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Autoimmune hepatitis

Annarosa Floreani, Chiara Mangini, Anna Reig, Irene Franceschet, Nora Cazzagon, Lisa Perini, Llorenç Caballería, Silvia Cocchio, Vincenzo Baldo, Albert Parés
OBJECTIVES: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is often associated with other autoimmune diseases, but little is known about the influence of thyroid disease (TD) on the natural history of PBC. Our aim is to analyze the association between PBC and TD, and the latter's impact on the natural history of PBC at two European centers. METHODS: The study involved 921 PBC patients enrolled between 1975 and 2015 in Padova (376 patients) and Barcelona (545 patients), with a mean follow-up of 126...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Kohtaro Ooka, Joseph K Lim
With 185 million people chronically infected globally, hepatitis C is a leading bloodborne infection. All-oral regimens of direct acting agents have superior efficacy compared to the historical interferon-based regimens and are significantly more tolerable. However, trials of both types of regimens have often excluded patients on immunosuppressive medications for reasons other than organ transplantation. Yet, these patients-most often suffering from malignancy or autoimmune diseases-could stand to benefit from these treatments...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Jillian Reardon, Trana Hussaini, Majid Alsahafi, Vladimir Marquez Azalgara, Siegfried R Erb, Nilufar Partovi, Eric M Yoshida
Aims: To systematically evaluate the literature for evidence to support the use of bile acids in non-cholestatic liver conditions. Methods: Searches were conducted on the databases of Medline (1948-March 31, 2015), Embase (1980-March 31, 2015) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and on Google and Google Scholar to identify articles describing ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its derivatives for non-cholestatic hepatic indications. Combinations of the following search terms were used: ursodeoxycholic acid, ursodiol, bile acids and/or salts, non alcoholic fatty liver, non alcoholic steatohepatitis, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol, liver disease, autoimmune, autoimmune hepatitis, liver transplant, liver graft, transplant rejection, graft rejection, ischemic reperfusion injury, reperfusion injury, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, viral hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, transaminases, alanine transaminase, liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Andrea D Praticò, Stefania Salafia, Elena R Praticò, Chiara Franzonello, Patrizia Barone, Salvatore Leonardi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Lily Dara, Zhang-Xu Liu, Neil Kaplowitz
Hepatocyte death, which can be apoptosis or necrosis depending on the context, is a prominent feature of liver disease. The lectin concanavalin A (ConA) activates immune cells, resulting in inflammatory liver injury and hepatocyte necrosis. In this issue of the JCI, Günther et al. demonstrate that the pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) participates in hepatocyte death in ConA injury and that MLKL-mediated death is independent of the receptor-interacting protein kinase RIPK3. RIPK3 was absent in hepatocytes, and MLKL-deficient mice, but not RIPK3-deficient mice, were protected from ConA-induced liver injury...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
E Ylinen, L Salmela, J Peräsaari, T Jaatinen, A Tenca, O Vapalahti, M Färkkilä, H Jalanko, K-L Kolho
AIM: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele and haplotype frequencies of the Finnish population are unique because of the restricted and homogenous gene population. There are no published data on HLA genotype associations in paediatric autoimmune liver diseases in Scandinavia. This study characterised the HLA genotypes of children with autoimmune liver or biliary disease in Finland. METHODS: The study cohort comprised 19 paediatric patients (13 female) aged 3-15 years treated for autoimmune liver or biliary disease at the Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital, between 2000 and 2011 and followed up for 4...
October 19, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Claudia Günther, Gui-Wei He, Andreas E Kremer, James M Murphy, Emma J Petrie, Kerstin Amann, Peter Vandenabeele, Andreas Linkermann, Christopher Poremba, Ulrike Schleicher, Christin Dewitz, Stefan Krautwald, Markus F Neurath, Christoph Becker, Stefan Wirtz
Although necrosis and necroinflammation are central features of many liver diseases, the role of programmed necrosis in the context of inflammation-dependent hepatocellular death remains to be fully determined. Here, we have demonstrated that the pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), which plays a key role in the execution of receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase-dependent necroptosis, is upregulated and activated in human autoimmune hepatitis and in a murine model of inflammation-dependent hepatitis...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Jacqueline Jossen, Rachel Annunziato, Hee-Sung Kim, Jaime Chu, Ronen Arnon
OBJECTIVES: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are progressive immune-mediated inflammatory diseases that may require liver transplant (LT). Outcomes in children undergoing LT for these diseases are poorly studied in the Pediatric End Stage Liver Disease (PELD) era. We aimed to characterize the outcome of LT in children with AIH and PSC. METHODS: Children ≤18 years with PSC or AIH who had a first, isolated LT from 2002-2012 were identified from the UNOS database...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Raquel Núñez-Ramos, Soledad Montoro, Marcello Bellusci, María Rosa Del Fresno-Valencia, Marta Germán-Díaz, Pedro Urruzuno, Enrique Medina, Javier Manzanares
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to analyze the characteristics of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) in our center and evaluate the prognostic value of the Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease (PELD) score calculated at admission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with ALF younger than 15 years between 2005 and 2013 was performed. Information collected included age, sex, etiology of ALF, laboratory tests, PELD score, stage of encephalopathy, and need for liver support devices such as MARS and/or liver transplant (LT) and survival...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Yan-Ni Li, Huan Ma, Lu Zhou, Jie Zhang, Li-Ping Guo, Shu-Qian Li, Yi-Qi Qian, Bang-Mao Wang
BACKGROUND: The long-term outcomes of patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) given the immunosuppressive treatment are considered to be preferable. However, little is known about the response of AIH patients with cirrhosis to immunosuppressive treatment. We assessed the effects of immunosuppressive therapy in Chinese AIH patients with cirrhosis from a tertiary hospital. METHODS: Patients with a clinical diagnosis of AIH January 2000 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Shiv Kumar Sarin, Ashok Choudhury
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a distinct entity that differs from acute liver failure and decompensated cirrhosis in timing, presence of treatable acute precipitant, and course of disease, with a potential for self-recovery. The core concept is acute deterioration of existing liver function in a patient of chronic liver disease with or without cirrhosis in response to an acute insult. The insult should be a hepatic one and presentation in the form of liver failure (jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy, ascites) with or without extrahepatic organ failure in a defined time frame...
