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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944105/tumor-immunology-viewed-from-alternative-animal-models-the-xenopus-story
#1
Maureen Banach, Jacques Robert
A PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonmammalian comparative animal models are important not only to gain fundamental evolutionary understanding of the complex interactions of tumors with the immune system, but also to better predict the applicability of novel immunotherapeutic approaches to humans. After reviewing recent advances in developing alternative models, we focus on the amphibian Xenopus laevis and its usefulness in deciphering the perplexing roles of MHC class I-like molecules and innate (i)T cells in tumor immunity...
March 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944080/predicting-ligand-dependent-tumors-from-multi-dimensional-signaling-features
#2
Helge Hass, Kristina Masson, Sibylle Wohlgemuth, Violette Paragas, John E Allen, Mark Sevecka, Emily Pace, Jens Timmer, Joerg Stelling, Gavin MacBeath, Birgit Schoeberl, Andreas Raue
Targeted therapies have shown significant patient benefit in about 5-10% of solid tumors that are addicted to a single oncogene. Here, we explore the idea of ligand addiction as a driver of tumor growth. High ligand levels in tumors have been shown to be associated with impaired patient survival, but targeted therapies have not yet shown great benefit in unselected patient populations. Using an approach of applying Bagged Decision Trees (BDT) to high-dimensional signaling features derived from a computational model, we can predict ligand dependent proliferation across a set of 58 cell lines...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939293/dose-dependent-s-allyl-cysteine-ameliorates-multiple-sclerosis-disease-related-pathology-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-and-biomerkers-of-dysbiosis-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#3
B M Escribano, E Luque, M Aguilar-Luque, M Feijóo, J Caballero-Villarraso, L A Torres, V Ramirez, F I García-Maceira, E Agüera, A Santamaria, I Túnez
Garlic is a component of the Mediterranean diet. S-allyl cysteine (SAC), the most common organosulphur present in garlic, possesses neuroprotective properties. This investigation was performed to evaluate the dose-dependent protective action of SAC on oxidative damage, inflammation and gut microbiota alterations biomarkers. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model of multiple sclerosis (MS) was induced by the myelin oligrodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), whose effects were quantified by examining the changes in: clinical score, lipid peroxidation products, carbonylated proteins, glutathione system, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and lypopolysaccharide membrane bacteria (LPS)...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938646/concordance-between-circulating-tumor-cells-and-clinical-status-during-follow-up-in-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-alk-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#4
Mariano Provencio, David Pérez-Callejo, María Torrente, Paloma Martin, Virginia Calvo, Lourdes Gutiérrez, Fernando Franco, Maria José Coronado, Juan Luis Cruz-Bermúdez, Asunción Martín Ruiz-Valdepeñas, Alberto Cruz-Bermúdez, Margarita Sánchez-Beato, Atocha Romero, Aránzazu García-Grande
BACKGROUND: The identification of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements is found in approximately 5% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). However, the development of liquid biopsies as a diagnostic tool is less developed in these cases. This study investigates the use of CTCs during treatment, together with an extended follow-up to correlate with clinical evolution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 13 patients out of a cohort of 212 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, presented ALK rearrangements (6%) confirmed by tumor biopsy...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938616/identification-of-potential-cancer-related-pseudogenes-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-based-on-cerna-hypothesis
#5
Yunzhen Wei, Zhiqiang Chang, Cheng Wu, Yinling Zhu, Kun Li, Yan Xu
Pseudogenes are initially regarded as non-functional genomic fossils resulted from inactivating gene mutations during evolution. Far from being silent, pseudogenes are proved to regulate the expression of protein-coding genes through function as microRNA sponge in vivo. The aim of our study was to propose an integrative systems biology approach to identify disease pseudogenes base on competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) hypothesis. Here, we applied our method to lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) RNASeq data from TCGA and identified 33 candidate pseudogenes...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936292/evolution-of-oral-cancer-treatment-in-an-andalusian-population-sample-rehabilitation-with-prosthetic-obturation-and-removable-partial-prosthesis
#6
Rafael Flores-Ruiz, Lizette Castellanos-Cosano, María-Angeles Serrera-Figallo, Aida Gutiérrez-Corrales, Maribel Gonzalez-Martin, Jose-Luis Gutiérrez-Pérez, Daniel Torres-Lagares
BACKGROUND: Radical surgical resection as a treatment modality for oral cancer often leads to an extensive deficit in both the maxillary and mandibular levels, where the use of a palatal obturator prosthesis (POP) or removable partial denture (RPP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment with POP and RPP in patients treated for oral cancer in the Unit of Prosthetic Rehabilitation of the University Hospital Virgen del Rocío in a period of 20 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective descriptive study during the years 1991 and 2011 analyzing oral cancer type, characteristics, treatment and follow-up...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933069/optical-tomographic-imaging-for-breast-cancer-detection
#7
Wenxiang Cong, Xavier Intes, Ge Wang
Diffuse optical breast imaging utilizes near-infrared (NIR) light propagation through tissues to assess the optical properties of tissues for the identification of abnormal tissue. This optical imaging approach is sensitive, cost-effective, and does not involve any ionizing radiation. However, the image reconstruction of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a nonlinear inverse problem and suffers from severe illposedness due to data noise, NIR light scattering, and measurement incompleteness. An image reconstruction method is proposed for the detection of breast cancer...
