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Elevated lipase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786643/controlled-deactivation-cb1-receptor-ligands-as-a-novel-strategy-to-lower-intraocular-pressure
#1
Sally Miller, Shashank Kulkarni, Alex Ciesielski, Spyros P Nikas, Ken Mackie, Alexandros Makriyannis, Alex Straiker
Nearly half a century has passed since the demonstration that cannabis and its chief psychoactive component Δ⁸-THC lowers intraocular pressure (IOP). Elevated IOP remains the chief hallmark and therapeutic target for glaucoma, a condition that places millions at risk of blindness. It is likely that Δ⁸-THC exerts much of its IOP-lowering effects via the activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. However, the initial promise of CB1 as a target for treating glaucoma has not thus far translated into a credible therapeutic strategy...
May 22, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778561/severe-xanthomatosis-in-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#2
Sumayah Aljenedil, Isabelle Ruel, Kevin Watters, Jacques Genest
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic lipoprotein disorder characterized by elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, (tendinous xanthomas, xanthelasmas, and premature arcus corneus) and early onset atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Familial hypercholesterolemia is caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor, apolipoprotein B or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 genes. Rare mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor adapter protein 1, APOE p...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775706/purification-and-characterization-of-an-organic-solvent-tolerant-and-detergent-stable-lipase-from-haloferax-mediterranei-cncmm-50101
#3
Siham Akmoussi-Toumi, Souad Khemili-Talbi, Imen Ferioune, Salima Kebbouche-Gana
The present study investigates the purification and biochemical characterization of an extracellular lipase (HML) from Haloarchaea Haloferax mediterranei strain ATS1, isolated from the Sebkha (Medea, Algeria). The pure protein was obtained with ammonium sulfate precipitation (40-70%)-dialysis and UNO Q-6 FPLC, and characterized biochemically. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer, with a molecular mass of 45,011...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768196/loss-of-abhd15-impairs-the-anti-lipolytic-action-of-insulin-by-altering-pde3b-stability-and-contributes-to-insulin-resistance
#4
Wenmin Xia, Ariane R Pessentheiner, Dina C Hofer, Melina Amor, Renate Schreiber, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Thomas O Eichmann, Evelyn Walenta, Bianca Itariu, Gerhard Prager, Hubert Hackl, Thomas Stulnig, Dagmar Kratky, Thomas Rülicke, Juliane G Bogner-Strauss
Elevated circulating fatty acids (FAs) contribute to obesity-associated metabolic complications, but the mechanisms by which insulin suppresses lipolysis are poorly understood. We show that α/β-hydrolase domain-containing 15 (ABHD15) is required for the anti-lipolytic action of insulin in white adipose tissue (WAT). Neither insulin nor glucose treatments can suppress FA mobilization in global and conditional Abhd15-knockout (KO) mice. Accordingly, insulin signaling is impaired in Abhd15-KO adipocytes, as indicated by reduced AKT phosphorylation, glucose uptake, and de novo lipogenesis...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729371/involvement-of-glucocorticoid-prereceptor-metabolism-and-signaling-in-rat-visceral-adipose-tissue-lipid-metabolism-after-chronic-stress-combined-with-high-fructose-diet
#5
Biljana Bursać, Ana Djordjevic, Nataša Veličković, Danijela Vojnović Milutinović, Snježana Petrović, Ana Teofilović, Ljupka Gligorovska, Frederic Preitner, Luc Tappy, Gordana Matić
Both fructose overconsumption and increased glucocorticoids secondary to chronic stress may contribute to overall dyslipidemia. In this study we specifically assessed the effects and interactions of dietary fructose and chronic stress on lipid metabolism in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of male Wistar rats. We analyzed the effects of 9-week 20% high fructose diet and 4-week chronic unpredictable stress, separately and in combination, on VAT histology, glucocorticoid prereceptor metabolism, glucocorticoid receptor subcellular redistribution and expression of major metabolic genes...
