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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741302/estimates-of-biologic-variation-in-specific-feline-pancreatic-lipase-concentrations-in-cats-without-clinical-or-ultrasonographic-evidence-of-pancreatitis
#1
Margaret Cohn-Urbach, Craig G Ruaux, Sarah Nemanic
BACKGROUND: Serum concentrations of feline-specific pancreatic lipase are commonly used for diagnosis and monitoring of pancreatitis in cats, but little is known regarding biologic variation of this analyte. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to determine biologic variation, index of individuality, and reference change values (RCV) for specific feline pancreatic lipase concentrations (Spec fPL) in apparently healthy cats. METHODS: Four blood samples were collected prospectively from 12 apparently healthy cats at 2-week intervals...
July 24, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733267/angptl4-promotes-bile-acid-absorption-during-taurocholic-acid-supplementation-via-a-mechanism-dependent-on-the-gut-microbiota
#2
Aafke W F Janssen, Wieneke Dijk, Jos Boekhorst, Folkert Kuipers, Albert K Groen, Sabina Lukovac, Guido J E J Hooiveld, Sander Kersten
Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase. A set of compounds that are able to reduce plasma triglyceride levels are bile acids (BA). Because BA have been shown to decrease ANGPTL4 secretion by intestinal cells, we hypothesized that BA lower plasma triglycerides (partly) via ANGPTL4. To test that hypothesis, wild-type and Angptl4(-/-) mice were fed chow supplemented with taurocholic acid (TCA) for seven days. TCA supplementation effectively lowered plasma triglycerides in wild-type and Angptl4(-/-) mice, indicating that ANGPTL4 is not required for plasma triglyceride-lowering by BA...
July 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725307/acute-pancreatitis-secondary-to-severe-hypertriglyceridemia-management-of-severe-hypertriglyceridemia-in-emergency-setting
#3
Ahmad Chaudhary, Umair Iqbal, Hafsa Anwar, Hafiz Umair Siddiqui, Madiha Alvi
Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis (AP). The incidence of AP is around 10-20% with levels > 2,000 mg/dL. We present here a case of a 44-year-old male with history of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and HTG admitted with severe abdominal pain. Labs revealed elevated lipase and amylase. CT of abdomen with contrast showed AP. He was found to have a triglyceride (TG) level of 6,672 mg/dL. Besides conventional treatment for AP with intravenous (IV) hydration, he was started on IV regular insulin along with dextrose saline...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720341/lipase-or-amylase-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-pancreatitis
#4
REVIEW
Ola Z Ismail, Vipin Bhayana
Acute pancreatitis is a rapid onset of inflammation of the pancreas causing mild to severe life threatening conditions [1, 2]. In Canada, acute pancreatitis is the 5th most expensive digestive disease in Canada with a considerable economic burden on the health care system [3]. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is usually based on the presence of abdominal pain and elevated levels of serum amylase and/or lipase. Many health care centers use either serum amylase, lipase or both to diagnose acute pancreatitis without considering which one could provide a better diagnostic accuracy...
July 16, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714716/cb%C3%A2-receptor-antagonism-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-interferes-with-affective-opioid-withdrawal-in-rats
#5
Kiri L Wills, Marieka V DeVuono, Cheryl L Limebeer, Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Linda A Parker
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a region of the extended amygdala that is implicated in addiction, anxiety, and stress related behaviors. This region has been identified in mediating the aversive state of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (MWD) and cannabinoid Type I (CB1) receptors have been found to modulate neurotransmission within this region. Previous findings suggest that the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, AM251, administered systemically or by infusion into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the aversive affective properties of MWD as measured by conditioned place aversion learning...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713597/ketamine-use-for-successful-resolution-of-post-ercp-acute-pancreatitis-abdominal-pain
#6
Suneel M Agerwala, Divya Sundarapandiyan, Garret Weber
We report a case in which a patient with intractable pain secondary to post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) acute pancreatitis is successfully treated with a subanesthetic ketamine infusion. Shortly after ERCP, the patient reported severe stabbing epigastric pain. She exhibited voluntary guarding and tenderness without distension. Amylase and lipase levels were elevated. Pain persisted for hours despite hydromorphone PCA, hydromorphone boluses, fentanyl boluses, and postprocedure anxiolytics...
2017: Case Reports in Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706746/acute-pancreatitis-and-rhabdomyolysis-with-acute-kidney-injury-following-multiple-wasp-stings
#7
Seo Hee Yang, Yeon Han Song, Tae Hoon Kim, Su Bin Kim, Sang Youb Han, Han-Seong Kim, Se Won Oh
Multiple wasp stings can induce multiple organ dysfunction by toxic reactions. However, acute pancreatitis is a rare manifestation in wasp sting injury. A 74-year-old woman visited the emergency department by anaphylactic shock because of multiple wasp stings. Acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, hepatotoxicity, and coagulopathy were developed next day. Serum amylase and lipase were elevated and an abdominal computed tomography revealed an acute pancreatitis. Urine output was recovered after 16 days of oliguria (below 500 ml/day)...
