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diagnosis of cryptococcosis

M Tetart, V Trosini-Désert, A Fekkar, C Chenivesse
INTRODUCTION: We report a case of pneumonia associated with necrotic mediastinal lymph nodes in an immunocompetent patient. The case report illustrates the difficulties in making a diagnosis in necrotic mediastinal lymph nodes and discusses strategies to optimize sampling. OBSERVATION: A 21-year-old immunocompetent woman was admitted to hospital with dyspnea and fever occurring ten days after delivery. Physical examination, biological results and chest X-ray led to the diagnosis of right upper lobe pneumonia...
September 9, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Nina Singh, Costi D Sifri, Fernanda P Silveira, Rachel Miller, Kevin S Gregg, Shirish Huprikar, Erika D Lease, Andrea Zimmer, J Stephen Dummer, Cedric W Spak, Christine Koval, David B Banach, Miloni Shroff, Jade Le, Darin Ostrander, Robin Avery, Albert Eid, Raymund R Razonable, Jose Montero, Emily Blumberg, Ahlaam Alynbiawi, Michele I Morris, Henry B Randall, George Alangaden, Jeffrey Tessier, Thomas V Cacciarelli, Marilyn M Wagener, Hsin Yun Sun
Characteristics of cirrhosis-associated cryptococcosis first diagnosed after death are not fully known. In a multicenter study, data generated as standard of care was systematically collected in 113 consecutive patients with cirrhosis and cryptococcosis followed for 80 patient-years. The diagnosis of cryptococcosis was first established after death in 15.9% (18/113) of the patients. Compared to cases diagnosed while alive, these patients had higher MELD score (33 vs. 22, P = .029) and higher rate of cryptococcemia (75...
September 6, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
D K Burad, B Ramakrishna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2016: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
Isaac S Chan, Rani Chudasama, Adam B Burrows
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Zhe-Ren Tan, Xiao-Yan Long, Guo-Liang Li, Jin-Xia Zhou, Lan Long
PURPOSE: Cryptococcosis is a devastating opportunistic disease commonly encountered in organ transplant recipients and patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Few studies have profiled the disease in immunocompetent patients. We sought to characterize the neuroimaging findings of cryptococcal meningitis among immunocompetent patients in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of all patients diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis at our institute, on the basis of CSF culture or India Ink test, between November 2011 and February 2016, was performed...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Manolya Acar, Murat Sütçü, Hacer Aktürk, Selda Hançerli Törün, Nurinisa Karagöz, Hayati Beka, Ensar Yekeler, Ali Ağaçfidan, Nuran Salman, Ayper Somer
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes serious mortality and morbidity in AIDS patients. Although its incidence has decreased with proper antiretroviral treatment (ART), it is still a major concern in areas with low socioeconomic HIV endemic countries with poor sources of therapy. In our country, pediatric HIV infection and so, HIV-related opportunistic infections are very rare. In order to pay attention to this unusual collaboration; herein, we presented a pediatric case who was diagnosed with HIV and disseminated cryptococcus infection concomitantly...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
I Dollo, L Marih, M El Fane, M Es-Sebbani, M Sodqi, A Oulad Lahsen, A Chakib, F El Kadioui, A Hamdani, M J El Mabrouki, M Soussi Abdallaoui, Z Karima, S Hassoune, A Maaroufi, K Marhoum El Filali
OBJECTIVE: To report the cases of neuromeningeal cryptococcosis and to describe the clinical, paraclinical, therapeutic and outcomes of patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 43 patients infected with HIV admitted from January first 2010 to June 30th 2015 in the infectious disease unit of UHC Ibn Rochd, for neuromeningeal cryptococcus. RESULTS: The mean frequency of neuromeningeal cryptococcosis in patients infected with HIV was 1...
August 9, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
J E Carrasco-Zuber, C Navarrete-Dechent, A Bonifaz, F Fich, V Vial-Letelier, D Berroeta-Mauriziano
In the second part of this review on the deep mycoses, we describe the main systemic mycoses-paracoccidioidomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, mucormycosis, and cryptococcosis-and their cutaneous manifestations. Skin lesions are only occasionally seen in deep systemic mycoses either directly, when the skin is the route of entry for the fungus, or indirectly, when the infection has spread from a deeper focus. These cutaneous signs are often the only clue to the presence of a potentially fatal infection...
August 4, 2016: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Georgios Z Papadakis, Steven M Holland, Martha Quezado, Nicholas J Patronas
Disseminated cryptococcosis most commonly occurs in immunosuppressed patients and can rarely affect the adrenal glands. We report on a patient with biopsy proven bilateral adrenal cryptococcosis resulting in primary adrenal insufficiency, which was evaluated with whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan using (18)F-FDG. Both enlarged adrenal glands presented intensely increased (18)F-FDG activity in the periphery, while central necrotic regions were photopenic. Although diagnosis was established by adrenal gland biopsy, (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan can significantly contribute to the assessment of disease activity and monitoring of treatment response...
