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Caudate nuclei

Marenka Smit, David Vállez García, Bauke M de Jong, Evelien Zoons, Jan Booij, Rudi A Dierckx, Antoon T Willemsen, Erik F de Vries, Anna L Bartels, Marina A Tijssen
Purpose: Alterations of the central serotonergic system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of dystonia. In this molecular imaging study, we assessed whether altered presynaptic serotonin transporter (SERT) binding contributes to the pathophysiology of cervical dystonia (CD), concerning both motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). Methods: We assessed the non-displaceable binding potential (BPND ) using the selective SERT tracer [11 C]DASB and positron emission tomography (PET) in 14 CD patients and 12 age- and gender-matched controls...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ji-Kyung Choi, Grewo Lim, Iris Y Chen, Bruce G Jenkins
Methamphetamine (meth), and other psychostimulants such as cocaine, present a persistent problem for society with chronic users being highly prone to relapse. We show, in a chronic methamphetamine administration model, that discontinuation of drug for more than a week produces much larger changes in overall meth-induced brain connectivity and cerebral blood volume (CBV) response than changes that occur immediately following meth administration. Areas showing the largest changes were hippocampal, limbic striatum and sensorimotor cortical regions as well as brain stem areas including the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg) and pontine nuclei - regions known to be important in mediating reinstatement of drug-taking after abstinence...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Hideyuki Matsumoto, Hideji Hashida, Yukitoshi Takahashi
This report describes a rare case presenting with dystonic seizures due to anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis. The patient was an 18-year-old woman with repeated right-dominant dystonic seizures even under sedation. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed intense hyperperfusion of the caudate nuclei, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, and insula on the left side, suggesting encephalitis. Antibodies against NMDA receptors were detected in the sera and cerebrospinal fluids...
September 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
Rong-Jun Ni, Zhao-Huan Huang, Yu-Mian Shu, Yu Wang, Tao Li, Jiang-Ning Zhou
The striatum and globus pallidus are principal nuclei of the basal ganglia. Nissl- and acetylcholinesterase-stained sections of the tree shrew brain showed the neuroanatomical features of the caudate nucleus (Cd), internal capsule (ic), putamen (Pu), accumbens, internal globus pallidus, and external globus pallidus. The ic separated the dorsal striatum into the Cd and Pu in the tree shrew, but not in rats and mice. In addition, computer-based 3D images allowed a better understanding of the position and orientation of these structures...
March 5, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Ming-Liang Wang, Xiao-Er Wei, Jian-Liang Fu, Wei Li, Meng-Meng Yu, Peng-Yang Li, Wen-Bin Li
Background Previous studies revealed that subcortical nuclei were harmed in the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Purpose To investigate the volumetric and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) parameter changes of subcortical nuclei in AD and their relationship with cognitive function. Materials and Methods A total of 17 mild AD patients, 15 moderate to severe AD patients, and 16 controls underwent neuropsychological tests and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Volume, mean kurtosis (MK), mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and amygdala...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Tien-Wen Lee, Shao-Wei Xue
The default-mode network (DMN) has been reported to comprise a set of inter-connected transmodal cortical areas, including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex, posterior inferior parietal lobule, lateral temporal region, and others. However, the subcortical constituents of the DMN are still not clear. This study aimed to examine whether the correlation maps derived from subcortical structures may also account for neural pattern of the DMN. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting state functional MRI scans of 36 subjects were selected from the Rockland sample (Nathan Kline Institute)...
