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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188914/connectivity-based-parcellation-reveals-distinct-cortico-striatal-connectivity-fingerprints-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Joshua H Balsters, Dante Mantini, Nicole Wenderoth
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been associated with abnormal synaptic development causing a breakdown in functional connectivity. However, when measured at the macro scale using resting state fMRI, these alterations are subtle and often difficult to detect due to the large heterogeneity of the pathology. Recently, we outlined a novel approach for generating robust biomarkers of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) using connectivity based parcellation of gross morphological structures to improve single-subject reproducibility and generate more robust connectivity fingerprints...
February 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180070/disrupted-functional-connectivity-of-striatal-sub-regions-in-bell-s-palsy-patients
#2
Wenwen Song, Zhijian Cao, Courtney Lang, Minhui Dai, Lihua Xuan, Kun Lv, Fangyuan Cui, Kristen Jorgenson, Maosheng Xu, Jian Kong
The striatum plays an important role in controlling motor function in humans, and its degeneration has the ability to cause severe motor disorders. More specifically, previous studies have demonstrated a disruption in the connectivity of the cortico-striatal loop in patients suffering from motor disorders caused by dopamine dysregulation, such as Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about striatal functional connectivity in patients with motor dysfunction not caused by dopamine dysregulation. In this study, we used early-state Bell's palsy (BP) patients (within 14 days of onset) to investigate how functional connectivity between the striatum and motor cortex is affected by peripheral nerve injury in which the dopamine system remains fully functional...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167224/hypercholesterolemia-causes-psychomotor-abnormalities-in-mice-and-alterations-in-cortico-striatal-biogenic-amine-neurotransmitters-relevance-to-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Rajib Paul, Amarendranath Choudhury, Dulal Chandra Boruah, Rajlakshmi Devi, Pallab Bhattacharya, Manabendra Dutta Choudhury, Anupom Borah
The symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) include motor behavioral abnormalities, which appear as a result of the extensive loss of the striatal biogenic amine, dopamine. Various endogenous molecules, including cholesterol, have been put forward as putative contributors in the pathogenesis of PD. Earlier reports have provided a strong link between the elevated level of plasma cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) and onset of PD. However, the role of hypercholesterolemia on brain functions in terms of neurotransmitter metabolism and associated behavioral manifestations remain elusive...
February 3, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154968/unilateral-lesions-of-the-dorsocentral-striatum-dcs-disrupt-spatial-and-temporal-characteristics-of-food-protection-behavior
#4
Philip A Blankenship, Joseph L Cheatwood, Douglas G Wallace
Spatial and temporal information processing provide a foundation for higher cognitive functions. The survival of animals depends on integrating spatial and temporal information to organize behavior. In general, previous research has focused on only one source of information processing; however, there is evidence to support a convergence in the processing of egocentric-spatial and temporal information within a cortico-striatal system of structures. The current study evaluated the contributions of the dorsocentral striatum (DCS) to egocentric-spatial and temporal (within the seconds-to-minutes range) processing of information using a food protection task...
February 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126056/alterations-of-gray-and-white-matter-morphology-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Oscar F Gonçalves, Sonia Sousa, Sandra Carvalho, Jorge Leite, Ana Ganho, Ana Fernandes-Gonçalves, Fernando Pocinho, Angel Carracedo, Adriana Sampaio
BACKGROUND: While the ethio-pathogenesis of Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD) remains unknown, there is increased evidence of widespread structural alterations in both white and gray matter in OCD patients that include, but are not restricted, to abnormalities in cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) regions. The objective of this study was to test the existence of structural alterations in both white and gray matter in a sample of OCD patients when compared with a group of non-clinical matched controls (NCC), using voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119136/gabaergic-effect-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity-dynamics-under-pharmacological-antagonism
#6
Fatima A Nasrallah, Kavita Kaur D/O Ranjit Singh, Ling Yun Yeow, Kai-Hsiang Chuang
Resting state functional connectivity MRI measures synchronous activity among brain regions although the mechanisms governing the temporally coherent BOLD signals remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels are correlated with functional connectivity. To understand whether changes in GABA transmission alter functional connectivity, we modulated the GABAergic activity by a GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline. Resting and evoked electrophysiology and BOLD signals were measured in isoflurane-anesthetized rats under infusion of low-dose bicuculline or vehicle individually...
