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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350907/excitatory-and-inhibitory-neuronal-circuits-in-the-spinal-cord-and-their-role-in-the-control-of-motor-neuron-function-and-degeneration
#1
Uri Nimrod Ramírez-Jarquín, Ricardo Tapia
The complex neuronal networks of the spinal cord coordinate a wide variety of motor functions, including walking, running and voluntary and involuntary movements. This is accomplished by different groups of neurons, called center pattern generators, which control left-right alternation and flexor-extensor patterns. These spinal circuits, located in the ventral horns, are formed by several neuronal types, and the specific function of most of them has been identified by means of studies in vivo and in the isolated spinal cord of mice harboring genetically induced ablation of specific neuronal populations...
January 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350554/quadriceps-neuromuscular-function-and-jump-landing-sagittal-plane-knee-biomechanics-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#2
Sarah H Ward, Troy Blackburn, Darin A Padua, Laura E Stanley, Matthew S Harkey, Brittney A Luc-Harkey, Brian G Pietrosimone
CONTEXT:   Aberrant biomechanics may affect force attenuation at the knee during dynamic activities, potentially increasing the risk of sustaining a knee injury or hastening the development of osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Impaired quadriceps neuromuscular function has been hypothesized to influence the development of aberrant biomechanics. OBJECTIVE:   To determine the association between quadriceps neuromuscular function (strength, voluntary activation, and spinal-reflex and corticomotor excitability) and sagittal-plane knee biomechanics during jump landings in individuals with ACLR...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346370/structure-function-and-control-of-the-human-musculoskeletal-network
#3
Andrew C Murphy, Sarah F Muldoon, David Baker, Adam Lastowka, Brittany Bennett, Muzhi Yang, Danielle S Bassett
The human body is a complex organism, the gross mechanical properties of which are enabled by an interconnected musculoskeletal network controlled by the nervous system. The nature of musculoskeletal interconnection facilitates stability, voluntary movement, and robustness to injury. However, a fundamental understanding of this network and its control by neural systems has remained elusive. Here we address this gap in knowledge by utilizing medical databases and mathematical modeling to reveal the organizational structure, predicted function, and neural control of the musculoskeletal system...
January 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339983/analysis-of-the-hamstring-muscle-activation-during-two-injury-prevention-exercises
#4
Alireza Monajati, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Mark Goss-Sampson, Fernando Naclerio
The aim of this study was to perform an electromyographic and kinetic comparison of two commonly used hamstring eccentric strengthening exercises: Nordic Curl and Ball Leg Curl. After determining the maximum isometric voluntary contraction of the knee flexors, ten female athletes performed 3 repetitions of both the Nordic Curl and Ball Leg Curl, while knee angular displacement and electromyografic activity of the biceps femoris and semitendinosus were monitored. No significant differences were found between biceps femoris and semitendinosus activation in both the Nordic Curl and Ball Leg Curl...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333727/the-relation-between-maximal-voluntary-force-in-m-palmaris-longus-and-the-temporal-and-spatial-summation-of-muscle-fiber-recruitment-in-human-subjects
#5
Cécyl G Claudel, Waqas Ahmed, Vibeke S Elbrønd, Adrian P Harrison, Else Marie Bartels
This study aimed at looking at the frequency (T-score) and the amplitude (S-score) of fiber use during contraction of a forearm muscle, m. palmaris longus, as measured by acoustic myography (AMG). An additional aim was to relate the T- and S-scores to the recorded force obtained from a hand dynamometer. The hypothesis being that temporal and spatial summation of muscle fiber contraction in a given muscle during a given movement, can together describe a given obtained force. Force measurements were carried out on 12 healthy human subjects aged 19-68 years (6 men & 6 women), while their m...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328985/standing-on-a-sliding-board-affects-generation-of-anticipatory-and-compensatory-postural-adjustments
#6
Bing Chen, Yun-Ju Lee, Alexander S Aruin
Postural control is compromised in the presence of body instability. We studied anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments people use to maintain balance while standing on an unstable surface and performing voluntary arm movements. Nine healthy participants stood on a sliding board (that was either locked and as such motionless or unlocked and as such free to move in the anterior-posterior direction) and performed fast bilateral arms flexion. Arm acceleration, bilateral electromyographic activity (EMG) of the trunk and lower extremity muscles and center of pressure (COP) displacements were recorded and analyzed within the intervals typical for the anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) postural adjustments...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327170/the-effects-of-a-single-session-of-spinal-manipulation-on-strength-and-cortical-drive-in-athletes
#7
Thomas Lykke Christiansen, Imran Khan Niazi, Kelly Holt, Rasmus Wiberg Nedergaard, Jens Duehr, Kathryn Allen, Paul Marshall, Kemal S Türker, Jan Hartvigsen, Heidi Haavik
PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether a single session of spinal manipulation (SM) increases strength and cortical drive in the lower limb (soleus muscle) of elite Taekwondo athletes. METHODS: Soleus-evoked V-waves, H-reflex and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the plantar flexors were recorded from 11 elite Taekwondo athletes using a randomized controlled crossover design. Interventions were either SM or passive movement control...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327097/-clinical-and-cognitive-aspects-of-functional-psychogenic-tremor
#8
REVIEW
K E Zeuner, R Schmidt, P Schwingenschuh
Functional (psychogenic) tremor is the most common functional movement disorder. Characteristic clinical features, so called red flags, can help to make the clinical distinction of this type from other tremor disorders. The most common features include the variability of frequency and amplitude. Clinical examination should include different types of distraction including motor or cognitive tasks or testing the influence of suggestibility on tremor amplitude, frequency or direction. Patients often report sudden onset and remissions that may last for months or even years...
