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mitochondrial transcription factor A

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809394/smad5-signaling-more-than-meets-the-nuclei
#1
John Orlowski
SMADs are essential transcriptional effectors of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)/TGFβ-related signaling that underlies embryonic development and adult homeostasis. A recent study by Fang et al. in Cell Research adds to this biological complexity by demonstrating an atypical cytoplasmic role for SMAD5 in modulating the bioenergetic homeostasis (i.e., glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration) of cells in response to fluctuations in intracellular pH that is independent of receptor signaling.
August 15, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808255/critical-role-for-arginase-2-in-obesity-associated-pancreatic-cancer
#2
Tamara Zaytouni, Pei-Yun Tsai, Daniel S Hitchcock, Cory D DuBois, Elizaveta Freinkman, Lin Lin, Vicente Morales-Oyarvide, Patrick J Lenehan, Brian M Wolpin, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Eduardo M Torres, Nicholas Stylopoulos, Clary B Clish, Nada Y Kalaany
Obesity is an established risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Despite recent identification of metabolic alterations in this lethal malignancy, the metabolic dependencies of obesity-associated PDA remain unknown. Here we show that obesity-driven PDA exhibits accelerated growth and a striking transcriptional enrichment for pathways regulating nitrogen metabolism. We find that the mitochondrial form of arginase (ARG2), which hydrolyzes arginine into ornithine and urea, is induced upon obesity, and silencing or loss of ARG2 markedly suppresses PDA...
August 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807823/dietary-supplementation-with-acetyl-l-carnitine-counteracts-age-related-alterations-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-dynamics-and-antioxidant-defenses-in-brain-of-old-rats
#3
Luigi Nicassio, Flavio Fracasso, Giuseppe Sirago, Clara Musicco, Anna Picca, Emanuele Marzetti, Riccardo Calvani, Palmiro Cantatore, Maria Nicola Gadaleta, Vito Pesce
We previously reported the ability of dietary supplementation with acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) to prevent age-related decreases of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and liver of old rats. Here, we investigate the effects of ALCAR supplementation in cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum of old rats by analyzing several parameters linked to mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial dynamics and antioxidant defenses. We measured the level of the coactivators PGC-1α and PGC-1β and of the factors regulating mitochondrial biogenesis, finding an age-related decrease of PGC-1β, whereas PGC-1α level was unvaried...
August 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802260/the-essential-functions-of-krepb4-are-developmentally-distinct-and-required-for-endonuclease-association-with-editosomes
#4
Suzanne M McDermott, Kenneth Stuart
Uridine insertion and deletion RNA editing generates functional mitochondrial mRNAs in Trypanosoma brucei, and several transcripts are differentially edited in bloodstream (BF) and procyclic form (PF) cells correlating with changes in mitochondrial function. Editing is catalyzed by three ∼20S editosomes that have a common set of 12 proteins, but are typified by mutually exclusive RNase III KREN1, N2, and N3 endonucleases with distinct cleavage specificities. KREPB4 is a common editosome protein that has a degenerate RNase III domain lacking conserved catalytic residues, in addition to zinc-finger and Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factor (PUF) motifs...
August 11, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800400/mechanism-of-tfam-mediated-cardiomyocyte-protection
#5
George H Kunkel, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Nicholas Theilen, Rohit Nair, Suresh C Tyagi
Although mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is a protective component of mitochondrial DNA and a regulator of calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, the mechanism remains unclear. In heart failure (HF), TFAM is significantly decreased and cardiomyocyte instability ensues. TFAM inhibits Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT), which reduces ROS production; additionally, TFAM transcriptionally activates SERCA2a to decrease free calcium. Therefore, decreasing TFAM vastly increases protease expression and hypertrophic factors, leading to cardiomyocyte functional decline...
August 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798740/smrt-sequencing-revealed-mitogenome-characteristics-and-mitogenome-wide-dna-modification-pattern-in-ophiocordyceps-sinensis
#6
Xincong Kang, Liqin Hu, Pengyuan Shen, Rui Li, Dongbo Liu
Single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing was used to characterize mitochondrial (mt) genome of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and to analyze the mt genome-wide pattern of epigenetic DNA modification. The complete mt genome of O. sinensis, with a size of 157,539 bp, is the fourth largest Ascomycota mt genome sequenced to date. It contained 14 conserved protein-coding genes (PCGs), 1 intronic protein rps3, 27 tRNAs and 2 rRNA subunits, which are common characteristics of the known mt genomes in Hypocreales. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 14 PCGs in Pezizomycotina fungi supports O...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798698/%C3%AE-catenin-knockdown-affects-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-lipid-metabolism-in-breast-cancer-cells
#7
Daniele Vergara, Eleonora Stanca, Flora Guerra, Paola Priore, Antonio Gaballo, Julien Franck, Pasquale Simeone, Marco Trerotola, Stefania De Domenico, Isabelle Fournier, Cecilia Bucci, Michel Salzet, Anna M Giudetti, Michele Maffia
β-catenin plays an important role as regulatory hub in several cellular processes including cell adhesion, metabolism, and epithelial mesenchymal transition. This is mainly achieved by its dual role as structural component of cadherin-based adherens junctions, and as a key nuclear effector of the Wnt pathway. For this dual role, different classes of proteins are differentially regulated via β-catenin dependent mechanisms. Here, we applied a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach to identify proteins modulated after β-catenin knockdown in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795454/the-tcf7l2-pgc1%C3%AE-axis-connects-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-metabolic-shift-with-stem-cell-commitment-to-hepatic-differentiation
#8
Anaïs Wanet, Marino Caruso, Jean-Baka Domelevo Entfellner, Mehdi Najar, Antoine Fattaccioli, Catherine Demazy, Jonathan Evraerts, Hoda El-Kehdy, Guillaume Pourcher, Etienne Sokal, Thierry Arnould, Nicki Tiffin, Mustapha Najimi, Patricia Renard
Increasing evidence supports that modifications in the mitochondrial content, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity, and cell metabolism influence the fate of stem cells. However, the regulators involved in the crosstalk between mitochondria and stem cell fate remain poorly characterized. Here, we identified a transcriptional regulatory axis, composed of TCF7L2 (transcription factor 7 like 2, a downstream effector of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, repressed during differentiation) and PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha, the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, induced during differentiation), coupling the loss of pluripotency and early commitment to differentiation, to the initiation of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic shift toward OXPHOS...
