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chemical senses

Zhiyang Zhang, Han Wang, Zhaopeng Chen, Xiaoyan Wang, Jaebum Choo, Lingxin Chen
Plasmonic colorimetric sensors have emerged as a powerful tool in chemical and biological sensing applications due to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) extinction in the visible range. Among the plasmonic sensors, the most famous sensing mode is the "aggregation" plasmonic colorimetric sensor which is based on plasmon coupling due to nanoparticle aggregation. Herein, this review focuses on the newly-developing plasmonic colorimetric sensing mode - the etching or the growth of metal nanoparticles induces plasmon changes, namely, "non-aggregation" plasmonic colorimetric sensor...
May 9, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Simone Schmitz, Miriam A Rosenbaum
Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) hold great promise for sustainable energy generation via a microbial catalyst from organic matter, e.g., from wastewater. In order to improve current generation in BES, understanding the underlying microbiology of the electrode community is essential. Electron mediator producing microorganism like Pseudomonas aeruginosa play an essential role in efficient electricity generation in BES. These microbes enable even non-electroactive microorganism like Enterobacter aerogenes to contribute to current production...
May 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Alexey Pustovarenko, Maarten G Goesten, Sumit Sachdeva, Meixia Shan, Zakariae Amghouz, Youssef Belmabkhout, Alla Dikhtiarenko, Tania Rodenas, Damla Keskin, Ilja K Voets, Bert M Weckhuysen, Mohamed Eddaoudi, Louis C P M de Smet, Ernst J R Sudhölter, Freek Kapteijn, Beatriz Seoane, Jorge Gascon
During the last decade, the synthesis and application of metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets has received growing interest, showing unique performances for different technological applications. Despite the potential of this type of nanolamellar materials, the synthetic routes developed so far are restricted to MOFs possessing layered structures, limiting further development in this field. Here, a bottom-up surfactant-assisted synthetic approach is presented for the fabrication of nanosheets of various nonlayered MOFs, broadening the scope of MOF nanosheets application...
May 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Ryan W Mull, Anthony Harrington, Lucia A Sanchez, Yftah Tal-Gan
Cyclic peptide scaffolds are key components of signal transduction pathways in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms since they act as chemical messengers that activate or inhibit specific cognate receptors. In prokaryotic organisms these peptides are utilized in non-essential pathways, such as quorum sensing, that are responsible for virulence and pathogenicity. In the more evolved eukaryotic systems, cyclic peptide hormones play a key role in the regulation of the overall function of multicellular organisms, mainly through the endocrine system...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Manasi P Bhate, Thomas Lemmin, Georg Kuenze, Bruk Mensa, Soumya Ganguly, Jason Peters, Nathan Schmidt, Jeffrey G Pelton, Carol Gross, Jens Meiler, William F DeGrado
NsaS is one of four intramembrane histidine kinases (HKs) in Staphylococcus aureus that mediate the pathogen's response to membrane active antimicrobials and human innate immunity. We describe the first integrative structural study of NsaS using a combination of solution state NMR spectroscopy, chemical-crosslinking, molecular modeling and dynamics. Three key structural features emerge: First, NsaS has a short N-terminal amphiphilic helix that anchors its transmembrane (TM) bundle into the inner leaflet of the membrane such that it might sense neighboring proteins or membrane deformations...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Hongmei Liu, Xiaolong Li, Changmin Shi, Dongchao Wang, Li Chen, Yuanyuan He, Jianwei Zhao
The recently synthesized two-dimensional metal bis(dithiolene) complex (MDT), a kind of metal-organic framework with a kagome lattice structure, has been found to be a promising material for electronic devices. Here we report the surface adsorption effects of gas molecules on the electronic properties and transport behaviors of two-dimensional MDT (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Pd, and Pt) films. The first-principles results reveal that the MDT nanosheets are selectively sensitive to different adsorbed molecules, such as CO, NO, and O2 molecules...
May 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Maurizio Morri, Inmaculada Sanchez-Romero, Alexandra-Madelaine Tichy, Stephanie Kainrath, Elliot J Gerrard, Priscila P Hirschfeld, Jan Schwarz, Harald Janovjak
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest receptor family, relay environmental stimuli to changes in cell behavior and represent prime drug targets. Many GPCRs are classified as orphan receptors because of the limited knowledge on their ligands and coupling to cellular signaling machineries. Here, we engineer a library of 63 chimeric receptors that contain the signaling domains of human orphan and understudied GPCRs functionally linked to the light-sensing domain of rhodopsin. Upon stimulation with visible light, we identify activation of canonical cell signaling pathways, including cAMP-, Ca2+ -, MAPK/ERK-, and Rho-dependent pathways, downstream of the engineered receptors...
