reliable-biomarkers-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-narrative-review
#19
REVIEW
Ilana Frydman, Juliana B de Salles Andrade, Paula Vigne, Leonardo F Fontenelle
In this integrative review, we discuss findings supporting the use neuroimaging biomarkers in the diagnosis and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To do so, we have selected the most recent studies that attempted to identify the underlying pathogenic process associated with OCD and whether they provide useful information to predict clinical features, natural history or treatment responses. Studies using functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in OCD patients are generally supportive of an expanded version of the earlier cortico-striatal-thalamus-cortical (CSTC) model of OCD...
October 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546352/neural-changes-associated-to-procedural-learning-and-automatization-process-in-developmental-coordination-disorder-and-or-developmental-dyslexia
#20
Maëlle Biotteau, Patrice Péran, Nathalie Vayssière, Jessica Tallet, Jean-Michel Albaret, Yves Chaix
OBJECTIVE: Recent theories hypothesize that procedural learning may support the frequent overlap between neurodevelopmental disorders. The neural circuitry supporting procedural learning includes, among others, cortico-cerebellar and cortico-striatal loops. Alteration of these loops may account for the frequent comorbidity between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and Developmental Dyslexia (DD). The aim of our study was to investigate cerebral changes due to the learning and automatization of a sequence learning task in children with DD, or DCD, or both disorders...
August 12, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
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