January 11, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314192/parvalbumin-producing-striatal-interneurons-receive-excitatory-inputs-onto-proximal-dendrites-from-the-motor-thalamus-in-male-mice
#9
Yasutake Nakano, Fuyuki Karube, Yasuharu Hirai, Kenta Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Hioki, Shinichiro Okamoto, Hiroshi Kameda, Fumino Fujiyama
In rodents, the dorsolateral striatum regulates voluntary movement by integrating excitatory inputs from the motor-related cerebral cortex and thalamus to produce contingent inhibitory output to other basal ganglia nuclei. Striatal parvalbumin (PV)-producing interneurons receiving this excitatory input then inhibit medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and modify their outputs. To understand basal ganglia function in motor control, it is important to reveal the precise synaptic organization of motor-related cortical and thalamic inputs to striatal PV interneurons...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310506/neuronal-activity-organization-features-in-human-consciousness-summary-of-introductory-remarks-in-a-dialogue-with-neurological-surgery-residents
#10
Cristian L Vera, Sunil J Patel, Fraser C Henderson, Donna R Roberts, Vibhor Krishna
Agreeing with Damasio's statement defining the "process" of consciousness, we propose the self as created by mind-based knowledge and a combination of images of an organism's intentional motor responses interacting with its environment. The lemniscal system, with plastic capabilities, manages gravity in voluntary movement. The spinal segment motor reflex represents the schema of gravity-managing neuronal activity, and it can become "nested" in cortical areas participating in consciousness-building, allowing consideration of the brain as a hyper-evolved nervous system segment harboring atavic spinal organization...
January 9, 2018: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305917/motor-imagery-of-voluntary-muscle-relaxation-of-the-foot-induces-a-temporal-reduction-of-corticospinal-excitability-in-the-hand
#11
Kouki Kato, Kazuyuki Kanosue
The object of this study was to clarify how the motor imagery of foot muscle relaxation influences corticospinal excitability for the ipsilateral hand. Twelve participants volitionally relaxed their right foot from a dorsiflexed position (actual relaxation), or imaged the same movement (imagery relaxation) in response to an auditory cue. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the hand area of the left primary motor cortex at different time intervals after an auditory cue. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR)...
January 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304419/abnormal-somatosensory-temporal-discrimination-in-parkinson-s-disease-pathophysiological-correlates-and-role-in-motor-control-deficits
#12
Myung Sik Lee, Myung Jun Lee, Antonella Conte, Alfredo Berardelli
OBJECTIVE: The somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT), defined as the shortest time interval required for two tactile stimuli to be perceived as separate, is longer in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review, we discuss STDT findings in healthy subjects and in PD patients and the relationship between altered STDT and motor disturbances. METHODS: A search was conducted on PubMed for papers dealing with PD and temporal discrimination published from January 1990 to July 2017...
December 13, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301545/personalized-upper-limb-training-combined-with-anodal-tdcs-for-sensorimotor-recovery-in-spastic-hemiparesis-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Mindy F Levin, Melanie C Baniña, Silvi Frenkel-Toledo, Sigal Berman, Nachum Soroker, John M Solomon, Dario G Liebermann
BACKGROUND: Recovery of voluntary movement is a main rehabilitation goal. Efforts to identify effective upper limb (UL) interventions after stroke have been unsatisfactory. This study includes personalized impairment-based UL reaching training in virtual reality (VR) combined with non-invasive brain stimulation to enhance motor learning. The approach is guided by limiting reaching training to the angular zone in which active control is preserved ("active control zone") after identification of a "spasticity zone"...
