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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228718/current-concepts-on-the-physiopathological-relevance-of-dopaminergic-receptors
#1
REVIEW
Ada Ledonne, Nicola B Mercuri
Dopamine (DA) is a key neurotransmitter modulating essential functions of the central nervous system (CNS), like voluntary movement, reward, several cognitive functions and goal-oriented behaviors. The factual relevance of DAergic transmission can be well appreciated by considering that its dysfunction is recognized as a core alteration in several devastating neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and associated movement disorders, as well as, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and addiction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227836/exerciser-for-rehabilitation-of-the-arm-era-development-and-unique-features-of-a-3d-end-effector-robot
#2
Marie-Helene Milot, Mathieu Hamel, Philippe-Olivier Provost, Julien Bernier-Ouellet, Maxime Dupuis, Dominic Letourneau, Simon Briere, Francois Michaud, Marie-Helene Milot, Mathieu Hamel, Philippe-Olivier Provost, Julien Bernier-Ouellet, Maxime Dupuis, Dominic Letourneau, Simon Briere, Francois Michaud, Philippe-Olivier Provost, Dominic Letourneau, Maxime Dupuis, Marie-Helene Milot, Francois Michaud, Mathieu Hamel, Julien Bernier-Ouellet, Simon Briere
Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Consequently, many stroke survivors exhibit difficulties undergoing voluntary movement in their affected upper limb, compromising their functional performance and level of independence. To minimize the negative impact of stroke disabilities, exercises are recognized as a key element in post-stroke rehabilitation. In order to provide the practice of exercises in a uniform and controlled manner as well as increasing the efficiency of therapists' interventions, robotic training has been found, and continues to prove itself, as an innovative intervention for post-stroke rehabilitation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227545/corticomuscular-coherence-variation-throughout-the-gait-cycle-during-overground-walking-and-ramp-ascent-a-preliminary-investigation
#3
Anna T Winslow, Justin Brantley, Fangshi Zhu, Jose L Contreras Vidal, He Huang, Anna T Winslow, Justin Brantley, Fangshi Zhu, Jose L Contreras Vidal, He Huang, Fangshi Zhu, Justin Brantley, Jose L Contreras Vidal, He Huang, Anna T Winslow
Recent designs of neural-machine interfaces (NMIs) incorporating electroencephalography (EEG) or electromyography (EMG) have been used in lower limb assistive devices. While the results of previous studies have shown promise, a NMI which takes advantage of early movement-related EEG activity preceding movement onset, as well as the improved signal-to-noise ratio of EMG, could prove to be more accurate and responsive than current NMI designs based solely on EEG or EMG. Previous studies have demonstrated that the activity of the sensorimotor cortex is coupled to the firing rate of motor units in lower limb muscles during voluntary contraction...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227096/prediction-of-forelimb-muscle-emgs-from-the-corticospinal-signals-in-rats
#4
Sinan Gok, Mesut Sahin, Sinan Gok, Mesut Sahin, Sinan Gok, Mesut Sahin
To generate voluntary forearm movements, the information that is encoded in the activity of the cortical neurons has to travel through the spinal cord and activate the skeletal muscles. The axons carrying these signals are tightly bundled together in the descending tracts that control the spinal circuitry innervating the forearm muscles. In this paper, we show that corticospinal tract (CST) signals can be used to predict forearm electromyographic (EMG) activities that are recorded during an isometric-pull task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222810/does-nordic-walking-restore-the-temporal-organization-of-gait-variability-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Thibault Warlop, Christine Detrembleur, Maïté Buxes Lopez, Gaëtan Stoquart, Thierry Lejeune, Anne Jeanjean
BACKGROUND: Gait disorders of Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by the breakdown of the temporal organization of stride duration variability that was tightly associated to dynamic instability in PD. Activating the upper body during walking, Nordic Walking (NW) may be used as an external cueing to improve spatiotemporal parameters of gait, such as stride length or gait variability, in PD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of NW on temporal organization of gait variability and spatiotemporal gait variables in PD...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222553/dual-afferent-sensory-input-training-for-voluntary-movement-after-stroke-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-study
#6
Seahyun Bae, Kyung-Yoon Kim
BACKGROUND: Stimulation through afferent sensory input is necessary to improve voluntary functional movement in stroke patients. OBJECTIVES: Dual-afferent sensory input, which combines electromyography-triggered functional electric stimulation (ETFES) and action observation, was investigated to determine its effects on voluntary movements in stroke patients. METHODS: This study was conducted on 18 patients with left hemiplegia diagnosed between 6 and 24 months prior...
