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Voluntary movement

Armin H Paravlic, Maamer Slimani, David Tod, Uros Marusic, Zoran Milanovic, Rado Pisot
BACKGROUND: Motor imagery (MI), a mental simulation of a movement without overt muscle contraction, has been largely used to improve general motor tasks. However, the effects of MI practice on maximal voluntary strength (MVS) remain equivocal. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this meta-analysis were to (1) estimate whether MI practice intervention can meaningfully improve MVS in healthy adults; (2) compare the effects of MI practice on MVS with its combination with physical practice (MI-C), and with physical practice (PP) training alone; and (3) investigate the dose-response relationships of MI practice...
March 14, 2018: Sports Medicine
Mohammad Nauzef Mahmood, Laura H C Peeters, Micha Paalman, Gijsbertus J Verkerke, Idsart Kingma, Jaap H van Dieën
BACKGROUND: Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy gradually lose the ability to use different muscles of their body. Consequently, they lose the ability to stabilize their trunk against gravity. This hinders them to effectively perform different daily activities. In this paper, we describe the design, realization and evaluation of a trunk orthosis for these patients that should allow them to move their trunk and maintain stability. METHOD: This study aimed to primarily assess the effectiveness of the trunk support system in terms of unloading of trunk muscles, so only healthy participants were recruited for this phase of the study...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Patrick Grüneberg, Hideki Kadone, Naomi Kuramoto, Tomoyuki Ueno, Yasushi Hada, Masashi Yamazaki, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Kenji Suzuki
Humans employ various control strategies to initiate and maintain bodily movement. In case that the normal gait function is impaired, exoskeleton robots provide motor assistance during therapy. While the robotic control system builds on kinematic gait functions, the patient's voluntary efforts to initiate motion also contribute to the effectiveness of the therapy process. However, it is currently not well understood how voluntary initiation as a subjective capacity affects the physiological level of motor control...
2018: PloS One
Michael J Falvo, John W Rohrbaugh, Thomas Alexander, Gammon M Earhart
Cortical activity during motor task performance is attenuated in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) relative to age-matched adults without PD, and this activity is enhanced with antiparkinson medication. It remains unclear, however, whether the relative change in cortical activity over the duration of the task, i.e., central adaptation, is affected individuals with PD, and if so, whether medication corrects for any unique behaviors. Movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) were recorded from scalp electrode sites Cz and C1 during 150 repetitive handgrip contractions at 70% of maximal voluntary contraction, in individuals with PD (n = 10) both ON and OFF of their PD medication, and neurologically normal age- and sex-matched controls (n = 10)...
March 8, 2018: Life Sciences
Helene Moser, Monika Leitner, Patric Eichelberger, Annette Kuhn, Jean-Pierre Baeyens, Lorenz Radlinger
PURPOSE: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) symptoms can be provoked during impact loads such as vertical jumps. To investigate and compare pelvic floor muscle (PFM) activity in women with SUI and continent women (CON) during drop jumps (DJ) and counter movement jumps (CMJ) could clarify the activity of the PFMs during impact loads. METHODS: A tripolar vaginal probe was used to record surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the PFMs during DJ and CMJ. Time intervals of 30 ms were used to parameterize data from 30 ms before (pre-activity) to 150 ms after (reflex activity) ground contact on a force plate during the landing and take-off phase...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Matthew L Benn, Tania Pizzari, Leanne Rath, Kylie Tucker, Adam I Semciw
INTRODUCTION: Cadaveric studies indicate that adductor magnus is structurally partitioned into at least two regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the direction-specific actions of proximal and distal portions of adductor magnus, and in doing so determine if these segments have distinct functional roles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fine-wire EMG electrodes were inserted into two portions of adductor magnus of twelve healthy young adults. Muscle activity was recorded during maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) across eight tests (hip flexion/extension, internal/external rotation, abduction, and adduction at 0°, 45° and 90° hip flexion)...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Peter E Yoo, Maureen A Hagan, Sam E John, Nicholas L Opie, Roger J Ordidge, Terence J O'Brien, Thomas J Oxley, Bradford A Moffat, Yan T Wong
Performing voluntary movements involves many regions of the brain, but it is unknown how they work together to plan and execute specific movements. We recorded high-resolution ultra-high-field blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal during a cued ankle-dorsiflexion task. The spatiotemporal dynamics and the patterns of task-relevant information flow across the dorsal motor network were investigated. We show that task-relevant information appears and decays earlier in the higher order areas of the dorsal motor network then in the primary motor cortex...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Mohammed Khalifa, Khalid Shreef, Mohammad Ahmad Al Ekrashy, Tarek Abdelazim Gobran
Background: Rectovestibular fistula (RVF) is the most common type of anorectal malformations in females. The need for a diverting colostomy during correction of defect has ignited a heated debate. In this study, we reviewed the girls with RVF that had been treated by either one or two stage procedure in the past 10 years in our institution to define whether one stage or two stage procedures is safer and more beneficial for the patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy girls with RVF that had been operated from January 2005 to January 2015 were studied retrospectively...
