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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448504/impaired-sense-of-agency-in-functional-movement-disorders-an-fmri-study
#1
Fatta B Nahab, Prantik Kundu, Carine Maurer, Qian Shen, Mark Hallett
The sense of agency (SA) is an established framework that refers to our ability to exert and perceive control over our own actions. Having an intact SA provides the basis for the human perception of voluntariness, while impairments in SA are hypothesized to lead to the perception of movements being involuntary that may be seen many neurological or psychiatric disorders. Individuals with functional movement disorders (FMD) experience a lack of control over their movements, yet these movements appear voluntary by physiology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447847/the-speed-of-voluntary-and-priority-driven-shifts-of-visual-attention
#2
Michael Jenkins, Anna Grubert, Martin Eimer
The question how fast spatial attention moves between different visual objects remains debated. We used electrophysiological measures to determine the speed of voluntary and visually guided shifts of attention. Participants shifted attention from a known benchmark object (T1) to a benchmark-defined target object (T2) in tasks where these shifts had to be controlled endogenously and tasks where they could be guided by visible stimulus attributes (target features or arrow cues). To track the speed of these attention shifts, we measured event-related potential (ERP) markers of attentional object selection (N2pc components)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446586/muscle-synergies-obtained-from-comprehensive-mapping-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-forelimb-representation-using-high-frequency-long-duration-icms
#3
Sommer L Amundsen Huffmaster, Gustaf M Van Acker, Carl W Luchies, Paul D Cheney
Simplifying neuromuscular control for movement has previously been explored by extracting muscle synergies from voluntary movement electromyography (EMG) patterns. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle synergies represented in EMG recordings associated with direct electrical stimulation of single sites in primary motor cortex (M1). We applied single electrode high-frequency, long-duration intracortical microstimulation (HFLD-ICMS) to the forelimb region of M1 in two rhesus macaques using parameters previously found to produce forelimb movements to stable spatial endpoints (90-150 Hz, 90-150 μA, 1000 ms stimulus train lengths)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446181/a-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-nmes-and-robot-hybrid-system-for-multi-joint-coordinated-upper-limb-rehabilitation-after-stroke
#4
Wei Rong, Waiming Li, Mankit Pang, Junyan Hu, Xijun Wei, Bibo Yang, Honwah Wai, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Xiaoling Hu
BACKGROUND: It is a challenge to reduce the muscular discoordination in the paretic upper limb after stroke in the traditional rehabilitation programs. METHOD: In this study, a neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and robot hybrid system was developed for multi-joint coordinated upper limb physical training. The system could assist the elbow, wrist and fingers to conduct arm reaching out, hand opening/grasping and arm withdrawing by tracking an indicative moving cursor on the screen of a computer, with the support from the joint motors and electrical stimulations on target muscles, under the voluntary intention control by electromyography (EMG)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442333/effects-of-auditory-stimuli-on-electrical-activity-in-the-brain-during-cycle-ergometry
#5
Marcelo Bigliassi, Costas I Karageorghis, Michael J Wright, Guido Orgs, Alexander V Nowicky
The present study sought to further understanding of the brain mechanisms that underlie the effects of music on perceptual, affective, and visceral responses during whole-body modes of exercise. Eighteen participants were administered light-to-moderate intensity bouts of cycle ergometer exercise. Each exercise bout was of 12-min duration (warm-up [3min], exercise [6min], and warm-down [3min]). Portable techniques were used to monitor the electrical activity in the brain, heart, and muscle during the administration of three conditions: music, audiobook, and control...
April 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427305/neuromechanical-adaptations-during-a-robotic-powered-exoskeleton-assisted-walking-session
#6
Arvind Ramanujam, Christopher M Cirnigliaro, Erica Garbarini, Pierre Asselin, Rakesh Pilkar, Gail F Forrest
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gait parameters and neuromuscular profiles of exoskeleton-assisted walking under Max Assist condition during a single-session for; (i) able bodied (AB) individuals walking assisted with (EXO) and without (non-EXO) a powered exoskeleton, (ii) non-ambulatory SCI individuals walking assisted with a powered exoskeleton. DESIGN: Single-session. SETTING: Motion analysis laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Four AB individuals and four individuals with SCI...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424387/-cortical-areas-for-controlling-voluntary-movements
#7
Yoshihisa Nakayama, Eiji Hoshi
The primary motor cortex is located in Brodmann area 4 at the most posterior part of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex corresponds to an output stage of motor signals, sending motor commands to the brain stem and spinal cord. Brodmann area 6 is rostral to Brodmann area 4, where multiple higher-order motor areas are located. The premotor area, which is located in the lateral part, is involved in planning and executing action based on sensory signals. The premotor area contributes to the reaching for and grasping of an object to achieve a behavioral goal...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413944/the-assessment-of-motor-fatigability-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#8
Deborah Severijns, Inge Zijdewind, Ulrik Dalgas, Ilse Lamers, Caroline Lismont, Peter Feys
BACKGROUND: Persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) are often characterized by increased motor fatigability, which is a performance change on an objectively measured criterion after any type of voluntary muscle contractions. This review summarizes the existing literature to determine which protocols and outcome measures are best to detect or study motor fatigability and the underlying mechanisms in MS. METHODS: Two electronic databases, PubMed and Web of Science, were searched for relevant articles published until August 2016 with a combination of multiple sclerosis, fatigability, muscle fatigue, and motor fatigue...