May 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Chang-Hoon Kwak, Tae-Hyung Kim, Seong-Yong Jeong, Ji-Won Yoon, Jun-Sik Kim, Jong-Heun Lee
The chemiresistive sensing characteristics of metal oxide gas sensors depend closely on ambient humidity. Herein, we report that gas sensors using Tb-doped SnO2 yolk-shell spheres can be used for reliable acetone detection regardless of the variations in humidity. Pure SnO2 and Tb-doped SnO2 yolk-shell spheres were prepared via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and their chemiresistive sensing characteristics were studied. The sensor resistance and gas response of the pure SnO2 yolk-shell spheres significantly changed and deteriorated upon exposure to moisture...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yang Yajie, Liaoliao Zhang, Jue Wang, Xinwei Wang, Libing Duan, Nan Wang, Fajun Xiao, Yanbo Xie, Jianlin Zhao
Liquids manipulation is a fundamental issue for microfluidics and miniaturized sensors. Fast wetting states transitions by optical methods have proven being efficient for liquids manipulations by organic surface coatings, however rarely been achieved by using inorganic coatings. Here we report a fast optical induced wetting states transition surface achieved by inorganic coatings, enabling tens of seconds transitions for a wetting-dewetting cycle, shortened from typically an hour as previously reported. Here we demonstrate a gravity-driven microfluidic reactor and switched it to a mixer after a second step exposure within minimum 80 seconds of UV exposure...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Michaela Saganová, Boris Bokor, Tibor Stolárik, Andrej Pavlovič
Nepenthes regulates enzyme activities by sensing stimuli from the insect prey. Protein is the best inductor mimicking the presence of an insect prey. Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes have evolved passive pitcher traps for prey capture. In this study, we investigated the ability of chemical signals from a prey (chitin, protein, and ammonium) to induce transcription and synthesis of digestive enzymes in Nepenthes × Mixta. We used real-time PCR and specific antibodies generated against the aspartic proteases nepenthesins, and type III and type IV chitinases to investigate the induction of digestive enzyme synthesis in response to different chemical stimuli from the prey...
May 16, 2018: Planta
E Mitsai, A Kuchmizhak, E Pustovalov, A Sergeev, A Mironenko, S Bratskaya, D P Linklater, A Balčytis, E Ivanova, S Juodkazis
All-dielectric resonant micro- and nano-structures made of high-index dielectrics have recently emerged as a promising surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform which can complement or potentially replace the metal-based counterparts in routine sensing measurements. These unique structures combine the highly-tunable optical response and high field enhancement with the non-invasiveness, i.e. chemically non-perturbing the analyte, simple chemical modification and recyclability. Meanwhile, commercially competitive fabrication technologies for mass production of such structures are still missing...
May 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Jorge Pascual, Juan Luis Delgado, Ramon Tena-Zaera
Beyond the use of fullerenes as electron-transporting layers in perovskite solar cells, their introduction in the perovskite active layer has been ascertained as a very promising strategy for device improvement. In this sense, this perspective summarizes the studies in which perovskite:fullerene systems were employed, covering the different methodologies for introducing fullerenes inside the perovskite layer. In particular, fill factor was the most benefited parameter, what was ascribed to minimized pinhole density and fullerene passivating role...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Qiwei Xu, Seyed Milad Mahpeykar, Ian Burgess, Xihua Wang
Most of reported optofluidic devices analyze the liquid by measuring its refractive index. Recently, the wettability of liquid on various substrates has also been used as an important key sensing parameter in optofluidic sensors. However, the above-mentioned techniques face challenges in the analysis of relative concentration of components in an alkane hydrocarbon mixture, since both refractive indices and wettabilities of alkane hydrocarbons are very close. Here we propose to apply volatility of liquid as the key sensing parameter and correlate it to the optical property of liquid inside inverse opal photonic crystals and construct powerful optofluidic sensors for alkane hydrocarbon identification and analysis...
