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diagnosis of cryptococcosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906037/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-cryptococcosis
#1
REVIEW
Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Cryptococcosis has been one of the most common opportunistic infections and causes of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common form of cryptococcosis. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptococcosis includes direct microscopic examination, isolation of Cryptococcus from a clinical specimen, and detection of cryptococcal antigen. Without appropriate treatment, cryptococcosis is fatal. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to treatment success...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886201/cryptococcal-meningitis-epidemiology-immunology-diagnosis-and-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Peter R Williamson, Joseph N Jarvis, Anil A Panackal, Matthew C Fisher, Síle F Molloy, Angela Loyse, Thomas S Harrison
HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is by far the most common cause of adult meningitis in many areas of the world that have high HIV seroprevalence. In most areas in Sub-Saharan Africa, the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis is not decreasing despite availability of antiretroviral therapy, because of issues of adherence and retention in HIV care. In addition, cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals is a substantial problem: the risk of cryptococcal infection is increased in transplant recipients and other individuals with defects in cell-mediated immunity, and cryptococcosis is also reported in the apparently immunocompetent...
November 25, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875016/cryptococcal-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-over-a-15-year-period-at-a-state-transplant-center
#3
Ian Gassiep, David McDougall, Joel Douglas, Ross Francis, Elliott G Playford
BACKGROUND: The aim of this research paper is to determine the incidence, risk factors and clinical outcome of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients diagnosed and treated for cryptococcosis at our institution. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all patients with SOT diagnosed and treated for cryptococcal infection occurring between January 2001 and December 2015. RESULTS: Of 102 patients diagnosed with cryptococcal infection, 23 were SOT recipients...
November 22, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873481/a-case-of-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-with-large-pericardial-effusion-diagnosed-using-cervical-lymph-node-biopsy
#4
Xuchun Liu, Wei Jia, Shubin Huang, Gengyun Sun
Pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC) is a relatively rare infectious disease. It mainly involves the lungs; however, in some patients, the infection could spread to other parts of the body. PC mostly occurs in patients with immune deficiencies. However, PC infections have been reported in non-immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis of PC is challenging in patients without immune deficiencies. Here, the case of a 27-year-old immunocompetent woman who was diagnosed with PC was report. She had unexplained fever and a history of close contact with poultry feathers...
November 7, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852362/-retrospective-analysis-of-117-cases-of-pulmonary-cryptococcosis
#5
C Q Lan, H Weng, H Y Li, L Chen, Q H Lin, J F Liu, J B Huang
Objective: To investigate the clinical features of pulmonary cryptococcosis(PC). Methods: A total of 117 cases of PC, confirmed by pathological examinations at Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital of Fujian from January 2009 to December 2013, were studied. Results: The patients consisted of 75 males and 42 females, with a mean age of (44.1±13.7) years (range, 16 to 76 years). Thirty-eight cases were immunocompromised hosts (ICH) and 79 cases were non-immunocompromised hosts (NICH). The clinical symptoms of most patients were mild and the main clinical manifestations were cough and sputum production...
November 12, 2016: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833967/diagnosing-hiv-associated-cerebral-diseases-the-importance-of-neuropathology-in-understanding-hiv
#6
Ioan Alexandru Diaconu, LaurenŢiu MihăiŢă Stratan, Luciana Nichita, Victoria Aramă, Valentina Ruxandra Moroti Constantinescu, Alexandra Ioana Diaconu, Daniela Adriana Ion
The study aims to compare two aspects concerning the diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated central nervous system (CNS) pathology (neuroAIDS): clinical diagnoses issued ante mortem with pathology results issued post mortem. The group of 39 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients was created over 23 years and is limited by marked heterogeneity. The enrolled cases were treated at the "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals" National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Bucharest, Romania, deceased due to AIDS-related complications and underwent brain necropsies performed in the Pathology Laboratory at the "Colentina" Clinical Hospital, Bucharest...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623322/-a-well-inked-pneumonia%C3%A2-can-you-decrypt-it
#7
M Tetart, V Trosini-Désert, A Fekkar, C Chenivesse
INTRODUCTION: We report a case of pneumonia associated with necrotic mediastinal lymph nodes in an immunocompetent patient. The case report illustrates the difficulties in making a diagnosis in necrotic mediastinal lymph nodes and discusses strategies to optimize sampling. OBSERVATION: A 21-year-old immunocompetent woman was admitted to hospital with dyspnea and fever occurring ten days after delivery. Physical examination, biological results and chest X-ray led to the diagnosis of right upper lobe pneumonia...
