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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320154/advances-in-assessing-myotonia-can-sensor-engineered-glove-have-a-role
#1
Simona Portaro, Margherita Russo, Antonino Naro, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Carmelo Rodolico, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Non-dystrophic (NDMs) and Dystrophic Myotonias (DMs) are diseases characterized by the presence of myotonia with or without muscle weakness. A standardized myotonia assessment is important to more objectively quantify the handgrip myotonia. We screened 10 patients affected by NDM and 10 patients with DM, using the sensor-engineered glove (SEG). The time required to perform a complete finger extension (grip myotonia time, GMT) at maximum velocity (MV) after maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was evaluated through an ad hoc protocol including rest, exercise, and ice effects on handgrip myotonia...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317947/parietal-operculum-and-motor-cortex-activities-predict-motor-recovery-in-moderate-to-severe-stroke
#2
Firdaus Fabrice Hannanu, Thomas A Zeffiro, Laurent Lamalle, Olivier Heck, Félix Renard, Antoine Thuriot, Alexandre Krainik, Marc Hommel, Olivier Detante, Assia Jaillard
While motor recovery following mild stroke has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, mechanisms of recovery after moderate to severe strokes of the types that are often the focus for novel restorative therapies remain obscure. We used fMRI to: 1) characterize reorganization occurring after moderate to severe subacute stroke, 2) identify brain regions associated with motor recovery and 3) to test whether brain activity associated with passive movement measured in the subacute period could predict motor outcome six months later...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316262/tribute-to-dr-jacques-rogge-muscle-activity-and-fatigue-during-hiking-in-olympic-dinghy-sailing
#3
Jan G Bourgois, Jasmien Dumortier, Margot Callewaert, Bert Celie, Carlo Capelli, Gisela Sjøgaard, Dirk De Clercq, Jan Boone
'A tribute to Dr J. Rogge' aims to systematically review muscle activity and muscle fatigue during sustained submaximal quasi-isometric knee extension exercise (hiking) related to Olympic dinghy sailing as a tribute to Dr Rogge's merits in the world of sports. Dr Jacques Rogge is not only the former President of the International Olympic Committee, he was also an orthopaedic surgeon and a keen sailor, competing at three Olympic Games. In 1972, in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Sports Medicine, he was the first who studied a sailors' muscle activity by means of invasive needle electromyography (EMG) during a specific sailing technique (hiking) on a self-constructed sailing ergometer...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303385/after-effects-of-cerebellar-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-on-reflexive-saccades-and-smooth-pursuit-in-humans
#4
Silvia Colnaghi, P Colagiorgio, S Ramat, E D'Angelo, G Koch, M Versino
The use of cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has been attempted for perturbing reflexive and voluntary eye movements, but discrepancies are seen between the results of distinct studies possibly due to the different stimulation sites, intensities, and paradigms. We describe the after effects of 20 and 40 s continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS) as compared to sham stimulation, applied over the lateral cerebellar vermis and paravermis on Reflexive Saccades (RS) and Smooth Pursuit (SP) eye movements, recorded in the 30 min following stimulation...
March 16, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299334/evidence-for-startle-effects-due-to-externally-induced-lower-limb-movements-implications-in-neurorehabilitation
#5
Juan M Castellote, Markus Kofler, Andreas Mayr, Leopold Saltuari
Passive limb displacement is routinely used to assess muscle tone. If we attempt to quantify muscle stiffness using mechanical devices, it is important to know whether kinematic stimuli are able to trigger startle reactions. Whether kinematic stimuli are able to elicit a startle reflex and to accelerate prepared voluntary movements (StartReact effect) has not been studied extensively to date. Eleven healthy subjects were suspended in an exoskeleton and were exposed to passive left knee flexion (KF) at three intensities, occasionally replaced by fast right KF...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298299/time-compression-of-visual-perception-around-microsaccades
#6
Gongchen Yu, Mingpo Yang, Peng Yu, Michael C Dorris
Even during fixation, our eyes are in constant motion. For example, microsaccades are small (typically<1°) eye movements that occur 1~3 times/second. Despite their tiny and transient nature, our percept of visual space is compressed prior to microsaccades (Hafed 2013). As visual space and time are interconnected at both the physical and physiological levels, we asked whether microsaccades also affect the temporal aspects of visual perception. Here we demonstrate that the perceived interval between transient visual stimuli was compressed if accompanied by microsaccades...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293798/old-adults-preserve-motor-flexibility-during-rapid-reaching
#7
Christian Greve, Tibor Hortobágyi, Raoul M Bongers
PURPOSE: Our ability to flexibly coordinate the available degrees of freedom allows us to perform activities of daily living under various task constraints. Healthy old adults exhibit subclinical peripheral and central nervous system dysfunctions, possibly compromising the flexibility in inter-joint coordination during voluntary movements and the ability to adapt to varying task constraints. METHOD: We examined how healthy old (75.4 ± 5.2 years, n = 14) compared with young adults (24...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275058/eeg-oscillations-how-are-they-modulated-during-different-phases-of-repetitive-movements