July 29, 2016: Endocrine
Rafael Garcia Torres, Renata Margarida Etchebehere, Sheila Jorge Adad, Adilha Rua Micheletti, Barbara de Melo Ribeiro, Leonardo Eurípedes Andrade Silva, Delio Jose Mora, Kennio Ferreira Paim, Mario León Silva-Vergara
Cryptococcosis occurs in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with poor compliance to antiretroviral therapy or unaware of their human immunodeficiency virus status who present severe immunosuppression at admission. Consequently, high mortality rates are observed due to disseminated fungal infection. This report presents clinical and postmortem data of AIDS patients with cryptococcosis in a teaching hospital in Brazil. Retrospectively, medical and necropsy records of AIDS patients with cryptococcosis clinically confirmed and/or postmortem verified were reviewed...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Luis Javier Méndez-Tovar, Jessica Aline Mejía-Mercado, Patricia Manzano-Gayosso, Francisca Hernández-Hernández, Rubén López-Martínez, Israel Silva-González
BACKGROUND: Factors such as cancer, HIV infection, use of corticosteroids and antibiotics, favors the increase in the number of invasive fungal infections (IFI) worldwide. METHODS: To determine the frequency and epidemiological aspects of IFI at a mexican, a review of the proven cases diagnosed over the past 21 years (1993-2013) in the Laboratory of Medical Mycology was performed. RESULTS: A total of 472 cases were identified as: 261 candidiasis, 82 mucormycosis, 60 cryptococcosis, 43 aspergillosis and 16 histoplasmosis...
September 2016: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Joslaine de Oliveira Nunes, Kelly Regina Pereira Alves Pillon, Patrícia Lira Bizerra, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes, Marilene Rodrigues Chang
Simultaneous infections with Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum are rare and typically occur in immunocompromised individuals, particularly AIDS patients. Because both of those fungi can spur the development of latent infections, it is generally unknown which organism was first present. The diagnosis of one fungus can hide the diagnosis of the other, leading to underdiagnoses and poor prognosis. We report a case of C. neoformans and H. capsulatum co-infection. We also performed a systematic review of the literature...
July 16, 2016: Mycopathologia
S Greven, J Brasch, U Reusch, M Reusch, V Mielke
In the event of non-specific epidermal lesions, the importance of a comprehensive anamnesis becomes especially apparent. In the following, we report on a patient case in which only a focused anamnesis was able to bring light into the darkness of numerous differential diagnoses - and to produce the diagnosis of a rare but in this collective common illness: primary cutaneous cryptococcosis.
July 8, 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Juergen Prattes, Sven Heldt, Susanne Eigl, Martin Hoenigl
Diagnostic tools for invasive fungal infections have continuously improved within the last decades. Nowadays, cultural methods, antigen testing, and molecular tests, such as polymerase chain reaction, are widely used. These methods, however, are accompanied with different limitations as various availability, various turnaround time or high costs. A new generation of point-of-care test has shown promising results in various studies and may overcome some of these limitations. We therefore reviewed the literature for the most promising new point-of-care tests for invasive aspergillosis (Aspergillus-specific lateral-flow device test, Aspergillus proximity ligation antigen assay), cryptococcosis (cryptococcal lateral-flow assay), and for histoplasmosis (loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay)...
2016: Current Fungal Infection Reports
Tsai-Ling Liao, Yi-Ming Chen, Der-Yuan Chen
OBJECTIVES: Increasing evidence indicates that the risk of cryptococcal infections is increased in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. However, the association between cryptococcosis and immunosuppressive medications in RA patients is still uncertain and little is known about risk factors for cryptococcal disease among RA patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study to investigate the epidemiology of RA patients with cryptococcosis in a medical center during the period 2001-2014...
June 10, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
S Sharma, P Gupta, N Gupta, A Lal, D Behera, A Rajwanshi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients and to identify the imaging pattern of infections on computed tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 42 immunocompromised patients who underwent FNAC under image guidance owing to a clinical pulmonary infection. Each patient was evaluated for an underlying immunocompromised condition, cytological diagnosis, CT findings and complications...
June 13, 2016: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
Dipanwita Nag, Sumedha Dey, Ayandip Nandi, Ranjana Bandyopadhyay, Debjani Roychowdhury, Raja Roy
INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a global pandemic. Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) is very common manifestation of HIV infection. Moreover, different opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis (TB) and malignancies may present with lymphadenopathy. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is most common with cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ count ≤50 cells/μL. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) offers a simple and effective modality for obtaining a representative sample of the material from lymph nodes, permitting cytological evaluation and other investigations...
April 2016: Journal of Cytology
Ederson Valei Lopes de Oliveira, Margarete Teresa Gottardo de Almeida, Aline Turatti, Ciro Martins Gomes, Ana Maria Roselino
Distinct cases of Paracoccidioidomycosis and Cryptococcosis with atypical and localized skin manifestation on the upper limbs of two elderly patients are reported. In the 2nd one, he presented asymptomatic pulmonary cancer; the blood tests for fungal infection were negative, and the etiologic agents were seen in skin biopsy samples. This report emphasizes the importance of the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases in elderly patients.
April 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Sunita Kumari, Rajesh Kumar Verma, Dharmendra Prasad Singh, Ramakant Yadav
INTRODUCTION: The cases of cryptococcal meningitis and other forms of cryptococcosis have increased in recent time and the present scenario of the condition with significant morbidity and mortality is actually posing a serious threat to the community, so an early and prompt diagnosis is necessary to prevent serious complications and thus improving the overall disease outcome. AIM: Comparison of diagnostic efficacy of nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) in the Cerebro Spinal Fluid (CSF) samples of the cases of meningitis in HIV positive and negative cases...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
C Aye, A Henderson, H Yu, R Norton
Cryptococcosis is a mycotic disease caused by the yeast Cryptococcus sp. It is associated with significant mortality and morbidity, including long-term neurological sequelae. It is not known whether the high morbidity observed is related to a delay in diagnosis. A retrospective chart review of all cryptococcal infections that had been diagnosed in the region between 1997 and 2015 was performed. Twenty-nine cases were identified. Overall mortality rate was 10.3%, with an attributable mortality rate of 6.9%. Forty-five per cent of patients with central nervous system involvement developed long-term neurological deficits...
July 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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