April 2017: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
Maitreyee Wairagkar, Yoshikatsu Hayashi, Slawomir J Nasuto
Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a direct communication channel by using brain signals, enabling patients with motor impairments to interact with external devices. Motion intention detection is useful for intuitive movement-based BCI as movement is the fundamental mode of interaction with the environment. The aim of this paper is to investigate the temporal dynamics of brain processes using electroencephalography (EEG) to explore novel neural correlates of motion intention. We investigate the changes in temporal dependencies of the EEG by characterising the decay of autocorrelation during asynchronous voluntary finger tapping movement...
2018: PloS One
Christos Ganos, John Rothwell, Patrick Haggard
Inhibitory control is crucial for normal adaptive motor behavior. In hyperkinesias, such as tics, disinhibition within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loops is thought to underlie the presence of involuntary movements. Paradoxically, tics are also subject to voluntary inhibitory control. This puzzling clinical observation questions the traditional definition of tics as purely involuntary motor behaviors. Importantly, it suggests novel insights into tic pathophysiology. In this review, we first define voluntary inhibitory tic control and compare it with other notions of tic control from the literature...
March 6, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Roberta Vastano, Eliane Deschrijver, Thierry Pozzo, Marcel Brass
Temporal binding is understood as an effect in which a temporal interval between a voluntary action and its consequent effect is perceived as compressed. It denotes an implicit measure of a sense of agency. When people observe someone else performing an action that generates an effect, temporal binding also takes place. We aimed to test whether the interaction between observed actions and tactile sensation influences temporal binding. Participants observed finger tapping movements (of a human or wooden hand), in parallel to receiving tactile stimulations on their fingertip...
February 26, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Davide Corbetta, Elisabetta Sarasso, Federica Agosta, Massimo Filippi, Roberto Gatti
Background: Treatment of central post-stroke pain (CPSP) after a thalamic-capsular stroke is generally based on pharmacological approach as it is low responsive to physiotherapy. In this case report, the use of mirror therapy (MT) for the reduction of CPSP in a subject after a stroke involving thalamus is presented. Case presentation: Five years after a right lenticular-capsular thalamic stroke, despite a good recovery of voluntary movement that guaranteed independence in daily life activities, a 50-year-old woman presented with mild weakness and spasticity, an important sensory loss and a burning pain in the left upper limb...
2018: Archives of Physiotherapy
Hidefumi Sasaki, Yukio Urabe, Noriaki Maeda, Toshiaki Suzuki
PURPOSE: This study aimed to validate the preliminary steps of motor image voluntary training in patients who are prone to falling as toe flexion muscle strength decreases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recorded the F-wave in 30 healthy subjects (20 men, 10 women; mean age, 22.5 ± 2.1 years). First, in a resting condition, the muscle was relaxed during the F-wave recording. Subsequently, the motion of the left flexor hallucis brevis muscle is photographed. F-waves were recorded immediately and at 5, 10, and 15 min after motor imagery...
