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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909898/two-dimensional-polyaniline-nanostructure-to-the-development-of-microfluidic-integrated-flexible-biosensors-for-biomarker-detection
#1
Pei Liu, Yisi Zhu, Seung Hee Lee, Minhee Yun
In this work, we report a flexible field-effect-transistor (FET) biosensor design based on two-dimensional (2-D) polyaniline (PANI) nanostructure. The flexible biosensor devices were fabricated through a facile and inexpensive method that combines top-down and bottom-up processes. The chemically synthesized PANI nanostructure showed excellent p-type semiconductor properties as well as good compatibility with flexible design. With the 2-D PANI nanostructure being as thin as 80 nm and its extremely large surface-area-to-volume (SA/V) ratio due to the intrinsic properties of PANI chemical synthesis, the developed flexible biosensor exhibited outstanding sensing performance in detecting B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) biomarkers, and was able to achieve high specificity (averagely 112 folds) with the limit of detection as low as 100 pg/mL...
December 2016: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907255/a-hyperspectral-image-can-predict-tropical-tree-growth-rates-in-single-species-stands
#2
T Trevor Caughlin, Sarah J Graves, Gregory P Asner, Michiel van Breugel, Jefferson S Hall, Roberta E Martin, Mark S Ashton, Stephanie A Bohlman
Remote sensing is increasingly needed to meet the critical demand for estimates of forest structure and composition at landscape to continental scales. Hyperspectral images can detect tree canopy properties, including species identity, leaf chemistry and disease. Tree growth rates are related to these measurable canopy properties but whether growth can be directly predicted from hyperspectral data remains unknown. We used a single hyperspectral image and light detection and ranging-derived elevation to predict growth rates for 20 tropical tree species planted in experimental plots...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906391/large-area-growth-of-vertically-aligned-luminescent-mos2-nanosheets
#3
G Deokar, N S Rajput, P Vancsó, F Ravaux, M Jouiad, D Vignaud, F Cecchet, J-F Colomer
Vertically aligned MoS2 nanosheets (NSs) with exposed edges were successfully synthesized over a large area (∼2 cm(2)). The NSs were grown using an ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition technique via rapid sulfurization of sputter deposited thick molybdenum films. Extensive characterization of the grown MoS2 NSs has been carried out using high resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM & TEM). A special care was given to the TEM lamella preparation process by means of a focused ion beam to preserve the NS growth direction...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906345/grating-coupling-based-excitation-of-bloch-surface-waves-for-lab-on-fiber-optrodes
#4
Michele Scaravilli, Giuseppe Castaldi, Andrea Cusano, Vincenzo Galdi
In this paper, we investigate the possibility to excite Bloch surface waves (BSWs) on the tip of single-mode optical fibers. Within this framework, after exploring an idealized, proof-of-principle grating-coupling-based scheme for on-tip excitation of BSWs, we focus on an alternative configuration that is more robust with respect to fabrication-related non-idealities. Subsequently, with a view towards label-free chemical and biological sensing, we present a specific design aimed at enhancing the sensitivity (in terms of wavelength shift) of the arising resonance with respect to changes in the refractive properties of the surrounding environment...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904093/nonequilibrium-molecular-switching-of-chiral-helicene-oligomers-in-double-helix-formation
#5
Masanori Shigeno
 Molecular switching is the phenomenon in which a molecular structural change occurs reversibly in response to an external stimulus or energy. It plays an important role in biology, in which it is used for sensing environmental changes. In contrast to well-studied equilibrium molecular switching involving thermodynamically stable states, nonequilibrium molecular switching involving a metastable state is a notable chemical phenomenon and is the theme of this study. Sulfonamido- and aminomethylenehelicene oligomers show a reversible structural change from a double helix to a random coil in dilute solution...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900698/mining-microbial-signals-for-enhanced-biodiscovery-of-secondary-metabolites
#6
F Jerry Reen, Jose A Gutiérrez-Barranquero, Fergal O'Gara
The advent of metagenomics based biodiscovery has provided researchers with previously unforeseen access to the rich tapestry of natural bioactivity that exists in the biosphere. Unhindered by the "culturable bottleneck" that has severely limited the translation of the genetic potential that undoubtedly exists in nature, metagenomics nonetheless requires ongoing technological developments to maximize its efficacy and applicability to the discovery of new chemical entities.Here we describe methodologies for the detection and isolation of quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules from metagenomics libraries...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896865/sensing-at-the-surface-of-graphene-field-effect-transistors
#7
Wangyang Fu, Lin Jiang, Erik P van Geest, Lia M C Lima, Grégory F Schneider
Recent research trends now offer new opportunities for developing the next generations of label-free biochemical sensors using graphene and other two-dimensional materials. While the physics of graphene transistors operated in electrolyte is well grounded, important chemical challenges still remain to be addressed, namely the impact of the chemical functionalizations of graphene on the key electrical parameters and the sensing performances. In fact, graphene - at least ideal graphene - is highly chemically inert...
