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Voluntary movement

Ademar Francisco de Oliveira, Gêssyca Adryene de Menezes Silva, Débora Milenna Xavier Almeida
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons, which are the central nervous system cells that control voluntary muscle movements. The excessive salivation (sialorrhea) is present in approximately 50% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases. Thus, some alternative therapeutic methods are sought, such as anticholinergic drugs and surgery. Recently the use of botulinum toxin applied at a midpoint of the salivary glands, often guided by ultrasound, have demonstrated positive results...
July 2016: Einstein
Rachel Newby, Jane Alty, Peter Kempster
Mind-brain dualism has dominated historical commentary on dystonia, a dichotomous approach that has left our conceptual grasp of it stubbornly incomplete. This is particularly true of functional dystonia, most diagnostically challenging of all functional movement disorders, in which the question of inherent psychogenicity remains a focus of debate. Phenomenological signs considered in isolation lack the specificity to distinguish organic and nonorganic forms, and dystonia's variability has frustrated attempts to develop objective laboratory-supported standards...
October 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
D Zbogar, J J Eng, W C Miller, A V Krassioukov, M C Verrier
STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the amount of upper- and lower-extremity movement repetitions (that is, voluntary movements as part of a functional task or specific motion) occurring during inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI), physical (PT) and occupational therapy (OT), and examine changes over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. SETTING: Two stand-alone inpatient SCI rehabilitation centers. METHODS: Participants: A total of 103 patients were recruited through consecutive admissions to SCI rehabilitation...
October 18, 2016: Spinal Cord
Mads Jochumsen, Imran K Niazi, Nada Signal, Rasmus W Nedergaard, Kelly Holt, Heidi Haavik, Denise Taylor
Learning new motor skills has been correlated with increased cortical excitability. In this study, different location of electrical stimulation (ES), nerve, or muscle, was paired with voluntary movement to investigate if ES paired with voluntary movement (a) would increase the excitability of cortical projections to tibialis anterior and (b) if stimulation location mattered. Cortical excitability changes were quantified using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at varying intensities during four conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Joohi Jimenez-Shahed, Ilknur Telkes, Ashwin Viswanathan, Nuri F Ince
Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging treatment strategy for severe, medication-refractory Tourette syndrome (TS). Thalamic (Cm-Pf) and pallidal (including globus pallidus interna, GPi) targets have been the most investigated. While the neurophysiological correlates of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the GPi and subthalamic nucleus (STN) are increasingly recognized, these patterns are not well characterized in other disease states. Recent findings indicate that the cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between beta band and high frequency oscillations (HFOs) within the STN in PD patients is pathologic...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Tarkeshwar Singh, Julius Fridriksson, Christopher Perry, Sarah C Tryon, Angela Ross, Stacy Fritz, Troy M Herter
Successful execution of many motor skills relies on well-organized visual search (voluntary eye movements that actively scan the environment for task-relevant information). Although impairments of visual search that result from brain injuries are linked to diminished motor performance, the neural processes that guide visual search within this context remain largely unknown. The first objective of this study was to examine how visual search in healthy adults and stroke survivors is used to guide hand movements during the Trail Making Test (TMT), a neuropsychological task that is a strong predictor of visuomotor and cognitive deficits...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Marco Lanzilotto, Alessandro Livi, Monica Maranesi, Marzio Gerbella, Falk Barz, Patrick Ruther, Leonardo Fogassi, Giacomo Rizzolatti, Luca Bonini
Grasping relies on a network of parieto-frontal areas lying on the dorsolateral and dorsomedial parts of the hemispheres. However, the initiation and sequencing of voluntary actions also requires the contribution of mesial premotor regions, particularly the pre-supplementary motor area F6. We recorded 233 F6 neurons from 2 monkeys with chronic linear multishank neural probes during reaching-grasping visuomotor tasks. We showed that F6 neurons play a role in the control of forelimb movements and some of them (26%) exhibit visual and/or motor specificity for the target object...
October 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Marc Possover
We report on unexpected findings in 18 spinal cord injured peoples who underwent a laparoscopic bilateral implantation of neuroprosthesis (LION procedure) to the sciatic/femoral nerves pelvic somatic nerves for functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted locomotor training and continuous low-frequency electrical stimulation. Fifteen patients were paraplegics, three low tetraplegics, all of them fully dependent on a wheelchair. After a training period of at least one year, all patients not only started with electrical-assisted standing/stepping using a walker or crutches, but also developed some progressive caudalward recovery of lumbosacral sensoric functions and of supraspinal control of voluntary movements below the lesions...
October 6, 2016: Surgical Technology International
Omid Talakoub, Bogdan Neagu, Kaviraja Udupa, Eric Tsang, Robert Chen, Milos R Popovic, Willy Wong
We are interested in characterizing how brain networks interact and communicate with each other during voluntary movements. We recorded electrical activities from the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the motor cortex during voluntary wrist movements. Seven patients with dystonia and six patients with Parkinson's disease underwent bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode placement. Local field potentials from the DBS electrodes and scalp EEG from the electrodes placed over the motor cortices were recorded while the patients performed externally triggered and self-initiated movements...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marco Hagen, Gerrit Schwiertz, Karl B Landorf, Hylton B Menz, George S Murley
The pronators and supinators play a key role in the medio-lateral stability of the ankle joint complex (i.e. talo-crural and subtalar joints). We hypothesized that each shank muscle has a specific activation pattern determined by its anatomical course around the axes of the subtalar and talo-crural joints. A secondary objective was to examine the effect of foot posture on these activation patterns. Forty-nine young adults (25 normal-arched feet, 24 flat-arched feet) performed maximum voluntary isometric contractions against manual resistance in four movement directions: plantarflexion (PF), dorsiflexion (DF), pronation (PRO) and supination (SUP)...
