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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909885/kinematics-and-muscle-activation-patterns-during-a-maximal-voluntary-rate-activity-in-healthy-elderly-and-young-adults
#1
Eva Chadnova, Nancy St-Onge, Richard Courtemanche, Robert D Kilgour
BACKGROUND: Maximal voluntary rate (MVR) performance tasks can provide important age-related information to the limiting factors associated with movement and the development of fatigue. AIM: To determine whether kinematic and muscle activation patterns during an MVR task differ between young and older adults. METHODS: We continuously measured frequency, amplitude, peak velocity, index of co-contraction and median frequencies of the index finger flexors and extensors during a 20-s MVR task in 10 young and 10 older subjects...
December 1, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905293/long-term-exercise-in-mice-has-sex-dependent-benefits-on-body-composition-and-metabolism-during-aging
#2
Rachel C McMullan, Scott A Kelly, Kunjie Hua, Brian K Buckley, James E Faber, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Daniel Pomp
Aging is associated with declining exercise and unhealthy changes in body composition. Exercise ameliorates certain adverse age-related physiological changes and protects against many chronic diseases. Despite these benefits, willingness to exercise and physiological responses to exercise vary widely, and long-term exercise and its benefits are difficult and costly to measure in humans. Furthermore, physiological effects of aging in humans are confounded with changes in lifestyle and environment. We used C57BL/6J mice to examine long-term patterns of exercise during aging and its physiological effects in a well-controlled environment...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903053/a-comparison-of-temporal-and-location-based-sampling-strategies-for-global-positioning-system-triggered-electronic-diaries
#3
Tobias Törnros, Helen Dorn, Markus Reichert, Ulrich Ebner-Priemer, Hans-Joachim Salize, Heike Tost, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Alexander Zipf
Self-reporting is a well-established approach within the medical and psychological sciences. In order to avoid recall bias, i.e. past events being remembered inaccurately, the reports can be filled out on a smartphone in real-time and in the natural environment. This is often referred to as ambulatory assessment and the reports are usually triggered at regular time intervals. With this sampling scheme, however, rare events (e.g. a visit to a park or recreation area) are likely to be missed. When addressing the correlation between mood and the environment, it may therefore be beneficial to include participant locations within the ambulatory assessment sampling scheme...
November 21, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898743/the-effects-of-either-a-mirror-internal-or-external-focus-instructions-on-single-and-multi-joint-tasks
#4
Israel Halperin, Steven Hughes, Derek Panchuk, Chris Abbiss, Dale W Chapman
Training in front of mirrors is common, yet little is known about how the use of mirrors effects muscle force production. Accordingly, we investigated how performing in front of a mirror influences performance in single and multi-joint tasks, and compared the mirror condition to the established performance effects of internal focus (IF) and external focus (EF) instructions in a two part experiment. In the single-joint experiment 28 resistance-trained participants (14 males and 14 females) completed two elbow flexion maximal voluntary isometric contractions under four conditions: mirror, IF, EF and neutral instructions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896388/-dying-and-death-in-societal-transformation
#5
Andreas Heller, Klaus Wegleitner
Dying and death in modern societies are subject to profound social, professional and cultural-religious changes. Secularization and a stronger differentiation of societies have led to a change in the way humans handle the dying process. Normatively ritualized collective behaviour has been replaced by an individual, subjectivized approach. In late modern societies there are many different views of what "successful" or "good" dying means.In the article this change is described by the following seven theses: 1...