#8
Antonella Macerollo, Matt J N Brown
Voluntary movements are planned through the relative timing between sub-movements of movement sequences as part of the motor program. Different movement phases are characterized by specific amplitude modulation of cortical oscillations. The latter represent neurophysiological correlates of specific synchronization or desynchronization of different neuronal groups. In this NeuroForum, we review recent evidence regarding the temporal relation between neurophysiological correlates of different phases of a repetitive motor task using electroencephalography and source localization using individualized MRI...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269581/exerciser-for-rehabilitation-of-the-arm-era-development-and-unique-features-of-a-3d-end-effector-robot
#9
Marie-Helene Milot, Mathieu Hamel, Philippe-Olivier Provost, Julien Bernier-Ouellet, Maxime Dupuis, Dominic Letourneau, Simon Briere, Francois Michaud
Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Consequently, many stroke survivors exhibit difficulties undergoing voluntary movement in their affected upper limb, compromising their functional performance and level of independence. To minimize the negative impact of stroke disabilities, exercises are recognized as a key element in post-stroke rehabilitation. In order to provide the practice of exercises in a uniform and controlled manner as well as increasing the efficiency of therapists' interventions, robotic training has been found, and continues to prove itself, as an innovative intervention for post-stroke rehabilitation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269308/corticomuscular-coherence-variation-throughout-the-gait-cycle-during-overground-walking-and-ramp-ascent-a-preliminary-investigation
#10
Anna T Winslow, Justin Brantley, Fangshi Zhu, Jose L Contreras Vidal, He Huang
Recent designs of neural-machine interfaces (NMIs) incorporating electroencephalography (EEG) or electromyography (EMG) have been used in lower limb assistive devices. While the results of previous studies have shown promise, a NMI which takes advantage of early movement-related EEG activity preceding movement onset, as well as the improved signal-to-noise ratio of EMG, could prove to be more accurate and responsive than current NMI designs based solely on EEG or EMG. Previous studies have demonstrated that the activity of the sensorimotor cortex is coupled to the firing rate of motor units in lower limb muscles during voluntary contraction...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268895/prediction-of-forelimb-muscle-emgs-from-the-corticospinal-signals-in-rats
#11
Sinan Gok, Mesut Sahin
To generate voluntary forearm movements, the information that is encoded in the activity of the cortical neurons has to travel through the spinal cord and activate the skeletal muscles. The axons carrying these signals are tightly bundled together in the descending tracts that control the spinal circuitry innervating the forearm muscles. In this paper, we show that corticospinal tract (CST) signals can be used to predict forearm electromyographic (EMG) activities that are recorded during an isometric-pull task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267578/continuous-membrane-potential-fluctuations-in-motor-cortex-and-striatum-neurons-during-voluntary-forelimb-movements-and-pauses
#12
Satoshi Nonomura, Yoko Fujiwara-Tsukamoto, Takafumi Kajihara, Fumino Fujiyama, Yoshikazu Isomura
Theoretical simulations suggest that spike rate is regulated by varying both membrane potential and its fluctuation. We investigated whether membrane potential fluctuation functionally changes in motor cortex and striatum neurons during discrete forelimb movements and pauses, or at rest, using whole-cell recording in task-performing rats. Membrane potential fluctuation was diminished by task performance, but maintained overall in the alpha/beta and gamma bands during forelimb movements and pauses. By contrast, membrane potential itself was correlated with spike rate in task-related neurons...
March 4, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265259/remodeling-brain-activity-by-repetitive-cervicothoracic-transspinal-stimulation-after-human-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Lynda M Murray, Maria Knikou
Interventions that can produce targeted brain plasticity after human spinal cord injury (SCI) are needed for restoration of impaired movement in these patients. In this study, we tested the effects of repetitive cervicothoracic transspinal stimulation in one person with cervical motor incomplete SCI on cortical and corticospinal excitability, which were assessed via transcranial magnetic stimulation with paired and single pulses, respectively. We found that repetitive cervicothoracic transspinal stimulation potentiated intracortical facilitation in flexor and extensor wrist muscles, recovered intracortical inhibition in the more impaired wrist flexor muscle, increased corticospinal excitability bilaterally, and improved voluntary muscle strength...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263787/precise-coding-of-ankle-angle-and-velocity-by-human-calf-muscle-spindles
#14
Ryan M Peters, Brian H Dalton, Jean-Sébastien Blouin, J Timothy Inglis
Human standing balance control requires the integration of sensory feedback to produce anticipatory, stabilizing ankle torques. However, the ability of human triceps surae muscle spindles to provide reliable sensory feedback regarding the small, slow ankle movements that occur during upright standing has recently come under question. We performed microneurography to directly record axon potentials from single muscle spindle afferents in the human triceps surae during servo-controlled movement of the ankle joint...
