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diagnosis of cryptococcosis

Marina Macedo-Viñas, David W Denning
We aimed to estimate for the first time the burden of fungal infections in Uruguay. Data on population characteristics and underlying conditions were extracted from the National Statistics Institute, the World Bank, national registries, and published articles. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies extrapolating from the literature. Population structure (inhabitants): total 3,444,006; 73% adults; 35% women younger than 50 years. Size of populations at risk (total cases per year): HIV infected 12,000; acute myeloid leukemia 126; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 30; solid organ transplants 134; COPD 272,006; asthma in adults 223,431; cystic fibrosis in adults 48; tuberculosis 613; lung cancer 1400...
March 18, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Yan Xiu, Jie Zhang, Hongcheng Shi
A 73-year-old man presented with fatigue and anorexia and underwent FDG PET/CT scan to evaluate a right lung nodule revealed by a chest CT. The FDG PET/CT not only showed that the lung nodule was hypermetabolic but also revealed that there was significantly increased activity in the region of the duodenum. The findings were suspected as primary duodenal malignancy with metastases. However, an upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopic examination with further culture led to a diagnosis of duodenal cryptococcosis...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Qin Xiao, Yongzhou Lu, Min Chen, Bo Chen, Yuming Yang, Daxiang Cui, Bo Pan, Nan Xu
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast. There is still little quick and effective solution for the diagnosis or treatment of C. neoformans infection at an early stage in clinical. Antibody-conjugated silica-modified gold nanorods (GNR-SiO2 -Ab) can conjugate C. neoformans selectively. It may provide a possibility for treatment of cryptococcosis safely and effectively. METHODS: Gold nanorods (GNRs) were synthesized according to the seed-mediated template-assisted protocol...
March 7, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Patricia Escandón, Jairo Lizarazo, Clara Inés Agudelo, Elizabeth Castañeda
The passive and voluntary surveillance of cryptococcosis in Colombia since 1997 has seen an increasing participating rate, revealing its importance to both in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent people. The present work details the national data gathered in 1997-2016, through a retrospective analysis of the information collected in the survey. From a total of 1974 cases reported, an overall incidence of 0.23 cases per 100,000 people was found. This incidence rose to 1.1 cases per 1000 people in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) population...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Michael J Maze, Quique Bassat, Nicholas A Feasey, Inácio Mandomando, Patrick Musicha, John A Crump
BACKGROUND: Fever is among the most common symptoms of people living in Africa, and clinicians are challenged by the similar clinical features of a wide spectrum of potential aetiologies. AIM: To summarise recent studies of fever aetiology in sub-Saharan Africa focusing on causes other than malaria. SOURCES: A narrative literature review by searching the MEDLINE database, and recent conference abstracts. CONTENT: Studies of multiple potential causes of fever are scarce, and for many participants the infecting organism remains unidentified, or multiple co-infecting microorganisms are identified, and establishing causation is challenging...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Chien-Yuan Chen, Wang-Huei Sheng, Feng-Ming Tien, Po-Chu Lee, Shang-Yi Huang, Jih-Luh Tang, Woei Tsay, Hwei-Fang Tien, Po-Ren Hsueh
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This study was aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pulmonary invasive fungal infection (IFI) among patients with hematological malignancy. METHODS: All patients with hematological malignancy who were treated at a medical centre from 2008 to 2013 were evaluated. Pulmonary IFI was classified according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 2008 consensus. RESULTS: During the study period, 236 (11...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Paolo Bigliano, Andrea Calcagno, Anna Lucchini, Sabrina Audagnotto, Chiara Montrucchio, Letizia Marinaro, Chiara Alcantarini, Valeria Ghisetti, Giovanni Di Perri, Stefano Bonora
BACKGROUND: HIV late presenters are at high risk of Cytomegalovirus reactivation and end-organ disease. CMV viremia has been associated with poor survival but the effect of anti-CMV treatment has not been studied in this setting. METHODS: HIV-positive patients were included in a retrospective study if presenting with <350 CD4/uL and starting an antiretroviral treatment within 3 months of the diagnosis. Primary endpoint was 5-year survival according to the presence of CMV viremia (CMV-V), CMV end-organ disease (CMV-EOD) and anti-CMV treatment...