May 2, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729186/cd2-associated-protein-contributes-to-hepatitis-c-virus-propagation-and-steatosis-by-disrupting-insulin-signaling
#6
Huixia Zhang, Chao Zhang, Hong Tang, Shanshan Gao, Fang Sun, Yuan Yang, Weiping Zhou, Yu Hu, Changshu Ke, Yu Wu, Zeyang Ding, Lin Guo, Rongjuan Pei, Xinwen Chen, Man- Sun Sy, Bixiang Zhang, Chaoyang Li
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can result in steatosis, a condition displaying aberrant accumulation of neutral lipid vesicles, the component of lipid droplets (LDs), which are essential for HCV assembly. However, the interplays between HCV infection and steatosis remain unclear. Here, we show that HCV infected cells have higher levels of CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), which plays two distinct, yet tightly-linked roles in HCV pathogenesis: elevated CD2AP binding to NS5A and participating in the transport of NS5A to LDs to facilitate viral assembly; up-regulated CD2AP also interacting with Casitas B-lineage Lymphoma (b) (Cbl/Cbl-b) E3 ligases to degrade insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), which in turn disrupts insulin signaling and increases LDs accumulation thru the IRS1-Akt-AMPK-hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) signaling axis to accommodate viral assembly...
May 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718003/brown-adipose-tissue-and-lipid-metabolism
#7
Joerg Heeren, Ludger Scheja
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article explores how the interplay between lipid metabolism and thermogenic adipose tissues enables proper physiological adaptation to cold environments in rodents and humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Cold exposure triggers systemic changes in lipid metabolism, which increases fatty acid delivery to brown adipose tissue (BAT) by various routes. Next to fatty acids generated intracellularly by de-novo lipogenesis or by lipolysis at lipid droplets, brown adipocytes utilize fatty acids released by white adipose tissue (WAT) for adaptive thermogenesis...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701782/grape-seed-procyanidin-extract-inhibits-adipogenesis-and-stimulates-lipolysis-of-porcine-adipocytes-in-vitro
#8
S Wei, Y Zheng, M Zhang, H Zheng, P Yan
The objective of this paper was to evaluate in vitro effect of grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) on differentiation, proliferation, and lipolysis of porcine adipocytes, providing a molecular basis for the use of GSPE in pig fat regulation. Primary preadipocytes isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue of pigs were used as the in vitro cell model. Treatment of GSPE repressed preadipocyte differentiation, as evidenced by reduced lipid accumulation, decreased mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) , as well as enhanced expressions of preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1)...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695817/therapeutic-endocannabinoid-augmentation-for-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-comparative-profiling-of-faah-magl-and-dual-inhibitors
#9
Gaurav Bedse, Rebecca J Bluett, Toni A Patrick, Nicole K Romness, Andrew D Gaulden, Philip J Kingsley, Niels Plath, Lawrence J Marnett, Sachin Patel
Recent studies have demonstrated anxiolytic potential of pharmacological endocannabinoid (eCB) augmentation approaches in a variety of preclinical models. Pharmacological inhibition of endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes, such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), elicit promising anxiolytic effects in rodent models with limited adverse behavioral effects, however, the efficacy of dual FAAH/MAGL inhibition has not been investigated. In the present study, we compared the effects of FAAH (PF-3845), MAGL (JZL184) and dual FAAH/MAGL (JZL195) inhibitors on (1) anxiety-like behaviors under non-stressed and stressed conditions, (2) locomotor activity and body temperature, (3) lipid levels in the brain and (4) cognitive functions...
