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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790404/clinical-and-neurophysiological-changes-after-targeted-intrathecal-injections-of-bone-marrow-stem-cells-in-a-c3-tetraplegic-subject
#1
Andrea Jimena Santamaria, Francisco D Benavides, Darcy L DiFede, Aisha Khan, Marietsy V Pujol, W Dalton Dietrich, Antonio Marttos, Barth A Green, Joshua M Hare, James Guest
High-level quadriplegia is a devastating condition with limited treatment options. Bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs) are reported to have immunomodulatory and neurotrophic effects in spinal cord injury (SCI). We report a subject with complete C2 SCI who received 3 anatomically targeted intrathecal infusions of BMSCs under a single-patient expanded access IND. She underwent intensive physical therapy and was followed for over 2 years. At end-point, her AIS grade improved from A to B and she recovered focal pressure touch sensation over several body areas...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786063/induction-of-prolonged-natural-lifespans-in-mice-exposed-to-acoustic-environmental-enrichment
#2
Yuichi Yamashita, Norie Kawai, Osamu Ueno, Yui Matsumoto, Tsutomu Oohashi, Manabu Honda
We investigated the effect of acoustic environmental enrichment (EE) on the lifespans and behaviours of mice to the end of their natural lifespan in different acoustic environments. Acoustic EE induced a significantly prolonged natural lifespan (nearly 17% longer) and was associated with increased voluntary movements. However, no correlation between lifespan and voluntary movements was detected, suggesting that increased voluntary movements are not a primary cause of lifespan prolongation. Analyses of individual differences in lifespan demonstrated that lifespan extension induced by acoustic EE could be related to changes in social relationships (e...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779050/proprioceptive-loss-and-the-perception-control-and-learning-of-arm-movements-in-humans-evidence-from-sensory-neuronopathy
#3
R Chris Miall, Nick M Kitchen, Se-Ho Nam, Hannah Lefumat, Alix G Renault, Kristin Ørstavik, Jonathan D Cole, Fabrice R Sarlegna
It is uncertain how vision and proprioception contribute to adaptation of voluntary arm movements. In normal participants, adaptation to imposed forces is possible with or without vision, suggesting that proprioception is sufficient; in participants with proprioceptive loss (PL), adaptation is possible with visual feedback, suggesting that proprioception is unnecessary. In experiment 1 adaptation to, and retention of, perturbing forces were evaluated in three chronically deafferented participants. They made rapid reaching movements to move a cursor toward a visual target, and a planar robot arm applied orthogonal velocity-dependent forces...
May 19, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775218/unilateral-movement-preparation-causes-task-specific-modulation-of-tms-responses-in-the-passive-opposite-limb
#4
Lilian Chye, Stephan Riek, Aymar de Rugy, Richard G Carson, Timothy J Carroll
Corticospinal excitability is modulated for muscles on both sides of the body during unilateral movement preparation. For the effector, there is a progressive increase in excitability, and a shift in direction of muscle twitches evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) toward the impending movement. By contrast, the directional characteristics of excitability changes in the opposite (passive) limb have not been fully characterized. Here we assessed how preparation of voluntary forces towards four spatially distinct visual targets with the left wrist alters muscle twitches and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by TMS of left motor cortex...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769823/relationship-between-achilles-tendon-stiffness-and-ground-contact-time-during-drop-jumps
#5
Mohamed Abdelsattar, Andreas Konrad, Markus Tilp
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Achilles tendon stiffness and ground contact time (GCT) during drop jumps. The property of "springiness" and a short GCT during the movement is required in several types of sports. Therefore, a stiff tendon might be advantageous due to the quick force transmission from the muscle to the bone. Hence, a secondary aim was to relate Achilles tendon stiffness with squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) performance, respectively...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766768/distinct-mechanisms-explain-the-control-of-reach-speed-planning-evidence-from-a-race-model-framework
#6
Prasanna Venkhatesh Venkataratamani, Aditya Murthy
Previous studies have investigated the computational architecture underlying the voluntary control of reach movements that demands a change in position or direction of movement planning. Here we used a novel task, where subjects either had to increase or decrease the movement speed according to a change in target color that occurred randomly during a trial. The applicability of different race models to such a speed redirect task was assessed. We found that the predictions of an independent race model that instantiated an abort and re-plan strategy was consistent with all aspects of performance in the fast to slow speed condition...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765311/altered-sense-of-body-ownership-and-agency-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-dissociative-subtype-a-rubber-hand-illusion-study
#7
Daniela Rabellino, Dalila Burin, Sherain Harricharan, Chantelle Lloyd, Paul A Frewen, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
Traumatic experiences have been linked to the development of altered states of consciousness affecting bodily perception, including alterations in body ownership and in sense of agency, the conscious experience of the body as one's own and under voluntary control. Severe psychological trauma and prolonged distress may lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Together, symptoms of derealization and, related specifically to the sense of body ownership and agency, of depersonalization (where parts of the body or the entire body itself is perceived as detached and out of control), constitute the dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764177/solidarity-and-compassion-prisoners-as-hospice-volunteers-in-poland
#8
Piotr Krakowiak, Renata Deka, Anna Janowicz
Democracy in Eastern Europe arrived after a long fight with a communist regime, and the activities of medical volunteers have been developing in opposition to the existing then in Poland mentality called Homo Sovieticus. From 1981 onwards the Polish Hospice Movement there was inspired by practitioners and international experiences brought by visits of Dr. Cicely Saunders. The history of modern end-of-life care in Poland was connected to caring communities, which could be called compassionate, because of the volunteering of all hospice team members...
