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diagnosis of cryptococcosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154287/disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-rapidly-growing-lung-nodules-in-an-end-stage-renal-disease-patient
#1
Atsushi Inaba, Akira Okada, Taiko Yoshida, Satoshi Itoyama, Tatsuro Nakai, Tetsuya Hisada, Hideki Takano
A 73-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal disease was diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction. He required continuous dialysis after percutaneous coronary intervention. Subsequently, multiple nodules were discovered in both lungs for the first time, and Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from the patient's sputum, blood, bilateral pleural fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid cultures, resulting in a diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis. This case represents an invaluable example of disseminated cryptococcosis with rapidly growing lung nodules in a dialysis patient, and illustrates that dialysis causes innate immune disorder and the reactivation of cryptococcosis...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127434/pulmonary-cryptococcosis-mimicking-a-metastasis-in-a-patient-with-ewing-sarcoma
#2
Akio Sakamoto, Masanori Hisaoka
Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection that is common in immunocompromised patients. A 22-year-old woman with Ewing sarcoma in the right proximal humerus was treated by resection and chemotherapy. Computed tomography detected a small nodule in her right upper pulmonary lobe after completion of her chemotherapy. With the presumptive diagnosis of pulmonary metastasis, she underwent resection. Evaluation of the resected specimen revealed pulmonary cryptococcosis, and the patient was treated with oral fluconazole for 18 weeks...
September 2016: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104935/neurotuberculosis-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-the-setting-of-hiv-infection-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#3
Deepasree Jaganmohan, Sunitha V Chakkalakkoombil, Anjana A Beena, Nagarajan Krishnan
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an exaggerated immune response which can occur with various coinfections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients, of which the most commonly implicated in central nervous system (CNS)-IRIS are progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cryptococcosis, and tuberculosis (TB). TB-IRIS is a known complication of pulmonary TB or TB lymphadenitis coinfection in HIV infected patients who are on antituberculosis treatment (ATT) after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099613/disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-cutaneous-involvement-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#4
Gabriely Lessa Sacht, Alexandre Moretti de Lima, Yuri Chiarelli Perdomo, Rafaela Suguimoto Boigues, Luiz Carlos Takita, Günter Hans
Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection of opportunistic behavior that is unusual in immunocompetent patients. We report a rare case of disseminated cryptococcosis with cutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent individual. During hospitalization, Cryptococcus gattii was isolated from skin lesions, lung and spinal fluid. The diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed and treatment was established. The patient showed improvement. Due to the probable clinical severity of the disease and the possibility that skin lesions may be the first manifestation of this illness, prompt diagnosis must be established and treatment provided...
November 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054218/cryptococcosis-in-patients-with-nephrotic-syndrome-a-pooled-analysis-of-cases
#5
Wenjie Fang, Nan Hong, Yingfang Li, Jia Liu, Lei Zhang, Weiwei Jiang, Bo Qiu, Jianping Xu, Wanqing Liao, Min Chen, Weihua Pan
Cryptococcosis is an infection that may be lethal in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS). However, there is relatively limited epidemiological and clinical data about cryptococcosis in NS patients. We performed a pooled analysis to systemically summarize the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical and laboratory characteristics, treatments and outcomes of cryptococcosis in NS patients. Using data pooled from our hospital and studies identified via searches of three literature databases, 17 cases were identified for inclusion in this analysis...
January 4, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044302/disseminated-cryptococcosis-in-an-immunocompetent-child
#6
Bhawna Bhutoria Jain, Debdas Bose, Rajat Mondal, Sarbani Chattopadhyay
A case of disseminated cryptococcus infection in an immunocompetent host is described. The present case attests to the importance of using a cautious approach for the diagnosis of granulomatous lymphadenitis. The patient was initially misdiagnosed and treated as disseminated tuberculosis. Later the patient developed visual loss and skin lesions. Periodic Acid Schiff stained sections of lymph node biopsy and cerebrospinal fluid culture established the diagnosis.