May 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413116/trunk-muscle-emg-during-intermediate-pilates-mat-exercises-in-beginner-healthy-and-chronic-low-back-pain-individuals
#9
Ivye L R Pereira, Bergson Queiroz, Jefferson Loss, César Amorim, Isabel C N Sacco
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic pattern of core muscles during intermediate Pilates mat exercises between healthy people and those with low back pain. METHODS: We evaluated healthy participants (n = 19; mean ± standard deviation [SD]: age 28 ± 8 years, body mass 65 ± 10 kg, height 160.0 ± 9.1 cm) and a low back pain group (n = 13; mean ± SD: age 30 ± 9 years, body mass 67 ± 12 kg, height 170.0 ± 6.6 cm). Electromyographic analysis assessed the multifidus, external oblique, internal oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles during classical Pilates exercises (single leg stretch, criss-cross, and dead bug)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412643/my-action-lasts-longer-potential-link-between-subjective-time-and-agency-during-voluntary-action
#10
Shu Imaizumi, Tomohisa Asai
Time perception distorts across different phases of bodily movement. During motor execution, sensory feedback matching an internal sensorimotor prediction is perceived to last longer. The sensorimotor prediction also underlies sense of agency. We investigated association between subjective time and agency during voluntary action. Participants performed hand action while watching a video feedback of their hand with various delays to manipulate agency. The perceived duration and agency over the video feedback were judged...
April 13, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409282/motor-neuron-vulnerability-and-resistance-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#11
REVIEW
Jik Nijssen, Laura H Comley, Eva Hedlund
In the fatal disease-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-upper (corticospinal) motor neurons (MNs) and lower somatic MNs, which innervate voluntary muscles, degenerate. Importantly, certain lower MN subgroups are relatively resistant to degeneration, even though pathogenic proteins are typically ubiquitously expressed. Ocular MNs (OMNs), including the oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nuclei (CNIII, IV and VI), which regulate eye movement, persist throughout the disease. Consequently, eye-tracking devices are used to enable paralysed ALS patients (who can no longer speak) to communicate...
April 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408875/apas-constraints-to-voluntary-movements-the-case-for-limb-movements-coupling
#12
REVIEW
Fausto G Baldissera, Luigi Tesio
When rhythmically moving two limbs in either the same or in opposite directions, one coupling mode meets constraints that are absent in the other mode. Isodirectional (ISO) flexion-extensions of the ipsilateral hand and foot can be easily performed with either the hand prone or supine. Instead, antidirectional (ANTI) movements require attentive effort and irresistibly tend to reverse into ISO when frequency increases. Experimental evidence indicates that the direction dependent easy-difficult dichotomy is caused by interference of the anticipatory postural commands associated to movements of one limb with voluntary commands to the other limb...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408871/focused-and-sustained-attention-is-modified-by-a-goal-based-rehabilitation-in-parkinsonian-patients
#13
Davide Ferrazzoli, Paola Ortelli, Roberto Maestri, Rossana Bera, Roberto Gargantini, Grazia Palamara, Marianna Zarucchi, Nir Giladi, Giuseppe Frazzitta
Rehabilitation for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is based on cognitive strategies that exploit attention. Parkinsonians exhibit impairments in divided attention and interference control. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of specific rehabilitation treatments based on attention suggests that other attentional functions are preserved. Data about attention are conflicting in PD, and it is not clear whether rehabilitative treatments that entail attentional strategies affect attention itself. Reaction times (RTs) represent an instrument to explore attention and investigate whether changes in attentional performances parallel rehabilitation induced-gains...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400326/developmental-visual-perception-deficits-with-no-indications-of-prosopagnosia-in-a-child-with-abnormal-eye-movements
#14
Sharon Gilaie-Dotan, Ravid Doron
Visual categories are associated with eccentricity biases in high-order visual cortex: Faces and reading with foveally-biased regions, while common objects and space with mid- and peripherally-biased regions. As face perception and reading are among the most challenging human visual skills, and are often regarded as the peak achievements of a distributed neural network supporting common objects perception, it is unclear why objects, which also rely on foveal vision to be processed, are associated with mid-peripheral rather than with a foveal bias...