April 26, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693796/a-phase-1-study-of-cabozantinib-in-children-and-adolescents-with-recurrent-or-refractory-solid-tumors-including-cns-tumors-trial-advl1211-a-report-from-the-children-s-oncology-group
#10
Meredith K Chuk, Brigitte C Widemann, Charles G Minard, Xiaowei Liu, AeRang Kim, Melanie Brooke Bernhardt, Rachel A Kudgus, Joel M Reid, Stephan D Voss, Susan Blaney, Elizabeth Fox, Brenda J Weigel
BACKGROUND: We conducted a phase 1 trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity profile, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and preliminary activity of cabozantinib in children with refractory or relapsed solid tumors. METHODS: Patients received cabozantinib tablets on a continuous dosing schedule in a rolling-six escalating phase 1 trial design. PK and PD studies were performed. RESULTS: Forty-one patients, median (range) age 13 (4-18) years, received cabozantinib to achieve a weekly cumulative dose equivalent to 30 (n = 6), 40 (n = 23)...
April 25, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692646/-terminalia-pallida-fruit-ethanolic-extract-ameliorates-lipids-lipoproteins-lipid-metabolism-marker-enzymes-and-paraoxonase-in-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-infarcted-rats
#11
Althaf Hussain Shaik, Nayab Rasool Shaik, Abdul Kareem Mohammed, Suliman Yousef Al Omar, Altaf Mohammad, Talal Abdulaziz Mohaya, Lakshmi Devi Kodidhela
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract (TpFE) on lipids, lipoproteins, lipid metabolism marker enzymes and paraoxonase (PON) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarcted rats. PON is an excellent serum antioxidant enzyme which involves in the protection of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from the process of oxidation for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. ISO caused a significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipid peroxidation whereas significant decrease in the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685363/fulminant-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-with-remarkable-elevation-of-serum-pancreatic-enzymes
#12
Mikio Nakajima, Masamitsu Shirokawa, Tomotsugu Nakano, Hideaki Goto
Fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus progresses extremely rapidly and is accompanied by ketoacidosis. Patients with the disease present at emergency departments with non-specific symptoms, including fever, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Here, we present a case of fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus where the patient was initially misdiagnosed with gastroenteritis and acute pancreatitis. A 50-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital with coma and shock. She had presented with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and thirst from 5 days before admission, and had been misdiagnosed with gastroenteritis by her primary care physician...
April 14, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662703/aortic-dissection-presenting-as-acute-pancreatitis-suspecting-the-unexpected
#13
Adam Hafeez, Dillon Karmo, Adrian Mercado-Alamo, Alexandra Halalau
Aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition in which the inner layer of the aorta tears. Blood surges through the tear, causing the inner and middle layers of the aorta to separate (dissect). It is considered a medical emergency. We report a case of a healthy 56-year-old male who presented to the emergency room with sudden onset of epigastric pain radiating to his back. His blood pressure was 167/91 mmHg, equal in both arms. His lipase was elevated at 1258 U/L, and he was clinically diagnosed with acute pancreatitis (AP)...
2018: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653119/adenovirus-mediated-overexpression-of-sst2-attenuates-cardiac-injury-in-the-rat-with-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#14
Lei Li, Zhongwei Sun, Caiming Xu, Jun Wu, Geliang Liu, Hongzhang Cui, Hailong Chen
AIMS: Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a serious disease associated with systematic inflammation and multiple organs dysfunction. Soluble ST2 (sST2), a member of the Toll interleukin (IL)-1 receptor (TIR) superfamily, has been demonstrated to exert immune-regulatory and anti-inflammatory properties in several inflammation-related diseases. In this study, we investigated whether transfer of sST2 gene by adenovirus vector could attenuate sodium taurocholate-induced SAP and associated cardiac injury...
