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mitochondrial transcription factor A

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526781/cd36-is-essential-for-endurance-improvement-changes-in%C3%A2-whole-body-metabolism-and-efficient-ppar-related-transcriptional-responses-in-the-muscle-with-exercise-training
#1
Mark Christian C Manio, Shigenobu Matsumura, Daisaku Masuda, Kazuo Inoue
Although circulating fatty acids are utilized as energy substrates, they also function as ligands to the peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), a family of fatty acid sensing transcription factors. Exercise training leads to various adaptations in the muscle such as elevation of glycogen content, mitochondrial number as well as upregulation of fatty acid uptake and utilization through downstream transcriptional adaptations. In line with this, CD36 has been shown to be critical in controlling fatty acid uptake and consequently, fatty acid oxidation...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526334/regulatory-cis-and-trans-elements-of-mitochondrial-d-loop-driven-reporter-genes-in-budding-tunicates
#2
Kaz Kawamura, Yuhya Saitoh, Loriano Ballarin, Takeshi Sunanaga
To unveil the underlying mechanism of mitochondrial gene regulation associated with ageing and budding in the tunicate Polyandrocarpa misakiensis, mitochondrial non-coding-region (NCR)-containing reporter genes were constructed. PmNCR2.3K/GFP was expressed spatiotemporally in a pattern quite similar to mitochondrial 16SrRNA. The reporter gene expression was sensitive to high dose of rifampicin similar to mitochondrial genes, suggesting that the transcription indeed occurs in mitochondria. However, the gene expression also occurred in vivo in the cell nucleus and in vitro in the nuclear extracts...
May 16, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522876/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-mitochondria-associated-er-membrane-mam-in-a-long-term-type-2-diabetic-rodent-model
#3
Jacey Hongjie Ma, Shichen Shen, Joshua J Wang, Zhanwen He, Amanda Poon, Jun Li, Jun Qu, Sarah X Zhang
The mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) plays a critical role in cellular energetics and calcium homeostasis; however, how MAM is affected under diabetic condition remains elusive. This study presented a comprehensive proteome profiling of isolated brain MAM from long-term type 2 diabetic mice vs. non-diabetic controls. MAM protein was extracted efficiently by a surfactant-aided precipitation/on-pellet digestion (SOD) method, and MAM proteome was quantified by an ion-current-based MS1 method combined with nanoLC-MS/MS...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522758/regulation-of-erythropoiesis-after-normoxic-return-from-chronic-sustained-and-intermittent-hypoxia
#4
Jihyun Song, Krishna Sundar, Radhika Gangaraju, Josef T Prchal
Hypoxia increases erythropoiesis mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF) which regulate erythropoietin (EPO) transcription. Neocytolysis is a physiological mechanism that corrects polycythemia from chronic sustained hypoxemia (CSH) by transient, preferential destruction of young RBCs after normoxia is restored. We showed that neocytolysis is caused by excessive mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in reticulocytes mediated by down-regulation of HIF-controlled BNIP3L regulated mitophagy and a decrease in RBC antioxidant catalase (CAT) in hypoxia-produced erythrocytes...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520979/the-dead-box-helicase-mss116-plays-distinct-roles-in-mitochondrial-ribogenesis-and-mrna-specific-translation
#5
Dasmanthie De Silva, Sarah Poliquin, Rui Zeng, Angelica Zamudio-Ochoa, Natalie Marrero, Xochitl Perez-Martinez, Flavia Fontanesi, Antoni Barrientos
Members of the DEAD-box family are often multifunctional proteins involved in several RNA transactions. Among them, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mss116 participates in mitochondrial intron splicing and, under cold stress, also in mitochondrial transcription elongation. Here, we show that Mss116 interacts with the mitoribosome assembly factor Mrh4, is required for efficient mitoribosome biogenesis, and consequently, maintenance of the overall mitochondrial protein synthesis rate. Additionally, Mss116 is required for efficient COX1 mRNA translation initiation and elongation...
