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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221196/fdg-brain-pet-ct-revealing-bilateral-thalamostriatal-activation-during-a-symptomatic-episode-in-a-patient-with-kleine-levin-syndrome
#1
Clément Drouet, Olivier Morel, Antoine Verger, Eric Guedj, Hatem Boulahdour
We report the case of a 14-year-old girl with clinically diagnosed Kleine-Levin syndrome. Electroencephalogram and brain MRI were unremarkable. An FDG PET/CT scan was acquired during a symptomatic episode, while she was asleep, and another PET scan was obtained when she was asymptomatic, awake, and quiet. Comparison of both examinations demonstrated a bilateral activation of thalami, caudate nuclei, and lenticular nuclei. These findings may be linked to the implication of thalamostriatal structures in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159688/altered-regional-connectivity-reflecting-effects-of-different-anaesthesia-protocols-in-the-mouse-brain
#2
Tong Wu, Joanes Grandjean, Simone C Bosshard, Markus Rudin, David Reutens, Tianzi Jiang
Studies in mice using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have provided opportunities to investigate the effects of pharmacological manipulations on brain function and map the phenotypes of mouse models of human brain disorders. Mouse rs-fMRI is typically performed under anaesthesia, which induces both regional suppression of brain activity and disruption of large-scale neural networks. Previous comparative studies using rodents investigating various drug effects on long-distance functional connectivity (FC) have reported agent-specific FC patterns, however, effects of regional suppression are sparsely explored...
February 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078760/a-study-of-volumetric-variations-of-basal-nuclei-in-the-normal-human-brain-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#3
Amal Elkattan, Amal Mahdy, Mohamed Eltomey, Radwa Ismail
Knowledge of the effects of healthy aging on brain structures is necessary to identify abnormal changes due to diseases. Many studies have demonstrated age-related volume changes in the brain using MRI. 60 healthy individuals who had normal MRI aged from 20 years to 80 years were examined and classified into three groups: Group I: 21 persons; nine males and 12 females aging between 20-39 years old. Group II: 22 persons; 11 males and 11 females aging between 40-59 years old. Group III: 17 persons; eight males and nine females aging between 60-80 years old...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059631/acute-necrotizing-encephalopathy-causing-human-bocavirus
#4
Ayse Betul Ergul, Umit Altug, Kursad Aydin, Ahmet Sami Guven, Yasemin Altuner Torun
Acute necrotizing encephalopathy is characterized by multiple, symmetrical lesions involving the thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and white matter and develops secondarily to viral infections. Influenza viruses are the most common etiological agents. Here, we present the first case of acute necrotizing encephalopathy to develop secondarily to human bocavirus. A 3-year-old girl presented with fever and altered mental status. She had had a fever, cough, and rhinorrhea for five days. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with an initial diagnosis of encephalitis when vomiting, convulsions, and loss of consciousness developed...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018207/neural-correlates-for-apathy-frontal-prefrontal-and-parietal-cortical-subcortical-circuits
#5
REVIEW
Rita Moretti, Riccardo Signori
Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional involvement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in everyday life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986608/changes-in-brain-iron-concentration-after-exposure-to-high-altitude-hypoxia-measured-by-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping
#6
Lin Chen, Congbo Cai, Tianhe Yang, Jianzhong Lin, Shuhui Cai, Jiaxing Zhang, Zhong Chen
Hypoxia can induce physiological changes. This study aims to explore effects of high-altitude (HA) hypoxia on cerebral iron concentration. Twenty-nine healthy sea-level participants were tested shortly before and after approximately 4-week adaptation to the HA environment at fQinghai-Tibet Plateau (4200m), and were re-investigated after re-adaptation to the sea-level environment one year later. Iron concentration was quantified with quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), and the results were compared with transverse relaxation rate (R(*)2) measurements...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940326/microrna-132-attenuates-neurobehavioral-and-neuropathological-changes-associated-with-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-mice
#7
Yaowen Zhang, Bin Han, Yating He, Daojing Li, Xiaofeng Ma, Qiang Liu, Junwei Hao
Recent studies suggest that microRNA-132 (miR-132) potentiates the cholinergic blockade of inflammatory reactions by targeting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and affords robust protection against ischemia-induced neuronal death. However, the role of miR-132 in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains unexplored. This study aimed to determine whether miR-132 participates in the process and launches an anti-inflammatory response in a mouse model of ICH. To establish a relationship between miR-132 and ICH-induced neuronal inflammation and death, we used unilateral stereotaxic injections to deliver lentiviruses encoding miR-132, anti-miR-132 or an empty lentiviral vector directly into the right caudate nuclei of 192 living male C57BL/6 mice...