January 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Isaure de Beaurepaire, David Grévent, Marlène Rio, Isabelle Desguerre, Pascale de Lonlay, Raphaël Levy, Volodia Dangouloff-Ros, Jean-Paul Bonnefont, Giulia Barcia, Benoit Funalot, Claude Besmond, Metodi D Metodiev, Benedetta Ruzzenente, Zahra Assouline, Arnold Munnich, Agnès Rötig, Nathalie Boddaert
BACKGROUND: Because the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) is ubiquitous, its deficiency can theoretically give rise to any symptom in any organ or tissue at any age with any mode of inheritance, owing to the twofold genetic origin of respiratory enzyme machinery, that is, nuclear and mitochondrial. Not all respiratory enzyme deficiencies are primary and secondary or artefactual deficiency is frequently observed, leading to a number of misleading conclusions and inappropriate investigations in clinical practice...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
S Cascianelli, C Tranfaglia, M L Fravolini, F Bianconi, M Minestrini, S Nuvoli, N Tambasco, M E Dottorini, B Palumbo
OBJECTIVE: The differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other conditions, such as essential tremor and drug-induced parkinsonian syndrome or normal aging brain, represents a diagnostic challenge. 123I-FP-CIT brain SPET is able to contribute to the differential diagnosis. Semiquantitative analysis of radiopharmaceutical uptake in basal ganglia (caudate nuclei and putamina) is very useful to support the diagnostic process. An artificial neural network classifier using 123I-FP-CIT brain SPET data, a classification tree (CIT), was applied...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
R A L Menke, M Proudfoot, K Talbot, M R Turner
MRI has emerged as one of several urgently needed candidate disease progression biomarkers for the neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), not least due to its unique ability to non-invasively assess structural and functional cerebral pathology. We sought to identify the extent of detectable change in cerebral MRI metrics over a more prolonged period. Analysis of multi-modal MRI data was performed in a cohort of sixteen patients (13 ALS and 3 with primary lateral sclerosis) in whom it was possible to acquire six-monthly images over two years...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Rajesh Gupta, Taiwo Maraiyesa, Brendon Conry
A 2-day-old infant presented with poor feeding and grunting. Investigations revealed a raised C reactive protein of 164. Full septic screen was done, which subsequently confirmed a diagnosis of group B streptococcus meningitis. Baby was apyrexial and haemodynamically stable. There were no obvious neurological manifestations, and a routine cranial ultrasound scan was done, which revealed echogenic changes in the basal ganglia and thalami. MRI brain showed extensive haemorrhagic infarction within the lentiform and caudate nuclei with involvement of both posterior limbs of the internal capsule...
January 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Kyoko Aoyagi, Yoshinori Higuchi, Yoji Okahara, Maidinamu Yakufujiang, Takuma Matsuda, Yoshitaka Yamanaka, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Shigeki Hirano, Yasuo Iwadate
A 41-year-old man was diagnosed with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and underwent pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) with deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest. Five days after the operation, chorea emerged in the lower extremities. The patient was referred to our hospital for disabling chorea 16 years after PTE. Neurological examination revealed choreatic movements in the four extremities. Brain magnetic resonance images indicated atrophy in the bilateral head of the caudate nuclei. The patient underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the bilateral globus pallidus interna (GPi)...
December 16, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Kathleen A Grant, David M Lovinger
One in 12 adults suffer with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Studies suggest the younger the age in which alcohol consumption begins the higher the probability of being diagnosed with AUD. Binge/excessive alcohol drinking involves a transition from flexible to inflexible behavior likely involving the dorsal striatum (caudate and putamen nuclei). A major focus of this study was to examine the effect of age of drinking onset on subsequent chronic, voluntary ethanol intake and dorsal striatal circuitry. Data from rhesus monkeys (n = 45) that started drinking as adolescents, young adults or mature adults confirms an age-related risk for heavy drinking...
December 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
Dun Ding, Peng Li, Xue-Ying Ma, Wang-Huan Dun, Shi-Feng Yang, Shao-Hui Ma, Hong-Juan Liu, Ming Zhang
The basal ganglia (BG) are composed of several nuclei involved in neural processing associated with integration of sensory and motor information. Recent neuroimaging studies implicated its key role in control of voluntary motor function. As the sensorimotor abnormality is common among the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population, in the current study, we aimed to investigate the abnormal structure and functional connectivity patterns of BG in ESRD patients. Twenty-nine ESRD and twenty-nine age and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to compare the volume of the subsets in the BG (e...