September 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932376/pulmonary-nodules-in-a-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-which-diagnostic-approach-is-the-most-appropriate
#8
Ines Mahmoud, Aicha Ben Tekaya, Rawdha Tekaya, Olfa Saidane, Leila Gafsi, Mathilde Benhammou, Fautrel Bruno, Leila Abdelmoula
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary nodular excavation should firstly evoke tuberculosis or necrosis broncho-pulmonary tumor, particularly: epidermoid carcinoma. The case discussed here illustrated these difficulties in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). CASE PRESENTATION: A 63-year-old woman was presented with a-three-year history of RA and a recent discovery of an excavated pulmonary nodule. Initial investigations focused on a rheumatoid origin. The evolution of the disease was worrisome and surgical exploration was deemed mandatory...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932344/-a-pink-nodule-on-the-face
#9
Amina Kissou, Badredine Hassam
We report the case of a 32-year old female patient, with no notable medical history, requiring dermatology consultation for evaluation of a nodule on her right cheek which had evolved over the past 10 years. Clinical examination showed a reddish dermal-based nodule with a smooth surface. The lesion measured 1cm in diameter and was located at the level of the right cheek (A). There was no adenopathy and the remainder of the clinical examination was normal. The patient underwent skin biopsy which showed tumor proliferation composed of fusiform cells with poorly limited eosinophilic cytoplasm and lightly atypical elongated nuclei without mitosis and with mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate at the level of the dermis...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931879/longitudinal-analysis-of-colon-crypt-stem-cell-dynamics-in-sulindac-treated-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-patients
#10
Huiying Ma, Lodewijk A A Brosens, Sjoerd G Elias, Folkert H M Morsink, Isaac J Nijman, Linda M Hylind, Elizabeth A Montgomery, G Johan A Offerhaus, Francis M Giardiello, Wendy W J de Leng
The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac decreases size and number of adenomas after 4-6 months of treatment for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. As stem cells are thought to be the tumor precursor cells, visualizing their behavior is crucial for monitoring tumor progression. Increased tag diversity in inactive genes is indicative of a protracted clonal evolution and consequently, increased risk for tumor formation. Therefore, the effect of sulindac on stem cell dynamics was studied...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930164/liver-cancer-molecular-characterization-clonal-evolution-and-cancer-stem-cells
#11
REVIEW
Germana Castelli, Elvira Pelosi, Ugo Testa
Liver cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. The major forms of primary liver cancer are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). Both these tumors develop against a background of cirrhotic liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic liver damage and fibrosis. HCC is a heterogeneous disease which usually develops within liver cirrhosis related to various etiologies: hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (frequent in Asia and Africa), hepatitis C virus (HCV), chronic alcohol abuse, or metabolic syndrome (frequent in Western countries)...
September 20, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929459/revisiting-ovarian-cancer-microenvironment-a-friend-or-a-foe
#12
REVIEW
Boyi Zhang, Fei Chen, Qixia Xu, Liu Han, Jiaqian Xu, Libin Gao, Xiaochen Sun, Yiwen Li, Yan Li, Min Qian, Yu Sun
Development of ovarian cancer involves the co-evolution of neoplastic cells together with the adjacent microenvironment. Steps of malignant progression including primary tumor outgrowth, therapeutic resistance, and distant metastasis are not determined solely by genetic alterations in ovarian cancer cells, but considerably shaped by the fitness advantage conferred by benign components in the ovarian stroma. As the dynamic cancer topography varies drastically during disease progression, heterologous cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME) can actively determine the pathological track of ovarian cancer...
