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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935924/multipurpose-silicon-photonics-signal-processor-core
#1
Daniel Pérez, Ivana Gasulla, Lee Crudgington, David J Thomson, Ali Z Khokhar, Ke Li, Wei Cao, Goran Z Mashanovich, José Capmany
Integrated photonics changes the scaling laws of information and communication systems offering architectural choices that combine photonics with electronics to optimize performance, power, footprint, and cost. Application-specific photonic integrated circuits, where particular circuits/chips are designed to optimally perform particular functionalities, require a considerable number of design and fabrication iterations leading to long development times. A different approach inspired by electronic Field Programmable Gate Arrays is the programmable photonic processor, where a common hardware implemented by a two-dimensional photonic waveguide mesh realizes different functionalities through programming...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934661/dextran-coated-silver-nanoparticles-chemical-sensor-for-selective-cysteine-detection
#2
Slađana Davidović, Vesna Lazić, Ivana Vukoje, Jelena Papan, S Phillip Anhrenkiel, Suzana Dimitrijević, Jovan M Nedeljković
A simple, fast and non-costly method for selective cysteine (Cys) detection, based on optical changes of silver colloids, is developed. For that purpose, stable colloids consisting of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) coated with polysaccharide dextran (Dex), isolated from bacterium species Leuconostoc mesenteroides T3, were prepared. The synthesized samples were thoroughly characterized including absorption and FTIR spectroscopy, as well as transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The silver colloids display high sensitivity and selectivity towards Cys detection in aqueous solutions...
September 12, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933459/two-dimensional-nanomaterial-based-field-effect-transistors-for-chemical-and-biological-sensing
#3
REVIEW
Shun Mao, Jingbo Chang, Haihui Pu, Ganhua Lu, Qiyuan He, Hua Zhang, Junhong Chen
Meeting the increasing demand for sensors with high sensitivity, high selectivity, and rapid detection presents many challenges. In the last decade, electronic sensors based on field-effect transistors (FETs) have been widely studied due to their high sensitivity, rapid detection, and simple test procedure. Among these sensors, two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial-based FET sensors have been demonstrated with tremendous potential for the detection of a wide range of analytes which is attributed to the unique structural and electronic properties of 2D nanomaterials...
September 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930616/development-of-a-semi-automated-image-based-high-throughput-drug-screening-system
#4
Remzi Onur Eren, Dmitry Kopelyanskiy, Dimitri Moreau, Julien Bortoli Chapalay, Marc Chambon, Gerardo Turcatti, Lon-Fye Lye, Stephen M Beverley, Nicolas Fasel
We previously reported that the innate sensing of the endosymbiont Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1) within Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis through Toll-like receptor 3, worsens the pathogenesis of parasite infection in mice. The presence of LRV1 has been associated with the failure of first-line treatment in patients infected with LRV1 containing -L. guyanensis and -L. braziliensis parasites. Here, we established a semi-automated image-based high-throughput drug screening (HTDS) protocol to measure parasiticidal activity of the Prestwick chemical library in primary murine macrophages infected with LRV1-containing L...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930251/chemical-profiling-and-evaluation-of-antioxidant-and-anti-microbial-properties-of-selected-commercial-essential-oils-a-comparative-study
#5
Ângelo Luís, Ana Paula Duarte, Luísa Pereira, Fernanda Domingues
Background: The last decades have seen an increased awareness by the scientific community of the extent of resistance to conventional antibiotics, particularly with respect to the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Additionally, natural antioxidants have received significant attention among food professionals and consumers because of their assumed safety and potential therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to assess the antioxidant activities of eight selected commercial essential oils (EOs), together with the evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing properties...
June 5, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928466/magnetic-field-effect-in-natural-cryptochrome-explored-with-model-compound
#6
Shubhajit Paul, Alexey S Kiryutin, Jinping Guo, Konstantin L Ivanov, Jörg Matysik, Alexandra V Yurkovskaya, Xiaojie Wang
Many animals sense the Earth's magnetic-field and use it for navigation. It is proposed that a light-dependent quantum effect in cryptochrome proteins, residing in the retina, allows for such an iron-free spin-chemical compass. The photochemical processes, spin-dynamics and its magnetic field dependence in natural cryptochrome are not fully understood by the in vivo and in vitro studies. For a deeper insight into these biophysical mechanisms in cryptochrome, we had introduced a flavin-tryptophan dyad (F10T)...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926950/development-of-a-textile-nanocomposite-as-naked-eye-indicator-of-the-exposition-to-strong-acids
#7
Isabel Pallás, Maria D Marcos, Ramón Martínez-Máñez, Jose V Ros-Lis
Chemical burns, mainly produced by acids, are a topic of concern. A new sensing material for the detection of strong acids able to be incorporated into textiles has been developed. The material is prepared by the covalent attachment of 2,2',4,4',4″-pentamethoxy triphenyl methanol to a mesoporous material which further is included in a nitro resin to obtain a colourless composite. The response of this composite to diverse acid solutions was tested showing the appearance of an intense purple colour (with a colour difference higher than 160) that can be monitored by the naked eye or could be easily digitised to feed an instrumental sensor...