January 26, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Jose F Camargo, Jacques Simkins, Denise C Schain, A Adrian Gonzalez, Maria L Alcaide, Shweta Anjan, Giselle Guerra, David Roth, Warren L Kupin, Adela Mattiazzi, Yaohong Tan, Clara Milikowski, Michele I Morris, Lilian M Abbo
Donor-derived infections (DDIs) are a very rare but potentially devastating complication of solid organ transplantation. Here we present a cluster of proven donor-derived cryptococcal infection in the kidney, liver and lung recipients from a single donor. Remarkably, the onset of illness in the kidney and liver recipients occurred more than 8-12 weeks after transplantation, which is beyond the incubation period previously reported for donor-derived cryptococcosis. DDI should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of transplant recipients admitted with febrile illness, even when presenting beyond the first month post transplant...
January 23, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Raina S K Schunk, Nicholas E Sitinas, Katherine E Quesenberry, Jessica L Grodio
An approximately 10-year-old, female Congo African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus erithacus) developed progressive, unilateral exophthalmos and buphthalmos. Survey radiographs revealed a large, coelomic, soft tissue mass, which was confirmed on computed tomography scan. Aspirates of both the contents of the buphthalmic globe and coelomic mass were consistent with Cryptococcus species. Initial results were later confirmed with serum antigen latex agglutination and polymerase chain reaction testing, and the organism was then identified as Cryptococcus neoformans with DNA sequencing...
December 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
H Y Li, C Q Lan, H Weng, S X Chen, Q H Lin, J B Huang
Objective: To describe the characteristics of the nodular type of pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC) with coexisting lung cancer. Methods: A total of 9 cases of PC with coexisting lung cancer, admitted to Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital of Fujian from 1st January 2009 to 31th December 2016, and confirmed by pathological examinations, were studied and the related literature were reviewed. Results: The patients consisted of 1 male and 8 females, with a mean age of (53±10) years (range, 38 to 68 years). Four patients (44...
November 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Bahar H Kashef Hamadani, Carlos Franco-Paredes, Bruce McCollister, Leland Shapiro, J David Beckham, Andrés F Henao-Martínez
As the diagnosis of cryptococcosis is challenging in low-prevalence settings, uncovering predictive factors can improve early diagnosis and timely treatment. The aim of the study was to relate clinical outcomes to predictive variables for the presence of cryptococcosis. A retrospective case-control study matched by collection date, age and gender at a 1:2 ratio (55 cases and 112 controls) was performed in case patients diagnosed with Cryptococcus infection at the University of Colorado Hospital between 2000 and 2017 (n = 167)...
December 28, 2017: Mycoses
Massimo Galli, Spinello Antinori, Fabiola Atzeni, Luca Meroni, Agostino Riva, Carlo Scirè, Fulvio Adorni, Luca Quartuccio, Marco Sebastiani, Paolo Airò, Laura Bazzichi, Francesco Cristini, Valerio Del Bono, Andreina Manfredi, Ombretta Viapiana, Francesco De Rosa, Ennio Favalli, Enzo Petrelli, Carlo Salvarani, Marcello Govoni, Silvia Corcione, Rossana Scrivo, Loredana Sarmati, Adriano Lazzarin, Walter Grassi, Claudio Mastroianni, Giovanni Battista Gaeta, Gianfranco Ferraccioli, Maurizio Cutolo, Salvatore De Vita, Giovanni Lapadula, Marco Matucci-Cerinic, Orlando Armignacco, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini
Often life-threatening pulmonary fungal infections (PFIs) can occur in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receiving disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Most of the data concerning PFIs in RA patients come from case reports and retrospective case series. Of the ve most widely described PFIs, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) has rarely been seen outside Japan, pulmonary cryptococcosis has been diagnosed in only a small number of patients worldwide, pulmonary coccidioidomycosis has almost only been observed in endemic areas, the limited number of cases of pulmonary histoplasmosis have mainly occurred in the USA, and the rare cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis have only been encountered in leukopenic patients...