February 8, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217104/priming-neural-circuits-to-modulate-spinal-reflex-excitability
#7
Stephen P Estes, Jennifer A Iddings, Edelle C Field-Fote
While priming is most often thought of as a strategy for modulating neural excitability to facilitate voluntary motor control, priming stimulation can also be utilized to target spinal reflex excitability. In this application, priming can be used to modulate the involuntary motor output that often follows central nervous system injury. Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) often experience spasticity, for which antispasmodic medications are the most common treatment. Physical therapeutic/electroceutic interventions offer an alternative treatment for spasticity, without the deleterious side effects that can accompany pharmacological interventions...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213152/central-neuronal-motor-behaviour-in-skilled-and-less-skilled-novices-approaching-sports-specific-movement-techniques
#8
Tobias Vogt, Kouki Kato, Stefan Schneider, Stefan Türk, Kazuyuki Kanosue
Research on motor behavioural processes preceding voluntary movements often refers to analysing the readiness potential (RP). For this, decades of studies used laboratory setups with controlled sports-related actions. Further, recent applied approaches focus on athlete-non-athlete comparisons, omitting possible effects of training history on RP. However, RP preceding real sport-specific movements in accordance to skill acquisition remains to be elucidated. Therefore, after familiarization 16 right-handed males with no experience in archery volunteered to perform repeated sports-specific movements, i...
February 14, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212925/reversible-opercular-syndrome-secondary-to-osmotic-demyelination
#9
Shuchit Pandey, Vikram V Holla, Imran Rizvi, Rakesh Shukla
Opercular syndrome (OPS) is characterized by weakness of facial, masticatory, pharyngeal, laryngeal, tongue and brachial muscles on voluntary command with preservation of emotional and reflexive movements. We report a case of 45year old female who developed the features of OPS due to lesions of bilateral frontal opercular region induced by osmotic demyelination secondary to hyperosmolar hyperglycaemia. On follow up at 6 months, she had complete recovery.
February 11, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202571/temporal-dynamics-of-retinal-and-extraretinal-signals-in-the-fefsem-during-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements
#10
Leah Bakst, Jerome Fleuriet, Michael J Mustari
Neurons in the smooth eye movement subregion of the Frontal Eye Field (FEFsem) are known to play an important role in voluntary smooth pursuit eye movements. Underlying this function are projections to parietal and prefrontal visual association areas and subcortical structures, all known to play vital, but differing roles in the execution of smooth pursuit. Additionally, the FEFsem has been shown to carry a diverse array of signals (e.g. eye velocity, acceleration, gain control). We hypothesized that distinct subpopulations of FEFsem neurons subserve these diverse functions and projections, and that the relative weights of retinal and extraretinal signals could form the basis for categorization of units...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192192/moderate-anxiety-modifies-the-electromyographic-activity-of-a-forearm-muscle-during-a-time-reaction-task-in-women
#11
C Langlet, J P Hainaut, B Bolmont
Arousal anxiety has a great impact on reaction time, physiological parameters and motor performance. Numerous studies have focused on the influence of anxiety on muscular activity during simple non ecologic task. We investigate the impact of a moderate state-anxiety (arousal stressor) on the specific component of a complex multi-joint ecologic movement during a reaction time task of auditory stimulus-response. Our objective is to know if central and peripheral voluntary motor processes were modulated in the same way by an arousal stressor...
February 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183377/impaired-awareness-of-motor-intention-in-functional-neurological-disorder-implications-for-voluntary-and-functional-movement
#12
K Baek, N Doñamayor, L S Morris, D Strelchuk, S Mitchell, Y Mikheenko, S Y Yeoh, W Phillips, M Zandi, A Jenaway, C Walsh, V Voon
BACKGROUND: Functional neurological disorders (FNDs), also known as conversion disorder, are unexplained neurological symptoms unrelated to a neurological cause. The disorder is common, yet poorly understood. The symptoms are experienced as involuntary but have similarities to voluntary processes. Here we studied intention awareness in FND. METHOD: A total of 26 FND patients and 25 healthy volunteers participated in this functional magnetic resonance study using Libet's clock...
February 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174464/effect-of-motor-imagery-on-excitability-of-spinal-neural-function-and-its-impact-on-the-accuracy-of-movement-considering-the-point-at-which-subjects-subjectively-determine-the-50-mvc-point
#13
Yuki Fukumoto, Yoshibumi Bunno, Toshiaki Suzuki
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effect of motor imagery on the accuracy of motion and the excitability of spinal neural function. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy volunteers (males, 15; females, 15; mean age, 20.3 ± 1.0 years) were recruited. F-waves was recorded at rest, while holding a sensor, and while using motor imagery. Next, subjects learned 50% maximum voluntary contraction. The pinch force was measured without visual feedback before and after motor imagery. F-waves were analyzed with respect to persistence and the F/M amplitude ratio...