September 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925686/a-naphthalimide-based-fluorophore-for-soft-anionic-interface-monitoring
#8
Li Wang, Gang Wang, Congdi Shang, Rui Kang, Yu Fang
A naphthalimide-based low-molecular mass fluorophore (NA) was designed and synthesized by introducing an azetidine unit onto the aromatic ring of the compound as an electron-donating structure, and a hydrophilic (2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethanol) moiety into the 'N-imide site' of the core structure. UV-vis absorption and fluorescence measurements revealed that the fluorophore is soluble in water, and shows a fluorescent quantum yield of ~20% and lifetime of ~3.7 ns in the solvent within a wide pH range. Moreover, the fluorescence emission and anisotropy of the fluorophore as produced are both dependent upon the viscosity and polarity of the medium...
September 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924041/irak4-kinase-activity-controls-toll-like-receptor-induced-inflammation-through-the-transcription-factor-irf5-in-primary-human-monocytes
#9
Leah Cushing, Aaron Winkler, Scott A Jelinsky, Katherine Lee, Wouter Korver, Rachael Hawtin, Vikram R Rao, Margaret Fleming, Lih-Ling Lin
Interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) plays a critical role in innate immune signaling by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and loss of IRAK4 activity in mice and humans increases susceptibility to bacterial infections and causes defects in TLR and IL1 ligand sensing. However, the mechanism by which IRAK4 activity regulates the production of downstream inflammatory cytokines is unclear. Using transcriptomic and biochemical analyses of human monocytes treated with a highly potent and selective inhibitor of IRAK4, we show that IRAK4 kinase activity controls the activation of the transcription factor IRF5, a transcription factor implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune diseases...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923968/soft-tubular-microfluidics-for-2d-and-3d-applications
#10
Wang Xi, Fang Kong, Joo Chuan Yeo, Longteng Yu, Surabhi Sonam, Ming Dao, Xiaobo Gong, Chwee Teck Lim
Microfluidics has been the key component for many applications, including biomedical devices, chemical processors, microactuators, and even wearable devices. This technology relies on soft lithography fabrication which requires cleanroom facilities. Although popular, this method is expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, current conventional microfluidic chips precludes reconfiguration, making reiterations in design very time-consuming and costly. To address these intrinsic drawbacks of microfabrication, we present an alternative solution for the rapid prototyping of microfluidic elements such as microtubes, valves, and pumps...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922369/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-nucleocapsid-protein-has-dual-rna-binding-modes
#11
Subbiah Jeeva, Sean Pador, Brittany Voss, Safder Saieed Ganaie, Mohammad Ayoub Mir
Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, a zoonotic viral disease, has high mortality rate in humans. There is currently no vaccine for Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and chemical interventions are limited. The three negative sense genomic RNA segments of CCHFV are specifically encapsidated by the nucleocapsid protein into three ribonucleocapsids, which serve as templates for the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase. Here we demonstrate that CCHFV nucleocapsid protein has two distinct binding modes for double and single strand RNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921957/silver-nanowires-for-reconfigurable-bloch-surface-waves
#12
Douguo Zhang, Ruxue Wang, Yifeng Xiang, Yan Kuai, Cuifang Kuang, Ramachandram Badugu, Yingke Xu, Pei Wang, Hai Ming, Xu Liu, Joseph R Lakowicz
The use of a single silver nanowire as a flexible coupler to transform a free space beam into a Bloch surface wave propagating on a dielectric multilayer is proposed. Based on Huygens' Principle, when a Gaussian beam is focused onto a straight silver nanowire, a Bloch surface wave is generated and propagates perpendicular to the nanowire. By curving the silver nanowire, the surface wave can be focused. Furthermore, the spatial phase of the incident laser beam can be actively controlled with the aid of a spatial light modulator, resulting in the reconfigurable or dynamically controlled Bloch surface waves...
September 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920678/facing-challenges-in-real-life-application-of-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-sers-design-and-nanofabrication-of-sers-substrates-for-rapid-field-test-of-food-contaminants
#13
Ruyi Shi, Xiangjiang Liu, Yibin Ying
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is capable of detecting single molecule with high specificity and has become a promising technique for rapid chemical analysis of agricultural products and foods. With a deeper understanding of the SERS effect and advances in nanofabrication technology, SERS is now on the edge of going out of the laboratory and becoming a sophisticated analytical tool to fulfill various real-world tasks. This review focuses on the challenges that SERS has met in this progress, such as how to obtain a reliable SERS signal, improve the sensitivity and specificity in a complex sample matrix, develop simple and user-friendly practical sensing approach, reduce the running cost, etc...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919489/zinc-chloride-induced-trpa1-activation-does-not-contribute-to-toxicity-in-vitro
#14
Dirk Steinritz, Franziska Zehfuß, Bernhard Stenger, Annette Schmidt, Tanja Popp, Kai Kehe, Harald Mückter, Horst Thiermann, Thomas Gudermann
The hygroscopic zinc chloride (ZnCl2) is often used to generate smoke screens. Severe adverse pulmonary health effects have been associated with inhalation of ZnCl2 smokes. The underlying molecular toxicology is not known. Recent studies have shown that the Transient Receptor Potential Channel A1 (TRPA1) is important for sensing toxic chemicals. TRPA1 was shown to be activated by Zn(2+) which was linked to pain and inflammation. In the present study, we investigated whether TRPA1 activation contributes to ZnCl2-mediated toxicity in vitro...