November 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Javed Ismail, Muthu Chidambaram, Jhuma Sankar, Shipra Agarwal, Rakesh Lodha
Disseminated cryptococcosis is infrequent in immunocompetent children. Pulmonary and central nervous system are the commonly involved sites of infection in an immunocompromised host. We report a fatal case of disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent host presenting as fever of unknown origin with miliary shadows on chest radiograph, mimicking tuberculosis. In countries with the heavy burden of tuberculosis, a high index of suspicion is needed for early diagnosis of its close mimics like disseminated cryptococcosis...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Hua-Ying Zhou, Xiao-Bo Zeng, Sheng-Long Shi, Min Wang, Da-Min Li
BACKGROUND: Biliary cryptococci infection is rare, which is frequently diagnosed by exploratory laparotomy, preoperative diagnosis is difficult. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-year-old girl presented with intermittent jaundice for 6 years. She had no pruritus, anorexia, nausea or vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, or clay stools. Laboratory tests showed obstructive jaundice, eosinophilia, and increased IgE levels. The patient was ultimately diagnosed as Cryptococcal infection by bone marrow culture...
November 14, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
S Chadli, M Aghrouch, N Taqarort, M Malmoussi, Z Ouagari, F Moustaoui, M Bourouache, S Oulkheir
INTRODUCTION: Neuromeningeal cryptococcosis (NMC) is a severe and fatal opportunistic infection. Lethality is frequent in the absence of treatment, especially in the presence of HIV co-infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, epidemiological, clinical, biological and therapeutic aspects as well as the evolution of NMC for patients infected with HIV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 40 cases of neuromeningeal cryptococcosis diagnosed in HIV-infected patients...
November 10, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Alicia Arechavala, Ricardo Negroni, Fernando Messina, Mercedes Romero, Emmanuel Marín, Roxana Depardo, Laura Walker, Gabriela Santiso
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is still a life-threatening mycosis that continues to be of serious concern in Latin American countries, especially among HIV+positive population. However, there is not any reliable information about the prevalence of this disease in this region. AIMS: The aim of this study is to report data of 2041 patients with cryptococcosis that were attended at the Infectious Diseases Hospital F. J. Muñiz over a 30 year-period. METHODS: Information about demographic and clinical data, survival time and the applied treatment, was taken from the Mycology Unit database...
November 9, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Rafael Melo Santos de Serpa Brandão, Angélica Rosa Faria, Hélida Monteiro de Andrade, Liline Maria Soares Martins, Adalberto Socorro da Silva, Semiramis Jamil Hadad do Monte
AIM: To produce and test recombinant multiepitope proteins as an alternative assay for the serological diagnosis of cryptococcosis. MATERIALS & METHODS: Previously, synthetic peptides were used to detect anti-Cryptococcus antibodies, and in silico analyses showed that the union of peptides would improve the results. Here, the coding sequences of these peptides were assembled into synthetic genes. Four genes have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, producing recombinant multiepitope proteins: proteins A, B, C and D...
November 10, 2017: Future Microbiology
Tetsuya Hoshino, Kazuya Omura, Shinichi Kimura, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Katsuhiko Kamei, Misako Ohkusu
Case: Disseminated cryptococcosis is a well-recognized condition among HIV patients, but it also occurs in non-HIV patients. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by cryptococcus is rare. An 81-year-old man who had received steroid therapy presented with erythema and pain in his right thigh. After the rapid progression of symptoms and a failure to respond to antibiotic therapy, a clinical diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis was made. We performed debridement, and yeasts were detected using a Gram stain of the fascia...
October 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
Rongshui Yang, Yan Yan, Yuhuan Wang, Xiaohuan Liu, Xinhui Su
Pulmonary cryptococcosis is most commonly reported in immunocompromised patients, whereas immunocompetent hosts are rarely affected and may be asymptomatic, resulting in reduced diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) imaging. Thus, the aim of the present study was to review the plain and contrast-enhanced chest CT scan findings of primary pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients, with the aim of improving the diagnosis of this type of pulmonary disease. In the present study, a total of 27 immunocompetent patients of clinically confirmed pulmonary cryptococcosis were analyzed retrospectively...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Aixin Li, Qunhui Li, Caiping Guo, Yulin Zhang
BACKGROUND Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) infection is one of the most common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. C. neoformans usually infects the central nervous system (CNS) and/or lungs with typical clinical manifestation. CASE REPORT Here, we report the case of a 52-year-old HIV-1-infected man with disseminated cryptococcosis, including subacute meningitis, pulmonary, and cutaneous cryptococcosis, but only skin lesion served as the chief complaint. Moreover, the results of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests and lung computed tomography (CT) scan were atypical...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
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