December 9, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932883/functional-cortical-changes-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-at-amplitude-configuration-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#8
Heng Liu, Hua Chen, Bo Wu, Tijiang Zhang, Jinhui Wang, Kexin Huang, Ganjun Song, Jian Zhan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the amplitude of spontaneous brain activity fluctuations in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method. METHODS: ALFF and SPM8 were utilized to assess alterations in regional spontaneous brain activities in patients with RRMS in comparison with healthy controls (HCs). The beta values of altered brain regions between patients with RRMS and HCs were extracted, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to calculate the sensitivities and specificities of these different brain areas for distinguishing patients with RRMS from HCs...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857679/bold-imaging-in-awake-wild-type-and-mu-opioid-receptor-knock-out-mice-reveals-on-target-activation-maps-in-response-to-oxycodone
#9
Kelsey Moore, Dan Madularu, Sade Iriah, Jason R Yee, Praveen Kulkarni, Emmanuel Darcq, Brigitte L Kieffer, Craig F Ferris
Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) imaging in awake mice was used to identify differences in brain activity between wild-type, and Mu (μ) opioid receptor knock-outs (MuKO) in response to oxycodone (OXY). Using a segmented, annotated MRI mouse atlas and computational analysis, patterns of integrated positive and negative BOLD activity were identified across 122 brain areas. The pattern of positive BOLD showed enhanced activation across the brain in WT mice within 15 min of intraperitoneal administration of 2...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843694/grey-matter-abnormalities-in-methcathinone-abusers-with-a-parkinsonian-syndrome
#10
Julius Juurmaa, Ricarda A L Menke, Pierre Vila, Andreas Müürsepp, Tiiu Tomberg, Pilvi Ilves, Mait Nigul, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Michael Donaghy, Charlotte J Stagg, Ainārs Stepens, Pille Taba
BACKGROUND: A permanent Parkinsonian syndrome occurs in intravenous abusers of the designer psychostimulant methcathinone (ephedrone). It is attributed to deposition of contaminant manganese, as reflected by characteristic globus pallidus hyperintensity on T1-weighted MRI. METHODS: We have investigated brain structure and function in methcathinone abusers (n = 12) compared to matched control subjects (n = 12) using T1-weighted structural and resting-state functional MRI...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818626/arousal-rather-than-basic-emotions-influence-long-term-recognition-memory-in-humans
#11
Artur Marchewka, Marek Wypych, Abnoos Moslehi, Monika Riegel, Jarosław M Michałowski, Katarzyna Jednoróg
Emotion can influence various cognitive processes, however its impact on memory has been traditionally studied over relatively short retention periods and in line with dimensional models of affect. The present study aimed to investigate emotional effects on long-term recognition memory according to a combined framework of affective dimensions and basic emotions. Images selected from the Nencki Affective Picture System were rated on the scale of affective dimensions and basic emotions. After 6 months, subjects took part in a surprise recognition test during an fMRI session...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761236/utility-of-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-atypical-parkinsonian-disorders
#12
Zhibin Wang, Xiao-Guang Luo, Chao Gao
In the clinic, the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) largely depends on clinicians' experience. When the diagnosis is made, approximately 80% of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra (SN) have been lost. Additionally, it is rather challenging to differentiate PD from atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD). Clinially-available 3T conventional MRI contributes little to solve these problems. The pathologic alterations of parkinsonism show abnormal brain iron deposition, and therefore susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), which is sensitive to iron concentration, has been applied to find iron-related lesions for the diagnosis and differentiation of PD in recent decades...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752803/nigella-sativa-oil-reduces-extrapyramidal-symptoms-eps-like-behavior-in-haloperidol-treated-rats
#13
Tafheem Malik, Sheema Hasan, Shahid Pervez, Tasneem Fatima, Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
The symptoms of Parkinsonism and oral dyskinesia have been showing to be induced by neuroleptics that significantly affect its clinical use. In this study, we investigate whether Nigella sativa-oil (NS) (black cumin seeds)-a traditional medicine used for the seizure treatment in eastern country-may reduce the haloperidol (HAL)-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)-like behavior in rats. After combine treatment with HAL (1 mg/kg) on NS (0.2 ml/rat), rats displayed a significant decreased EPS-like behavior including movement disorders and oral dyskinesia as compared to controls...
December 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723878/subregional-pattern-of-striatal-dopamine-transporter-loss-on-18f-fp-cit-positron-emission-tomography-in-patients-with-pure-akinesia-with-gait-freezing
#14
Sangwon Han, Minyoung Oh, Jungsu S Oh, Sang Ju Lee, Seung Jun Oh, Sun Ju Chung, Hee Kyung Park, Jae Seung Kim
Importance: Pure akinesia with gait freezing (PAGF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by freezing of gait, handwriting, and speech without abnormal eye movement or cognitive impairment. Several studies have suggested that PAGF may be a variant of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). However, the characteristics of striatal dopamine transporter loss in PAGF are unknown. Objective: To investigate the subregional pattern of striatal dopamine transporter loss in patients with PAGF in comparison with patients with PSP and those with Parkinson disease (PD)...