January 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116232/changes-in-functional-organization-and-white-matter-integrity-in-the-connectome-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Sule Tinaz, Peter M Lauro, Pritha Ghosh, Codrin Lungu, Silvina G Horovitz
Parkinson's disease (PD) leads to dysfunction in multiple cortico-striatal circuits. The neurodegeneration has also been associated with impaired white matter integrity. This structural and functional "disconnection" in PD needs further characterization. We investigated the structural and functional organization of the PD whole brain connectome consisting of 200 nodes using diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional MRI, respectively. Data from 20 non-demented PD patients on dopaminergic medication and 20 matched controls were analyzed using graph theory-based methods...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107446/amygdala-atrophy-and-its-functional-disconnection-with-the-cortico-striatal-pallidal-thalamic-circuit-in-major-depressive-disorder-in-females
#8
Jie Yang, Yingying Yin, Connie Svob, Jun Long, Xiaofu He, Yuqun Zhang, Zhi Xu, Lei Li, Jie Liu, Jian Dong, Zuping Zhang, Zhishun Wang, Yonggui Yuan
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is approximately twice as common in females than males. Furthermore, female patients with MDD tend to manifest comorbid anxiety. Few studies have explored the potential anatomical and functional brain changes associated with MDD in females. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the anatomical and functional changes underlying MDD in females, especially within the context of comorbid anxiety. METHODS: In this study, we recruited antidepressant-free females with MDD (N = 35) and healthy female controls (HC; N = 23)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103527/distinct-cortico-striatal-connections-with-subthalamic-nucleus-underlie-facets-of-compulsivity
#9
Laurel S Morris, Kwangyeol Baek, Valerie Voon
The capacity to flexibly respond to contextual changes is crucial to adapting to a dynamic environment. Compulsivity, or behavioural inflexibility, consists of heterogeneous subtypes with overlapping yet discrete neural substrates. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) mediates the switch from automatic to controlled processing to slow, break or stop behaviour when necessary. Rodent STN lesions or inactivation are linked with perseveration or repetitive, compulsive responding. However, there are few studies examining the role of latent STN-centric neural networks and compulsive behaviour in healthy individuals...
March 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089321/a-single-session-of-prefrontal-cortex-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-does-not-modulate-implicit-task-sequence-learning-and%C3%A2-consolidation
#10
Branislav Savic, René Müri, Beat Meier
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is assumed to affect cortical excitability and dependent on the specific stimulation conditions either to increase or decrease learning. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to modulate implicit task sequence learning with tDCS. METHODS: As cortico-striatal loops are critically involved in implicit task sequence learning, tDCS was applied above the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
January 4, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072701/pathophysiology-of-refractory-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-study-of-visual-search-combined-with-overactive-performance-monitoring
#11
Qingxiao Liu, Bo Tan, Jing Zhou, Zhong Zheng, Ling Li, Yanchun Yang
Based on both functional and structural studies of excessive activity, fronto-striatal-thalamic-cortical and cortico-striatal circuits have been hypothesized to underlie the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the neurobiological underpinnings of OCD refractory to medication and therapy remain controversial. This study aimed to evaluate neuroanatomical abnormalities of the whole brain and to evaluate visual processing in patients with refractory OCD.This study was comprised of 2 experiments...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070119/ocd-like-behavior-is-caused-by-dysfunction-of-thalamo-amygdala-circuits-and-upregulated-trkb-erk-mapk-signaling-as-a-result-of-spred2-deficiency
#12
M Ullrich, M Weber, A M Post, S Popp, J Grein, M Zechner, H Guerrero González, A Kreis, A G Schmitt, N Üçeyler, K-P Lesch, K Schuh
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disease affecting about 2% of the general population. It is characterized by persistent intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualized behaviors. While gene variations, malfunction of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits, and dysregulated synaptic transmission have been implicated in the pathogenesis of OCD, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we show that OCD-like behavior in mice is caused by deficiency of SPRED2, a protein expressed in various brain regions and a potent inhibitor of Ras/ERK-MAPK signaling...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067224/updating-temporal-expectancy-of-an-aversive-event-engages-striatal-plasticity-under-amygdala-control
#13
Glenn Dallérac, Michael Graupner, Jeroen Knippenberg, Raquel Chacon Ruiz Martinez, Tatiane Ferreira Tavares, Lucille Tallot, Nicole El Massioui, Anna Verschueren, Sophie Höhn, Julie Boulanger Bertolus, Alex Reyes, Joseph E LeDoux, Glenn E Schafe, Lorenzo Diaz-Mataix, Valérie Doyère
Pavlovian aversive conditioning requires learning of the association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned, aversive stimulus (US) but also involves encoding the time interval between the two stimuli. The neurobiological bases of this time interval learning are unknown. Here, we show that in rats, the dorsal striatum and basal amygdala belong to a common functional network underlying temporal expectancy and learning of a CS-US interval. Importantly, changes in coherence between striatum and amygdala local field potentials (LFPs) were found to couple these structures during interval estimation within the lower range of the theta rhythm (3-6 Hz)...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062203/semi-mechanistic-computer-simulation-of-psychotic-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-with-a-model-of-a-humanized-cortico-striatal-thalamocortical-loop
#14
Athan Spiros, Patrick Roberts, Hugo Geerts
Despite new insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and clinical trials with highly selective drugs, no new therapeutic breakthroughs have been identified. We present a semi-mechanistic Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) computer model of a biophysically realistic cortical-striatal-thalamo-cortical loop. The model incorporates the direct, indirect and hyperdirect pathway of the basal ganglia and CNS drug targets that modulate neuronal firing, based on preclinical data about their localization and coupling to voltage-gated ion channels...