April 10, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628368/sebelipase-alfa-improves-atherogenic-biomarkers-in-adults-and-children-with-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#15
Don P Wilson, Mark Friedman, Sachin Marulkar, Tyler Hamby, Eric Bruckert
BACKGROUND: Measures of atherogenic cholesterol, with and without concomitant use of lipid-lowering medications (LLMs), are reported with up to 52 weeks of sebelipase alfa treatment in children and adults with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) participating in the phase 3 Acid Lipase Replacement Investigating Safety and Efficacy study (NCT01757184). OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of sebelipase alfa on levels of atherogenic biomarkers in the Acid Lipase Replacement Investigating Safety and Efficacy study...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600506/prediabetes-directly-deteriorates-into-diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic-syndrome-triggered-by-acute-pancreatitis-a-case-report-illustrating-a-chicken-and-egg-paradigm-in-ketosis-prone-diabetes
#16
Runbo Song, Shanjin Cao
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic crises occur most often in patients with type 1 diabetes and occasionally in type 2 diabetes, especially under stressful conditions. However, a diabetic crisis occurring directly from prediabetes is an unusual phenomenon. CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old woman presented with postprandial left upper quadrant abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. She had a past medical history of prediabetes with impaired fasting glucose and HbA1c 6.4%. On admission, routine laboratory tests showed high anion gap metabolic acidosis (pH 6...
March 29, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587751/plasma-angiopoietin-like-4-is-related-to-phospholipid-transfer-protein-activity-in-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-subjects-role-of-enhanced-low-grade-inflammation
#17
Eke G Gruppen, Sander Kersten, Robin P F Dullaart
BACKGROUND: Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) inhibits lipoprotein lipase, whereas phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) enhances hepatic triglyceride secretion. Both factors may be upregulated by inflammatory pathways. Since the extent to which these circulating factors are interrelated is unknown, we determined the relationship between plasma ANGPTL4 and PLTP activity, and assessed whether such a relationship could be explained by high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels as a marker of low-grade chronic inflammation...
March 27, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576017/diagnostic-double-strike-in-the-emergency-room-two-cases-of-complete-pancreatic-ruptures-due-to-bicycle-handlebar-injuries-on-two-consecutive-days
#18
A M Luu, K Meurer, T Herzog, W Uhl, C Braumann
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic injuries are rare in cases of blunt abdominal trauma and therefore easily misdiagnosed at time of hospital admission. They are associated with a significantly elevated morbidity and lethality. Bicycle handlebar injuries are the most common cause of pancreatic trauma in children and adolescents. CASE PRESENTATION: We report two cases of a 23-year-old Caucasian woman and a 15-year-old Caucasian boy who presented to our clinic with a similar history of a bicycle accident on 2 consecutive days...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558826/diabetes-mellitus-secondary-to-pancreatic-diseases-type-3c-the-effect-of-smoking-on-the-exocrine-endocrine-interactions-of-the-pancreas
#19
Mariola Śliwińska-Mossoń, Stanisław Milnerowicz, Halina Milnerowicz
The present study was conducted to ascertain how cigarette smoke affects the exocrine-endocrine interactions of the human pancreas with diabetes mellitus secondary to pancreatic diseases (type 3c). Blood has been collected from smoking and non-smoking healthy individuals as well as from patients with diagnosed chronic pancreatitis and diabetes type 3c. The concentrations of interleukin-6, endothelin-1 and insulin in the plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. The activities of amylase and lipase in the serum, as well as the lipid profile, creatinine, uric acid and urea concentrations, were measured using colorimetric methods...
May 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557622/-acute-pancreatitis-secondary-to-an-abdominal-trauma-case-report-of-a-7-year-old-child
#20
Laura Montoya-Sánchez, Rocío Del P Pereira-Ospina, Javier Y Pinzón-Salamanca, José M Suescún-Vargas
Pancreatitis consists in acute inflammation of the pancreas that is clinically characterized by abdominal pain. To make the diagnosis it is necessary the elevation of biochemical markers like pancreatic amylase or lipase. It is the most frequent pancreatic disease in both children and adults. Its presentation in the pediatric population is increasing and has several etiologies such as: infections, trauma, intoxication and metabolic diseases. Trauma mechanisms have been described: child maltreatment, falls, trauma with the bicycle handle and traffic accidents...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
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