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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346281/a-prototype-sensor-for-in-situ-sensing-of-fine-particulate-matter-and-volatile-organic-compounds
#1
Chee-Loon Ng, Fuu-Ming Kai, Ming-Hui Tee, Nicholas Tan, Harold F Hemond
Air pollution exposure causes seven million deaths per year, according to the World Health Organization. Possessing knowledge of air quality and sources of air pollution is crucial for managing air pollution and providing early warning so that a swift counteractive response can be carried out. An optical prototype sensor (AtmOptic) capable of scattering and absorbance measurements has been developed to target in situ sensing of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For particulate matter testing, a test chamber was constructed and the emission of PM2...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343628/keeping-the-home-fires-burning-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#2
REVIEW
D Grahame Hardie
Living cells obtain energy either by oxidizing reduced compounds of organic or mineral origin or by absorbing light. Whichever energy source is used, some of the energy released is conserved by converting adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which are analogous to the chemicals in a rechargeable battery. The energy released by the conversion of ATP back to ADP is used to drive most energy-requiring processes, including cell growth, cell division, communication and movement. It is clearly essential to life that the production and consumption of ATP are always maintained in balance, and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is one of the key cellular regulatory systems that ensures this...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342953/review-of-recent-metamaterial-microfluidic-sensors
#3
REVIEW
Ahmed Salim, Sungjoon Lim
Metamaterial elements/arrays exhibit a sensitive response to fluids yet with a small footprint, therefore, they have been an attractive choice to realize various sensing devices when integrated with microfluidic technology. Micro-channels made from inexpensive biocompatible materials avoid any contamination from environment and require only microliter-nanoliter sample for sensing. Simple design, easy fabrication process, light weight prototype, and instant measurements are advantages as compared to conventional (optical, electrochemical and biological) sensing systems...
January 15, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342245/structure-function-relationships-of-olfactory-and-taste-receptors
#4
Maik Behrens, Loïc Briand, Claire A de March, Hiroaki Matsunami, Atsuko Yamashita, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Simone Weyand
The field of chemical senses has made major progress in understanding the cellular mechanisms of olfaction and taste in the past two decades. However, the molecular understanding of odour and taste recognition is still lagging far behind and will require solving multiple structures of the relevant full-length receptors in complex with native ligands to achieve this goal. However, the development of multiple complimentary strategies for the structure determination of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) makes this goal realistic...
January 12, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339431/molecular-insights-into-function-and-competitive-inhibition-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-multiple-virulence-factor-regulator
#5
Tomoe Kitao, Francois Lepine, Seda Babloudi, Frederick Walte, Stefan Steinbacher, Klaus Maskos, Michael Blaesse, Michele Negri, Michael Pucci, Bob Zahler, Antonio Felici, Laurence G Rahme
New approaches to antimicrobial drug discovery are urgently needed to combat intractable infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Multiple virulence factor regulator (MvfR or PqsR), a Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing transcription factor, regulates functions important in both acute and persistent infections. Recently identified non-ligand-based benzamine-benzimidazole (BB) inhibitors of MvfR suppress both acute and persistent P. aeruginosa infections in mice without perturbing bacterial growth...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339429/the-biochemistry-of-sensing-enteric-pathogens-regulate-type-iii-secretion-in-response-to-environmental-and-host-cues
#6
REVIEW
Nicole J De Nisco, Giomar Rivera-Cancel, Kim Orth
Enteric pathogens employ sophisticated strategies to colonize and infect mammalian hosts. Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter jejuni, are among the leading causes of gastrointestinal tract infections worldwide. The virulence strategies of many of these Gram-negative pathogens rely on type III secretion systems (T3SSs), which are macromolecular syringes that translocate bacterial effector proteins directly into the host cytosol. However, synthesis of T3SS proteins comes at a cost to the bacterium in terms of growth rate and fitness, both in the environment and within the host...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337555/reconsideration-of-the-detection-and-fluorescence-mechanism-for-a-pyrene-based-chemosensor-for-tnt
#7
Meiheng Lu, Panwang Zhou, Yinhua Ma, Zhe Tang, Yanqiang Yang, Keli Han
Rapid detection of chemical explosives is crucial for national security and public safety, and investigation of sensing mechanisms is important to design highly efficient chemosensors. This study theoretically investigates the detection and fluorescence mechanism of a newly synthesized pyrene based chemosensor for detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT) through density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods, suggesting a different interaction product of the probe and TNT from previously reported ones (Mosca, L...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337079/rising-pco2-in-freshwater-ecosystems-has-the-potential-to-negatively-affect-predator-induced-defenses-in-daphnia
#8
Linda C Weiss, Leonie Pötter, Annika Steiger, Sebastian Kruppert, Uwe Frost, Ralph Tollrian
Anthropogenically released CO2 accumulates in the global carbon cycle and is anticipated to imbalance global carbon fluxes [1]. For example, increased atmospheric CO2 induces a net air-to-sea flux where the oceans take up large amounts of atmospheric CO2 (i.e., ocean acidification [2-5]). Research on ocean acidification is ongoing, and studies have demonstrated the consequences for ecosystems and organismal biology with major impacts on marine food webs, nutrient cycles, overall productivity, and biodiversity [6-9]...