May 18, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515679/downregulation-of-the-repressor-element-1-silencing-transcription-factor-rest-is-associated-with-akt-mtor-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-prion-diseases-models
#6
Zhiqi Song, Syed Z A Shah, Wei Yang, Haodi Dong, Lifeng Yang, Xiangmei Zhou, Deming Zhao
Prion diseases are a group of infectious diseases characterized by multiple neuropathological changes, yet the mechanisms that preserve function and protect against prion-associated neurodegeneration are still unclear. We previously reported that the repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor (REST) alleviates neurotoxic prion peptide (PrP106-126)-induced toxicity in primary neurons. Here we confirmed the findings of the in vitro model in 263K infected hamsters, an in vivo model of prion diseases and further showed the relationships between REST and related signaling pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515152/effects-of-deficiency-of-kelch-like-ech-associated-protein-1-on-skeletal-organization-a-mechanism-for-diminished-nuclear-factor-of-activated-t-cells-cytoplasmic-1-during-osteoclastogenesis
#7
Eiko Sakai, Masanobu Morita, Masahiro Ohuchi, Mizuho A Kido, Yutaka Fukuma, Kazuhisa Nishishita, Kuniaki Okamoto, Ken Itoh, Masayuki Yamamoto, Takayuki Tsukuba
Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) binds to nuclear factor E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor for antioxidant enzymes, to suppress Nrf2 activation. The role of oxidative stress in many diseases supports the possibility that processes that are associated with Nrf2 activation might offer therapeutic potential. Nrf2 deficiency induces osteoclastogenesis, which is responsible for bone loss, by activating receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated signaling; however, the effects of Keap1 deficiency remain unclear...
May 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511992/rna-seq-analyses-reveal-that-cervical-spinal-cords-and-anterior-motor-neurons-from-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-subjects-show-reduced-expression-of-mitochondrial-dna-encoded-respiratory-genes-and-rhtfam-may-correct-this-respiratory-deficiency
#8
Amy C Ladd, David G Brohawn, Ravindar R Thomas, Paula M Keeney, Stuart S Berr, Shaharyar M Khan, Francisco R Portell, Meiram Zh Shakenov, Patrick F Antkowiak, Bijoy Kundu, Nicholas Tustison, James P Bennett
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a generally fatal neurodegenerative disease of adults that produces weakness and atrophy due to dysfunction and death of upper and lower motor neurons. We used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyze expression of all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded respiratory genes in ALS and CTL human cervical spinal cords (hCSC) and isolated motor neurons. We analyzed with RNA-seq mtDNA gene expression in human neural stem cells (hNSC) exposed to recombinant human mitochondrial transcription factor A (rhTFAM), visualized in 3-dimensions clustered gene networks activated by rhTFAM, quantitated their interactions with other genes and determined their gene ontology (GO) families...
May 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509349/isolation-of-tissues-and-preservation-of-rna-from-intact-germinated-barley-grain
#9
Natalie S Betts, Oliver Berkowitz, Ruijie Liu, Helen M Collins, Birgitte Skadhauge, Christoph Dockter, Rachel A Burton, James Whelan, Geoffrey B Fincher
Isolated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone layers have been widely used as a model system for studying gene expression and hormonal regulation in germinating cereal grains. A serious technological limitation of this approach has been the inability to confidently extrapolate conclusions obtained from isolated tissues back to the whole grain, where the co-location of several living and non-living tissues results in complex tissue-tissue interactions and regulatory pathways coordinated across the multiple tissues...
