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hormones and proteomics

Michael Edwards, Rujuan Dai, S Ansar Ahmed
Consequential differences exist between the male and female immune systems' ability to respond to pathogens, environmental insults or self-antigens, and subsequent effects on immunoregulation. In general, females when compared with their male counterparts, respond to pathogenic stimuli and vaccines more robustly, with heightened production of antibodies, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. While the precise reasons for sex differences in immune response to different stimuli are not yet well understood, females are more resistant to infectious diseases and much more likely to develop autoimmune diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xianquan Zhan, Yuda Huang, Ying Long
Human pituitary adenoma (PA) is a common tumor that occurs in the human pituitary gland in the hypothalamus-pituitary-targeted organ axis systems, and may be classified as either clinically functional or nonfunctional PA (FPA and NFPA). NFPA is difficult for early stage diagnosis and therapy due to barely elevating hormones in the blood compared to FPA. Our long-term goal is to use proteomics methods to discover reliable biomarkers for clarification of PA molecular mechanisms and recognition of effective diagnostic, prognostic markers and therapeutic targets...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Shubo Jin, Hongtuo Fu, Shengming Sun, Sufei Jiang, Yiwei Xiong, Yongsheng Gong, Hui Qiao, Wenyi Zhang, Yan Wu
The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in driving male sexual development. In this study, we investigated the regulatory proteins and pathways affecting male sexual development of M. nipponense, by analyzing the proteomes of their androgenic glands during their reproductive and nonreproductive seasons using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). A total of 13 sex-related protein homologs out of 999 total proteins were identified in the proteome of M. nipponense based on comparisons with the published literature...
March 21, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Lorenzo Camoni, Sabina Visconti, Patrizia Aducci, Mauro Marra
In this review we highlight the advances achieved in the investigation of the role of 14-3-3 proteins in hormone signaling, biosynthesis, and transport. 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved molecules that target a number of protein clients through their ability to recognize well-defined phosphorylated motifs. As a result, they regulate several cellular processes, ranging from metabolism to transport, growth, development, and stress response. High-throughput proteomic data and two-hybrid screen demonstrate that 14-3-3 proteins physically interact with many protein clients involved in the biosynthesis or signaling pathways of the main plant hormones, while increasing functional evidence indicates that 14-3-3-target interactions play pivotal regulatory roles...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Birgit Knebel, Sonja Hartwig, Sylvia Jacob, Ulrike Kettel, Martina Schiller, Waltraud Passlack, Cornelia Koellmer, Stefan Lehr, Dirk Müller-Wieland, Jorg Kotzka
The key lipid metabolism transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1a integrates gene regulatory effects of hormones, cytokines, nutrition and metabolites as lipids, glucose, or cholesterol via phosphorylation by different mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. We have previously reported the impact of SREBP-1a phosphorylation on the phenotype in transgenic mouse models with liver-specific overexpression of the N-terminal transcriptional active domain of SREBP-1a (alb-SREBP-1a) or a MAPK phosphorylation site-deficient variant (alb-SREBP-1a∆P; (S63A, S117A, T426V)), respectively...
March 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Stephanie Makhoul, Elena Walter, Oliver Pagel, Ulrich Walter, Albert Sickmann, Stepan Gambaryan, Albert Smolenski, René P Zahedi, Kerstin Jurk
Platelets are circulating sentinels of vascular integrity and are activated, inhibited, or modulated by multiple hormones, vasoactive substances or drugs. Endothelium- or drug-derived NO strongly inhibits platelet activation via activation of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and cGMP elevation, often in synergy with cAMP-elevation by prostacyclin. However, the molecular mechanisms and diversity of cGMP effects in platelets are poorly understood and sometimes controversial. Recently, we established the quantitative human platelet proteome, the iloprost/prostacyclin/cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)-regulated phosphoproteome, and the interactions of the ADP- and iloprost/prostacyclin-affected phosphoproteome...
