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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921678/ipsilateral-corticotectal-projections-from-the-primary-premotor-and-supplementary-motor-cortical-areas-in-adult-macaque-monkeys-a-quantitative-anterograde-tracing-study
#1
Michela Fregosi, Eric M Rouiller
The corticotectal projection from cortical motor areas is one of several descending pathways involved in the indirect control of spinal motoneurons. In non-human primates, previous studies reported that cortical projections to the superior colliculus originated from the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex, whereas no projection originated from the supplementary motor area. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the properties of corticotectal projections originating from these three cortical motor areas in intact adult macaques (n=9)...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915105/variations-of-ankle-foot-orthosis-constrained-movements-increase-ankle-range-of-movement-while-maintaining-power-output-of-recumbent-cycling
#2
Puteri N F Hamdan, Nur Azah Hamzaid, Juliana Usman, Md Anamul Islam, Victor S P Kean, Ahmad K Abdul Wahab, Nazirah Hasnan, Glen M Davis
Previous research investigated recumbent cycle power output (PO) from the perspective of knee and hip joint biomechanics. However, ankle-foot biomechanics and, in particular, the effect of ankle-foot orthosis (AFO)-constrained movements on cycle PO has not been widely explored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether AFOs of a fixed position (FP) and in dorsi-plantarflexion (DPF)-, dorsiflexion (DF)- and plantarflexion (PF)-constrained movements might influence PO during voluntary recumbent cycling exercises...
September 15, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915097/synergies-and-motor-equivalence-in-voluntary-sway-tasks-the-effects-of-visual-and-mechanical-constraints
#3
Mariusz P Furmanek, Stanisław Solnik, Daniele Piscitelli, Omid Rasouli, Ali Falaki, Mark L Latash
The authors used two analyses developed within the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to quantify multimuscle synergies during voluntary body sway: analysis of intertrial variance and analysis of motor equivalence with respect to the center of pressure (COP) trajectory. Participants performed voluntary sway tasks in the anteroposterior direction at 0.33 and 0.66 Hz. Muscle groups were identified in the space of muscle activations and used as elemental variables in the synergy analyses. Changing mechanical and vision feedback-based constraints led to significant changes in indices of sway performance such as COP deviations in the uninstructed, mediolateral direction and indices of spontaneous postural sway...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902112/the-efficacy-of-repeated-cold-water-immersion-on-recovery-following-a-simulated-rugby-union-protocol
#4
Sean Barber, Pattison John, Freddy Brown, Jessica Hill
Training and athletic competition frequently results in exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of repeated cold water immersion (CWI) on recovery following a simulated rugby union match. Sixteen male, club level rugby players were matched for body mass and randomly assigned to either a CWI group or control (CON) group. Following the simulated rugby match the CWI group underwent 2 x 5 min immersions at a temperature of 10°C separated by 2.5 min seated at room temperature, whilst the CON group remained seated for 15 min...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888908/quick-foot-placement-adjustments-during-gait-are-less-accurate-in-individuals-with-focal-cerebellar-lesions
#5
Wouter Hoogkamer, Zrinka Potocanac, Frank Van Calenbergh, Jacques Duysens
Online gait corrections are frequently used to restore gait stability and prevent falling. They require shorter response times than voluntary movements which suggests that subcortical pathways contribute to the execution of online gait corrections. To evaluate the potential role of the cerebellum in these pathways we tested the hypotheses that online gait corrections would be less accurate in individuals with focal cerebellar damage than in neurologically intact controls and that this difference would be more pronounced for shorter available response times and for short step gait corrections...
September 1, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887816/the-little-things-that-run-a-general-scaling-of-invertebrate-exploratory-speed-with-body-mass
#6
Myriam R Hirt, Tobias Lauermann, Ulrich Brose, Lucas P J J Noldus, Anthony I Dell
Speed is a key trait of animal movement, and while much is already known about vertebrate speed and how it scales with body mass, studies on invertebrates are sparse, especially across diverse taxonomic groups. Here, we used automated image-based tracking to characterize the exploratory (voluntary) speed of 173 invertebrates comprising 57 species across 6 taxonomic groups (Arachnida, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Entognatha, Insecta, Malacostraca) and 4 feeding types (carnivore, detritivore, herbivore, omnivore). Across all individuals, exploratory speed scaled with body mass following a power-law relationship with a scaling exponent of 0...
September 8, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885742/adaptive-bulk-motion-exclusion-for-improved-robustness-of-abdominal-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Bjorn Stemkens, Thomas Benkert, Hersh Chandarana, Mark E Bittman, Cornelis A T Van den Berg, Jan J W Lagendijk, Daniel K Sodickson, Rob H N Tijssen, Kai Tobias Block
Non-Cartesian magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences have shown great promise for abdominal examination during free breathing, but break down in the presence of bulk patient motion (i.e. voluntary or involuntary patient movement resulting in translation, rotation or elastic deformations of the body). This work describes a data-consistency-driven image stabilization technique that detects and excludes bulk movements during data acquisition. Bulk motion is identified from changes in the signal intensity distribution across different elements of a multi-channel receive coil array...