2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988905/intestinal-lesion-in-a-dog-due-to-cryptococcus-gattii-type-vgii-and-review-of-published-cases-of-canine-gastrointestinal-cryptococcosis
#7
Daniel Paiva Barros de Abreu, Carlos Henrique Machado, Mário Tatsuo Makita, Camila Flávia Magalhães Botelho, Fernanda Gomes Oliveira, Cristiano Chaves Pessoa da Veiga, Marilena Dos Anjos Martins, Francisco de Assis Baroni
Cryptococcosis is a mycosis caused by yeasts of genus Cryptococcus, mainly the species C. neoformans and C. gattii that can affect humans and animals. These yeasts are widely distributed in the environment and are typically associated with avian droppings and decaying wood. Most infections are related to the respiratory tract, but the central nervous system and cutaneous lesions are also reported in the literature. The present report is a case of cryptococcosis in an 18-month-old unspayed female English Bulldog with the main complaint of weight loss and diarrhea...
December 17, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987289/cryptococcemia-in-an-hiv-negative-patient-with-decompensated-liver-cirrhosis
#8
Manasa Kandula, Amar H Kelkar, Nicole Liberio, Meenakshy K Aiyer
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal infections have been mostly associated with immunocompromised individuals, 80-90% of whom have been HIV-positive patients. Increasingly, cryptococcal infections are being reported in cirrhotic patients who are HIV-negative. The underlying immunologic defects in cirrhotic patients seem to play an important role in predisposing them to cryptococcosis and affecting their morbidity and mortality. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of disseminated cryptococcosis in an HIV-negative patient with underlying cirrhosis, who had rapid worsening of his hyponatremia with renal failure and was unable to recover, despite aggressive measures...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927865/impact-of-infectious-diseases-consultation-on-mortality-of-cryptococcal-infection-in-patients-without-hiv
#9
Andrej Spec, Margaret A Olsen, Krunal Raval, William G Powderly
BACKGROUND: An infectious disease (ID) consultation is often obtained to treat patients with cryptococcosis due to the complex nature of the disease, but has never been demonstrated to impact outcomes. METHODS: We assembled a retrospective cohort of 147 consecutive cases of cryptococcosis in patients without HIV. Patients who were diagnosed less than 24 hours prior to death were excluded. Survival analysis was performed with Cox regression with survival censored past 90 days...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906037/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-cryptococcosis
#10
REVIEW
Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Cryptococcosis has been one of the most common opportunistic infections and causes of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common form of cryptococcosis. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptococcosis includes direct microscopic examination, isolation of Cryptococcus from a clinical specimen, and detection of cryptococcal antigen. Without appropriate treatment, cryptococcosis is fatal. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to treatment success...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886201/cryptococcal-meningitis-epidemiology-immunology-diagnosis-and-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Peter R Williamson, Joseph N Jarvis, Anil A Panackal, Matthew C Fisher, Síle F Molloy, Angela Loyse, Thomas S Harrison
HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is by far the most common cause of adult meningitis in many areas of the world that have high HIV seroprevalence. In most areas in Sub-Saharan Africa, the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis is not decreasing despite availability of antiretroviral therapy, because of issues of adherence and retention in HIV care. In addition, cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals is a substantial problem: the risk of cryptococcal infection is increased in transplant recipients and other individuals with defects in cell-mediated immunity, and cryptococcosis is also reported in the apparently immunocompetent...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875016/cryptococcal-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-over-a-15-year-period-at-a-state-transplant-center
#12
Ian Gassiep, David McDougall, Joel Douglas, Ross Francis, Elliott G Playford
BACKGROUND: The aim of this research paper was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcome of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients diagnosed and treated for cryptococcosis at our institution. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all patients with SOT diagnosed and treated for cryptococcal infection occurring between January 2001 and December 2015. RESULTS: Of 102 patients diagnosed with cryptococcal infection, 23 were SOT recipients...
November 22, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873481/a-case-of-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-with-large-pericardial-effusion-diagnosed-using-cervical-lymph-node-biopsy
#13
Xuchun Liu, Wei Jia, Shubin Huang, Gengyun Sun
Pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC) is a relatively rare infectious disease. It mainly involves the lungs; however, in some patients, the infection could spread to other parts of the body. PC mostly occurs in patients with immune deficiencies. However, PC infections have been reported in non-immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis of PC is challenging in patients without immune deficiencies. Here, the case of a 27-year-old immunocompetent woman who was diagnosed with PC was report. She had unexplained fever and a history of close contact with poultry feathers...