November 28, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895590/brain-functional-connectivity-is-different-during-voluntary-concentric-and-eccentric-muscle-contraction
#6
Wan X Yao, Zhiguo Jiang, Jinqi Li, Changhao Jiang, Crystal G Franlin, Jack L Lancaster, Yufei Huang, Guang H Yue
Previous studies report greater activation in the cortical motor network in controlling eccentric contraction (EC) than concentric contraction (CC) of human skeletal muscles despite lower activation level of the muscle associated with EC. It is unknown, however, whether the strength of functional coupling between the primary motor cortex (M1) and other involved areas in the brain differs as voluntary movements are controlled by a network of regions in the primary, secondary and association cortices. Examining fMRI-based functional connectivity (FC) offers an opportunity to measure strength of such coupling...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893846/cerebellum-transcriptome-of-mice-bred-for-high-voluntary-activity-offers-insights-into-locomotor-control-and-reward-dependent-behaviors
#7
Kelsey Caetano-Anollés, Justin S Rhodes, Theodore Garland, Sam D Perez, Alvaro G Hernandez, Bruce R Southey, Sandra L Rodriguez-Zas
The role of the cerebellum in motivation and addictive behaviors is less understood than that in control and coordination of movements. High running can be a self-rewarding behavior exhibiting addictive properties. Changes in the cerebellum transcriptional networks of mice from a line selectively bred for High voluntary running (H) were profiled relative to an unselected Control (C) line. The environmental modulation of these changes was assessed both in activity environments corresponding to 7 days of Free (F) access to running wheel and to Blocked (B) access on day 7...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889814/an-fmri-study-of-training-voluntary-smooth-circular-eye-movements
#8
Raimund Kleiser, Cornelia Stadler, Sibylle Wimmer, Thomas Matyas, Rüdiger J Seitz
Despite a large number of recent studies, the promise of fMRI methods to produce valuable insights into motor skill learning has been restricted to sequence learning paradigms, or manual training paradigms where a relatively advanced capacity for sensory-motor integration and effector coordination already exists. We therefore obtained fMRIs from 16 healthy adults trained in a new paradigm that demanded voluntary smooth circular eye movements without a moving target. This aimed to monitor neural activation during two possible motor learning processes: (a) the smooth pursuit control system develops a new perceptual-motor relationship and successfully becomes involved in voluntary action in which it is not normally involved or (b) the saccadic system normally used for voluntary eye movement and which only exhibits linear action skill develops new dynamic coordinative control capable of smooth circular movement...
November 26, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888072/movement-related-cortical-magnetic-fields-associated-with-self-paced-tongue-protrusion-in-humans
#9
Hitoshi Maezawa, Hidetoshi Oguma, Yoshiyuki Hirai, Kazunari Hisadome, Hideaki Shiraishi, Makoto Funahashi
Sophisticated tongue movements are coordinated finely via cortical control. We elucidated the cortical processes associated with voluntary tongue movement. Movement-related cortical fields were investigated during self-paced repetitive tongue protrusion. Surface tongue electromyograms were recorded to determine movement onset. To identify the location of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), tongue somatosensory evoked fields were measured. The readiness fields (RFs) over both hemispheres began prior to movement onset and culminated in the motor fields (MFs) around movement onset...
November 22, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882653/synkinesis-in-bell-s-palsy-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
N Bylund, D Jensson, S Enghag, T Berg, Elin Marsk, Malou Hultcrantz, N Hadziosmanovic, A Rodriguez-Lorenzo, L Jonsson
OBJECTIVES: To study the development of synkinesis in Bell's palsy. Frequency, severity, gender aspects and predictors were analysed. DESIGN: Data from the randomised controlled Scandinavian Bell's palsy trial including 829 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency and severity of synkinesis at 12 months were the main outcome measures. Mean Sunnybrook synkinesis scores, voluntary movement scores and composite scores between 6 and 12 months were compared...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882256/eeg-triggered-functional-electrical-stimulation-therapy-for-restoring-upper-limb-function-in-chronic-stroke-with-severe-hemiplegia
#11
Cesar Marquez-Chin, Aaron Marquis, Milos R Popovic
We report the therapeutic effects of integrating brain-computer interfacing technology and functional electrical stimulation therapy to restore upper limb reaching movements in a 64-year-old man with severe left hemiplegia following a hemorrhagic stroke he sustained six years prior to this study. He completed 40 90-minute sessions of functional electrical stimulation therapy using a custom-made neuroprosthesis that facilitated 5 different reaching movements. During each session, the participant attempted to reach with his paralyzed arm repeatedly...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878330/-volunteering-in-end-of-life-care-challenges-problems-and-perspectives
#12
Werner Schneider
Volunteering in the hospice movement has had a profound impact on generating awareness of hospice work and palliative care in the context of supporting dying persons and their relatives as well as on integrating respective services in the existing health care system. This paper focuses on two specific questions: First, it asks how society is changing with respect to dealing with dying and death, and more precisely with dying persons, which is recognizable by the integration of hospice work and palliative care in the healthcare system and related to the relevance of volunteering in the sense of a citizens' movement...