December 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717189/degenerative-encephalopathy-in-nova-scotia-duck-tolling-retrievers-presenting-with-a-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder
#15
E N Barker, L J Dawson, J H Rose, S Van Meervenne, O Frykman, C Rohdin, A Leijon, K E Soerensen, J Järnegren, G C Johnson, D P O'Brien, N Granger
BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by loss of neurons and are commonly associated with a genetic mutation. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To characterize the clinical and histopathological features of a novel degenerative neurological disease affecting the brain of young adult Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers (NSDTRs). ANIMALS: Nine, young adult, related NSDTRs were evaluated for neurological dysfunction and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder...
September 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704219/abundant-collateralization-of-temporal-lobe-projections-to-the-accumbens-bed-nucleus-of-stria-terminalis-central-amygdala-and-lateral-septum
#16
Rhett A Reichard, Suriya Subramanian, Mikiyas T Desta, Tej Sura, Mary L Becker, Comeron W Ghobadi, Kenneth P Parsley, Daniel S Zahm
Behavioral flexibility is subserved in part by outputs from the cerebral cortex to telencephalic subcortical structures. In our earlier evaluation of the organization of the cortical-subcortical output system (Reynolds and Zahm, J Neurosci 25:11757-11767, 2005), retrograde double-labeling was evaluated in the prefrontal cortex following tracer injections into pairs of the following subcortical telencephalic structures: caudate-putamen, core and shell of the accumbens (Acb), bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA)...
October 4, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688202/cerebral-neural-correlates-of-differential-melanopic-photic-stimulation-in-humans
#17
Shao-Min Hung, Dan Milea, Annadata Venkata Rukmini, Raymond P Najjar, Joo Huang Tan, Françoise Viénot, Marie Dubail, Sharon Lee Choon Tow, Tin Aung, Joshua J Gooley, Po-Jang Hsieh
Photic stimulation of rods, cones and intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediates non-visual light responses, including entrainment of circadian rhythms and pupillary light reflex. Unlike visual responses to photic stimulation, the cerebral correlates of non-visual light responses in humans remains elusive. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 14 healthy young participants, to localize cerebral regions which are differentially activated by metameric light that gave rise to different levels of melanopic excitation...
February 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642106/transcranial-sonography-of-subcortical-structures-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#18
P Puz, A Lasek-Bal, P Radecka
BACKGROUND: Transcranial sonography may be applied to assess the basal ganglia nuclei and brain atrophy by the measurement of the width of the third ventricle. The aim of this study was to assess usefulness of transcranial sonography (TCS) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining the echogenicity of subcortical structures and the width of the third ventricle. METHOD: Transcranial sonography evaluation of substantia nigra, brain stem raphe nuclei, diameter of the third ventricle, width of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, thalamus, lenticular nucleus, and head of the caudate nucleus in 41 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 23 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS), and 20 healthy controls was compared...
September 18, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625015/the-role-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-the-evaluation-of-the-whole-brain-in-isolated-unilateral-polymicrogyria
#19
Sureyya Burcu Görkem, Selim Doganay, Kazim Gumus, Ayse Bayram, Sefer Kumandas, Abdulhakim Coskun
The aim is to evaluate normal-appearing brain regions in isolated unilateral polymicrogyria patients and compare them with controls by using diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient. The diffusion-weighted images (b = 0-1000 s/mm(2)) of 10 pediatric patients (7 boys, 3 girls; mean age = 5.8 ± 4.3 years) with isolated unilateral polymicrogyria and age-sex matched 10 control patients were assessed retrospectively. There was a significant increase in apparent diffusion coefficient values of white matter underlying polymicrogyria, uninvolved white matter, deep gray matter (thalami, lentiform nuclei, caudate nuclei) and corpus callosum in polymicrogyria patients compared to control group (P < ...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618763/metabolic-activation-of-amygdala-lateral-septum-and-accumbens-circuits-during-food-anticipatory-behavior
#20
Diana Olivo, Mario Caba, Francisco Gonzalez-Lima, Juan F Rodríguez-Landa, Aleph A Corona-Morales
When food is restricted to a brief fixed period every day, animals show an increase in temperature, corticosterone concentration and locomotor activity for 2-3h before feeding time, termed food anticipatory activity. Mechanisms and neuroanatomical circuits responsible for food anticipatory activity remain unclear, and may involve both oscillators and networks related to temporal conditioning. Rabbit pups are nursed once-a-day so they represent a natural model of circadian food anticipatory activity. Food anticipatory behavior in pups may be associated with neural circuits that temporally anticipate feeding, while the nursing event may produce consummatory effects...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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