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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125980/molecular-insights-into-cortico-striatal-miscommunications-in-huntington-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Matthew B Veldman, X William Yang
Huntington's disease (HD), a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease, is defined by its genetic cause, a CAG-repeat expansion in the HTT gene, its motor and psychiatric symptomology and primary loss of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). However, the molecular mechanisms from genetic lesion to disease phenotype remain largely unclear. Mouse models of HD have been created that exhibit phenotypes partially recapitulating those in the patient, and specifically, cortico-striatal disconnectivity appears to be a shared pathogenic event shared by HD mouse models and patients...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107639/cjun-n-terminal-kinase-jnk-mediates-cortico-striatal-signaling-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Giada Spigolon, Anna Cavaccini, Massimo Trusel, Raffaella Tonini, Gilberto Fisone
The cJun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been extensively studied with regard to its involvement in neurodegenerative processes, but little is known about its functions in neurotransmission. In a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD), we show that the pharmacological activation of dopamine D1 receptors (D1R) produces a large increase in JNK phosphorylation. This effect is secondary to dopamine depletion, and is restricted to the striatal projection neurons that innervate directly the output structures of the basal ganglia (dSPN)...
October 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094788/when-global-rule-reversal-meets-local-task-switching-the-neural-mechanisms-of-coordinated-behavioral-adaptation-to-instructed-multi-level-demand-changes
#3
Yiquan Shi, Uta Wolfensteller, Torsten Schubert, Hannes Ruge
Cognitive flexibility is essential to cope with changing task demands and often it is necessary to adapt to combined changes in a coordinated manner. The present fMRI study examined how the brain implements such multi-level adaptation processes. Specifically, on a "local," hierarchically lower level, switching between two tasks was required across trials while the rules of each task remained unchanged for blocks of trials. On a "global" level regarding blocks of twelve trials, the task rules could reverse or remain the same...
November 2, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094774/perinatal-maternal-depressive-symptoms-alter-amygdala-functional-connectivity-in-girls
#4
Ni Ni Soe, Daniel J Wen, Joann S Poh, Yap-Seng Chong, Birit Fp Broekman, Helen Chen, Lynette P Shek, Kok Hian Tan, Peter D Gluckman, Marielle V Fortier, Michael J Meaney, Anqi Qiu
Perinatal maternal depressive symptoms influence brain development of offspring. Such effects are particularly notable in the amygdala, a key structure involved in emotional processes. This study investigated whether the functional organization of the amygdala varies as a function of pre- and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms. The amygdala functional network was assessed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in 128 children at age of 4.4 to 4.8 years. Maternal depressive symptoms were obtained at 26 weeks of gestation, 3 months, 1, 2, 3, and 4...
November 2, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056983/glutamate-genetics-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-review
#5
Rageen Rajendram, Sefi Kronenberg, Christie L Burton, Paul D Arnold
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common and debilitating with patients exhibiting persistent intrusive thoughts (obsessions), repetitive ritualistic behaviours (compulsions) and anxiety. While it is known that OCD is highly heritable, the specific genetic risk factors for OCD are still largely unknown. The etiology of OCD has also not been fully elucidated but there is growing evidence that glutamate signaling dysfunction in the cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuitry plays a role in its pathogenesis...
2017: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042551/integrating-evolutionary-and-regulatory-information-with-a-multispecies-approach-implicates-genes-and-pathways-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
Hyun Ji Noh, Ruqi Tang, Jason Flannick, Colm O'Dushlaine, Ross Swofford, Daniel Howrigan, Diane P Genereux, Jeremy Johnson, Gerard van Grootheest, Edna Grünblatt, Erik Andersson, Diana R Djurfeldt, Paresh D Patel, Michele Koltookian, Christina M Hultman, Michele T Pato, Carlos N Pato, Steven A Rasmussen, Michael A Jenike, Gregory L Hanna, S Evelyn Stewart, James A Knowles, Stephan Ruhrmann, Hans-Jörgen Grabe, Michael Wagner, Christian Rück, Carol A Mathews, Susanne Walitza, Daniëlle C Cath, Guoping Feng, Elinor K Karlsson, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a severe psychiatric disorder linked to abnormalities in glutamate signaling and the cortico-striatal circuit. We sequenced coding and regulatory elements for 608 genes potentially involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder in human, dog, and mouse. Using a new method that prioritizes likely functional variants, we compared 592 cases to 560 controls and found four strongly associated genes, validated in a larger cohort. NRXN1 and HTR2A are enriched for coding variants altering postsynaptic protein-binding domains...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031764/combined-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-patients-with-idiopathic-restless-legs-syndrome
#7
Yaoyao Zhuo, Yuncheng Wu, Yanhong Xu, Lunbo Lu, Ting Li, Xifu Wang, Kangan Li
OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs along with paraesthesia deep within them. In this study, we aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) to investigate the changes in regional spontaneous brain activity change for RLS patients against age- and gender-matched normal control (NC) subjects. METHODS: A total of 35 RLS patients and 27 age- and gender-matched NC subjects were recruited for group comparison research that used DTI and ReHo techniques...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992533/neural-correlates-of-affective-and-non-affective-cognition-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-imaging-studies
#8
A Rasgon, W H Lee, E Leibu, A Laird, D Glahn, W Goodman, S Frangou
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualistic behaviors and has been associated with diverse functional brain abnormalities. We sought to synthesize current evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and examine their alignment to pathogenetic models of OCD. Following systematic review, we identified 54 task-fMRI studies published in the last decade comparing adults with OCD (n=1186) to healthy adults (n=1159) using tasks of affective and non-affective cognition...