May 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hebert F Culler, Samuel C F Couto, Juliana S Higa, Renato M Ruiz, Min J Yang, Vanessa Bueris, Marcia R Franzolin, Marcelo P Sircili
Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli are capable to form biofilm on biotic and abiotic surfaces, regardless of the adherence pattern displayed. Several E. coli mechanisms are regulated by Quorum sensing (QS), including virulence factors and biofilm formation. Quorum sensing is a signaling system that confers bacteria with the ability to respond to chemical molecules known as autoinducers. Suppressor of division inhibitor (SdiA) is a QS receptor present in atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) that detects acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) type autoinducers...
May 15, 2018: Genes
Dong-Ha Kim, Ji-Soo Jang, Won-Tae Koo, Seon-Jin Choi, Hee-Jin Cho, Min-Hyeok Kim, Sang-Joon Kim, Il-Doo Kim
Herein, we incorporated dual bio-templates, i.e., cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and apoferritin into electrospinning solution to achieve three distinct benefits, i.e., (i) facile synthesis of WO3 nanotube by utilizing self-agglomerating nature of CNC in the core of as-spun nanofibers, (ii) effective sensitization by partial phase transition from WO3 to Na2W4O13 induced by interaction between sodium doped CNC and WO3 during calcination, and (iii) uniform functionalization with monodispersive apoferritin-derived Pt catalytic nanoparticles (2...
May 15, 2018: ACS Sensors
Meng Li, Shasha Liu, Yingyan Jiang, Wei Wang
In a typical bipolar electrochemistry (BPE) configuration, voltage applied between the two driving electrodes induced a potential drop through solution filled in the microchannel, resulting in interfacial potential difference between solution and BPE varied along the BPE. In the present work, we employed a recently-developed plasmonic imaging technique to map the distribution of surface potential of bipolar electrodes with various geometries including round, triangle, hexagon, star and rhombus shapes under non-faradaic charging process, from which the line of zero potential (LZP) was visualized and determined...
May 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Takafumi Shimizu, Mutsumi Watanabe, Alisdair R Fernie, Takayuki Tohge
Recent technological developments and methodological advances of both liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) have allowed LC-MS-based plant metabolomics to become a common tool for investigating quantity, quality, and chemical diversity of plant metabolites. Targeted LC-MS metabolite analysis focuses on the detection and quantitation of the researcher's target metabolites. Whilst the word "target analysis" has been used for the analytical measurement to obtain the absolute concentrations evaluated by authentic and/or stable-isotope-labeled standards, over time the phrase came to be also used in a broad sense for the measurement of annotatable metabolites by structural information obtained from the combination of different strategies such as MS/MS analysis, reference extracts, mutant analysis and database search...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nawrin F Pinky, Crystal M Wilkie, Jocelyn R Barnes, Matthew P Parsons
Transporter-mediated glutamate uptake plays an essential role in shaping synaptic neurotransmission. The rapid removal of synaptically-released glutamate ensures the high temporal dynamics characteristic of fast excitatory chemical neurotransmission and prevents the overexcitation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors that have been implicated in synaptic plasticity impairments and cell death. Despite clear regional differences in plasticity and excitotoxic thresholds, few studies have compared extracellular glutamate dynamics across different brain regions and in response to a range of neural activity including plasticity-inducing stimuli...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Gwilherm Evano, Antoine Nitelet, Pierre Thilmany, Damien F Dewez
Halogenated arenes and alkenes are of prime importance in many areas of science, especially in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and chemical industries. While the simplest ones are commercially available, some of them are still hardly accessible depending on their substitution patterns and the nature of the halogen atom. Reactions enabling the selective and efficient replacement of the halogen atom of an aryl or alkenyl halide by another one, lighter, or heavier, are therefore of major importance since they can be used for example to turn a less reactive aryl/alkenyl chloride into the more reactive iodinated derivatives or, in a reversed sense, to block an undesired reactivity, for late-stage modifications or for the introduction of a radionuclide...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Tiffany-Heather Ulep, Jeong-Yeol Yoon
Application of optically superior, tunable fluorescent nanotechnologies have long been demonstrated throughout many chemical and biological sensing applications. Combined with microfluidics technologies, i.e. on lab-on-a-chip platforms, such fluorescent nanotechnologies have often enabled extreme sensitivity, sometimes down to single molecule level. Within recent years there has been a peak interest in translating fluorescent nanotechnology onto paper-based platforms for chemical and biological sensing, as a simple, low-cost, disposable alternative to conventional silicone-based microfluidic substrates...
2018: Nano Convergence
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