October 6, 2016: Human Movement Science
S Aybek, P Vuilleumier
Brain imaging techniques provide unprecedented opportunities to study the neural mechanisms underlying functional neurologic disorder (FND, or conversion disorder), which have long remained a mystery and clinical challenge for physicians, as they arise with no apparent underlying organic disease. One of the first questions addressed by imaging studies concerned whether motor conversion deficits (e.g., hysteric paralysis) represent a form of (perhaps unconscious) simulation, a mere absence of voluntary movement, or more specific disturbances in motor control (such as abnormal inhibition)...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
M Hallett
Functional neurologic disorders are largely genuine and represent conversion disorders, where the dysfunction is unconscious, but there are some that are factitious, where the abnormality is feigned and conscious. Malingering, which can have the same manifestations, is similarly feigned, but not considered a genuine disease. There are no good methods for differentiating these three entities at the present time. Physiologic studies of functional weakness and sensory loss reveal normal functioning of primary motor and sensory cortex, but abnormalities of premotor cortex and association cortices...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
C Bass, P Halligan
Interest in malingering has grown in recent years, and is reflected in the exponential increase in academic publications since 1990. Although malingering is more commonly detected in medicolegal practice, it is not an all-or-nothing presentation and moreover can vary in the extent of presentation. As a nonmedical disorder, the challenge for clinical practice remains that malingering by definition is intentional and deliberate. As such, clinical skills alone are often insufficient to detect it and we describe psychometric tests such as symptom validity tests and relevant nonmedical investigations...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
D Kaski, A M Bronstein
Functional (psychogenic) eye movement disorders are perhaps less established in the medical literature than other types of functional movement disorders. Patients may present with ocular symptoms (e.g., blurred vision or oscillopsia) or functional eye movements may be identified during the formal examination of the eyes in patients with other functional disorders. Convergence spasm is the most common functional eye movement disorder, but functional gaze limitation, functional eye oscillations (also termed "voluntary nystagmus"), and functional convergence paralysis may be underreported...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
M A Thenganatt, J Jankovic
Psychogenic parkinsonism (PP), although often quite disabling, is one of the least commonly reported subtypes of psychogenic movement disorders. There are certain features that help distinguish PP from idiopathic Parkinson's disease, such as abrupt onset, early disability, bilateral shaking and slowness, nondecremental slowness when performing repetitive movements, voluntary resistance against passive movement without cogwheel rigidity, distractibility, "give-way" weakness, stuttering speech, bizarre gait, and a variety of behavioral symptoms...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
M-P Stenner, P Haggard
Patients with functional movement disorders (FMD) experience movements as involuntary that share fundamental characteristics with voluntary actions. This apparent paradox raises questions regarding the possible sources of a subjective experience of action. In addition, it poses a yet unresolved diagnostic challenge, namely how to describe or even quantify this experience in a scientifically and clinically useful way. Here, we describe recent experimental approaches that have shed light on the phenomenology of action in FMD...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Kentaro Hayashi, Yoko Mochizuki, Ryoko Takeuchi, Toshio Shimizu, Masahiro Nagao, Kazuhiko Watabe, Nobutaka Arai, Kiyomitsu Oyanagi, Osamu Onodera, Masaharu Hayashi, Hitoshi Takahashi, Akiyoshi Kakita, Eiji Isozaki
In the present study, we performed a comprehensive analysis to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that had progressed to result in a totally locked-in state (communication Stage V), in which all voluntary movements are lost and communication is impossible. In 11 patients, six had phosphorylated TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (pTDP-43)-immunoreactive (ir) neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI), two had fused in sarcoma (FUS)-ir NCI, and three had copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1)-ir NCI...
September 30, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Song Sun, Gong Chen, Shan Zheng, Kuiran Dong, Xianmin Xiao
AIM: To retrospectively examine 12 patients with Hirschsprung disease (HD) who underwent posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) for various complications. METHODS: This study included patients with HD who underwent redo pull-through (PT) via PSARP at our institute between 2005 and 2014. The type of initial procedure, clinical presentations, indications, and functional results were analyzed. Postoperative excretory function was assessed using the Krickenbeck classification...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Hideyuki Nukaga, Tomotaka Takeda, Kazunori Nakajima, Keishiro Narimatsu, Takamitsu Ozawa, Keiichi Ishigami, Kazuo Funato
Teeth clenching has been shown to improve remote muscle activity (by augmentation of the Hoffmann reflex), and joint fixation (by decreased reciprocal inhibition) in the entire body. Clenching could help maintain balance, improve systemic function, and enhance safety. Teeth clenching from a sports dentistry viewpoint was thought to be important and challenging. Therefore, it is quite important to investigate mastication muscles' activity and function during sports events for clarifying a physiological role of the mastication muscle itself and involvement of mastication muscle function in whole body movement...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
Quentin Welniarz, Isabelle Dusart, Emmanuel Roze
The corticospinal tract (CST) plays a major role in cortical control of spinal cord activity. In particular, it is the principal motor pathway for voluntary movements. Here, we discuss: (i) the anatomic evolution and development of the CST across mammalian species, focusing on its role in motor functions; (ii) the molecular mechanisms regulating corticospinal tract formation and guidance during mouse development; and (iii) human disorders associated with abnormal CST development. A comparison of CST anatomy and development across mammalian species first highlights important similarities...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
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