September 1, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950396/role-of-glutamatergic-system-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-with-possible-therapeutic-implications
#9
Přemysl Vlček, Jakub Polák, Martin Brunovský, Jiří Horáček
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric illness and 1 of the most common anxiety disorders with the prevalence of 3%. Although its pathogenesis remains unclear, the traditional model focused on alternations in the serotonin system. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors provide the most effective treatment; however, as much as 40-60% of patients do not respond to antidepressants therapy. Thus, attention has shifted towards other neurotransmitter systems and related neuroanatomical structures...
September 26, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940848/executive-function-and-functional-and-structural-brain-differences-in-middle-age-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
B Blair Braden, Christopher J Smith, Amiee Thompson, Tyler K Glaspy, Emily Wood, Divya Vatsa, Angela E Abbott, Samuel C McGee, Leslie C Baxter
There is a rapidly growing group of aging adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who may have unique needs, yet cognitive and brain function in older adults with ASD is understudied. We combined functional and structural neuroimaging and neuropsychological tests to examine differences between middle-aged men with ASD and matched neurotypical (NT) men. Participants (ASD, n = 16; NT, n = 17) aged 40-64 years were well-matched according to age, IQ (range: 83-131), and education (range: 9-20 years)...
September 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872637/mechanisms-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-involve-robust-and-extensive-increases-in-brain-network-connectivity
#11
T D Moody, F Morfini, G Cheng, C Sheen, R Tadayonnejad, N Reggente, J O'Neill, J D Feusner
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD); however, little is understood about its mechanisms related to brain network connectivity. We examined connectivity changes from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data pre-to-post-CBT in 43 OCD participants, randomized to receive either 4 weeks of intensive CBT or 4 weeks waitlist followed by 4 weeks of CBT, and 24 healthy controls before and after 4 weeks of no treatment. Network-based-statistic analysis revealed large-magnitude increases in OCD connectivity in eight networks...
September 5, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859339/pathologic-involvement-of-glutamatergic-striatal-inputs-from-the-cortices-in-tar-dna-binding-protein-43%C3%A2-kda-related-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-and-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#12
Yuichi Riku, Hirohisa Watanabe, Mari Yoshida, Maya Mimuro, Yasushi Iwasaki, Michihito Masuda, Shinsuke Ishigaki, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
In frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), recent studies have presumed relationships between cognitive declines and striatal dysfunctions. The striatum contributes to socio-cognitive functions by receiving glutamatergic inputs from the cerebral cortices. However, the vulnerability of these cortico-striatal inputs is unclear in these diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the glutamatergic inputs to the striatum from the cerebral cortices in patients with sporadic TDP-43-related FTLD (FTLD-TDP) and ALS (ALS-TDP)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842862/neurotoxicity-of-the-cyanotoxin-bmaa-through-axonal-degeneration-and-intercellular-spreading
#13
Vanessa X Tan, Benjamin Lassus, Chai K Lim, Philippe Tixador, Josquin Courte, Alban Bessede, Gilles J Guillemin, Jean-Michel Peyrin
β-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is implicated in neurodegeneration and neurotoxicity, particularly in ALS-Parkinson Dementia Complex. Neurotoxic properties of BMAA have been partly elucidated, while its transcellular spreading capacity has not been examined. Using reconstructed neuronal networks in microfluidic chips, separating neuronal cells into two subcompartments-(1) the proximal, containing first-order neuronal soma and dendrites, and (2) a distal compartment, containing either only axons originating from first-order neurons or second-order striatal neurons-creates a cortico-striatal network...