September 9, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601609/unique-characteristics-of-cryptococcosis-identified-after-death-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-comparison-with-concurrent-cohort-diagnosed-antemortem
#8
Nina Singh, Costi D Sifri, Fernanda P Silveira, Rachel Miller, Kevin S Gregg, Shirish Huprikar, Erika D Lease, Andrea Zimmer, J Stephen Dummer, Cedric W Spak, Christine Koval, David B Banach, Miloni Shroff, Jade Le, Darin Ostrander, Robin Avery, Albert Eid, Raymund R Razonable, Jose Montero, Emily Blumberg, Ahlaam Alynbiawi, Michele I Morris, Henry B Randall, George Alangaden, Jeffrey Tessier, Thomas V Cacciarelli, Marilyn M Wagener, Hsin Yun Sun
Characteristics of cirrhosis-associated cryptococcosis first diagnosed after death are not fully known. In a multicenter study, data generated as standard of care was systematically collected in 113 consecutive patients with cirrhosis and cryptococcosis followed for 80 patient-years. The diagnosis of cryptococcosis was first established after death in 15.9% (18/113) of the patients. Compared to cases diagnosed while alive, these patients had higher MELD score (33 vs. 22, P = .029) and higher rate of cryptococcemia (75...
September 6, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592857/cytological-diagnosis-of-biliary-cryptococcosis-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-with-mid-common-bile-duct-stricture-masquerading-as-cholangiocarcinoma
#9
D K Burad, B Ramakrishna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2016: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566500/delayed-diagnosis-of-disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-associated-meningoencephalitis-in-an-immunocompetent-septuagenarian-host
#10
Isaac S Chan, Rani Chudasama, Adam B Burrows
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538616/spectrum-of-neuroimaging-findings-in-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-immunocompetent-patients-in-china-a-series-of-18-cases
#11
Zhe-Ren Tan, Xiao-Yan Long, Guo-Liang Li, Jin-Xia Zhou, Lan Long
PURPOSE: Cryptococcosis is a devastating opportunistic disease commonly encountered in organ transplant recipients and patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Few studies have profiled the disease in immunocompetent patients. We sought to characterize the neuroimaging findings of cryptococcal meningitis among immunocompetent patients in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of all patients diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis at our institute, on the basis of CSF culture or India Ink test, between November 2011 and February 2016, was performed...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525403/-a-pediatric-case-of-hiv-who-diagnosed-by-virtue-of-disseminated-cryptococcus-infection
#12
Manolya Acar, Murat Sütçü, Hacer Aktürk, Selda Hançerli Törün, Nurinisa Karagöz, Hayati Beka, Ensar Yekeler, Ali Ağaçfidan, Nuran Salman, Ayper Somer
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes serious mortality and morbidity in AIDS patients. Although its incidence has decreased with proper antiretroviral treatment (ART), it is still a major concern in areas with low socioeconomic HIV endemic countries with poor sources of therapy. In our country, pediatric HIV infection and so, HIV-related opportunistic infections are very rare. In order to pay attention to this unusual collaboration; herein, we presented a pediatric case who was diagnosed with HIV and disseminated cryptococcus infection concomitantly...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520534/-retrospective-study-of-neuromeningeal-cryptococcosis-in-patients-infected-with-hiv-in-the-infectious-diseases-unit-of-university-hospital-of-casablanca-morocco
#13
I Dollo, L Marih, M El Fane, M Es-Sebbani, M Sodqi, A Oulad Lahsen, A Chakib, F El Kadioui, A Hamdani, M J El Mabrouki, M Soussi Abdallaoui, Z Karima, S Hassoune, A Maaroufi, K Marhoum El Filali
OBJECTIVE: To report the cases of neuromeningeal cryptococcosis and to describe the clinical, paraclinical, therapeutic and outcomes of patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 43 patients infected with HIV admitted from January first 2010 to June 30th 2015 in the infectious disease unit of UHC Ibn Rochd, for neuromeningeal cryptococcus. RESULTS: The mean frequency of neuromeningeal cryptococcosis in patients infected with HIV was 1...
August 9, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499249/cutaneous-involvement-in-the-deep-mycoses-a-review-part-ii-systemic-mycoses
#14
J E Carrasco-Zuber, C Navarrete-Dechent, A Bonifaz, F Fich, V Vial-Letelier, D Berroeta-Mauriziano
In the second part of this review on the deep mycoses, we describe the main systemic mycoses-paracoccidioidomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, mucormycosis, and cryptococcosis-and their cutaneous manifestations. Skin lesions are only occasionally seen in deep systemic mycoses either directly, when the skin is the route of entry for the fungus, or indirectly, when the infection has spread from a deeper focus. These cutaneous signs are often the only clue to the presence of a potentially fatal infection...