March 2, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261107/low-frequency-oscillations-and-control-of-the-motor-output
#15
REVIEW
Neha Lodha, Evangelos A Christou
A less precise force output impairs our ability to perform movements, learn new motor tasks, and use tools. Here we show that low-frequency oscillations in force are detrimental to force precision. We summarize the recent evidence that low-frequency oscillations in force output represent oscillations of the spinal motor neuron pool from the voluntary drive, and can be modulated by shifting power to higher frequencies. Further, force oscillations below 0.5 Hz impair force precision with increased voluntary drive, aging, and neurological disease...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242735/cortical-control-and-performance-monitoring-of-interrupting-and-redirecting-movements
#16
REVIEW
Pierre Pouget, Aditya Murthy, Veit Stuphorn
Voluntary behaviour requires control mechanisms that ensure our ability to act independently of habitual and innate response tendencies. Electrophysiological experiments, using the stop-signal task in humans, monkeys and rats, have uncovered a core network of brain structures that is essential for response inhibition. This network is shared across mammals and seems to be conserved throughout their evolution. Recently, new research building on these earlier findings has started to investigate the interaction between response inhibition and other control mechanisms in the brain...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242726/mechanisms-of-saccade-suppression-revealed-in-the-anti-saccade-task
#17
REVIEW
Brian C Coe, Douglas P Munoz
The anti-saccade task has emerged as an important tool for investigating the complex nature of voluntary behaviour. In this task, participants are instructed to suppress the natural response to look at a peripheral visual stimulus and look in the opposite direction instead. Analysis of saccadic reaction times (SRT: the time from stimulus appearance to the first saccade) and the frequency of direction errors (i.e. looking toward the stimulus) provide insight into saccade suppression mechanisms in the brain. Some direction errors are reflexive responses with very short SRTs (express latency saccades), while other direction errors are driven by automated responses and have longer SRTs...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228718/current-concepts-on-the-physiopathological-relevance-of-dopaminergic-receptors
#18
REVIEW
Ada Ledonne, Nicola B Mercuri
Dopamine (DA) is a key neurotransmitter modulating essential functions of the central nervous system (CNS), like voluntary movement, reward, several cognitive functions and goal-oriented behaviors. The factual relevance of DAergic transmission can be well appreciated by considering that its dysfunction is recognized as a core alteration in several devastating neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and associated movement disorders, as well as, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and addiction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227836/exerciser-for-rehabilitation-of-the-arm-era-development-and-unique-features-of-a-3d-end-effector-robot
#19
Marie-Helene Milot, Mathieu Hamel, Philippe-Olivier Provost, Julien Bernier-Ouellet, Maxime Dupuis, Dominic Letourneau, Simon Briere, Francois Michaud, Marie-Helene Milot, Mathieu Hamel, Philippe-Olivier Provost, Julien Bernier-Ouellet, Maxime Dupuis, Dominic Letourneau, Simon Briere, Francois Michaud, Philippe-Olivier Provost, Dominic Letourneau, Maxime Dupuis, Marie-Helene Milot, Francois Michaud, Mathieu Hamel, Julien Bernier-Ouellet, Simon Briere
Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Consequently, many stroke survivors exhibit difficulties undergoing voluntary movement in their affected upper limb, compromising their functional performance and level of independence. To minimize the negative impact of stroke disabilities, exercises are recognized as a key element in post-stroke rehabilitation. In order to provide the practice of exercises in a uniform and controlled manner as well as increasing the efficiency of therapists' interventions, robotic training has been found, and continues to prove itself, as an innovative intervention for post-stroke rehabilitation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227545/corticomuscular-coherence-variation-throughout-the-gait-cycle-during-overground-walking-and-ramp-ascent-a-preliminary-investigation
#20
Anna T Winslow, Justin Brantley, Fangshi Zhu, Jose L Contreras Vidal, He Huang, Anna T Winslow, Justin Brantley, Fangshi Zhu, Jose L Contreras Vidal, He Huang, Fangshi Zhu, Justin Brantley, Jose L Contreras Vidal, He Huang, Anna T Winslow
Recent designs of neural-machine interfaces (NMIs) incorporating electroencephalography (EEG) or electromyography (EMG) have been used in lower limb assistive devices. While the results of previous studies have shown promise, a NMI which takes advantage of early movement-related EEG activity preceding movement onset, as well as the improved signal-to-noise ratio of EMG, could prove to be more accurate and responsive than current NMI designs based solely on EEG or EMG. Previous studies have demonstrated that the activity of the sensorimotor cortex is coupled to the firing rate of motor units in lower limb muscles during voluntary contraction...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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