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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777500/methamphetamine-associated-dysregulation-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-axis
#1
Deborah L Jones, Adam W Carrico, Suat Babayigit, Violeta J Rodriguez, Carlos Aguila, Mahendra Kumar
Methamphetamine and HIV impair thyroid function, but few studies have investigated their combined effects on thyroid dysregulation. This study examined the associations of methamphetamine use alone and in combination with HIV on thyroid function among men in South Florida. Measures of thyroid function in methamphetamine-using, HIV-infected (METH+HIV+; n = 127) and HIV-negative (METH+HIV-; n = 46) men who have sex with men (MSM) were compared to non-methamphetamine-using, HIV-negative men (METH-HIV-; n = 136)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777410/startling-differences-using-the-acoustic-startle-response-to-study-sex-differences-and-neurosteroids-in-affective-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Liisa Hantsoo, Carla E M Golden, Sara Kornfield, Christian Grillon, C Neill Epperson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroactive steroid hormones, such as estradiol and progesterone, likely play a role in the pathophysiology of female-specific psychiatric disorders such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and postpartum depression and may contribute to the marked sex differences observed in the incidence and presentation of affective disorders. However, few tools are available to study the precise contributions of these neuroactive steroids (NSs). In this review, we propose that the acoustic startle response (ASR), an objective measure of an organism's response to an emotional context or stressor, is sensitive to NSs...
May 18, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776996/effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-12%C3%A2-saltwater-on-the-endocrine-physiology-of-juvenile-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis
#3
P C Faulkner, M L Burleson, L Simonitis, C Marshall, D Hala, L H Petersen
American alligator ( Alligator mississippiensis , Linnaeus) habitats are prone to saltwater intrusion following major storms, hurricanes or droughts. Anthropogenic impacts affecting hydrology of freshwater systems may exacerbate saltwater intrusion into freshwater habitats. The endocrine system of alligators is susceptible to changes in the environment but it is currently not known how the crocodilian physiological system responds to environmental stressors such as salinity. Juvenile alligators were exposed to 12‰ saltwater for 5 weeks to determine effects of chronic exposure to saline environments...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772467/yawning-and-cortisol-levels-in-multiple-sclerosis-potential-new-diagnostic-tool
#4
Simon B N Thompson, Alister Coleman, Nicola Williams
Yawning is a significant behavioural response and, together with cortisol, is potentially a new diagnostic marker of neurological diseases. Evidence of an association between yawning and cortisol was found which supports the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis and thermoregulation hypotheses, indication that brain cooling occurs when yawning. 117 volunteers aged 18-69 years were randomly allocated to experimentally controlled conditions to provoke yawning. Thirty-three had been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Saliva cortisol samples were collected before and after yawning or after stimuli presentation in the absence of yawning...
May 2, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772307/family-environment-interacts-with-crhr1-rs17689918-to-predict-mental-health-and-behavioral-outcomes
#5
Arunima Roy, Kariina Laas, Triin Kurrikoff, Andreas Reif, Toomas Veidebaum, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Jaanus Harro
BACKGROUND: Corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor-1 gene (CRHR1) variants have been implicated in mental health. However, little is known of the effects of CRHR1 on long-term mental health and behavior in presence of environmental stressors. We assess the effects of CRHR1 variant (rs17689918)-by-environment interactions on emotionality and behavioral traits, including anxiety, depression, aggression and antisocial behaviors. We also determine effects of rs17689918-by-environment-by-sex interactions on the above-mentioned outcomes...
May 14, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769663/endogenous-testosterone-and-exogenous-oxytocin-influence-the-response-to-baby-schema-in-the-female-brain
#6
Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Roland Pfister, Alexander T El Gammal, Eugen Bellon, Esther K Diekhof
Nurturing behavior may be critically influenced by the interplay of different hormones. The neuropeptide oxytocin is known to promote maternal behavior and its reduction has been associated with postpartum depression risk and child neglect. Contrariwise, the observed decrease in testosterone level during early parenthood may benefit caretaking behavior, whereas increased testosterone may reduce attention to infants. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the interactive influence of testosterone and oxytocin on selective attention to and neural processing of the baby schema (BS)...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767687/hormone-responsive-genes-in-the-shh-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathways-influence-urethral-closure-and-phallus-growth
#7
Yu Chen, Hongshi Yu, Andrew J Pask, Asao Fujiyama, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Geoff Shaw, Marilyn B Renfree
Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) that affect androgen or estrogen activity may disrupt gene regulation during normal phallus development to cause hypospadias or a masculinized clitoris. We treated developing male tammar wallabies with estrogen and females with androgen from day 20-40 postpartum (pp) during the established androgen imprinting window. Administration of estrogen to males inhibited phallus elongation but had no effect on urethral closure and did not significantly depress testicular androgen synthesis...