January 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334150/a-general-method-for-the-chemical-synthesis-of-large-scale-seamless-transition-metal-dichalcogenide-electronics
#9
Li Li, Yichuan Guo, Yuping Sun, Long Yang, Liang Qin, Shouliang Guan, Jinfen Wang, Xiaohui Qiu, Hongbian Li, Yuanyuan Shang, Ying Fang
The capability to directly build atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) devices by chemical synthesis offers important opportunities to achieve large-scale electronics and optoelectronics with seamless interfaces. Here, a general approach for the chemical synthesis of a variety of TMD (e.g., MoS2 , WS2 , and MoSe2 ) device arrays over large areas is reported. During chemical vapor deposition, semiconducting TMD channels and metallic TMD/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid electrodes are simultaneously formed on CNT-patterned substrate, and then coalesce into seamless devices...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334092/synthetic-cells-produce-a-quorum-sensing-chemical-signal-perceived-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#10
Giordano Rampioni, Francesca D'Angelo, Marco Messina, Alessandro Zennaro, Yutetsu Kuruma, Daniela Tofani, Livia Leoni, Pasquale Stano
Recent developments in bottom-up synthetic biology (e.g., lipid vesicle technology integrated with cell-free protein expression systems) allow the generation of semi-synthetic minimal cells (in short, synthetic cells, SCs) endowed with some distinctive capacities of natural cells. In particular, such approaches provide technological tools and conceptual frameworks for the design and engineering of programmable SCs capable of communicating with natural cells by exchanging chemical signals. Here we describe the generation of giant vesicle-based SCs which, via gene expression, synthesize in their aqueous lumen an enzyme that in turn produces a chemical signal...
January 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332299/similarity-search-combined-with-docking-and-molecular-dynamics-for-novel-hache-inhibitor-scaffolds
#11
Nadia Melo Borges, Geraldo Rodrigues Sartori, Jean F R Ribeiro, Josmar R Rocha, João B L Martins, Carlos A Montanari, Ricardo Gargano
The main purpose of this study was to address the performance of virtual screening methods based on ligands and the protein structure of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in order to retrieve novel human AChE (hAChE) inhibitors. In addition, a protocol was developed to identify novel hit compounds and propose new promising AChE inhibitors from the ZINC database with 10 million commercially available compounds. In this sense, 3D similarity searches using rapid overlay of chemical structures and similarity analysis through comparison of electrostatic overlay of docked hits were used to retrieve AChE inhibitors from collected databases...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330795/measurement-of-sensory-nerve-activity-from-the-carotid-body
#12
Ying-Jie Peng, Nanduri R Prabhakar
Carotid bodies are sensory organs for monitoring chemical composition of the arterial blood, especially the O2 levels. Carotid bodies are located bilaterally at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. Hypoxia increases sensory nerve activity of the carotid body, which is transmitted to the brainstem neurons triggering reflex stimulation of breathing and blood pressure. Measurement of action potentials from the carotid sinus nerve is a widely used approach for understanding the mechanisms of hypoxic sensing by the carotid body...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329794/redox-signals-and-macrophage-biology-for-the-upcoming-issue-of-molecular-aspects-of-medicine-on-signaling-by-reactive-oxygen-species
#13
REVIEW
Andreas Weigert, Andreas von Knethen, Dominik Fuhrmann, Nathalie Dehne, Bernhard Brüne
Macrophages are known for their versatile role in biology. They sense and clear structures that contain exogenous or endogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This process is tightly linked to the production of a mixture of potentially harmful oxidants and cytokines. Their inherent destructive behavior is directed against foreign material or structures of 'altered self', which explains the role of macrophages during innate immune reactions and inflammation. However, there is also another side of macrophages when they turn into a tissue regenerative, pro-resolving, and healing phenotype...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328971/ultrasensitive-electrochemical-sensing-of-hg2-based-on-thymine-hg2-thymine-interaction-and-signal-amplification-of-alkaline-phosphatase-catalyzed-silver-deposition
#14
Aigui Xu, Long Chao, Hongbo Xiao, Yuyun Sui, Jia Liu, Qingji Xie, Shouzhuo Yao
We report an ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor for Hg2+ detection, on the basis of two Hg2+-specific oligonucleotide probes (a thiolated capture probe and a biotinated signal probe), "terminal" signal amplification of alkaline phosphatase catalyzed deposition of silver and in situ microliter-droplet anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The thiolated capture probe is immobilized on an Au-plated glassy carbon electrode, and the biotinated signal probe is then attached to the electrode surface through the thymine-Hg2+-thymine interaction in the presence of Hg2+...