September 8, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885740/preferential-encoding-of-movement-amplitude-and-speed-in-the-primary-motor-cortex-and-cerebellum
#8
Alit Stark-Inbar, Eran Dayan
Voluntary movements require control of multiple kinematic parameters, a task carried out by a distributed brain architecture. However, it remains unclear whether regions along the motor system encode single, or rather a mixture of, kinematic parameters during action execution. Here, rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to differentiate brain activity along the motor system during the encoding of movement amplitude, duration, and speed. We present cumulative evidence supporting preferential encoding of kinematic parameters along the motor system, based on blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal recorded in a well-controlled single-joint wrist-flexion task...
September 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884806/neurophysiological-mechanisms-and-functional-impact-of-mirror-movements-in-children-with-unilateral-spastic-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Hsing-Ching Kuo, Kathleen M Friel, Andrew M Gordon
Children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) often have mirror movements, i.e. involuntary imitations of unilateral voluntary movements of the contralateral upper extremity. The pathophysiology of mirror movements has been investigated in small and heterogeneous cohorts in the literature. Specific pathophysiology of mirror movements and their impact on upper extremity function require systematic investigation in larger and homogeneous cohorts of children with unilateral spastic CP. Here we review two possible neurophysiological mechanisms underlying mirror movements in children with CP and those with typical development: (1) an ipsilateral corticospinal tract projecting from the contralesional motor cortex (M1) to both upper extremities; (2) insufficient interhemispheric inhibition between the two M1s...
September 8, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877223/adhering-to-a-national-surgical-care-bundle-reduces-the-risk-of-surgical-site-infections
#10
Mayke B G Koek, Titia E M Hopmans, Loes C Soetens, Jan C Wille, Suzanne E Geerlings, Margreet C Vos, Birgit H B van Benthem, Sabine C de Greeff
BACKGROUND: In 2008, a bundle of care to prevent Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) was introduced in the Netherlands. The bundle consisted of four elements: antibiotic prophylaxis according to local guidelines, no hair removal, normothermia and 'hygiene discipline' in the operating room (i.e. number of door movements). Dutch hospitals were advised to implement the bundle and to measure the outcome. This study's goal was to assess how effective the bundle was in reducing SSI risk. METHODS: Hospitals assessed whether their staff complied with each of the bundle elements and voluntary reported compliance data to the national SSI surveillance network (PREZIES)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872420/laterality-of-motor-control-and-induced-gamma-band-activity-during-voluntary-movement-a-clinical-perspective-of-an-inexpensive-paper-and-pencil-bimanual-simultaneous-drawing-test
#11
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870592/computer-based-assessment-of-upper-limb-incoordination-in-autosomal-recessive-spastic-ataxia-of-charlevoix-saguenay-patients-a-pilot-study
#12
Hung Tien Bui, Olivier Audet, Jean Mathieu, Cynthia Gagnon, Mario Leone
Ataxia refers to a group of neurological disorders characterized by a lack of coordination during voluntary movements. One of the most commonly used tests to assess upper-limb coordination is the Archimedes spiral test. The purpose of this research is to present an innovative computer-based Archimedes spiral test that can accurately assess coordination. Forty nine individuals (age: 25.2±7.1years) were recruited including thirteen patients diagnosed with Autosomal Recessive Spastic Ataxia of Charlevoix/Saguenay (ARSACS)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867549/the-upper-and-lower-segments-of-subscapularis-muscle-have-different-roles-in-glenohumeral-joint-functioning
#13
Sangeeta Rathi, Nicholas F Taylor, Rodney A Green
Subscapularis muscle is divided into two independent segments, upper and lower (USUB and LSUB), but the role of each segment in glenohumeral functioning is unclear. We compared the electromyographic (EMG) activity of USUB and LSUB during a variety of shoulder movements, with and without an external translation force. Intramuscular electrodes were inserted in USUB and LSUB segments of 20 adults without pathology and EMG activity was measured in stabilization trials (with and without an anterior or posterior directed force at the humerus and isometric rotations) and two shoulder positions (shoulder neutral, abduction)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861038/alleviation-of-motor-impairments-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy-acute-effects-of-whole-body-vibration-on-stretch-reflex-response-voluntary-muscle-activation-and-mobility
#14
Anne Krause, Eckhard Schönau, Albert Gollhofer, Ibrahim Duran, Anja Ferrari-Malik, Kathrin Freyler, Ramona Ritzmann