September 19, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928820/management-of-supratentorial-recurrent-low-grade-glioma-a-multidisciplinary-experience-in-35-adult-patients
#13
Julien Spitaels, Daniel Devriendt, Niloufar Sadeghi, Sylvie Luce, Olivier De Witte, Serge Goldman, Christian Mélot, Florence Lefranc
The management of recurrent diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGGs) is controversial. In the present study, the multidisciplinary management of 35 patients with recurrent LGGs was retrospectively analyzed. Tumor progression or recurrence was defined by clinical, radiological and/or metabolic pejorative evolution. All patients were regularly followed up by a multidisciplinary neuro-oncological group at Hôpital Erasme. Patients with histologically confirmed supratentorial LGGs (7 astrocytoma, 22 oligodendrogliomas and 6 oligoastrocytomas) who had undergone surgery between August 2004 and November 2010 were included...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927539/transient-and-stable-vector-transfection-pitfalls-off-target-effects-artifacts
#14
REVIEW
Aleksei A Stepanenko, Henry H Heng
Transient and stable vector transfections have played important roles in illustrating the function of specific genes/proteins. The general assumption is that such a platform could effectively link a given gene/protein to gained phenotypes, revealing the mechanism of how a gene works. However, in reality, increased studies have surprisingly noticed some unexpected results. In this review, we demonstrate that an assumption that empty vector-transfected cells preserve the cytogenetic and phenotypic characteristics, and represent the adequate control in transfection experiments is not universally valid...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927426/the-acid-sensing-ion-channel-asic2-promotes-invasion-and-metastasis-of-colorectal-cancer-under-acidosis-by-activating-the-calcineurin-nfat1-axis
#15
Zhi-Hang Zhou, Jin-Wen Song, Wen Li, Xue Liu, Liu Cao, Lu-Ming Wan, Ying-Xia Tan, Shou-Ping Ji, Yu-Mei Liang, Feng Gong
BACKGROUND: The tumor acidic microenvironment, a common biochemical event in solid tumors, offers evolutional advantage for tumors cells and even enhances their aggressive phenotype. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the acidic microenvironment-induced invasion and metastasis. METHODS: We examined the expression of the acid-sending ion channel (ASIC) family members after acidic exposure using RT-PCR and immunofluoresence. Gene manipulation was applied to reveal the potential of ASIC2 on invasion, proliferation, colony formation of colorectal cancer (CRC)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926365/primary-cutaneous-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-leg-type-with-spontaneous-regression-after-biopsy
#16
Gabriel Marrero-Alemán, Társila Montenegro-Dámaso, Yeray Peñate
Primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCDLBCL-LT) represents approximately 20% of cutaneous B lymphomas with an intermediate prognosis. Spontaneous regression is uncommon; there are only 2 published cases. An 83-year-old woman presented 2 orange erythematous nodules on the back of her right leg with an elastic consistency, infiltrated, painful to the touch, and of an 8-month evolution. A histological examination revealed a dense cellular dermo-hypodermic infiltrate sparing the papillary dermis, composed of large cells with immunoblast and centroblast morphology and frequent mitosis...
October 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924377/current-progresses-of-single-cell-dna-sequencing-in-breast-cancer-research
#17
REVIEW
Jianlin Liu, Ragini Adhav, Xiaoling Xu
Breast cancers display striking genetic and phenotypic diversities. To date, several hypotheses are raised to explain and understand the heterogeneity, including theories for cancer stem cell (CSC) and clonal evolution. According to the CSC theory, the most tumorigenic cells, while maintaining themselves through symmetric division, divide asymmetrically to generate non-CSCs with less tumorigenic and metastatic potential, although they can also dedifferentiate back to CSCs. Clonal evolution theory recapitulates that a tumor initially arises from a single cell, which then undergoes clonal expansion to a population of cancer cells...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924241/clinical-impact-of-the-subclonal-architecture-and-mutational-complexity-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#18
F Nadeu, G Clot, J Delgado, D Martín-García, T Baumann, I Salaverria, S Beà, M Pinyol, P Jares, A Navarro, H Suárez-Cisneros, M Aymerich, M Rozman, N Villamor, D Colomer, M González, M Alcoceba, M J Terol, B Navarro, E Colado, Á R Payer, X S Puente, C López-Otín, A López-Guillermo, A Enjuanes, E Campo
Genome studies of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have revealed the remarkable subclonal heterogeneity of the tumors, but the clinical implications of this phenomenon are not well known. We assessed the mutational status of 28 CLL driver genes by deep-targeted next-generation sequencing and copy number alterations (CNA) in 406 previously untreated patients and 48 sequential samples. We detected small subclonal mutations (0.6-25% of cells) in nearly all genes (26/28), and they were the sole alteration in 22% of the mutated cases...
September 19, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923910/a-transposon-screen-identifies-loss-of-primary-cilia-as-a-mechanism-of-resistance-to-smo-inhibitors
#19
Xuesong Zhao, Ekaterina Pak, Kimberly J Ornell, Maria F Pazyra-Murphy, Ethan L MacKenzie, Emily J Chadwick, Tatyana Ponomaryov, Joseph F Kelleher, Rosalind A Segal
Drug resistance poses a great challenge to targeted cancer therapies. In Hedgehog pathway-dependent cancers, the scope of mechanisms enabling resistance to Smo-inhibitors is not known. Here, we performed a transposon mutagenesis screen in medulloblastoma and identified multiple modes of resistance. Surprisingly, mutations in ciliogenesis genes represent a frequent cause of resistance, and patient datasets indicate that cilia loss constitutes a clinically relevant category of resistance. Conventionally, primary cilia are thought to enable oncogenic Hedgehog signaling...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923230/randomized-clinical-trials-in-pancreatic-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Neha Goel, Sanjay S Reddy
The management of pancreatic cancer has grown rapidly in the last decade. The Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group trial in 1985 supported postoperative chemoradiation, and a more recent study recommended 6 months of adjuvant gemcitabine and capecitabine or monotherapy with gemcitabine or fluorouracil plus folinic acid, in the absence of neoadjuvant therapy. Clinicians are now studying the role of targeted therapy in pancreatic cancer and neoadjuvant chemotherapy in resectable, borderline resectable, and locally advanced pancreatic cancer...
October 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
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