April 2018: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761295/a-startling-acoustic-stimulus-facilitates-voluntary-lower-extremity-movements-and-automatic-postural-responses-in-people-with-chronic-stroke
#9
Milou J M Coppens, Jolanda M B Roelofs, Nicole A J Donkers, Jorik Nonnekes, Alexander C H Geurts, Vivian Weerdesteyn
A startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) involuntary releases prepared movements at accelerated latencies, known as the StartReact effect. Previous work has demonstrated intact StartReact in paretic upper extremity movements in people after stroke, suggesting preserved motor preparation. The question remains whether motor preparation of lower extremity movements is also unaffected after stroke. Here, we investigated StartReact effects on ballistic lower extremity movements and on automatic postural responses (APRs) following perturbations to standing balance...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760370/using-eye-tracking-technology-to-compare-the-effectiveness-of-malignant-hyperthermia-cognitive-aid-design
#10
Roderick King, Jaber Hanhan, T Kyle Harrison, Alex Kou, Steven K Howard, Lindsay K Borg, Cynthia Shum, Ankeet D Udani, Edward R Mariano
Background: Malignant hyperthermia is a rare but potentially fatal complication of anesthesia, and several different cognitive aids designed to facilitate a timely and accurate response to this crisis currently exist. Eye tracking technology can measure voluntary and involuntary eye movements, gaze fixation within an area of interest, and speed of visual response and has been used to a limited extent in anesthesiology. Methods: With eye tracking technology, we compared the accessibility of five malignant hyperthermia cognitive aids by collecting gaze data from twelve volunteer participants...
May 15, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756402/-friends-that-last-a-lifetime-the-importance-of-emotions-amongst-volunteers-working-with-refugees-in-calais
#11
Mark Doidge, Elisa Sandri
The European 'refugee crisis' has generated a broad movement of volunteers offering their time and skills to support refugees across the continent, in the absence of nation states. This article focuses on volunteers who helped in the informal refugee camp in Calais called the 'Jungle'. It looks at the importance of emotions as a motivating factor for taking on responsibilities that are usually carried out by humanitarian aid organizations. We argue that empathy is not only the initial motivator for action, but it also sustains the voluntary activity as volunteers make sense of their emotions through working in the camp...
May 13, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745795/diastolic-stress-testing-similarities-and-differences-between-isometric-handgrip-and-cycle-echocardiography
#12
Thomas Jake Samuel, Rhys Beaudry, Mark J Haykowsky, Satyam Sarma, Michael D Nelson
BACKGROUND: Cycle echocardiography (CE) is recommended for non-invasive diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction, but can be limited by respiratory and movement artifact. Isometric handgrip echocardiography (IHE) is also a robust diastolic discriminator, while avoiding the limitations associated with dynamic exercise. This study sought to compare these two diastolic stress testing approaches. METHODS: Twelve elderly individuals were recruited from the community (age: 71 + 6 years)...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740392/anti-saccades-in-cerebellar-ataxias-reveal-a-contribution-of-the-cerebellum-in-executive-functions
#13
Elena Pretegiani, Pietro Piu, Francesca Rosini, Pamela Federighi, Valeria Serchi, Gemma Tumminelli, Maria Teresa Dotti, Antonio Federico, Alessandra Rufa
Objective: Increasing evidence suggests a cerebellar contribution to modulate cognitive aspects of motor behavior and executive functions. Supporting findings come from studies on patients with neurodegenerative diseases, in which however, given the extent of the disease, the specific role of the cerebellum, could not be clearly isolated. Anti-saccades are considered a sensitive tool to test executive functions. The anti-saccade underlying neural network, consisting of different cortical areas and their downstream connections including the lateral cerebellum, has been largely clarified...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738792/energy-homeostasis-and-running-wheel-activity-during-pregnancy-in-the-mouse
#14
S R Ladyman, K M Carter, D R Grattan
Pregnancy and lactation are metabolically challenging states, where the mother must supply all the energy requirements for the developing fetus and growing pups respectively. The aim of the current study was to characterize many aspects of energy homeostasis before and during pregnancy in the mouse, and to examine the role of voluntary activity on changes in energy expenditure during pregnancy. In a secondary aim, we evaluate measures of energy homeostasis during pregnancy in mice that successfully reared their litter or in mice that went on to abandon their litter, to determine if an impairment in pregnancy-induced adaptation of energy homeostasis might underlie the abandonment of pups soon after birth...