August 4, 2016: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473097/adrenal-cryptococcosis-in-an-immunosuppressed-patient-showing-intensely-increased-metabolic-activity-on-18-f-fdg-pet-ct
#15
Georgios Z Papadakis, Steven M Holland, Martha Quezado, Nicholas J Patronas
Disseminated cryptococcosis most commonly occurs in immunosuppressed patients and can rarely affect the adrenal glands. We report on a patient with biopsy proven bilateral adrenal cryptococcosis resulting in primary adrenal insufficiency, which was evaluated with whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan using (18)F-FDG. Both enlarged adrenal glands presented intensely increased (18)F-FDG activity in the periphery, while central necrotic regions were photopenic. Although diagnosis was established by adrenal gland biopsy, (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan can significantly contribute to the assessment of disease activity and monitoring of treatment response...
December 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458037/cryptococcosis-in-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-patients-clinically-confirmed-and-or-diagnosed-at-necropsy-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-brazil
#16
Rafael Garcia Torres, Renata Margarida Etchebehere, Sheila Jorge Adad, Adilha Rua Micheletti, Barbara de Melo Ribeiro, Leonardo Eurípedes Andrade Silva, Delio Jose Mora, Kennio Ferreira Paim, Mario León Silva-Vergara
Cryptococcosis occurs in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with poor compliance to antiretroviral therapy or unaware of their human immunodeficiency virus status who present severe immunosuppression at admission. Consequently, high mortality rates are observed due to disseminated fungal infection. This report presents clinical and postmortem data of AIDS patients with cryptococcosis in a teaching hospital in Brazil. Retrospectively, medical and necropsy records of AIDS patients with cryptococcosis clinically confirmed and/or postmortem verified were reviewed...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428339/-frequency-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-a-mexican-high-specialty-hospital-experience-of-21-years
#17
Luis Javier Méndez-Tovar, Jessica Aline Mejía-Mercado, Patricia Manzano-Gayosso, Francisca Hernández-Hernández, Rubén López-Martínez, Israel Silva-González
BACKGROUND: Factors such as cancer, HIV infection, use of corticosteroids and antibiotics, favors the increase in the number of invasive fungal infections (IFI) worldwide. METHODS: To determine the frequency and epidemiological aspects of IFI at a mexican, a review of the proven cases diagnosed over the past 21 years (1993-2013) in the Laboratory of Medical Mycology was performed. RESULTS: A total of 472 cases were identified as: 261 candidiasis, 82 mucormycosis, 60 cryptococcosis, 43 aspergillosis and 16 histoplasmosis...
September 2016: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423433/the-simultaneous-occurrence-of-histoplasmosis-and-cryptococcal-fungemia-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Joslaine de Oliveira Nunes, Kelly Regina Alves Pereira Pillon, Patrícia Lira Bizerra, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes, Marilene Rodrigues Chang
Simultaneous infections with Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum are rare and typically occur in immunocompromised individuals, particularly AIDS patients. Because both of those fungi can spur the development of latent infections, it is generally unknown which organism was first present. The diagnosis of one fungus can hide the diagnosis of the other, leading to underdiagnoses and poor prognosis. We report a case of C. neoformans and H. capsulatum co-infection. We also performed a systematic review of the literature...
July 16, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393086/-primary-cutaneous-cryptococcosis-pigeons-can-carry-more-than-letters%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#19
S Greven, J Brasch, U Reusch, M Reusch, V Mielke
In the event of non-specific epidermal lesions, the importance of a comprehensive anamnesis becomes especially apparent. In the following, we report on a patient case in which only a focused anamnesis was able to bring light into the darkness of numerous differential diagnoses - and to produce the diagnosis of a rare but in this collective common illness: primary cutaneous cryptococcosis.
December 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358661/point-of-care-testing-for-the-diagnosis-of-fungal-infections-are-we-there-yet
#20
Juergen Prattes, Sven Heldt, Susanne Eigl, Martin Hoenigl
Diagnostic tools for invasive fungal infections have continuously improved within the last decades. Nowadays, cultural methods, antigen testing, and molecular tests, such as polymerase chain reaction, are widely used. These methods, however, are accompanied with different limitations as various availability, various turnaround time or high costs. A new generation of point-of-care test has shown promising results in various studies and may overcome some of these limitations. We therefore reviewed the literature for the most promising new point-of-care tests for invasive aspergillosis (Aspergillus-specific lateral-flow device test, Aspergillus proximity ligation antigen assay), cryptococcosis (cryptococcal lateral-flow assay), and for histoplasmosis (loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay)...
2016: Current Fungal Infection Reports
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