August 10, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790515/transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-channel-family-member-2-friend-or-foe
#9
Joseph Y Cheung, Barbara A Miller
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (Trpm2) channels are nonvoltage-activated channels permeable to monovalent and divalent cations, and are expressed in heart, brain, kidney, vasculature, and hematopoietic cells. Trpm2 is overexpressed in bladder, lung, breast, liver, head, and neck cancers. Classically, Trpm2 activation induces cell injury and death by Ca(2+) overload or enhanced inflammatory response. Recent studies show that Trpm2 protects lungs from endotoxin-induced injury by reducing reactive oxygen species production in phagocytes; and improves cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion injury by preserving mitochondrial respiration and cellular adenosine triphosphate levels while decreasing reactive oxygen species levels...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782506/an-inducible-form-of-nrf2-confers-enhanced-protection-against-acute-oxidative-stresses-in-rpe-cells
#10
Khiem T Vu, John D Hulleman
Increasing evidence suggests that overt oxidative stress within the retina plays an important role in the progression of age-related retinal decline, and in particular, in the disease age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2) is a master transcription factor that upregulates numerous of antioxidant/detoxification genes. Nrf2(-/-) mice develop progressive retinal degeneration that includes the formation of drusen-like deposits, lipofuscin, and sub-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) deposition of inflammatory proteins...
August 4, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781146/the-impact-of-foxo-1-to-cardiac-pathology-in-diabetes-mellitus-and-diabetes-related-metabolic-abnormalities
#11
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
Diabetic heart pathology has a serious social impact due to high prevalence worldwide and significant mortality/invalidation of diabetic patients suffered from cardiomyopathy. The pathogenesis of diabetic and diabetes-related cardiomyopathy is associated with progressive loss and impairment of cardiac function due to adverse effects of metabolic, prooxidant, proinflammatory, and pro-apoptotic stress factors. In the adult heart, the transcriptional factor forkhead box-1 (FOXO-1) is involved in maintaining cardiomyocytes in the homeostatic state and induction of their adaptation to metabolic and pro-oxidant stress stimuli...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777258/knockdown-of-long-noncoding-antisense-rna-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-attenuates-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-nerve-cell-apoptosis-through-the-bdnf-trkb-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#12
Jian-Bin Zhong, Xie Li, Si-Ming Zhong, Jiu-Di Liu, Chi-Bang Chen, Xiao-Yan Wu
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neuronal cell apoptosis. The antisense RNA of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF-AS) is a natural antisense transcript that is transcribed opposite the gene that encodes BDNF. The aim of this study was to determine whether knockdown of BDNF-AS can suppress hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced neuronal cell apoptosis and whether this is mediated by the BDNF-TrkB-PI3K/Akt pathway. We detected the expression of BDNF and BDNF-AS in brain tissue from 20 patients with cerebral infarction and five patients with other diseases (but no cerebral ischemia)...