November 7, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852362/-retrospective-analysis-of-117-cases-of-pulmonary-cryptococcosis
#14
C Q Lan, H Weng, H Y Li, L Chen, Q H Lin, J F Liu, J B Huang
Objective: To investigate the clinical features of pulmonary cryptococcosis(PC). Methods: A total of 117 cases of PC, confirmed by pathological examinations at Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital of Fujian from January 2009 to December 2013, were studied. Results: The patients consisted of 75 males and 42 females, with a mean age of (44.1±13.7) years (range, 16 to 76 years). Thirty-eight cases were immunocompromised hosts (ICH) and 79 cases were non-immunocompromised hosts (NICH). The clinical symptoms of most patients were mild and the main clinical manifestations were cough and sputum production...
November 12, 2016: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833967/diagnosing-hiv-associated-cerebral-diseases-the-importance-of-neuropathology-in-understanding-hiv
#15
Ioan Alexandru Diaconu, LaurenŢiu MihăiŢă Stratan, Luciana Nichita, Victoria Aramă, Valentina Ruxandra Moroti Constantinescu, Alexandra Ioana Diaconu, Daniela Adriana Ion
The study aims to compare two aspects concerning the diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated central nervous system (CNS) pathology (neuroAIDS): clinical diagnoses issued ante mortem with pathology results issued post mortem. The group of 39 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients was created over 23 years and is limited by marked heterogeneity. The enrolled cases were treated at the "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals" National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Bucharest, Romania, deceased due to AIDS-related complications and underwent brain necropsies performed in the Pathology Laboratory at the "Colentina" Clinical Hospital, Bucharest...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623322/-a-well-inked-pneumonia%C3%A2-can-you-decrypt-it
#16
M Tetart, V Trosini-Désert, A Fekkar, C Chenivesse
INTRODUCTION: We report a case of pneumonia associated with necrotic mediastinal lymph nodes in an immunocompetent patient. The case report illustrates the difficulties in making a diagnosis in necrotic mediastinal lymph nodes and discusses strategies to optimize sampling. OBSERVATION: A 21-year-old immunocompetent woman was admitted to hospital with dyspnea and fever occurring ten days after delivery. Physical examination, biological results and chest X-ray led to the diagnosis of right upper lobe pneumonia...
September 9, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601609/unique-characteristics-of-cryptococcosis-identified-after-death-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-comparison-with-concurrent-cohort-diagnosed-antemortem
#17
Nina Singh, Costi D Sifri, Fernanda P Silveira, Rachel Miller, Kevin S Gregg, Shirish Huprikar, Erika D Lease, Andrea Zimmer, J Stephen Dummer, Cedric W Spak, Christine Koval, David B Banach, Miloni Shroff, Jade Le, Darin Ostrander, Robin Avery, Albert Eid, Raymund R Razonable, Jose Montero, Emily Blumberg, Ahlaam Alynbiawi, Michele I Morris, Henry B Randall, George Alangaden, Jeffrey Tessier, Thomas V Cacciarelli, Marilyn M Wagener, Hsin Yun Sun
Characteristics of cirrhosis-associated cryptococcosis first diagnosed after death are not fully known. In a multicenter study, data generated as standard of care was systematically collected in 113 consecutive patients with cirrhosis and cryptococcosis followed for 80 patient-years. The diagnosis of cryptococcosis was first established after death in 15.9% (18/113) of the patients. Compared to cases diagnosed while alive, these patients had higher MELD score (33 vs. 22, P = .029) and higher rate of cryptococcemia (75...
September 6, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592857/cytological-diagnosis-of-biliary-cryptococcosis-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-with-mid-common-bile-duct-stricture-masquerading-as-cholangiocarcinoma
#18
D K Burad, B Ramakrishna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2016: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566500/delayed-diagnosis-of-disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-associated-meningoencephalitis-in-an-immunocompetent-septuagenarian-host
#19
Isaac S Chan, Rani Chudasama, Adam B Burrows
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538616/spectrum-of-neuroimaging-findings-in-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-immunocompetent-patients-in-china-a-series-of-18-cases
#20
Zhe-Ren Tan, Xiao-Yan Long, Guo-Liang Li, Jin-Xia Zhou, Lan Long
PURPOSE: Cryptococcosis is a devastating opportunistic disease commonly encountered in organ transplant recipients and patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Few studies have profiled the disease in immunocompetent patients. We sought to characterize the neuroimaging findings of cryptococcal meningitis among immunocompetent patients in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of all patients diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis at our institute, on the basis of CSF culture or India Ink test, between November 2011 and February 2016, was performed...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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