August 25, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790376/global-and-local-excitation-and-inhibition-shape-the-dynamics-of-the-cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical-pathway
#14
Anca Rădulescu, Joanna Herron, Caitlin Kennedy, Annalisa Scimemi
The cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) pathway is a brain circuit that controls movement execution, habit formation and reward. Hyperactivity in the CSTC pathway is involved in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the execution of repetitive involuntary movements. The striatum shapes the activity of the CSTC pathway through the coordinated activation of two classes of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing D1 or D2 dopamine receptors. The exact mechanisms by which balanced excitation/inhibition (E/I) of these cells controls the network dynamics of the CSTC pathway remain unclear...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763063/aripiprazole-and-riluzole-treatment-alters-behavior-and-neurometabolites-in-young-adhd-rats-a-longitudinal-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy-study-at-11-7t
#15
F Rizzo, A Abaei, E Nespoli, J M Fegert, B Hengerer, V Rasche, T M Boeckers
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette syndrome (TS) as well as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are co-occurring neurodevelopmental diseases that share alterations of frontocortical neurometabolites. In this longitudinal study we investigated the behavioral and neurochemical effects of aripiprazole and riluzole treatment in juvenile spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a model for ADHD. For neurochemical analysis we employed in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Spectra from voxels located at the central striatum and prefrontal cortex were acquired postnatally from day 35 to 50...
August 1, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760866/learning-predictive-statistics-strategies-and-brain-mechanisms
#16
Rui Wang, Yuan Shen, Peter Tino, Andrew E Welchman, Zoe Kourtzi
When immersed in a new environment, we are challenged to decipher initially incomprehensible streams of sensory information. However, quite rapidly, the brain finds structure and meaning in these incoming signals, helping us to predict and prepare ourselves for future actions. This skill relies on extracting the statistics of event streams in the environment that contain regularities of variable complexity from simple repetitive patterns to complex probabilistic combinations. Here, we test the brain mechanisms that mediate our ability to adapt to the environment's statistics and predict upcoming events...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736307/local-striatal-reward-signals-can-be-predicted-from-corticostriatal-connectivity
#17
Peter Smittenaar, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Siawoosh Mohammadi, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Raymond J Dolan
A defining feature of the basal ganglia is their anatomical organization into multiple cortico-striatal loops. A central tenet of this architecture is the idea that local striatal function is determined by its precise connectivity with cortex, creating a functional topography that is mirrored within cortex and striatum. Here we formally test this idea using both human anatomical and functional imaging, specifically asking whether within striatal subregions one can predict between-voxel differences in functional signals based on between-voxel differences in corticostriatal connectivity...
July 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716966/hierarchically-organized-medial-frontal-cortex-basal-ganglia-loops-selectively-control-task-and-response-selection
#18
Franziska M Korb, Jiefeng Jiang, Joseph A King, Tobias Egner
Adaptive behavior requires context-sensitive configuration of task-sets that specify time-varying stimulus-response mappings. Intriguingly, response time costs associated with changing task-sets and motor responses are known to be strongly interactive: switch costs at the task level are small in the presence of a response-switch but large when accompanied by a response-repetition, and vice versa for response-switch costs. The reasons behind this well known interdependence between task- and response-level control processes are currently not well understood...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716961/structural-basis-of-large-scale-functional-connectivity-in-the-mouse
#19
Joanes Grandjean, Valerio Zerbi, Joshua Henk Balsters, Nicole Wenderoth, Markus Rudin
Translational neuroimaging requires approaches and techniques that can bridge between multiple different species and disease states. One candidate method that offers insights into the brain's functional connectivity (FC) is resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). In both humans and nonhuman primates, patterns of FC (often referred to as the functional connectome) have been related to the underlying structural connectivity (SC; also called the structural connectome). Given the recent rise in preclinical neuroimaging of mouse models, it is an important question whether the mouse functional connectome conforms to the underlying SC...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683266/disrupted-prefrontal-regulation-of-striatal-subjective-value-signals-in-psychopathy
#20
Jay G Hosking, Erik K Kastman, Hayley M Dorfman, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin, Arielle Baskin-Sommers, Kent A Kiehl, Joseph P Newman, Joshua W Buckholtz
Psychopathy is a personality disorder with strong links to criminal behavior. While research on psychopathy has focused largely on socio-affective dysfunction, recent data suggest that aberrant decision making may also play an important role. Yet, the circuit-level mechanisms underlying maladaptive decision making in psychopathy remain unclear. Here, we used a multi-modality functional imaging approach to identify these mechanisms in a population of adult male incarcerated offenders. Psychopathy was associated with stronger subjective value-related activity within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) during inter-temporal choice and with weaker intrinsic functional connectivity between NAcc and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
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