INTRODUCTION: Individuals suffering from cerebral palsy (CP) often have involuntary, reflex-evoked muscle activity resulting in spastic hyperreflexia. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been demonstrated to reduce reflex activity in healthy subjects, but evidence in CP patients is still limited. Therefore, this study aimed to establish the acute neuromuscular and kinematic effects of WBV in subjects with spastic CP. METHODS: 44 children with spastic CP were tested on neuromuscular activation and kinematics before and immediately after a 1-min bout of WBV (16-25 Hz, 1...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860924/frontalis-sling-surgery-a-treatment-modality-for-cyclic-oculomotor-nerve-palsy
#15
Smriti Bansal, Sima Das
Cyclic oculomotor nerve paresis and spasm are a rare disorder characterized by alternating spastic and paretic phase of the muscles supplied by the oculomotor nerve. A 26-year-old male presented with abnormal right eyelid movements since early childhood. Examination findings were consistent with diagnosis of right eye cyclic oculomotor nerve palsy. A paretic phase with complete upper eyelid ptosis, exotropia, hypotropia and dilatation of the pupil was followed by a phase of orthotropia, the absence of ptosis and normal pupil size...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology: Official Journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860775/a-case-of-paroxysmal-kinesigenic-dyskinesia-which-exhibited-the-phenotype-of-anxiety-disorder
#16
Yasuto Kunii, Nozomu Matsuda, Hirooki Yabe
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is a rare heritable neurologic disorder characterized by attacks of involuntary movement induced by sudden voluntary movements. No previous reports have described cases showing comorbidity with psychiatric disease or symptoms. In this case, we showed a patient with PKD who exhibited several manifestations of anxiety disorder. CASE: A 35-year-old Japanese man with PKD had been maintained on carbamazepine since he was 16 years of age without any attacks...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851391/surface-emg-signals-in-very-late-stage-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-a-case-study
#17
Joan Lobo-Prat, Mariska M H P Janssen, Bart F J M Koopman, Arno H A Stienen, Imelda J M de Groot
BACKGROUND: Robotic arm supports aim at improving the quality of life for adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by augmenting their residual functional abilities. A critical component of robotic arm supports is the control interface, as is it responsible for the human-machine interaction. Our previous studies showed the feasibility of using surface electromyography (sEMG) as a control interface to operate robotic arm supports in adults with DMD (22-24 years-old). However, in the biomedical engineering community there is an often raised skepticism on whether adults with DMD at the last stage of their disease have sEMG signals that can be measured and used for control...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836553/depression-anxiety-and-quality-of-life-in-paroxysmal-kinesigenic-dyskinesia-patients
#18
Wo-Tu Tian, Xiao-Jun Huang, Xiao-Li Liu, Jun-Yi Shen, Gui-Ling Liang, Chen-Xi Zhu, Wei-Guo Tang, Sheng-Di Chen, Yan-Yan Song, Li Cao
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is a rare movement disorder characterized by recurrent dystonic or choreoathetoid attacks triggered by sudden voluntary movements. Under the condition of psychological burden, some patients' attacks may get worsened with longer duration and higher frequency. This study aimed to assess nonmotor symptoms and quality of life of patients with PKD in a large population. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey in 165 primary PKD patients from August 2008 to October 2016 in Rui Jin Hospital, using Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), World Health Organization Quality of Life-100 (WHOQoL-100), Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale...
September 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836067/is-nigrostriatal-dopaminergic-deficit-necessary-for-holmes-tremor-to-develop-the-datscan-and-ibzm-spect-study
#19
Agata Gajos, Sławomir Budrewicz, Magdalena Koszewicz, Małgorzata Bieńkiewicz, Janusz Dąbrowski, Jacek Kuśmierek, Jarosław Sławek, Andrzej Bogucki
Holmes's tremor (HT) is assumed to be the result of coexistence of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system impairment and the lesion of cerebello-thalamic pathways. It was suggested that dopaminergic deficiency is responsible for rest tremor, and lack of compensatory cerebellar function leads to spill of tremor into voluntary movements. Cases of HT with and without abnormalities of the presynaptic part of dopaminergic nigrostriatal were published and these findings raised the question of possibility of the postsynaptic lesion...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835813/voluntary-and-involuntary-movements-widen-the-window-of-subjective-simultaneity
#20
B Ezgi Arikan, Bianca M van Kemenade, Benjamin Straube, Laurence R Harris, Tilo Kircher
Forming a coherent percept of an event requires different sensory inputs originating from the event to be bound. Perceiving synchrony aids in binding of these inputs. In two experiments, we investigated how voluntary movements influence the perception of simultaneity, by measuring simultaneity judgments (SJs) for an audiovisual (AV) stimulus pair triggered by a voluntary button press. In Experiment 1, we manipulated contiguity between the action and its consequences by introducing delays between the button press and the AV stimulus pair...
July 2017: I-Perception
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