November 29, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893437/silicon-nanowire-heterostructures-for-advanced-energy-and-environmental-applications-a-review
#8
Ramesh Ghosh, P K Giri
Semiconductor nanowires (NWs), in particular Si NWs, have attracted much attention in the last decade for their unique electronic properties and potential applications in several emerging areas. With the introduction of heterostructures (HSs) on NWs, new functionalities are obtained and the device performance is improved significantly in many cases. Due to the easy fabrication techniques, excellent optoelectronic properties and compatibility of forming HSs with different inorganic/organic materials, Si NW HSs have been utilized in various configurations and device architectures...
November 28, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892561/aie-fluorophore-with-enhanced-cellular-uptake-for-tracking-esterase-activated-release-of-taurine-and-ros-scavenging
#9
Jun Wang, Yinglong Wu, Fang Zeng, Shuailing Huang, Shuizhu Wu
Fluorophores with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics are attractive and versatile tools for both chemical sensing and biological imaging. Herein, we designed and synthesized a fluorescent light-up system CTPE-Tau with enhanced cellular uptake ability. The system possesses several advantages, such as a large Stokes shift, low cytotoxicity, and good photostability. Also, it has been successfully utilized to track esterase-activated release of taurine and to scavenge intracellular ROS, and shows great potential for trackable visualized therapy...
November 28, 2016: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889428/spectroscopic-and-e-tongue-evaluation-of-medicinal-plants-a-taste-of-how-rasa-can-be-studied
#10
Rama Jayasundar, Somenath Ghatak
BACKGROUND: The use of medicinal plants in Ayurveda is based on rasa, generally taken to represent taste as a sensory perception. This chemosensory parameter plays an important role in Ayurvedic pharmacology. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to explore the use of structuro-functional information deduced from analytical techniques for the rasa-based classification of medicinal plants in Ayurveda. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methods of differential sensing and spectroscopic metabolomics have been used in select medicinal plants from three different taste categories (sweet, pungent and multiple taste): Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera and Glycyrrhiza glabra from sweet category; Piper longum, Cuminum cyminum and Capsicum annum from pungent group; Emblica officinalis with five tastes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887563/the-trans-generational-impact-of-population-density-signals-on-host-parasite-interactions
#11
Jessica Michel, Dieter Ebert, Matthew D Hall
BACKGROUND: The density of a host population is a key parameter underlying disease transmission, but it also has implications for the expression of disease through its effect on host physiology. In response to higher densities, individuals are predicted to either increase their immune investment in response to the elevated risk of parasitism, or conversely to decrease their immune capacity as a consequence of the stress of a crowded environment. However, an individual's health is shaped by many different factors, including their genetic background, current environmental conditions, and maternal effects...
November 25, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886278/a-gdalo3-perovskite-oxide-electrolyte-based-nox-solid-state-sensor
#12
Yihong Xiao, Dongmei Wang, Guohui Cai, Yong Zheng, Fulan Zhong
NOx is a notorious emission from motor vehicles and chemical factories as the precursor of acid rain and photochemical smog. Although zirconia-based NOx sensors have been developed and showed high sensitivity and selectivity at a high temperature of above 800 °C, they fail to show good performance, and even don't work at the typical work temperature window of the automotive engine (<500 °C). It still is a formidable challenge for development of mild-temperature NOx detector or sensor. Herein, a novel amperometric solid-state NOx sensor was developed using perovskite-type oxide Gd1-xCaxAlO3-δ(GCA) as the electrolyte and NiO as the sensing electrode...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882624/fluorographene-modified-by-grignard-reagents-broad-range-of-functional-nanomaterials
#13
Vlastimil Mazanek, Alena Libanska, Jiri Sturala, Daniel Bouša, David Sedmidubský, Martin Pumera, Zbynek Janousek, Jan Plutnar, Zdenek Sofer
Fluorographene is the youngest stoichiometric derivative of graphene, thus, its reactivity is just poorly explored. Compared to graphene, a significantly higher reactivity of C-F bonds makes this material a suitable platform for a large number of chemical modifications. Fluorographene is also the only member of halogengraphenes family, which can be prepared in stoichiometric composition C1F1. Here, we present the chemical modification of fluorographene with Grignard reagents which are well known in organic chemistry for the formation of new C-C bonds...
November 23, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881826/a-soft-wearable-microfluidic-device-for-the-capture-storage-and-colorimetric-sensing-of-sweat
#14
Ahyeon Koh, Daeshik Kang, Yeguang Xue, Seungmin Lee, Rafal M Pielak, Jeonghyun Kim, Taehwan Hwang, Seunghwan Min, Anthony Banks, Philippe Bastien, Megan C Manco, Liang Wang, Kaitlyn R Ammann, Kyung-In Jang, Phillip Won, Seungyong Han, Roozbeh Ghaffari, Ungyu Paik, Marvin J Slepian, Guive Balooch, Yonggang Huang, John A Rogers
Capabilities in health monitoring enabled by capture and quantitative chemical analysis of sweat could complement, or potentially obviate the need for, approaches based on sporadic assessment of blood samples. Established sweat monitoring technologies use simple fabric swatches and are limited to basic analysis in controlled laboratory or hospital settings. We present a collection of materials and device designs for soft, flexible, and stretchable microfluidic systems, including embodiments that integrate wireless communication electronics, which can intimately and robustly bond to the surface of the skin without chemical and mechanical irritation...