2017: Case Reports in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701865/processed-panax-ginseng-sun-ginseng-inhibits-the-differentiation-and-proliferation-of-3t3-l1-preadipocytes-and-fat-accumulation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Hyejin Lee, Jinhee Kim, Jun Yeon Park, Ki Sung Kang, Joeng Hill Park, Gwi Seo Hwang
BACKGROUND: Heat-processed ginseng, sun ginseng (SG), has been reported to have improved therapeutic properties compared with raw forms, such as increased antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperglycemic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity effects of SG through the suppression of cell differentiation and proliferation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells and the lipid accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans. METHODS: To investigate the effect of SG on adipocyte differentiation, levels of stained intracellular lipid droplets were quantified by measuring the oil red O signal in the lipid extracts of cells on differentiation Day 7...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686973/protective-effects-of-tropisetron-on-cerulein-induced-acute-pancreatitis-in-mice
#9
Reza Rahimian, Mohammad Reza Zirak, Mohammad Seyedabadi, Mojtaba Keshavarz, Amir Rashidian, Sareh Kazmi, Amir Hossein Jafarian, Gholamreza Karimi, Kazem Mousavizadeh
Acute pancreatitis (AP) causes morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of tropisetron against AP induced by cerulein. Cerulein (50μg/kg, 5 doses) was used to induce AP in mice. Six hours after final cerulein injection, animals were decapitated. Hepatic/pancreatic enzymes in the serum, pancreatic content of malondialdehyde (MDA), pro-inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. Tropisetron significantly attenuated pancreatic injury markers and decreased the amount of elevated serum amylase, lipase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), MPO activities and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels caused by AP in mice...
July 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645936/angiopoietin-like-protein-4-is-a-high-density-lipoprotein-hdl-component-for-hdl-metabolism-and-function-in-nondiabetic-participants-and-type-2-diabetic-patients
#10
Long-Yan Yang, Cai-Guo Yu, Xu-Hong Wang, Sha-Sha Yuan, Li-Jie Zhang, Jia-Nan Lang, Dong Zhao, Ying-Mei Feng
BACKGROUND: ANGPTL4 (angiopoietin-like protein 4) is a LPL (lipoprotein lipase) inhibitor and is present in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). However, it is not defined whether ANGPTL4 in HDLs could affect HDL metabolism and function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS AND RESULTS: ANGPTL4 levels in the circulation and HDLs were quantified in nondiabetic participants (n=201, 68.7% females) and T2DM patients (n=185, 66.5% females). HDLs were isolated from nondiabetic controls and T2DM patients to assess cholesterol efflux or subjected to endothelial lipase (EL)-overexpressed HEK293 cells for EL hydrolysis in vitro...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626379/fifteen-year-old-male-with-type-2-autoimmune-pancreatitis-an-argument-for-endoscopy
#11
Nathan T Kolasinski, Marc T Johannsen, Justin R Hollon
Type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis, an increasingly recognized etiology of pancreatitis in patients less than 20 years old, has characteristically been diagnosed with the histological finding of duct-centric pancreatitis in a patient who lacks elevated serum immunoglobulin G4. We present the case of a nonobese 15-year-old male, without any chronic medical conditions, who presented with the chief complaint of abdominal pain. The laboratory study results were remarkable for a lipase level of 5,419 U/L and a γ-glutamyl transferase level of 373 U/L...
May 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623133/prostaglandin-d2-enhances-lipid-accumulation-through-suppression-of-lipolysis-via-dp2-crth2-receptors-in-adipocytes
#12
Eri Wakai, Kosuke Aritake, Yoshihiro Urade, Ko Fujimori
Prostaglandin (PG) D2 enhanced lipid accumulation in adipocytes. However, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms of PGD2-elevated lipid accumulation in mouse adipocytic 3T3-L1 cells. The Gi-coupled DP2 (CRTH2) receptors (DP2R), one of the two-types of PGD2 receptors were dominantly expressed in adipocytes. A DP2R antagonist, CAY10595, but not DP1 receptor antagonist, BWA868C cleared the PGD2-elevated intracellular triglyceride level. While, a DP2R agonist, 15R-15-methyl PGD2 (15R) increased the mRNA levels of the adipogenic and lipogenic genes, and decreased the glycerol release level...
August 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606126/pooled-safety-analyses-of-alk-tki-inhibitor-in-alk-positive-nsclc
#13
Qian Zhu, Hao Hu, De-Sheng Weng, Xiao-Fei Zhang, Chang-Long Chen, Zi-Qi Zhou, Yan Tang, Jian-Chuan Xia
BACKGROUND: The anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs) have been administered to patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer for a long period of time and show a promising response. However, the differences in the toxicity profiles among these drugs are still unclear. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, WEB OF SCIENCE and COCHRANE databases from the drugs' inception to May 2016 to identify clinical trials...