March 1, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Edward Rhodes, William C Gaetz, Jonathan Marsden, Stephen D Hall
Modulations in motor cortical beta and alpha activity have been implicated in the preparation, execution, and termination of voluntary movements. The functional role of motor cortex beta activity is yet to be defined, though two opposing theories prevail. The idling cortex theory suggests that large-scale motor networks, in the absence of input, revert to an intrinsic oscillatory state. The alternative theory proposes that beta activity promotes postural tone at the expense of voluntary movement. These theories are primarily based on observations of event-related desynchronization associated with movement onset...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Ippei Nojima, Tatsunori Watanabe, Kotaro Saito, Shigeo Tanabe, Hoshinori Kanazawa
The voluntary step execution task is a popular measure for identifying fall risks among elderly individuals in the community setting because most falls have been reported to occur during movement. However, the neurophysiological functions during this movement are not entirely understood. Here, we used electromyography (EMG) to explore the relationship between EMG-EMG coherence, which reflects common oscillatory drive to motoneurons, and motor performance associated with stepping tasks: simple reaction time (SRT) and choice reaction time (CRT) tasks...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Arndis Simonsen, Riccardo Fusaroli, Joshua Charles Skewes, Andreas Roepstorff, Daniel Campbell-Meiklejohn, Ole Mors, Vibeke Bliksted
Imitation plays a key role in social learning and in facilitating social interactions and likely constitutes a basic building block of social cognition that supports higher-level social abilities. Recent findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have imitation impairments that could contribute to the social impairments associated with the disorder. However, extant studies have specifically assessed voluntary imitation or automatic imitation of emotional stimuli without controlling for potential confounders...
February 21, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Doniparthi Venkata Seshagiri, Arun Sasidharan, Gulshan Kumar, Pramod Kumar Pal, Sanjeev Jain, Bindu M Kutty, Ravi Yadav
OBJECTIVES: Spinocerebellar ataxias are progressive neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive cerebellar features with additional neuro-axis involvement. Oculomotor abnormality is one of the most frequent manifestations. This study was done to assess the polysomnographic abnormalities in patients with Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3) and also to evaluate whether oculomotor abnormalities interfere with sleep stage R scoring. METHODS: The study was carried out using 36 genetically positive SCA patients...
February 2018: Sleep Medicine
Vittorio Gallese, Valentina Cuccio
As it is widely known, Parkinson's disease is clinically characterized by motor disorders such as the loss of voluntary movement control, including resting tremor, postural instability, and bradykinesia (Bocanegra et al., 2015; Helmich, Hallett, Deuschl, Toni, & Bloem, 2012; Liu et al., 2006; Rosin, Topka, & Dichgans, 1997). In the last years, many empirical studies (e.g., Bocanegra et al., 2015; Spadacenta et al., 2012) have also shown that the processing of action verbs is selectively impaired in patients affected by this neurodegenerative disorder...
March 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Cuan M Harrington, Vishwa Chaitanya, Patrick Dicker, Oscar Traynor, Dara O Kavanagh
BACKGROUND: Video gaming demands elements of visual attention, hand-eye coordination and depth perception which may be contiguous with laparoscopic skill development. General video gaming has demonstrated altered cortical plasticity and improved baseline/acquisition of minimally invasive skills. The present study aimed to evaluate for skill acquisition associated with a commercially available dedicated laparoscopic video game (Underground) and its unique (laparoscopic-like) controller for the Nintendo®Wii U™ console...
February 14, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Maria Russo, Giuseppe Cultrera
The subcortical systems control the proper functioning of the automatic substrate required for movement. Such a substrate is often underestimated to give attention to voluntary movement. By applying Variable Approach technique, it is possible to communicate with automatic systems through muscular spindles to achieve a more functional volunteer movement.
February 2018: Clinical Case Reports
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