August 2, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771714/multifunctional-curcumin-mediate-multitherapeutic-effects
#13
Adeeb Shehzad, Munibah Qureshi, Muhammad Nabeel Anwar, Young Sup Lee
Inflammation can promote the development of arthritis, obesity, cardiovascular, type II diabetes, pancreatitis, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, and certain types of cancer. Compounds isolated from plants have been practiced since ancient times for curing various ailments including inflammatory disorders and to support normal physiological functions. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a yellow coloring agent, extracted from turmeric that has been used for the prevention and treatment of various inflammatory diseases...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769941/arabidopsis-thaliana-mterf10-and-mterf11-but-not-mterf12-are-involved-in-the-response-to-salt-stress
#14
Duorong Xu, Dario Leister, Tatjana Kleine
Plastid gene expression (PGE) is crucial for plant development and acclimation to various environmental stress conditions. Members of the "mitochondrial transcription termination factor" (mTERF) family, which are present in both metazoans and plants, are involved in organellar gene expression. Arabidopsis thaliana contains 35 mTERF proteins, of which mTERF10, mTERF11, and mTERF12 were previously assigned to the "chloroplast-associated" group. Here, we show that all three are localized to chloroplast nucleoids, which are associated with PGE...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769029/loss-of-succinyl-coa-synthase-adp-forming-%C3%AE-subunit-disrupts-mtdna-stability-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-neurons
#15
Yujun Zhao, Jing Tian, Shaomei Sui, Xiaodong Yuan, Hao Chen, Chuanqiang Qu, Yifeng Du, Lan Guo, Heng Du
Succinyl Coenzyme A synthetase (SCS) is a key mitochondrial enzyme. Defected SCS ADP-forming β subunit (SCS A-β) is linked to lethal infantile Leigh or leigh-like syndrome. However, the impacts of SCS A-β deficiency on mitochondria specifically in neurons have not yet been comprehensively investigated. Here, by down-regulating the expression levels of SCS A-β in cultured mouse neurons, we have found that SCS A-β deficiency induces severe mitochondrial dysfunction including lowered oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) efficiency, increased mitochondrial superoxide production, and mtDNA depletion as well as aberrations of mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins, which eventually leads to neuronal stress...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766170/aegle-marmelos-differentially-affects-hepatic-markers-of-glycolysis-insulin-signalling-pathway-hypoxia-and-inflammation-in-hepg2-cells-grown-in-fructose-versus-glucose-rich-environment
#16
H Aggarwal, J Nair, P Sharma, R Sehgal, U Naeem, P Rajora, R Mathur
Fructose consumption is responsible for the onset of insulin resistance (IR), and metabolic syndrome. It possesses no functional utility in body and its detrimental effects on hepatic metabolic milieu are beyond those produced by glucose. The need of the hour is to identify fructose-induced IR as an unique pathological state to be managed differentially. The effect of aqueous leaf extract of Aegle marmelos (AM) on hepatic markers of insulin resistance using HepG2 cells cultured in either fructose or glucose-rich environment is investigated...
August 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765935/fbw7-increases-the-chemosensitivity-of-pancreatic-cancer-cells-to-gemcitabine-through-upregulation-of-ent1
#17
Qiangsheng Hu, Yi Qin, Bo Zhang, Chen Liang, Shunrong Ji, Si Shi, Wenyan Xu, Jinfeng Xiang, Dingkong Liang, Quanxing Ni, Xianjun Yu, Jin Xu
F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBW7) has been characterized as a tumor suppressor, and its mutation or decreased expression has been observed in many types of human cancers. Our recent studies have uncovered that in pancreatic cancer, the KRAS mutation decreased FBW7 expression through phosphorylation and subsequent ubiquitination. Moreover, FBW7 inhibited aerobic glycolysis in pancreatic cancer via induction of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), a mitochondrial localized tumor suppressor. The roles of FBW7 in anti-apoptosis and drug resistance via proteosomal degradation of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1), which is an anti-apoptotic factor have been reported...
July 28, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761415/dual-and-multi-drug-delivery-nanoparticles-towards-neuronal-survival-and-synaptic-repair
#18
REVIEW
Angelina Angelova, Borislav Angelov
Among the macromolecular drug targets in neurodegenerative disorders, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high-affinity tropomyosin-related kinase receptor (TrkB) present strong interest for nanomedicine development aiming at neuronal and synaptic repair. Currently, BDNF is regarded as the neurotrophic factor of highest therapeutic significance. However, BDNF has delivery problems as a protein drug. The enhanced activation of the transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) has been evidenced to increase the BDNF gene expression and hence the production of endogenous BDNF...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754714/nrf1-coordinates-with-dna-methylation-to-regulate-spermatogenesis
#19
Junpeng Wang, Chao Tang, Qian Wang, Jun Su, Ting Ni, Wenjing Yang, Yongsheng Wang, Wei Chen, Xiqiang Liu, Shuai Wang, Jingjing Zhang, Huili Song, Jun Zhu, Yuan Wang
Spermatogenesis is a highly coordinated process that requires tightly regulated gene expression programmed by transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers. In this study, we found that nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)-1, a key transcription factor for mitochondrial biogenesis, cooperated with DNA methylation to directly regulate the expression of multiple germ cell-specific genes including Asz1 In addition, conditional ablation of NRF1 in gonocytes dramatically down-regulated these germline genes, blocked germ cell proliferation, and subsequently led to male infertility in mice...
July 28, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748751/update-on-nitazoxanide-a-multifunctional-chemotherapeutic-agent
#20
Anshul Shakya, Hans Raj Bhat, Surjit Kumar Ghosh
Background: The thiazolide nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a broad-spectrum anti-infective drug that adversely affects viability, growth, and proliferation of a range of extracellular and intracellular protozoan, helminths, anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria, and viruses. Methods: Current review compiled the potential chemotherapeutic efficacy of NTZ against a variety of such disease-causing macro and/or micro-organisms as well as neoplastic cells, using various search engines viz...
July 27, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
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