April 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399877/overground-vs-treadmill-based-robotic-gait-training-to-improve-seated-balance-in-people-with-motor-complete-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#15
Amanda E Chisholm, Raed A Alamro, Alison M M Williams, Tania Lam
BACKGROUND: Robotic overground gait training devices, such as the Ekso, require users to actively participate in triggering steps through weight-shifting movements. It remains unknown how much the trunk muscles are activated during these movements, and if it is possible to transfer training effects to seated balance control. This study was conducted to compare the activity of postural control muscles of the trunk during overground (Ekso) vs. treadmill-based (Lokomat) robotic gait training, and evaluate changes in seated balance control in people with high-thoracic motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397578/paroxysmal-kinesigenic-dyskinesia-like-phenotype-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Roxana Pop, Stefan Kipfer
In April 2015, a 20-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis (MS) presented with acute onset of repetitive abnormal postures and choreatic movements of the right arm, precipitated by voluntary movements (online video 1 and 2). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a new active MS lesion involving the basal ganglia on the left side (Figure 1(a)). Intravenous steroid treatment resulted in rapid regression of this paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD)-like hyperkinetic movement disorder. The patient became asymptomatic within 3 months...
April 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394483/corticobulbar-projections-from-distinct-motor-cortical-areas-to-the-reticular-formation-in-macaque-monkeys
#17
Michela Fregosi, Alessandro Contestabile, Adja Hamadjida, Eric M Rouiller
Corticospinal and corticobulbar descending pathways act in parallel with brainstem systems, such as the reticulospinal tact, to ensure the control of voluntary movements via direct or indirect influences onto spinal motoneurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the corticobulbar projections from distinct motor cortical areas onto different nuclei of the reticular formation. Seven adult macaque monkeys were analyzed for the location of corticobulbar axonal boutons, and one monkey for reticulospinal neurons' location...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391368/effects-of-auditory-distraction-on-voluntary-movements-exploring-the-underlying-mechanisms-associated-with-parallel-processing
#18
Marcelo Bigliassi, Costas I Karageorghis, Alexander V Nowicky, Michael J Wright, Guido Orgs
Highly demanding cognitive-motor tasks can be negatively influenced by the presence of auditory stimuli. The human brain attempts to partially suppress the processing of potential distractors in order that motor tasks can be completed successfully. The present study sought to further understand the attentional neural systems that activate in response to potential distractors during the execution of movements. Nineteen participants (9 women and 10 men) were administered isometric ankle-dorsiflexion tasks for 10 s at a light intensity...
April 8, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391033/offline-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-over-right-inferior-frontal-gyrus-and-pre-supplementary-motor-area-impairs-inhibition-during-a-go-no-go-task
#19
Neil M Drummond, Erin K Cressman, Anthony N Carlsen
In a typical go/no-go task a single imperative stimulus is presented each trial, either a go or no-go stimulus. Participants are instructed to initiate a known response upon appearance of the go-signal and withhold the response if the no-go signal is presented. It is unclear whether the go-response is prepared in advance of the imperative stimulus in a go/no-go task. Moreover, it is unclear if inhibitory control processes suppress preparatory go-activation. The purpose of the present experiment was 1) to determine whether the go-response is prepared in advance of stimulus identification with the use of a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS), and 2) investigate the inhibitory role of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA) during the performance of a go/no-go task with the use of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS)...
April 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390128/masticatory-muscle-activity-evaluation-by-electromyography-in-subjects-with-zygomatic-implants
#20
M de Rossi, M Palinkas, B Lucas, C Santos, M Semprini, L Oliveira, I Regalo, E Bersani, R Miglioranca, S Siéssere, S Regalo
BACKGROUND: Zygomatic implants are an alternative treatment in the rehabilitation of atrophic maxilla to promote stability in the stomatognathic system. The aim of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity of masseter and temporalis muscles in controls and in individuals with complete implant-supported dentures anchored in the zygomatic bone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-four volunteers of both genders (mean age 52.5 years) were selected and distributed into two groups: Individuals with zygomatic implant (ZIG; n=27) and fully dentate patients (CG; n=27)...
April 8, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
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