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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324935/right-putamen-and-age-are-the-most-discriminant-features-to-diagnose-parkinson-s-disease-by-using-123i-fp-cit-brain-spet-data-by-using-an-artificial-neural-network-classifier-a-classification-tree-clt
#1
S Cascianelli, C Tranfaglia, M L Fravolini, F Bianconi, M Minestrini, S Nuvoli, N Tambasco, M E Dottorini, B Palumbo
OBJECTIVE: The differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other conditions, such as essential tremor and drug-induced parkinsonian syndrome or normal aging brain, represents a diagnostic challenge. 123I-FP-CIT brain SPET is able to contribute to the differential diagnosis. Semiquantitative analysis of radiopharmaceutical uptake in basal ganglia (caudate nuclei and putamina) is very useful to support the diagnostic process. An artificial neural network classifier using 123I-FP-CIT brain SPET data, a classification tree (CIT), was applied...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321969/the-two-year-progression-of-structural-and-functional-cerebral-mri-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#2
R A L Menke, M Proudfoot, K Talbot, M R Turner
MRI has emerged as one of several urgently needed candidate disease progression biomarkers for the neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), not least due to its unique ability to non-invasively assess structural and functional cerebral pathology. We sought to identify the extent of detectable change in cerebral MRI metrics over a more prolonged period. Analysis of multi-modal MRI data was performed in a cohort of sixteen patients (13 ALS and 3 with primary lateral sclerosis) in whom it was possible to acquire six-monthly images over two years...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321200/bilateral-haemorrhagic-basal-ganglia-infarction-associated-with-early-onset-group-b-streptococcus-meningitis
#3
Rajesh Gupta, Taiwo Maraiyesa, Brendon Conry
A 2-day-old infant presented with poor feeding and grunting. Investigations revealed a raised C reactive protein of 164. Full septic screen was done, which subsequently confirmed a diagnosis of group B streptococcus meningitis. Baby was apyrexial and haemodynamically stable. There were no obvious neurological manifestations, and a routine cranial ultrasound scan was done, which revealed echogenic changes in the basal ganglia and thalami. MRI brain showed extensive haemorrhagic infarction within the lentiform and caudate nuclei with involvement of both posterior limbs of the internal capsule...
January 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248962/effects-of-bilateral-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-on-chorea-after-pulmonary-thromboendarterectomy-with-deep-hypothermia-and-circulatory-arrest-a-case-report
#4
Kyoko Aoyagi, Yoshinori Higuchi, Yoji Okahara, Maidinamu Yakufujiang, Takuma Matsuda, Yoshitaka Yamanaka, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Shigeki Hirano, Yasuo Iwadate
A 41-year-old man was diagnosed with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and underwent pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) with deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest. Five days after the operation, chorea emerged in the lower extremities. The patient was referred to our hospital for disabling chorea 16 years after PTE. Neurological examination revealed choreatic movements in the four extremities. Brain magnetic resonance images indicated atrophy in the bilateral head of the caudate nuclei. The patient underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the bilateral globus pallidus interna (GPi)...
December 16, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241653/synaptic-adaptations-to-chronic-ethanol-intake-in-male-rhesus-monkey-dorsal-striatum-depend-on-age-of-drinking-onset
#5
Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Kathleen A Grant, David M Lovinger
One in 12 adults suffer with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Studies suggest the younger the age in which alcohol consumption begins the higher the probability of being diagnosed with AUD. Binge/excessive alcohol drinking involves a transition from flexible to inflexible behavior likely involving the dorsal striatum (caudate and putamen nuclei). A major focus of this study was to examine the effect of age of drinking onset on subsequent chronic, voluntary ethanol intake and dorsal striatal circuitry. Data from rhesus monkeys (n = 45) that started drinking as adolescents, young adults or mature adults confirms an age-related risk for heavy drinking...
December 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234958/the-relationship-between-putamen-sma-functional-connectivity-and-sensorimotor-abnormality-in-esrd-patients
#6
Dun Ding, Peng Li, Xue-Ying Ma, Wang-Huan Dun, Shi-Feng Yang, Shao-Hui Ma, Hong-Juan Liu, Ming Zhang
The basal ganglia (BG) are composed of several nuclei involved in neural processing associated with integration of sensory and motor information. Recent neuroimaging studies implicated its key role in control of voluntary motor function. As the sensorimotor abnormality is common among the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population, in the current study, we aimed to investigate the abnormal structure and functional connectivity patterns of BG in ESRD patients. Twenty-nine ESRD and twenty-nine age and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to compare the volume of the subsets in the BG (e...