January 5, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328686/three-dimensional-tracking-of-interfacial-hopping-diffusion
#15
Dapeng Wang, Haichao Wu, Daniel K Schwartz
Theoretical predictions have suggested that molecular motion at interfaces-which influences processes including heterogeneous catalysis, (bio)chemical sensing, lubrication and adhesion, and nanomaterial self-assembly-may be dominated by hypothetical "hops" through the adjacent liquid phase, where a diffusing molecule readsorbs after a given hop according to a probabilistic "sticking coefficient." Here, we use three-dimensional (3D) single-molecule tracking to explicitly visualize this process for human serum albumin at solid-liquid interfaces that exert varying electrostatic interactions on the biomacromolecule...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328304/optofluidic-refractive-index-sensors-employing-bent-waveguide-structures-for-low-cost-rapid-chemical-and-biomedical-sensing
#16
I-Chen Liu, Pin-Chuan Chen, Lai-Kwan Chau, Guo-En Chang
We propose and develop an intensity-detection-based refractive-index (RI) sensor for low-cost, rapid RI sensing. The sensor is composed of a polymer bent ridge waveguide (BRWG) structure on a low-cost glass substrate and is integrated with a microfluidic channel. Different-RI solutions flowing through the BRWG sensing region induce output optical power variations caused by optical bend losses, enabling simple and real-time RI detection. Additionally, the sensors are fabricated using rapid and cost-effective vacuum-less processes, attaining the low cost and high throughput required for mass production...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328293/whispering-gallery-mode-resonator-sensor-for-in-situ-measurements-of-hydrogel-gelation
#17
Steven H Huang, Saahil Sheth, Era Jain, Xuefeng Jiang, Silviya P Zustiak, Lan Yang
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are compact and ultrasensitive devices, which enable label-free sensing at the single-molecule level. Despite their high sensitivity, WGM resonators have not been thoroughly investigated for use in dynamic biochemical processes including molecular diffusion and polymerization. In this work, the first report of using WGM sensors to continuously monitor a chemical reaction (i.e. gelation) in situ in a hydrogel is described. Specifically, we monitor and quantify the gelation dynamics of polyacrylamide hydrogels using WGM resonators and compare the results to an established measurement method based on rheology...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328291/whispering-gallery-modes-in-a-single-silica-microparticle-attached-to-an-optical-microfiber-and-their-application-for-highly-sensitive-displacement-sensing
#18
Ningyu Liu, Lei Shi, Song Zhu, Xinbiao Xu, Shixing Yuan, Xinliang Zhang
A compact and relatively stable structure is experimentally demonstrated to excite whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in a single chemically fabricated silica microparticles with a diameter of around 10.6 μm attached to an optical microfiber. The resonance dip with an extinction ratio of 14 dB and Q factor of around 300 has been achieved. Based on the WGMs in this structure, an in-line fiber-optic displacement sensor is presented with a high sensitivity of 33 dB/mm and a measurement range of over 400 μm. The measurement resolution of this displacement sensor can reach to ~10 μm...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324768/identifying-human-diamine-sensors-for-death-related-putrescine-and-cadaverine-molecules
#19
Cristina Izquierdo, José C Gómez-Tamayo, Jean-Christophe Nebel, Leonardo Pardo, Angel Gonzalez
Pungent chemical compounds originating from decaying tissue are strong drivers of animal behavior. Two of the best-characterized death smell components are putrescine (PUT) and cadaverine (CAD), foul-smelling molecules produced by decarboxylation of amino acids during decomposition. These volatile polyamines act as 'necromones', triggering avoidance or attractive responses, which are fundamental for the survival of a wide range of species. The few studies that have attempted to identify the cognate receptors for these molecules have suggested the involvement of the seven-helix trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), localized in the olfactory epithelium...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323918/responsive-hydrogel-based-photonic-nanochains-for-microenvironment-sensing-and-imaging-in-real-time-and-high-resolution
#20
Wei Luo, Qian Cui, Kai Fang, Ke Chen, Huiru Ma, Jianguo Guan
Microenvironment sensing and imaging are of importance in microscale zones like microreactors, microfluidic systems, and biological cells. But they are so far implemented only based on chemical colors from dyes or quantum dots, which suffered either from photobleaching, quenching, or photoblinking behaviors, or from limited color gamut. In contrast, structural colors from hydrogel-based photonic crystals (PCs) may be stable and tunable in the whole visible spectrum by diffraction peak shift, facilitating the visual detection with high accuracy...
January 17, 2018: Nano Letters
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