May 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767278/the-hypothalamus-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-psychiatry-meets-microscopy
#8
REVIEW
Hans-Gert Bernstein, Henrik Dobrowolny, Bernhard Bogerts, Gerburg Keilhoff, Johann Steiner
The past decades have witnessed an explosion of knowledge on brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia and depression. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we try to show how postmortem brain microscopy has contributed to our understanding of mental disease-related pathologic alterations of this brain region. Gross anatomical abnormalities (volume changes of the third ventricle, the hypothalamus, and its nuclei) and alterations at the cellular level (loss of neurons, increased or decreased expression of hypothalamic peptides such as oxytocin, vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and other regulatory factors as well as of enzymes involved in neurotransmitter and neuropeptide metabolism) have been reported in schizophrenia and/or depression...
May 16, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765501/peroxisomal-acyl-coa-oxidase-type-1-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-aging-properties-with-a-special-emphasis-on-studies-with-lps-and-argan-oil-as-a-model-transposable-to-aging
#9
REVIEW
Joseph Vamecq, Pierre Andreoletti, Riad El Kebbaj, Fatima-Ezzahra Saih, Norbert Latruffe, M' Hammed Saïd El Kebbaj, Gérard Lizard, Boubker Nasser, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki
To clarify appropriateness of current claims for health and wellness virtues of argan oil, studies were conducted in inflammatory states. LPS induces inflammation with reduction of PGC1- α signaling and energy metabolism. Argan oil protected the liver against LPS toxicity and interestingly enough preservation of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase type 1 (ACOX1) activity against depression by LPS. This model of LPS-driven toxicity circumvented by argan oil along with a key anti-inflammatory role attributed to ACOX1 has been here transposed to model aging...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763648/autism-spectrum-disorder-classification-diagnosis-and-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Samata R Sharma, Xenia Gonda, Frank I Tarazi
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The new diagnostic criteria of ASD focuses on two core domains: social communication impairment and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. The prevalence of ASD has been steadily increasing over the past two decades, with current estimates reaching up to 1 in 36 children. Hereditary factors, parental history of psychiatric disorders, pre-term births, and fetal exposure to psychotropic drugs or insecticides have all been linked to higher risk of ASD...
May 12, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763267/top-20-research-studies-of-2017-for-primary-care-physicians
#11
Mark H Ebell, Roland Grad
Based on systematic surveillance of more than 110 medical journals, 247 studies met criteria as POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters) in 2017. Members of the Canadian Medical Association identified 20 of these POEMs as most relevant to practice. This article reviews the clinical questions and bottom-line answers from these studies. Blood pressure should be measured after a period of rest, using a bare arm, and orthostatic blood pressure is more predictive when measured after one minute of standing rather than three minutes...
May 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761890/glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-variants-and-lower-expression-of-nr3c1-are-associated-with-cocaine-use
#12
Andrea B Schote, Kristina Jäger, Sara L Kroll, Matthias Vonmoos, Lea M Hulka, Katrin H Preller, Jobst Meyer, Edna Grünblatt, Boris B Quednow
Animal and cross-sectional human studies suggest that chronic cocaine use is associated with altered responsivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress. Moreover, increased susceptibility to stress has been proposed as an important factor for development, maintenance and relapse of cocaine addiction. As the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) mediates genomic effects of the stress hormone cortisol, we investigated NR3C1 expression and the association of NR3C1 genotypes with cocaine use, addiction and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in 126 chronic cocaine users and 98 stimulant-naïve healthy controls...
May 15, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759000/biological-sex-differences-in-depression-a-systematic-review
#13
Ainitze Labaka, Olatz Goñi-Balentziaga, Andrea Lebeña, Joana Pérez-Tejada
Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, and its prevalence is 2 times higher in women than in men. There is, however, a lack of data on sex-specific pathophysiology of this disorder. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the biological sex differences found in major depressive disorder (MDD) in studies published in the last 10 years. We conducted a literature search using the Medline, PsycInfo, PubMed, and Web of Science databases, selecting English-language studies that included physiological measures compared by sex in addition to MDD...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758252/depression-resistant-phenotype-in-mice-overexpressing-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-8-rgs8
#14
Yuki Kobayashi, Risa Takemoto, Shogo Yamato, Tomoya Okada, Michihiko Iijima, Yoshikatsu Uematsu, Shigeyuki Chaki, Yumiko Saito
Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are negative regulators of heterotrimeric G proteins that act by accelerating Gα-mediated GTPase activity to terminate G protein-coupled receptor-associated signaling. RGS8 is expressed in several brain regions involved with movement and mood. To investigate the role of RGS8 in vivo, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing brain RGS8 (RGS8tg). RGS8 gene and protein expressions were examined by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and a significant increase in RGS8 protein was detected in the hippocampal CA1 region compared with wild-type mice (WT)...