December 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Sern Wei Yeoh
Direct acting antiviral (DAA) regimens containing ritonavir have been developed to treat hepatitis C, with fewer side effects than that by interferon-based regimens. However prescribers must be aware of drug-drug interactions. There are multiple reports of iatrogenic Cushing syndrome (CS) caused by ritonavir, when used to treat human immunodeficiency virus, increasing the bioavailability of exogenous steroids by inhibiting cytochrome p450 enzymes in the liver and gut wall and thus reducing steroid metabolism...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Anil C Anand, Radha K Dhiman
Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a recently recognized syndrome and its definition has been evolving over last two decades. Currently, there is no universal consensus about the definition as kind of cases being seen in the Western world appear to be somewhat different from those that are seen in Asia Pacific region. But every one agrees that definition of ACLF should include following components. (a) The status of pre-existing liver disease, (b) defining the acute insult that leads to rapid deterioration of liver status, (c) time frame during which the acute insult can lead to rapid deterioration, (d) the quantification and definition of liver failure status after deterioration, which will determine the severity of ACLF, and (e) prediction of prognosis after analyzing first four components in the short and long terms...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Zeinab A Elkabbany, Nancy S Elbarbary, Eman A Ismail, Nesrine A Mohamed, Dina Ragab, Shereen Abdel Alem, Yasmine M Ezzat, Sarah S Maurice, Noha U Hashem
AIM: To identify the prevalence and effect of hepatopathies of different etiologies among pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using transient elastography (TE) and its relation to glycemic control. METHODS: One hundred T1DM patients were studied focusing on liver functions, fasting lipid profile, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hepatitis C virus (HCV), serum immunoglobulins, autoimmune antibodies; anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (ASMA), and anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody (anti-LKM)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
S Pereira, C M Cruz, M Soares, J Gandara, S Ferreira, V Lopes, R Vizcaíno, J Daniel, H P Miranda
INTRODUCTION: In liver transplantation, late graft dysfunction can have several causes, particularly rejection, infection, vascular, biliary complications, and others, usually suspected by abnormal liver tests. However, normal liver tests do not confirm a normal graft and liver biopsy could identify unexpected features with repercussions in immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of this study was to determinate the histological abnormalities in patients 10 years after liver allograft transplantation with sustainably normal liver tests and evaluate the changes in immunosuppressive therapy triggered by histological data...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Dina S El-Agamy
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effects of pirfenidone (PFD) against concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis in mice. METHODS: Autoimmune model of hepatitis was established using single intravenous injection of Con A. Mice were randomly assigned into four groups as follows: control group; Con A group; and two groups, receiving PFD in two dose levels (200, 300 mg/kg) for 5 days before Con A administration. Extent of hepatitis was studied using biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical estimations...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Xin-Guang Liu, Yu Liu, Feng Chen
Soluble fibrinogen-like protein 2 (sFGL2) is the soluble form of fibrinogen-like protein 2 belonging to the fibrinogen-related protein superfamily. It is now well characterized that sFGL2 is mainly secreted by regulatory T cell (Treg) populations, and exerts potently immunosuppressive activities. By repressing not only the differentiation and proliferation of T cells but also the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), sFGL2 acts largely as an immunosuppressant. Moreover, sFGL2 also induces apoptosis of B cells, tubular epithelial cells (TECs), sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs), and hepatocytes...
October 8, 2016: Oncotarget
Rodrigo Liberal, Charlotte R Grant
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) constitute the classic autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs). While AIH target the hepatocytes, in PBC and PSC the targets of the autoimmune attack are the biliary epithelial cells. Persistent liver injury, associated with chronic AILD, leads to un-resolving inflammation, cell proliferation and the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells and portal myofibroblasts. Liver cirrhosis, and the resultant loss of normal liver function, inevitably ensues...
October 8, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Vaibhavi Velangi, A Bellad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Petr Husa
Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) are very common. The most common of these is mixed cryoglobulinaemia. Anti-HCV antibodies and viral ribonucleic acid, HCV RNA, can be found in the cryoprecipitates, together with the rheumatoid factor. Cryoglobulins consist of a complex of immunoglobulins that in vitro precipitate upon the cooling bellow the human body temperature. Vasculitis is caused by the deposition of such immune complexes in the small blood vessels. A link with the HCV infection is considered to be established with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, lymphoproliferative disorders (in particular B cell lymphoma), Sjögren and sicca syndrome, lichen planus, porfyria cutanea tarda and diabetes mellitus...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
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