November 22, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872585/the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-as-a-motor-and-cognitive-interface-between-the-cerebellum-and-basal-ganglia
#13
REVIEW
Fumika Mori, Ken-Ichi Okada, Taishin Nomura, Yasushi Kobayashi
As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze) and cognitive processes (attention, learning and memory). The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control system (such as voluntary movement initiation or inhibition), and modulate aspects of executive function (such as motivation)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857728/harnessing-neural-activity-to-promote-repair-of-the-damaged-corticospinal-system-after-spinal-cord-injury
#14
REVIEW
John H Martin
As most spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are incomplete, an important target for promoting neural repair and recovery of lost motor function is to promote the connections of spared descending spinal pathways with spinal motor circuits. Among the pathways, the corticospinal tract (CST) is most associated with skilled voluntary functions in humans and many animals. CST loss, whether at its origin in the motor cortex or in the white matter tracts subcortically and in the spinal cord, leads to movement impairments and paralysis...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849544/imagined-hand-clenching-force-and-speed-modulate-brain-activity-and-are-classified-by-nirs-combined-with-eeg
#15
Yunfa Fu, Xin Xiong, Changhao Jiang, Baolei Xu, Yongcheng Li, Hongyi Li
Simultaneous acquisition of brain activity signals from the sensorimotor area using NIRS combined with EEG, imagined hand clenching force and speed modulation of brain activity, as well as 6-class classification of these imagined motor parameters by NIRS-EEG were explored. Near infrared probes were aligned with C3 and C4, and EEG electrodes were placed midway between the NIRS probes. NIRS and EEG signals were acquired from 6 healthy subjects during 6 imagined hand clenching force and speed tasks involving the right hand...
November 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842671/real-time-mri-of-the-temporomandibular-joint-at-15-frames-per-second-a-feasibility-study
#16
Sebastian Krohn, Nikolaus Gersdorff, Torsten Wassmann, Klaus-Dietmar Merboldt, Arun A Joseph, Ralf Buergers, Jens Frahm
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel method for real-time MRI of TMJ function at high temporal resolution and with two different contrasts. Real-time MRI was based on undersampled radial fast low angle shot (FLASH) acquisitions with iterative image reconstruction by regularized nonlinear inversion. Real-time MRI movies with T1 contrast were obtained with use of a radiofrequency-spoiled FLASH sequence, while movies with T2/T1 contrast employed a gradient-refocused FLASH version. TMJ function was characterized in 40 randomly selected volunteers by sequential 20s acquisitions of both the right and left joint during voluntary opening and closing of the mouth (in a medial, central and lateral oblique sagittal section perpendicular to the long axis of the condylar head)...
December 2016: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834589/the-acute-effect-of-cryotherapy-on-muscle-strength-and-shoulder-proprioception
#17
Rui Torres, Filipa Silva, Vera Pedrosa, João Ferreira, Alexandre Lopes
CONTEXT: A common intervention used by clinicians, cryotherapy poses several benefits in managing acute injuries. However, cooling muscle tissue can interfere with muscular properties and the sensory-motor system. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was analyse the influence of cryotherapy with a crushed-ice pack on shoulder proprioception concerning joint position sense, force sense, the threshold for detecting passive movement, and maximal force production. DESIGN: A randomised, double-blind controlled trial...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832680/-validation-of-the-german-version-of-the-sunnybrook-facial-grading-system
#18
T Neumann, A Lorenz, G F Volk, F Hamzei, S Schulz, O Guntinas-Lichius
Background: The Sunnybrook facial grading system (SFGS) is frequently applied to evaluate facial function in patients with facial palsy, but still now there is no validated German version of this evaluation sheet. Methods: The original English version of the SFGS was translated and validated in accordance with international standards. The interrater reliability from 5 raters (speech therapy students) and the intrarater reliability from repeated ratings at 2 time points using video tapes of 18 patients with different types of facial palsy were analyzed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and other reliability measures...
November 10, 2016: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832065/multiple-language-use-influences-oculomotor-task-performance-neurophysiological-evidence-of-a-shared-substrate-between-language-and-motor-control
#19
Karin Heidlmayr, Karine Doré-Mazars, Xavier Aparicio, Frédéric Isel
In the present electroencephalographical study, we asked to which extent executive control processes are shared by both the language and motor domain. The rationale was to examine whether executive control processes whose efficiency is reinforced by the frequent use of a second language can lead to a benefit in the control of eye movements, i.e. a non-linguistic activity. For this purpose, we administrated to 19 highly proficient late French-German bilingual participants and to a control group of 20 French monolingual participants an antisaccade task, i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830144/strength-training-improves-fatigue-resistance-and-self-rated-health-in-workers-with-chronic-pain-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Emil Sundstrup, Markus Due Jakobsen, Mikkel Brandt, Kenneth Jay, Per Aagaard, Lars Louis Andersen
Chronic musculoskeletal pain is widespread in the working population and leads to muscular fatigue, reduced work capacity, and fear of movement. While ergonomic intervention is the traditional approach to the problem, physical exercise may be an alternative strategy. This secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial investigates the effect of strength training on muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health among workers with chronic pain. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with chronic upper limb pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of strength training or usual care ergonomic training (control)...
2016: BioMed Research International
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