May 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729588/the-effects-of-a-single-dose-of-fluoxetine-on-practice-dependent-plasticity
#15
Michelle N McDonnell, Carl Zipser, Ghazaleh Darmani, Ulf Ziemann, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a single dose of fluoxetine increases corticomotoneuronal excitability, motor performance and practice-dependent plasticity. METHODS: Twelve healthy adults completed this placebo-controlled, pseudo-randomized, double-blind crossover study. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess corticomotoneuronal excitability, and two uni-axial accelerometers measured kinetics of fastest possible ballistic voluntary thumb movements and TMS-evoked thumb movements...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726629/high-precision-voluntary-movements-are-largely-independent-from-preceding-vertex-potentials-elicited-by-sudden-sensory-events
#16
M Kilintari, R J Bufacchi, G Novembre, Y Guo, P Haggard, G D Iannetti
Salient and sudden sensory events generate a remarkably large response in the human brain, the vertex wave (VW) The VW is coupled with a modulation of a voluntarily-applied isometric force Here, we tested whether the VW is also related to executing high-precision movements The execution of a voluntary high-precision movement remains relatively independent of the brain activity reflected by the preceding VW The apparent relationship between the positive VW and the movement onset time is explained by goal-related but stimulus-independent neural activities These results highlight the need of considering such goal-related but stimulus-independent neural activities when attempting to relate ERP amplitude with perceptual and behavioural performance ABSTRACT: Salient and fast-rising sensory events generate a large biphasic vertex wave (VW) in the human electroencephalogram (EEG)...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719245/corticospinal-circuits-from-the-sensory-and-motor-cortices-differentially-regulate-skilled-movements-through-distinct-spinal-interneurons
#17
Masaki Ueno, Yuka Nakamura, Jie Li, Zirong Gu, Jesse Niehaus, Mari Maezawa, Steven A Crone, Martyn Goulding, Mark L Baccei, Yutaka Yoshida
Little is known about the organizational and functional connectivity of the corticospinal (CS) circuits that are essential for voluntary movement. Here, we map the connectivity between CS neurons in the forelimb motor and sensory cortices and various spinal interneurons, demonstrating that distinct CS-interneuron circuits control specific aspects of skilled movements. CS fibers originating in the mouse motor cortex directly synapse onto premotor interneurons, including those expressing Chx10. Lesions of the motor cortex or silencing of spinal Chx10+ interneurons produces deficits in skilled reaching...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706760/brain-motor-control-assessment-post-early-intensive-hand-rehabilitation-after-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Maryam Zoghi, Mary Galea
Background: The Brain Motor Control Assessment (BMCA) is a surface electromyography (sEMG)-based measure of motor output from the central nervous system during a variety of reflex and voluntary motor tasks. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of voluntary movements in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) to investigate whether BMCA could add more resolution to clinical assessments and the recovery path of these patients. Method: Ten participants were recruited from the Royal Talbot Rehabilitation Centre as part of a multicenter randomized controlled trial...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703156/functional-outcomes-in-hirschsprung-disease-patients-after-transabdominal-soave-and-duhamel-procedures
#19
Amira Widyasari, Winona Alda Pravitasari, Andi Dwihantoro, Gunadi
BACKGROUND: Several pull-through procedures have been described for Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) with varying functional outcomes. The voluntary bowel movement (VBM) and the absence of soiling or constipation after pull-through remain the most important markers of good outcome. We aimed to compare the functional outcomes in HSCR patients following Soave and Duhamel procedures. METHODS: Krickenbeck classification was utilized to determine VBM, soiling and constipation for patients who underwent Soave and Duhamel pull-through at Dr...
April 27, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701820/cerebello-cortical-network-fingerprints-differ-between-essential-parkinson-s-and-mimicked-tremors
#20
Muthuraman Muthuraman, Jan Raethjen, Nabin Koirala, Abdul Rauf Anwar, Kidist G Mideksa, Rodger Elble, Sergiu Groppa, Günter Deuschl
Cerebello-thalamo-cortical loops play a major role in the emergence of pathological tremors and voluntary rhythmic movements. It is unclear whether these loops differ anatomically or functionally in different types of tremor. We compared age- and sex-matched groups of patients with Parkinson's disease or essential tremor and healthy controls (n = 34 per group). High-density 256-channel EEG and multi-channel EMG from extensor and flexor muscles of both wrists were recorded simultaneously while extending the hands against gravity with the forearms supported...
April 26, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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