May 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507060/alogliptin-a-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-alleviates-atrial-remodeling-and-improves-mitochondrial-function-and-biogenesis-in-diabetic-rabbits
#10
Xiaowei Zhang, Zhiwei Zhang, Yungang Zhao, Ning Jiang, Jiuchun Qiu, Yajuan Yang, Jian Li, Xue Liang, Xinghua Wang, Gary Tse, Guangping Li, Tong Liu
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence implicating atrial mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. In this study, we explored whether alogliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, can prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and atrial remodeling in a diabetic rabbit model. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 90 rabbits were randomized into 3 groups as follows: control group (n=30), alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus group (n=30), and alogliptin-treated (12...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504707/regulation-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-erythropoiesis-by-mtorc1-mediated-protein%C3%A2-translation
#11
Xin Liu, Yuannyu Zhang, Min Ni, Hui Cao, Robert A J Signer, Dan Li, Mushan Li, Zhimin Gu, Zeping Hu, Kathryn E Dickerson, Samuel E Weinberg, Navdeep S Chandel, Ralph J DeBerardinis, Feng Zhou, Zhen Shao, Jian Xu
Advances in genomic profiling present new challenges of explaining how changes in DNA and RNA are translated into proteins linking genotype to phenotype. Here we compare the genome-scale proteomic and transcriptomic changes in human primary haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and erythroid progenitors, and uncover pathways related to mitochondrial biogenesis enhanced through post-transcriptional regulation. Mitochondrial factors including TFAM and PHB2 are selectively regulated through protein translation during erythroid specification...
May 15, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504693/cyclin-dependent-kinase-7-is-a-therapeutic-target-in-high-grade-glioma
#12
S A Greenall, Y C Lim, C B Mitchell, K S Ensbey, B W Stringer, A L Wilding, G M O'Neill, K L McDonald, D J Gough, B W Day, T G Johns
High-grade glioma (HGG) is an incurable brain cancer. The transcriptomes of cells within HGG tumors are highly heterogeneous. This renders the tumors unresponsive or able to adapt to therapeutics targeted at single pathways, thereby causing treatment failure. To overcome this, we focused on cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7), a ubiquitously expressed molecule involved in two major drivers of HGG pathogenesis: cell cycle progression and RNA polymerase-II-based transcription. We tested the activity of THZ1, an irreversible CDK7 inhibitor, on patient-derived primary HGG cell lines and ex vivo HGG patient tissue slices, using proliferation assays, microarray analysis, high-resolution respirometry, cell cycle analysis and in vivo tumor orthografts...
May 15, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500267/impaired-mitochondrial-transcription-termination-disrupts-the-stromal-redox-poise-in-chlamydomonas
#13
Andreas Uhmeyer, Matteo Ballottari, Michela Cecchin, Lutz Wobbe
In photosynthetic eukaryotes, the metabolite exchange between chloroplast and mitochondria ensures efficient photosynthesis under saturating light conditions. The C. reinhardtii mutant stm6 is devoid of the mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) MOC1 and aberrantly expresses the mitochondrial genome, resulting in enhanced photosynthetic hydrogen production and diminished light tolerance. We analyzed the modulation of mitochondrial and chlororespiration during the acclimation of stm6 and the MOC1-complemented strain to excess light...
May 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500257/zbtb48-is-both-a-vertebrate-telomere-binding-protein-and-a-transcriptional-activator
#14
Arne Jahn, Grishma Rane, Maciej Paszkowski-Rogacz, Sergi Sayols, Alina Bluhm, Chung-Ting Han, Irena Draškovič, José Arturo Londoño-Vallejo, Alan Prem Kumar, Frank Buchholz, Falk Butter, Dennis Kappei
Telomeres constitute the ends of linear chromosomes and together with the shelterin complex form a structure essential for genome maintenance and stability. In addition to the constitutive binding of the shelterin complex, other direct, yet more transient interactions are mediated by the CST complex and HOT1/HMBOX1, while subtelomeric variant repeats are recognized by NR2C/F transcription factors. Recently, the Kruppel-like zinc finger protein ZBTB48/HKR3/TZAP has been described as a novel telomere-associated factor in the vertebrate lineage...
May 12, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499347/the-dynamics-of-early-state-transcriptional-changes-and-aggregate-formation-in-a-huntington-s-disease-cell-model
#15
Martijn van Hagen, Diewertje G E Piebes, Wim C de Leeuw, Ilona M Vuist, Willeke M C van Roon-Mom, Perry D Moerland, Pernette J Verschure
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Proteolytic cleavage of mutant huntingtin (Htt) protein with an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch results in production of Htt fragments that aggregate and induce impaired ubiquitin proteasome, mitochondrial functioning and transcriptional dysregulation. To understand the time-resolved relationship between aggregate formation and transcriptional changes at early disease stages, we performed temporal transcriptome profiling and quantification of aggregate formation in living cells in an inducible HD cell model...