November 23, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879329/phenotypic-profiling-reveals-that-candida-albicans-opaque-cells-represent-a-metabolically-specialized-cell-state-compared-to-default-white-cells
#15
Iuliana V Ene, Matthew B Lohse, Adrian V Vladu, Joachim Morschhäuser, Alexander D Johnson, Richard J Bennett
: The white-opaque switch is a bistable, epigenetic transition affecting multiple traits in Candida albicans including mating, immunogenicity, and niche specificity. To compare how the two cell states respond to external cues, we examined the fitness, phenotypic switching, and filamentation properties of white cells and opaque cells under 1,440 different conditions at 25°C and 37°C. We demonstrate that white and opaque cells display striking differences in their integration of metabolic and thermal cues, so that the two states exhibit optimal fitness under distinct conditions...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878520/a-coumarin-based-luminescent-chemosensor-for-recognition-of-cu-2-and-its-in-situ-complex-for-cn-sensing-via-cu-2-displacement-approach
#16
Soma Mukherjee, Shrabani Talukder
A new coumarin based chemosensor has been developed for selective fluorescent recognition of Cu(2+) in MeOH/H2O (4:1, v/v at pH = 7.2 aqueous solution) medium with 1:1 binding stoichiometry. The in-situ prepared Cu(2+) complex displays high selectivity towards CN(-) via Cu(2+) displacement approach with detection limit in the micro molar range. Moreover, in presence of Cu(2+), the receptor exhibits reversible emission change with EDTA and thus offers an interesting property of molecular 'IMPLICATION' logic gate with Cu(2+) and EDTA as chemical inputs...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877898/nanoporous-carbon-materials-with-enhanced-supercapacitance-performance-and-non-aromatic-chemical-sensing-with-c1-c2-alcohol-discrimination
#17
Lok Kumar Shrestha, Laxmi Adhikari, Rekha Goswami Shrestha, Mandira Pradhananga Adhikari, Rina Adhikari, Jonathan P Hill, Raja Ram Pradhananga, Katsuhiko Ariga
We have investigated the textural properties, electrochemical supercapacitances and vapor sensing performances of bamboo-derived nanoporous carbon materials (NCM). Bamboo, an abundant natural biomaterial, was chemically activated with phosphoric acid at 400 °C and the effect of impregnation ratio of phosphoric acid on the textural properties and electrochemical performances was systematically investigated. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of various oxygen-containing surface functional groups (i...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876889/harnessing-hyperthermostable-lactonase-from-sulfolobus-solfataricus-for-biotechnological-applications
#18
Benjamin Rémy, Laure Plener, Laetitia Poirier, Mikael Elias, David Daudé, Eric Chabrière
Extremozymes have gained considerable interest as they could meet industrial requirements. Among these, SsoPox is a hyperthermostable enzyme isolated from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. This enzyme is a lactonase catalyzing the hydrolysis of acyl-homoserine lactones; these molecules are involved in Gram-negative bacterial communication referred to as quorum sensing. SsoPox exhibits promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity for the degradation of organophosphorous chemicals including insecticides and chemical warfare agents...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876601/bioapplications-of-graphene-constructed-functional-nanomaterials
#19
REVIEW
Arif Gulzar, Piaoping Yang, Fei He, Jiating Xu, Dan Yang, Liangge Xu, Mohammad Omar Jan
Graphene has distinctive mechanical, electronic, and optical properties, which researchers have applied to develop innovative electronic materials including transparent conductors and ultrafast transistors. Lately, the understanding of various chemical properties of graphene has expedited its application in high-performance devices that generate and store energy. Graphene is now increasing its terrain outside electronic and chemical applications toward biomedical areas such as precise bio sensing through graphene-quenched fluorescence, graphene-enhanced cell differentiation and growth, and graphene-assisted laser desorption/ionization for mass spectrometry...
November 19, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875555/doping-polypyrrole-films-with-4-n-pentylphenylboronic-acid-to-enhance-affinity-towards-bacteria-and-dopamine
#20
Mohsen Golabi, Laurence Padiolleau, Xi Chen, Mohammad Javad Jafari, Elham Sheikhzadeh, Anthony P F Turner, Edwin W H Jager, Valerio Beni
Here we demonstrate the use of a functional dopant as a fast and simple way to tune the chemical affinity and selectivity of polypyrrole films. More specifically, a boronic-functionalised dopant, 4-N-Pentylphenylboronic Acid (PBA), was used to provide to polypyrrole films with enhanced affinity towards diols. In order to prove the proposed concept, two model systems were explored: (i) the capture and the electrochemical detection of dopamine and (ii) the adhesion of bacteria onto surfaces. The chemisensor, based on overoxidised polypyrrole boronic doped film, was shown to have the ability to capture and retain dopamine, thus improving its detection; furthermore the chemisensor showed better sensitivity in comparison with overoxidised perchlorate doped films...
2016: PloS One
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