December 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163059/revising-the-link-between-microsaccades-and-the-spatial-cueing-of-voluntary-attention
#14
Susann Meyberg, Petra Sinn, Ralf Engbert, Werner Sommer
Microsaccades - i.e., small fixational saccades generated in the superior colliculus (SC) - have been linked to spatial attention. While maintaining fixation, voluntary shifts of covert attention toward peripheral targets result in a sequence of attention-aligned and attention-opposing microsaccades. In most previous studies the direction of the voluntary shift is signaled by a spatial cue (e.g., a leftwards pointing arrow) that presents the most informative part of the cue (e.g., the arrowhead) in the to-be attended visual field...
February 17, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159911/nerve-specific-input-modulation-to-spinal-neurons-during-a-motor-task-in-the-monkey
#15
Joachim Confais, Geehee Kim, Saeka Tomatsu, Tomohiko Takei, Kazuhiko Seki
: If not properly regulated, the large amount of reafferent sensory signals generated by our own movement could destabilize the central nervous system. We investigated how input from peripheral nerves to spinal cord is modulated during behavior. We chronically stimulated the deep radial nerve (DR; proprioceptive, wrist extensors), the median nerve (M; mixed, wrist flexors and palmar skin) and the superficial radial nerve (SR; cutaneous, hand dorsum) while four monkeys performed a delayed wrist flexion-extension task...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154151/dynamic-shaping-of-the-defensive-peripersonal-space-through-predictive-motor-mechanisms-when-the-near-becomes-far
#16
Ambra Bisio, Francesca Garbarini, Monica Biggio, Carlotta Fossataro, Piero Ruggeri, Marco Bove
: The Hand Blink Reflex (HBR) is a subcortical defensive response, known to dramatically increase when the stimulated hand is statically positioned inside the defensive peripersonal space (DPPS) of the face. Here, we tested in a group of healthy human subjects the HBR in dynamic conditions, investigating whether the direction of the hand movements (up-to/down-from the face) could modulate it. We found that, on equal hand position, the response enhancement was present only when the hand approached to (and not receded from) the DPPS of the face...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153608/the-effect-of-intermittent-lower-limb-occlusion-on-recovery-following-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Will Page, Rachael Swan, Stephen D Patterson
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effectiveness of intermittent lower limb occlusion in augmenting recovery from exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) in physically active males. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial, double blind. METHODS: Sixteen healthy recreationally active male participants were randomly assigned to an intermittent occlusion (OCC; n=8) or control (SHAM; n=8) group. The EIMD protocol comprised of 100 drop-jumps, from a 0...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150045/epidemiology-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Ole-Bjørn Tysnes, Anette Storstein
Parkinson's disease (PD) affects 1-2 per 1000 of the population at any time. PD prevalence is increasing with age and PD affects 1% of the population above 60 years. The main neuropathological finding is α-synuclein-containing Lewy bodies and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, manifesting as reduced facilitation of voluntary movements. With progression of PD, Lewy body pathology spreads to neocortical and cortical regions. PD is regarded as a movement disorder with three cardinal signs: tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149354/investigating-the-effects-of-typical-rowing-strength-training-practices-on-strength-and-power-development-and-2-000-m-rowing-performance
#19
Thomas Ian Gee, Nicholas Caplan, Karl Christian Gibbon, Glyn Howatson, Kevin Grant Thompson
This study aimed to determine the effects of a short-term, strength training intervention, typically undertaken by club-standard rowers, on 2,000 m rowing performance and strength and power development. Twenty-eight male rowers were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. All participants performed baseline testing involving assessments of muscle soreness, creatine kinase activity (CK), maximal voluntary contraction (leg-extensors) (MVC), static-squat jumps (SSJ), counter-movement jumps (CMJ), maximal rowing power strokes (PS) and a 2,000 m rowing ergometer time-trial (2,000 m) with accompanying respiratory-exchange and electromyography (EMG) analysis...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141512/sonomyography-analysis-on-thickness-of-skeletal-muscle-during-dynamic-contraction-induced-by-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-a-pilot-study
#20
Shuang Qiu, Jing Feng, Jiapeng Xu, Rui Xu, Xin Zhao, Peng Zhou, Hongzhi Qi, Lixin Zhang, Dong Ming
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) that stimulates skeletal muscles to induce contractions has been widely applied to restore functions of paralyzed muscles. However, the architectural changes of stimulated muscles induced by NMES are still not well understood. The present study applies sonomyography (SMG) to evaluate muscle architecture under NMES-induced and voluntary movements. The quadriceps muscles of seven healthy subjects were tested for eight cycles during an extension exercise of the knee joint with/without NMES, and SMG and the knee joint angle were recorded during the process of knee extension...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
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