May 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497026/chchd4-regulates-intracellular-oxygenation-and-perinuclear-distribution-of-mitochondria
#16
Luke W Thomas, Oliver Staples, Mark Turmaine, Margaret Ashcroft
Hypoxia is a characteristic of the tumor microenvironment and is known to contribute to tumor progression and treatment resistance. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) dimeric transcription factors control the cellular response to reduced oxygenation by regulating the expression of genes involved in metabolic adaptation, cell motility, and survival. Alterations in mitochondrial metabolism are not only a downstream consequence of HIF-signaling but mitochondria reciprocally regulate HIF signaling through multiple means, including oxygen consumption, metabolic intermediates, and reactive oxygen species generation...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495843/treating-fructose-induced-metabolic-changes-in-mice-with-high-intensity-interval-training-insights-in-the-liver-white-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle
#17
Victor Faria Motta, Thereza Lonzetti Bargut, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Fructose-rich caloric sweeteners induce adverse changes in the population metabolism. The study evaluated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on a fructose feeding model, focusing on the liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle, and their interplay. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed for 18 weeks one of the following diets: control (C; 5 % of total energy from fructose), or fructose (F; 55 % of total energy from fructose). In the 10th week, for an additional eight-week period the groups were divided into non-trained (NT) or HIIT groups, totaling four groups: C-NT, C-HIIT, F-NT, and F-HIIT...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494652/the-keap1-nrf2-stress-response-pathway-promotes-mitochondrial-hyperfusion-through-degradation-of-the-mitochondrial-fission-protein-drp1
#18
Rasha Sabouny, Erik Fraunberger, Michèle Geoffrion, Andy Ng, Stephen Baird, Robert Screaton, Ross Milne, Heidi M McBride, Tim Shutt
AIMS: Mitochondrial function is coupled to metabolic and survival pathways through both direct signaling cascades and dynamic changes in mitochondrial morphology. For example, a hyperfused mitochondrial reticulum is activated upon cellular stress and is protective against cell death. As part of a genome-wide siRNA screen, we identified the central redox regulator, Keap1 as a novel regulator of mitochondrial morphology. Here, we aimed to determine the mechanism through which redox signaling and Keap1 mediates changes in mitochondrial morphology...
May 11, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490746/pathogenic-p62-sqstm1-mutations-impair-energy-metabolism-through-limitation-of-mitochondrial-substrates
#19
Fernando Bartolome, Noemi Esteras, Angeles Martin-Requero, Claire Boutoleau-Bretonniere, Martine Vercelletto, Audrey Gabelle, Isabelle Le Ber, Tadashi Honda, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova, John Hardy, Eva Carro, Andrey Y Abramov
Abnormal mitochondrial function has been found in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutations in the p62 gene (also known as SQSTM1) which encodes the p62 protein have been reported in both disorders supporting the idea of an ALS/FTD continuum. In this work the role of p62 in energy metabolism was studied in fibroblasts from FTD patients carrying two independent pathogenic mutations in the p62 gene, and in a p62-knock-down (p62 KD) human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y)...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487205/mitochondrial-determinants-of-cancer-health-disparities
#20
REVIEW
Aaheli Roy Choudhury, Keshav K Singh
Mitochondria are involved in the generation of energy, cell growth and differentiation, cellular signaling, cell cycle control, and cell death. To date, the mitochondrial basis of cancer disparities is unknown. The goal of this review is to provide an understanding and a framework of mitochondrial determinants that may contribute to cancer disparities in racially different populations. Mitochondria, which are multi-functional, have been implicated in the initiation and progression of cancers in relation to metabolic alterations in transformed cells...
May 6, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
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