June 12, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591627/triglyceride-metabolism-under-attack
#14
Sander Kersten
Hydrolysis of circulating triglycerides is carried out by the enzyme lipoprotein lipase, which is transported and anchored to the capillary wall by the protein GPIHBP1. Recent evidence indicates that certain individuals develop autoantibodies against GPIHBP1, impairing lipoprotein lipase function and leading to markedly elevated plasma triglyceride levels (Beigneux et al., 2017).
June 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589990/a-novel-self-activation-mechanism-of-candida-antarctica-lipase-b
#15
Binquan Luan, Ruhong Zhou
Candida antarctica lipase B (CalB), resembling many other lipases structure-wise, contains a flexible lid that undergoes a surprisingly large conformational change when catalyzing hydrophobic substrates (e.g. triglycerides). Despite extensive and important applications in industry, it is so far still elusive whether CalB can be activated on a hydrophobic surface, like other lipases. From large-scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we discovered an open state that strikingly shows a much wider and more stable entrance to the catalytic site than the one suggested by previous crystal structures...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576451/elbasvir-plus-grazoprevir-in-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-stage-4-5-chronic-kidney-disease-clinical-virological-and-health-related-quality-of-life-outcomes-from-a-phase-3-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#16
Annette Bruchfeld, David Roth, Paul Martin, David R Nelson, Stanislas Pol, Maria-Carlota Londoño, Howard Monsour, Marcelo Silva, Peggy Hwang, Jean-Marie Arduino, Michael Robertson, Bach-Yen Nguyen, Janice Wahl, Eliav Barr, Wayne Greaves
BACKGROUND: In the C-SURFER study, therapy with the all-oral elbasvir plus grazoprevir regimen for 12 weeks in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease resulted in a high rate of virological cure compared with placebo. Here, we report sustained virological response (SVR), safety data, health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL), and virological resistance analyses in patients in C-SURFER who received immediate antiviral therapy or who received placebo before therapy...
May 30, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575409/giant-reverse-transcriptase-encoding-transposable-elements-at-telomeres
#17
Irina R Arkhipova, Irina A Yushenova, Fernando Rodriguez
Transposable elements are omnipresent in eukaryotic genomes and have a profound impact on chromosome structure, function and evolution. Their structural and functional diversity is thought to be reasonably well-understood, especially in retroelements, which transpose via an RNA intermediate copied into cDNA by the element-encoded reverse transcriptase, and are characterized by a compact structure. Here we report a novel type of expandable eukaryotic retroelements, which we call Terminons. These elements can attach to G-rich telomeric repeat overhangs at the chromosome ends, in a process apparently facilitated by complementary C-rich repeats at the 3'-end of the RNA template immediately adjacent to a hammerhead ribozyme motif...
May 30, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559780/pancreatitis-induced-by-cocaine
#18
Sebastián Pablo Chapela, Silvina de Los Angeles Paz, Florencia Maria Ballestero
Pancreatitis is one of the commonest diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by epigastric pain of moderate to severe intensity, which radiates to the back, elevation of pancreatic lipase and amylase enzymes, and changes in pancreatic parenchyma in imaging methods. The most common etiologies vary, generally the most frequent being biliary lithiasis and alcohol, followed by hypertriglyceridemia. Among the less frequent causes is drug-induced pancreatitis. We report a case of acute pancreatitis caused by cocaine, rarely described in literature...
January 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546021/sodium-butyrate-improved-intestinal-immune-function-associated-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-p38mapk-signalling-pathways-in-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#19
Li Tian, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Fei Xie, Lin Feng
The present study evaluated the effect of dietary sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation on the growth and immune function in the proximal intestine (PI), middle intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The fish were fed one powdery sodium butyrate (PSB) diet (1000.0 mg kg(-1) diet) and five graded levels of microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) diets: 0.0 (control), 500.0, 1000.0, 1500.0 and 2000.0 mg kg(-1) diet for 60 days. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila...
May 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538100/enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-polyester-thin-films-at-the-nanoscale-effects-of-polyester-structure-and-enzyme-active-site-accessibility
#20
Michael Thomas Zumstein, Daniela Rechsteiner, Nicolas Roduner, Veronika Perz, Doris Ribitsch, Georg M Guebitz, Hans-Peter E Kohler, Kristopher McNeill, Michael Sander
Biodegradable polyesters have a large potential to replace persistent polymers in numerous applications and to thereby reduce the accumulation of plastics in the environment. Ester hydrolysis by extracellular carboxylesterases is considered the rate-limiting step in polyester biodegradation. In this work, we systematically investigated the effects of polyester and carboxylesterase structure on the hydrolysis of nanometer-thin polyester films using a quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Hydrolyzability increased with increasing polyester-chain flexibility as evidenced from differences in the hydrolysis rates and extents of aliphatic polyesters varying in the length of their dicarboxylic acid unit and of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) polyesters varying in their terephthalate-to-adipate ratio by Rhizopus oryzae lipase and Fusarium solani cutinase...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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