May 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757063/gut-microbiota-composition-in-mid-pregnancy-is-associated-with-gestational-weight-gain-but-not-prepregnancy-body-mass-index
#15
Anna-Katariina Aatsinki, Henna-Maria Uusitupa, Eveliina Munukka, Henri Pesonen, Anniina Rintala, Sami Pietilä, Leo Lahti, Erkki Eerola, Linnea Karlsson, Hasse Karlsson
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a time of numerous hormonal, metabolic, and immunological changes for both the mother and the fetus. Furthermore, maternal gut microbiota composition (GMC) is altered during pregnancy. One major factor affecting GMC in pregnant and nonpregnant populations is obesity. The aim was to analyze associations between maternal overweight/obesity, as well as gestational weight gain (GWG) and GMC. Moreover, the modifying effect of depression and anxiety symptom scores on weight and GMC were investigated...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755030/detrimental-effect-of-hypericum-perforatum-on-ovarian-functions
#16
Buket Demirci, Fadime Kahyaoğlu, Tolga Atakul, Mustafa Yılmaz, Yavuz Özoran
OBJECTIVE: Hypericum perforatum (HP) is widely used for depression and distress treatment as an over-the-counter plant in any age. This study investigated the safety of HP on ovarian functions and infertility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: HP given to the rats in two different doses (100 and 300 mg/kg/day) with drinking water for four weeks. Half of the treatment groups have been sacrificed at the end of four weeks intervention, remained have been sacrificed after additional waiting period for four weeks to see reversibility if there is...
May 14, 2018: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749518/effects-of-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-on-ovarian-reserve-in-female-rats-feasibility-analysis-of-a-rat-model-of-premature-ovarian-failure
#17
Xiao-Yan Fu, Hao-Hao Chen, Ning Zhang, Ming-Xing Ding, Ying-Er Qiu, Xiao-Ming Pan, Yuan-Shu Fang, Yi-Ping Lin, Qun Zheng, Wen-Qian Wang
Premature ovarian failure (POF) results from a number of disorders. The POF model is primarily based on chemotherapeutic injury, and hence is not suitable for assessing the effects of chronic stress on ovarian function. Therefore, improved animal models are required to analyze the effects of chronic stress on ovarian reserve. The feasibility of the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) method for establishing a model of POF was examined. The depressive behavior exhibited by rats was evaluated with the open field and sucrose preference tests...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740398/neurosteroids-in-adult-hippocampus-of-male-and-female-rodents-biosynthesis-and-actions-of-sex-steroids
#18
REVIEW
Yasushi Hojo, Suguru Kawato
The brain is not only the target of steroid hormones but also is able to locally synthesize steroids de novo . Evidence of the local production of steroids in the brain has been accumulating in various vertebrates, including teleost fish, amphibia, birds, rodents, non-human primates, and humans. In this review, we mainly focus on the local production of sex steroids in the hippocampal neurons of adult rodents (rats and mice), a center for learning and memory. From the data of the hippocampus of adult male rats, hippocampal principal neurons [pyramidal cells in CA1-CA3 and granule cells in dentate gyrus (DG)] have a complete system for biosynthesis of sex steroids...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731553/estimation-of-cortisol-levels-in-patients-with-premalignant-disorders-and-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#19
Priyanka Sharma, Simarpreet Virk Sandhu, Rajat Bhandari, Indu Verma, Ramanpreet Kaur Bhullar, Rajbir Kaur Khangura
Introduction: Oral cancer has been a scourge on the human population that drastically affects the quality of life-causing chronic anxiety and depression leading to disturbance in hypothalamus pituitary axis reflected by cortisol hormone dysregulation. Stress hormones affect tumor progression at different levels such as initiation, tumor growth and metastasis. Cortisol dysregulation has been reported in other malignancies; however, a thorough review of English literature revealed only anecdotal studies investigating it in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)...
January 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729448/quality-of-life-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-in-patients-with-graves-orbitopathy-current-concepts
#20
REVIEW
Alice Bruscolini, Marta Sacchetti, Maurizio La Cava, Marcella Nebbioso, Angela Iannitelli, Adele Quartini, Alessandro Lambiase, Massimo Ralli, Armando de Virgilio, Antonio Greco
Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune chronic thyroiditis frequently associated with development of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) characterized by proptosis, strabismus, impairment of visual function, ocular surface inflammation and dry eye. As consequence, patients with GO experience impairment of quality of life and social function and could develop a neurobehavioral syndrome, ranging from anxious to depressive or psychotic disorders. To date, the pathogenic mechanism underlying neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with GD has not been clearly understood...
May 2, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
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