March 14, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Gabriela L Müller, María V Lara, Pablo Oitaven, Carlos S Andreo, Verónica G Maurino, María F Drincovich
Severe droughts are predicted for the twenty-first century, which contrast with the increased demand for plant materials. Thus, to sustain future generations, a great challenge is to improve crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE), which is the carbon gained per water lost. Here, expression of maize NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) in the guard and vascular companion cells of Nicotiana tabacum results in enhanced WUE, earlier flowering and shorter life cycle. Transgenic lines exhibit reduced stomatal aperture than wild-type (WT)...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ross N Nazar, Xin Xu, Hakeem Shittu, Alexander Kurosky, Jane Robb
Verticillium colonization does induce a cascade of defense/stress proteins but the Ve1 gene also promotes enhanced root growth, which appears to allow the plant to outgrow the pathogen and avoid symptoms associated with an exaggerated defense response. In tomato, the Ve1 gene provides resistance to the vascular pathogen, Verticillium dahliae, race 1; ve1 plants are susceptible. However, the physiological basis of the resistance is unknown. While developing alternative lines of mutant Ve1 gene transformants to address this question a striking difference was observed in transformation frequency resulting from the inefficient rooting of plantlets from ve1 callus relative to Ve1 callus...
March 7, 2018: Planta
Z Cao, B Meng, R Fan, M Liu, M Gao, Z Xing, X Luan
To explore the key regulatory genes and their translated products involved in Huoyan goose egg laying, we first applied the iTRAQ technology integrated with LC-MS/MS analysis to identify differentially abundant proteins in the ovarian tissue of Huoyan geese between the pre-laying and laying periods. Then, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses of the proteins were conducted. As observed, 403 proteins, which included 255 up-regulated and 148 down-regulated proteins, were identified...
March 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Chao Lei, Sheng Fan, Ke Li, Yuan Meng, Jiangping Mao, Mingyu Han, Caiping Zhao, Lu Bao, Dong Zhang
Adventitious root (AR) formation, which is controlled by endogenous and environmental factors, is indispensable for vegetative asexual propagation. However, comprehensive proteomic data on AR formation are still lacking. The aim of this work was to study indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced AR formation in the dwarf apple rootstock 'T337'. In this study, the effect of IBA on AR formation was analysed. Subsequent to treatment with IBA, both the rooting rate and root length of 'T337' increased significantly. An assessment of hormone levels in basal stem cuttings suggested that auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolide were higher in basal stem cuttings that received the exogenous IBA application; while zeatin riboside, gibberellins, and jasmonic acid were lower than non-treated basal stem cuttings...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jennings Luu, Krzysztof Palczewski
Aging is the most significant risk factor associated with chronic disease in humans. The accumulation of genetic damage throughout life leads to a variety of biological aberrations, including disrupted protein homeostasis, metabolic dysfunction, and altered cellular signaling. Such changes ultimately result in cellular senescence, death, or transformation to uncontrolled proliferation, thereby compromising human health. Events contributing to age-dependent physiological decline also occur in the context of hormonal and metabolic changes, affecting interconnected cellular networks...
February 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Noelia Morales-Prieto, Julia Ruiz-Laguna, Nieves Abril
The toxicity of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), a contaminant and metabolite derivative of DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] is partially mediated by reactive oxygen species. Protein cysteine-based regulatory switches and subsequent alterations of the overall hepatic metabolism are triggered by p,p'-DDE through the disruption of the cellular redox status. The consequences are reproductive impairment, metabolic disorders, diabetes, neurotoxicity and cancer. In recent years, the risk of p,p'-DDE exposure has increased worldwide, reflecting the rise of mosquito-borne diseases in tropical countries that produce and export contaminated foods...