February 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057534/altered-fronto-striatal-functions-in-the-gdi1-null-mouse-model-of-x-linked-intellectual-disability
#15
Lorenzo Morè, Basil Künnecke, Latefa Yekhlef, Andreas Bruns, Antonella Marte, Ernesto Fedele, Veronica Bianchi, Stefano Taverna, Silvia Gatti, Patrizia D'Adamo
RAB-GDP dissociation inhibitor 1 (GDI1) loss-of-function mutations are responsible for a form of non-specific X-linked Intellectual Disability (XLID) where the only clinical feature is cognitive impairment. GDI1 patients are impaired in specific aspects of executive functions and conditioned response, which are controlled by fronto-striatal circuitries. Previous molecular and behavioral characterization of the Gdi1-null mouse revealed alterations in the total number/distribution of hippocampal and cortical synaptic vesicles as well as hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity, and memory deficits...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046822/su-f-i-17-white-matter-track-based-analysis-at-limbic-abnormalities-in-cognitive-impairment
#16
R Juh, T Suh, J Han, C Kim, C Oh
PURPOSE: Mild cognitive impairment with depression (MCID) is common and associated with disability and cognitive impairment, with high probability of relapse. Hypothesize that a sign of WM disintegration would be observed in MCID than MCI nondepression (MCIND), especially in frontal and limbic regions and patients with depression would show reduced GM density in the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior gyrus cingulate, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) the abnormalities of long association fiber tracts integrity are correlated with geriatric depression...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018194/cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-relationships-between-depressive-symptoms-and-brain-atrophy-in-ms-patients
#17
Heiner Stuke, Katrin Hanken, Jochen Hirsch, Jan Klein, Fabian Wittig, Andreas Kastrup, Helmut Hildebrandt
Introduction: Depressive symptoms are a frequent and distressing phenomenon in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. Cross-sectional research links these symptoms to reduced brain gray matter volumes in parts of the prefrontal and temporal lobe as well as subcortical structures like the hippocampus, nucleus caudatus and globus pallidus. Nevertheless, prospective relationships between regional gray matter volume and the course of depressive symptoms are poorly understood. Methods: Forty-four patients with relapsing-remitting or secondary progressive MS participated in a prospective study with two assessments of depressive symptoms and high-resolution MRI with an inter-test-interval of 17 months...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007584/neurogenesis-upregulation-on-the-healthy-hemisphere-after-stroke-enhances-compensation-for-age-dependent-decrease-of-basal-neurogenesis
#18
Joanna Adamczak, Markus Aswendt, Christina Kreutzer, Peter Rotheneichner, Adrien Riou, Marion Selt, Andreas Beyrau, Ulla Uhlenküken, Michael Diedenhofen, Melanie Nelles, Ludwig Aigner, Sebastien Couillard-Despres, Mathias Hoehn
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide with no treatment for the chronic phase available. Interestingly, an endogenous repair program comprising inflammation and neurogenesis is known to modulate stroke outcome. Several studies have shown that neurogenesis decreases with age but the therapeutic importance of endogenous neurogenesis for recovery from cerebral diseases has been indicated as its ablation leads to stroke aggravation and worsened outcome. A detailed characterization of the neurogenic response after stroke related to ageing would help to develop novel and targeted therapies...
December 20, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987329/fetal-alcohol-exposure-alters-blood-flow-and-neurological-responses-to-transient-cerebral-ischemia-in-adult-mice
#19
Shameena Bake, Rachel Gardner, Joseph D Tingling, Rajesh C Miranda, Farida Sohrabji
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in physical and neurocognitive deficits that are collectively termed "fetal alcohol spectrum disorders" (FASD). Although FASD is associated with lifelong intellectual disability, the mechanisms mediating the emergence of secondary mental health and physical disabilities are poorly understood. Based on our previous data showing that maternal ethanol (EtOH) exposure in mice resulted in an immediate reduction in cranially directed fetal blood flow, we hypothesized that such exposure would also result in persistent alterations in cranially directed blood flow in the prenatally alcohol-exposed (PAE) adult...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932974/patterns-of-longitudinal-neural-activity-linked-to-different-cognitive-profiles-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Atsuko Nagano-Saito, Mohamed S Al-Azzawi, Alexandru Hanganu, Clotilde Degroot, Béatriz Mejia-Constain, Christophe Bedetti, Anne-Louise Lafontaine, Valérie Soland, Sylvain Chouinard, Oury Monchi
Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked with functional brain changes. Previously, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we reported reduced cortico-striatal activity in patients with PD who also had mild cognitive impairment (MCI) vs. those who did not (non-MCI). We followed up these patients to investigate the longitudinal effect on the neural activity. Twenty-four non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (non-MCI: 12, MCI: 12) were included in the study. Each participant underwent two fMRIs while performing the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task 20 months apart...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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