December 12, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Whitney S Griggs, Hyoung F Kim, Ali Ghazizadeh, M Gabriela Costello, Kathryn M Wall, Okihide Hikosaka
Anatomically distinct areas within the basal ganglia encode flexible- and stable-value memories for visual objects (Hikosaka et al., 2014), but an important question remains: do they receive inputs from the same or different brain areas or neurons? To answer this question, we first located flexible and stable value-coding areas in the caudate head (CDh) and caudate tail (CDt) of two rhesus macaque monkeys, and then injected different retrograde tracers into these areas of each monkey. We found that CDh and CDt received different inputs from several cortical and subcortical areas including temporal cortex, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala, claustrum and thalamus...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Sadhana Singh, Rajesh Kumar, Bhaswati Roy, Mary A Woo, Alan Lewis, Nancy Halnon, Nancy Pike
Adolescents with single ventricle heart disease (SVHD) show autonomic, mood, and cognitive deficits, indicating aberrations in brain areas that regulate these functions. However, the gray matter integrity in autonomic, mood, and cognitive control sites is unclear. We examined regional brain gray matter changes, using high-resolution T1-weighted images (3.0-T magnetic resonance scanner) with voxel based morphometry procedures, as well as mood and cognitive functions in SVHD (n=18; age, 15.7±1.1years; male, 10) and controls (n=31; age, 16...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Alexander M Puckett, Saskia Bollmann, Benedikt A Poser, Jake Palmer, Markus Barth, Ross Cunnington
The nuclei of the basal ganglia pose a special problem for functional MRI, especially at ultra-high field, because T2* variations between different regions result in suboptimal BOLD sensitivity when using gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI). Specifically, the iron-rich lentiform nucleus of the basal ganglia, including the putamen and globus pallidus, suffers from substantial signal loss when imaging is performed using conventional single-echo EPI with echo times optimized for the cortex. Multi-echo EPI acquires several echoes at different echo times for every imaging slice, allowing images to be reconstructed with a weighting of echo times that is optimized individually for each voxel according to the underlying tissue or T2* properties...
December 5, 2017: NeuroImage
Takayuki Nakajima, Ryusuke Hata, Yuji Kunieda, Tomohiro Kondo
Smad proteins are known to transduce the action of TGF-β superfamily proteins including TGF-βs, activins, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). In this study, we examined the expression of Smad1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -8 mRNA in the rat brain by means of RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH). In addition, we examined the nuclear accumulation of Smad1, -2, -3, -5, and -8 proteins after intracerebroventricular injection of TGF-β1, activin A, or BMP6 with immunohistochemistry to investigate whether TGF-β, activin, and/or BMP activate Smads in the rat brain...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Florian Brackmann, Roland Coras, Karl Rössler, Cornelia Kraus, Oliver Rompel, Regina Trollmann
Infantile Alexander disease is a rare progressive leukodystrophy caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the (GFAP) gene typically presenting with psychomotor retardation, progressive macrocephaly and refractory epilepsy. Neuroradiological hallmarks are extensive white matter lesions with frontal preponderance as well as signal intensity changes of basal ganglia and medulla oblongata with variable contrast enhancement. Here, we report an atypical manifestation in a 21-month-old boy presenting with flaccid paraparesis and areflexia...
April 2018: Brain & Development
Xiaojun Guan, Qiaoling Zeng, Tao Guo, Jiaqiu Wang, Min Xuan, Quanquan Gu, Tao Wang, Peiyu Huang, Xiaojun Xu, Minming Zhang
It is well known that disruption of basal ganglia function generates the motor symptoms in PD, however, these are presented in a heterogeneous manner; patients can be divided into tremor-dominant and akinesia/rigidity-dominant subtypes. To date, it is unknown if these differences in the motor symptoms could be explained by differences on the functional connectivity of basal ganglia with specific brain regions. In this study, we aimed to explore the alterations of the network-based and global functional connectivity linking to basal ganglia between the PD-TD and PD-AR patients...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ivan Grbatinić, Nebojša Milošević, Bojana Krstonošić
AIMS: The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of the neuromorphotopological clustering of neostriate interneurons (NSIN) and their consequent classification into caudate (CIN) and putaminal neuron type (PIN), according to the nuclear localization of the neurons. It tends to discover whether these two topological neuron types are morphologically different. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The binary images of adult human NSIN are used for the purposes of the analysis...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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