February 23, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Joanna L Kershaw, Catherine H Botting, Andrew Brownlow, Ailsa J Hall
Mammalian adipose tissue is increasingly being recognized as an endocrine organ involved in the regulation of a number of metabolic processes and pathways. It responds to signals from different hormone systems and the central nervous system, and expresses a variety of protein factors with important paracrine and endocrine functions. This study presents a first step towards the systematic analysis of the protein content of cetacean adipose tissue, the blubber, in order to investigate the kinds of proteins present and their relative abundance...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Xi Ning, Yao Sun, Changchun Wang, Weilin Zhang, Meihao Sun, Haitao Hu, Jianzhong Liu, Ling Yang
Glutaredoxins (GRXs) belong to the antioxidants involved in the cellular stress responses. In spite of the identification 48 GRX genes in rice genomes, the biological functions of most of them remain unknown. Especially, the biological roles of members of GRX family in disease resistance are still lacking. Our proteomic analysis found that OsGRX20 increased by 2.7-fold after infection by bacterial blight. In this study, we isolated and characterized the full-length nucleotide sequences of the rice OsGRX20 gene, which encodes a GRX family protein with CPFC active site of CPYC-type class...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Min-Sun Jin, Hyebin Lee, Jongmin Woo, Seongmin Choi, Mi Sol Do, Kwangsoo Kim, Min Ji Song, Youngsoo Kim, In Ae Park, Dohyun Han, Han Suk Ryu
PURPOSE: Secretory carcinoma (SC) of the breast is defined as an indolent tumor but is still categorized into a basal-like triple-negative breast cancer (BL-TNBC) subgroup that generally shows aggressive behaviour according to the current classification. Despite the unique clinical behaviour of SC, molecular characteristics that reflect biological behaviours of SC remain largely unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We employed a combinatorial approach of whole-exome sequencing and mass spectrometry-based in-depth quantitative proteomics to determine the entire molecular landscape of SC using three SC formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues...
February 24, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Bruce R Southey, Elena V Romanova, Sandra L Rodriguez-Zas, Jonathan V Sweedler
Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are signaling molecules produced via complex post-translational modifications of precursor proteins known as prohormones. Neuropeptides activate specific receptors and are associated with the regulation of physiological systems and behaviors. The identification of prohormones-and the neuropeptides created by these prohormones-from genomic assemblies has become essential to support the annotation and use of the rapidly growing number of sequenced genomes. Here we describe a methodology for identifying the prohormone complement from genomic assemblies that employs widely available public toolsets and databases...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Maday Fernández-Mayola, Lázaro Betancourt, Alicia Molina-Kautzman, Sucel Palomares, Yssel Mendoza-Marí, Dayana Ugarte-Moreno, Ana Aguilera-Barreto, Yilian Bermúdez-Álvarez, Vladimir Besada, Luis J González, Ariana García-Ojalvo, Ana J Mir-Benítez, Aleida Urquiza-Rodríguez, Jorge Berlanga-Acosta
Hypertrophic scars (HTS) and keloids are forms of aberrant cutaneous healing with excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Current therapies still fall short and cause undesired effects. We aimed to thoroughly evaluate the ability of growth hormone releasing peptide 6 (GHRP6) to both prevent and reverse cutaneous fibrosis and to acquire the earliest proteome data supporting GHRP6's acute impact on aesthetic wound healing. Two independent sets of experiments addressing prevention and reversion effects were conducted on the classic HTS model in rabbits...
February 21, 2018: International Wound Journal
H Kočová Vlčková, V Pilařová, P Svobodová, J Plíšek, F Švec, L Nováková
Chromatographic methods have become popular in clinical analysis in both routine and research laboratories. The purpose of this review article is to provide an overview of the current state of chromatographic methods, i.e., high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), in clinical analysis. The aspects related to method sensitivity, selectivity, analysis time, and throughput have been discussed in detail. Adequate solutions to improve these features have also been presented...
February 20, 2018: Analyst
Ravi Gupta, Cheol Woo Min, Katharina Kramer, Ganesh Kumar Agrawal, Randeep Rakwal, Ki-Hun Park, Yiming Wang, Iris Finkemeier, Sun Tae Kim
Phytohormones are central to the plant growth and development. Despite the advancement in our knowledge of hormone signaling, downstream targets and their interactions upon hormones action remain largely fragmented, especially at the protein and metabolite levels. With an aim to get new insight into the effects of two hormones, ethylene (ET) and abscisic acid (ABA), this study utilizes an integrated proteomics and metabolomics approach to investigate their individual and combined (ABA+ET) signaling in soybean leaves...
February 19, 2018: Proteomics
Xianyong Ma, Xianyong Ma, Zhimei Tian, Dun Deng, Yiyan Cui, Yueqin Qiu
The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of protein level on proteins expression in the gastrointestinal tract of young pigs. Eighteen piglets (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) were weaned at 28 days of age and randomly assigned to 3 diets with 20%, 17%, and 14% CP level and four essential AA: Lys, Met, Thr and Trp in three diets meet the requirements of weaned piglets. The experimental period lasts 45d. RESULTS: Compared with the control (20% CP level), the average daily feed intake, the average daily gain and gain feed ratio of the 17% CP group did not decrease (P > 0...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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