January 4, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295486/adaptive-deep-brain-stimulation-adbs-for-tourette-syndrome
#14
Sara Marceglia, Manuela Rosa, Domenico Servello, Mauro Porta, Sergio Barbieri, Elena Moro, Alberto Priori
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a novel therapy for the treatment of several movement and neuropsychiatric disorders, and may also be suitable for the treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS). The main DBS targets used to date in patients with TS are located within the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit involved in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. They include the ventralis oralis/centromedian-parafascicular (Vo/CM-Pf) nucleus of the thalamus and the nucleus accumbens. Current DBS treatments deliver continuous electrical stimulation and are not designed to adapt to the patient's symptoms, thereby contributing to unwanted side effects...
December 23, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290418/effect-of-high-intensity-perturbations-during-core-specific-sensorimotor-exercises-on-trunk-muscle-activation
#15
Juliane Mueller, Miralem Hadzic, Hendrik Mugele, Josefine Stoll, Steffen Mueller, Frank Mayer
Core-specific sensorimotor exercises are proven to enhance neuromuscular activity of the trunk. However, the influence of high-intensity perturbations on training efficiency is unclear within this context. Sixteen participants (29±2yrs; 175±8cm; 69±13kg) were prepared with a 12-lead bilateral trunk EMG. Warm-up on a dynamometer was followed by maximum voluntary isometric trunk (flex/ext) contraction (MVC). Next, participants performed four conditions for a one-legged stance with hip abduction on a stable surface (HA) repeated randomly on an unstable surface (HAP), on a stable surface with perturbation (HA+P), and on an unstable surface with perturbation (HAP+P)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282340/-from-involuntary-movements-to-movement-disorders
#16
Toshio Fukutake
Apart from the term 'involuntary movements', the term 'movement disorders' encompasses not only classical hyperkinesias but also hypokinesias including catalepsy or apraxia. It enables us to understand abnormal movements by their phenomena instead of by their localization. To advance the grasping of movement disorders, we discuss the clinical and pathophysiological features of abnormal movements in catatonia/catalepsy, anti-NMDAR encephalitis, paroxysmal dyskinesias, stiff person/leg syndrome, corticobasal degeneration/syndrome, and hysteria...
December 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273534/altered-functional-connectivity-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-during-self-initiated-movement-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Qian Jia, Linlin Gao, Jiarong Zhang, Tao Wu, Piu Chan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have difficulty performing self-initiated movements. The neural mechanism of this deficiency remains unclear. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the functional connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during self-initiated movement in patients with PD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: fMRI were acquired from patients with PD and age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects during a self-initiated right hand tapping task...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249987/imbalances-in-the-development-of-muscle-and-tendon-as-risk-factor-for-tendinopathies-in-youth-athletes-a-review-of-current-evidence-and-concepts-of-prevention
#18
REVIEW
Falk Mersmann, Sebastian Bohm, Adamantios Arampatzis
Tendons feature the crucial role to transmit the forces exerted by the muscles to the skeleton. Thus, an increase of the force generating capacity of a muscle needs to go in line with a corresponding modulation of the mechanical properties of the associated tendon to avoid potential harm to the integrity of the tendinous tissue. However, as summarized in the present narrative review, muscle and tendon differ with regard to both the time course of adaptation to mechanical loading as well as the responsiveness to certain types of mechanical stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246606/sensory-training-with-vibration-induced-kinesthetic-illusions-improves-proprioceptive-integration-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Edith Ribot-Ciscar, Jean-Marc Aimonetti, Jean-Philippe Azulay
The present study investigates whether proprioceptive training, based on kinesthetic illusions, can help in re-educating the processing of muscle proprioceptive input, which is impaired in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The processing of proprioceptive input before and after training was evaluated by determining the error in the amplitude of voluntary dorsiflexion ankle movement (20°), induced by applying a vibration on the tendon of the gastrocnemius-soleus muscle (a vibration-induced movement error)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242009/tendon-displacements-during-voluntary-and-involuntary-finger-movements
#20
Nathalie van Beek, Kaj Gijsbertse, Ruud Selles, Chris L de Korte, DirkJan H E J Veeger, Dick F Stegeman, Huub Maas
In the human hand, independent movement control of individual fingers is limited. One potential cause for this is mechanical connections between the tendons and muscle bellies corresponding to the different fingers. The aim of this study was to determine the tendon displacement of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) of both the instructed and the neighboring, non-instructed fingers during single finger flexion movements. In nine healthy subjects (age 22-29 years), instructed and non-instructed FDS finger tendon displacement of the index, middle and ring finger was measured using 2D ultrasound analyzed with speckle tracking software in two conditions: active flexion of all finger joints with all fingers free to move and active flexion while the non-instructed fingers were restricted...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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