December 12, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225570/flexible-and-stable-value-coding-areas-in-caudate-head-and-tail-receive-anatomically-distinct-cortical-and-subcortical-inputs
#7
Whitney S Griggs, Hyoung F Kim, Ali Ghazizadeh, M Gabriela Costello, Kathryn M Wall, Okihide Hikosaka
Anatomically distinct areas within the basal ganglia encode flexible- and stable-value memories for visual objects (Hikosaka et al., 2014), but an important question remains: do they receive inputs from the same or different brain areas or neurons? To answer this question, we first located flexible and stable value-coding areas in the caudate head (CDh) and caudate tail (CDt) of two rhesus macaque monkeys, and then injected different retrograde tracers into these areas of each monkey. We found that CDh and CDt received different inputs from several cortical and subcortical areas including temporal cortex, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala, claustrum and thalamus...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222023/regional-brain-gray-matter-changes-in-adolescents-with-single-ventricle-heart-disease
#8
Sadhana Singh, Rajesh Kumar, Bhaswati Roy, Mary A Woo, Alan Lewis, Nancy Halnon, Nancy Pike
Adolescents with single ventricle heart disease (SVHD) show autonomic, mood, and cognitive deficits, indicating aberrations in brain areas that regulate these functions. However, the gray matter integrity in autonomic, mood, and cognitive control sites is unclear. We examined regional brain gray matter changes, using high-resolution T1-weighted images (3.0-T magnetic resonance scanner) with voxel based morphometry procedures, as well as mood and cognitive functions in SVHD (n=18; age, 15.7±1.1years; male, 10) and controls (n=31; age, 16...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208571/using-multi-echo-simultaneous-multi-slice-sms-epi-to-improve-functional-mri-of-the-subcortical-nuclei-of-the-basal-ganglia-at-ultra-high-field-7t
#9
Alexander M Puckett, Saskia Bollmann, Benedikt A Poser, Jake Palmer, Markus Barth, Ross Cunnington
The nuclei of the basal ganglia pose a special problem for functional MRI, especially at ultra-high field, because T2* variations between different regions result in suboptimal BOLD sensitivity when using gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI). Specifically, the iron-rich lentiform nucleus of the basal ganglia, including the putamen and globus pallidus, suffers from substantial signal loss when imaging is performed using conventional single-echo EPI with echo times (TE) optimized for the cortex. Multi-echo EPI acquires several echoes at different echo times for every imaging slice, allowing images to be reconstructed with a weighting of echo times that is optimized individually for each voxel according to the underlying tissue or T2* properties...
December 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196107/distribution-of-smad-mrna-and-proteins-in-the-rat-brain
#10
Takayuki Nakajima, Ryusuke Hata, Yuji Kunieda, Tomohiro Kondo
Smad proteins are known to transduce the action of TGF-β superfamily proteins including TGF-βs, activins, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). In this study, we examined the expression of Smad1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -8 mRNA in the rat brain by means of RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH). In addition, we examined the nuclear accumulation of Smad1, -2, -3, -5, and -8 proteins after intracerebroventricular injection of TGF-β1, activin A, or BMP6 with immunohistochemistry to investigate whether TGF-β, activin, and/or BMP activate Smads in the rat brain...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191363/histopathological-proof-of-the-pathogenicity-of-a-rare-gfap-mutation-in-a-patient-with-flaccid-paraparesis
#11
Florian Brackmann, Roland Coras, Karl Rössler, Cornelia Kraus, Oliver Rompel, Regina Trollmann
Infantile Alexander disease is a rare progressive leukodystrophy caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the (GFAP) gene typically presenting with psychomotor retardation, progressive macrocephaly and refractory epilepsy. Neuroradiological hallmarks are extensive white matter lesions with frontal preponderance as well as signal intensity changes of basal ganglia and medulla oblongata with variable contrast enhancement. Here, we report an atypical manifestation in a 21-month-old boy presenting with flaccid paraparesis and areflexia...
November 27, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163141/disrupted-functional-connectivity-of-basal-ganglia-across-tremor-dominant-and-akinetic-rigid-dominant-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Xiaojun Guan, Qiaoling Zeng, Tao Guo, Jiaqiu Wang, Min Xuan, Quanquan Gu, Tao Wang, Peiyu Huang, Xiaojun Xu, Minming Zhang
It is well known that disruption of basal ganglia function generates the motor symptoms in PD, however, these are presented in a heterogeneous manner; patients can be divided into tremor-dominant and akinesia/rigidity-dominant subtypes. To date, it is unknown if these differences in the motor symptoms could be explained by differences on the functional connectivity of basal ganglia with specific brain regions. In this study, we aimed to explore the alterations of the network-based and global functional connectivity linking to basal ganglia between the PD-TD and PD-AR patients...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162445/the-neuromorphological-caudate-putaminal-clustering-of-neostriate-interneurons-kohonen-self-organizing-maps-and-supervised-artificial-neural-networks-with-multivariate-analysis
#13
Ivan Grbatinić, Nebojša Milošević, Bojana Krstonošić
AIMS: The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of the neuromorphotopological clustering of neostriate interneurons (NSIN) and their consequent classification into caudate (CIN) and putaminal neuron type (PIN), according to the nuclear localization of the neurons. It tends to discover whether these two topological neuron types are morphologically different. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The binary images of adult human NSIN are used for the purposes of the analysis...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138746/a-novel-encephalopathy-in-a-thiamine-deficient-dog-resembling-human-wernicke-s-disease-with-atypical-mri-pattern
#14
Floriana Gernone, Mario Ricciardi
Thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin, which participates in several vital metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis of mammals. In companion animals thiamine deficiency is classically associated with signs of diffuse encephalopathy and lesions on brainstem nuclei and mesencephalic colliculi evident on magnetic resonance imaging. This paper describes a novel clinical presentation in a thiamine-deficient dog showing multifocal, central and peripheral nervous and cardiovascular system alterations...