September 14, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917792/zno-nanotubes-supported-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-arrays-as-sensing-materials-for-electrochemical-detection-of-dopamine
#15
Hai-Hui Wang, Xuan-Jie Chen, Wei-Tian Li, Wen-Hui Zhou, Xiu-Chun Guo, Wen-Yi Kang, Dong-Xing Kou, Zheng-Ji Zhou, Yue-Na Meng, Qing-Wen Tian, Si-Xin Wu
In this study, ZnO nanotubes (ZNTs) were prepared onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass and used as supports for MIPs arrays fabrication. Due to the imprinted cavities are always located at both inner and outer surface of ZNTs, these ZNTs supported MIPs arrays have good accessibility towards template and can be used as sensing materials for chemical sensors with high sensitivity, excellent selectivity and fast response. Using K3[Fe(CN)6] as electron probe, the fabricated electrochemical sensor shows two linear dynamic ranges (0...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917767/hierarchical-oxygen-implanted-mos2-nanoparticle-decorated-graphene-for-the-non-enzymatic-electrochemical-sensing-of-hydrogen-peroxide-in-alkaline-media
#16
Yudong Xue, Govindhan Maduraiveeran, Mingyong Wang, Shili Zheng, Yi Zhang, Wei Jin
Owing to the extensive applications of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in biological, environmental and chemical engineering, it is of great importance to investigate sensitive and selective sensing platform towards the detection of H2O2. Herein, oxygen-implanted MoS2 nanoparticles decorated graphene nanocomposite is synthesized via a facile one-pot solvothermal method for the sensitive detection of H2O2 in alkaline media. The structure and morphology of the MoS2/graphene nanocomposites were systematically characterized, showing that Mo-O bonds are formed and oxygen is implanted into the crystal structure in the nanocomposite...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917731/chain-length-dependent-interfacial-immunoreaction-kinetics-on-self-assembled-monolayers-revealed-by-surface-enhanced-infrared-absorption-spectroscopy
#17
Wen-Jing Bao, Jian Li, Tian-Yuan Cao, Jin Li, Xing-Hua Xia
Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) has been extensively applied as ideal interface layer for construction of biosensors. Its chain length and end functional groups determine the physical and chemical properties of the modified surfaces, which will affect the performance of constructed biosensors. Herein, we studied the influence of chain length of n-alkanethiols SAMs on the immunoreaction kinetics employing attenuated total reflection surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (ATR-SEIRAS). Antibody (rabbit immunoglobulin) is assembled on carboxyl terminated SAMs of n-alkanethiols with different chain lengths (n = 3, 6, 11, 16)...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916033/ca-2-detection-utilising-algan-gan-transistors-with-ion-selective-polymer-membranes
#18
Mohsen Asadnia, Matthew Myers, Gilberto A Umana-Membreno, Tarun M Sanders, Umesh K Mishra, Brett D Nener, Murray V Baker, Giacinta Parish
We demonstrate highly selective and sensitive potentiometric ion sensors for calcium ion detection, operated without the use of a reference electrode. The sensors consist of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure-based transistor devices with chemical functionalisation of the gate area using poly (vinylchloride)-based (PVC) membranes having high selectivity towards calcium ions, Ca(2+). The sensors exhibited stable and rapid responses when introduced to various concentrations of Ca(2+). In both 0.01 M KCl and 0.01 M NaCl ionic strength buffer solutions, the sensors exhibited near Nernstian responses with detection limits of less than 10(-7) M, and a linear response range between 10(-7)-10(-2) M...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916032/polymer-inclusion-membranes-pims-in-chemical-analysis-a-review
#19
REVIEW
M Inês G S Almeida, Robert W Cattrall, Spas D Kolev
This review highlights the increasing interest in polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) in analytical chemistry as they are adapted to new and novel applications. PIMs are polymer-based liquid membranes and were first introduced 50 years ago as the sensing membranes in ion-selective electrodes and optodes. More recently however, PIMs have been used for other applications in analytical chemistry such as for sample separation, sample pre-concentration, electro-driven extraction, and passive sampling, and have also been incorporated into on-line and automated analysis systems...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915945/potentiometric-sensor-for-non-invasive-lactate-determination-in-human-sweat
#20
Massimo Onor, Stefano Gufoni, Tommaso Lomonaco, Silvia Ghimenti, Pietro Salvo, Fiodor Sorrentino, Emilia Bramanti
The present work describes a non invasive lactate sensing in sweat during workout. The sensing system is based on a non-equilibrium potentiometric measure performed using disposable, chemically modified, screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) that can be wetted with sweat during the exercise. The potentiometric signal, which is proportional to lactate concentration in sweat, is produced by a redox reaction activated by UV radiation, as opposed to the enzymatic reaction employed in traditional, blood-based measuring devices...
October 9, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
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