2017: Open Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133581/global-aphasia-in-a-case-of-bilateral-frontal-lobe-infarcts-involving-both-caudate-nuclei
#15
Davala Krishna Karthik, Vikram Khardenavis, Sharvari Kulkarni, Anirudda Deshpande
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127718/-frontal-eye-field-in-prosimian-galagos-intracortical-microstimulation-and-tracing-studies
#16
Iwona Stepniewska, Pierre Pouget, Jon H Kaas
The frontal eye field (FEF) in prosimian primates was identified as a small cortical region, above and anterior to the anterior frontal sulcus, from which saccadic eye movements were evoked with electrical stimulation. Tracer injections revealed FEF connections with cortical and subcortical structures participating in higher order visual processing. Ipsilateral cortical connections were the densest with adjoining parts of the dorsal premotor and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Label in a region corresponding to supplementary eye field (SEF) of other primates, suggests the existence of SEF in galagos...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046902/holistic-mapping-of-striatum-surfaces-in-the-laplace-beltrami-embedding-space
#17
Jin Kyu Gahm, Yonggang Shi
In brain shape analysis, the striatum is typically divided into three parts: the caudate, putamen, and accumbens nuclei for its analysis. Recent connectivity and animal studies, however, indicate striatum-cortical inter-connections do not always follow such subdivisions. For the holistic mapping of striatum surfaces, conventional spherical registration techniques are not suitable due to the large metric distortions in spherical parameterization of striatal surfaces. To overcome this difficulty, we develop a novel striatal surface mapping method using the recently proposed Riemannian metric optimization techniques in the Laplace-Beltrami (LB) embedding space...
September 2017: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988390/topographic-distribution-of-brain-iron-deposition-and-small-cerebrovascular-lesions-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-a-post-mortem-7-0-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-with-neuropathological-correlates
#18
Jacques De Reuck, David Devos, Caroline Moreau, Florent Auger, Nicolas Durieux, Vincent Deramecourt, Florence Pasquier, Claude-Alain Maurage, Charlotte Cordonnier, Didier Leys, Regis Bordet
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in 15% of the cases. A neuropathological continuity between ALS and FTLD-TDP is suspected. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study compares the topographic distribution of iron (Fe) deposition and the incidence of small cerebrovascular lesions in ALS and in FTLD brains. Seventy-eight post-mortem brains underwent 7.0-tesla MRI. The patients consisted of 12 with ALS, 38 with FTLD, and 28 controls...
October 7, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970078/evaluation-of-cerebral-arterial-and-venous-system-in-tuberculous-meningitis
#19
Jayantee Kalita, Rajesh K Singh, Usha K Misra, Sunil Kumar
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system infection especially pyogenic results in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) although associated with infarctions but there is no comprehensive study evaluating the role of CVST contributing in infarction. PURPOSE: To evaluate cerebral arterial and venous system using MR angiography (MRA) and MR venography (MRV) in TBM, and correlate with clinical and MRI findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with TBM were evaluated clinically and their consciousness was assessed by using Glasgow Coma scale...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963912/basal-ganglia-and-ventricle-volume-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-family-and-clinical-study
#20
Manuel J Cuesta, Pablo Lecumberri, Teresa Cabada, Lucia Moreno-Izco, María Ribeiro, Jose M López-Ilundain, Victor Peralta, Ruth Lorente-Omeñaca, Ana Maria Sánchez-Torres, Marisol Gómez
Patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) exhibit considerable heterogeneity in subcortical brain volumes. We sought to compare ventricle and basal ganglia volumes in FEP patients (n = 50) with those in unaffected relatives (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 24). Participants were assessed with a semistructured interview and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients had significantly larger left lateral, right lateral and third ventricle volumes than their siblings and larger third ventricle volumes than controls...
September 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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