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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166754/advances-in-oncological-treatment-limitations-of-recist-1-1-criteria
#1
Serena Grimaldi, Marie Terroir, Caroline Caramella
INTRODUCTION: RECIST 1.1 criteria are the standard for the response assessment of most solid tumors on computed tomography (CT). Nevertheless, the emergence of new classes of treatment in the lasts decades has brought new challenges in the response evaluation. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A PubMed online database literature search was performed in order to identify papers in English with full text available published up to September 2017. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Some oncologic treatments, such as anti-angiogenic agents, immunotherapy and local treatments, have proven to be effective despite atypical patterns of responses...
November 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166612/impediment-of-replication-forks-by-long-non-coding-rna-provokes-chromosomal-rearrangements-by-error-prone-restart
#2
Takaaki Watanabe, Michael Marotta, Ryusuke Suzuki, Scott J Diede, Stephen J Tapscott, Atsushi Niida, Xiongfong Chen, Lila Mouakkad, Anna Kondratova, Armando E Giuliano, Sandra Orsulic, Hisashi Tanaka
Naturally stalled replication forks are considered to cause structurally abnormal chromosomes in tumor cells. However, underlying mechanisms remain speculative, as capturing naturally stalled forks has been a challenge. Here, we captured naturally stalled forks in tumor cells and delineated molecular processes underlying the structural evolution of circular mini-chromosomes (double-minute chromosomes; DMs). Replication forks stalled on the DM by the co-directional collision with the transcription machinery for long non-coding RNA...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166609/gpr56-adgrg1-inhibits-mesenchymal-differentiation-and-radioresistance-in-glioblastoma
#3
Marta Moreno, Leire Pedrosa, Laia Paré, Estela Pineda, Leire Bejarano, Josefina Martínez, Veerakumar Balasubramaniyan, Ravesanker Ezhilarasan, Naveen Kallarackal, Sung-Hak Kim, Jia Wang, Alessandra Audia, Siobhan Conroy, Mercedes Marin, Teresa Ribalta, Teresa Pujol, Antoni Herreros, Avelina Tortosa, Helena Mira, Marta M Alonso, Candelaria Gómez-Manzano, Francesc Graus, Erik P Sulman, Xianhua Piao, Ichiro Nakano, Aleix Prat, Krishna P Bhat, Núria de la Iglesia
A mesenchymal transition occurs both during the natural evolution of glioblastoma (GBM) and in response to therapy. Here, we report that the adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR56/ADGRG1, inhibits GBM mesenchymal differentiation and radioresistance. GPR56 is enriched in proneural and classical GBMs and is lost during their transition toward a mesenchymal subtype. GPR56 loss of function promotes mesenchymal differentiation and radioresistance of glioma initiating cells both in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, a low GPR56-associated signature is prognostic of a poor outcome in GBM patients even within non-G-CIMP GBMs...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166513/primary-cutaneous-amelanotic-melanoma-and-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor-in-synchronous-evolution
#4
Fernanda Teixeira Ortega, Rogério Nabor Kondo, Francine Milenkovich Belinetti, Mariana Onuki Okamura, Bruna Tuma
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is rare digestive tract mesenchymal tumor, most often in the wall of the stomach. It is a benign neoplasm, but it can become malignant if not treated. We report a case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor that was discovered after abdominal ultrasonography during staging of a patient with primary cutaneous amelanotic melanoma. Mutation in the tyrosine kinase receptor could explain the development of two types of tumors in the same patient.
September 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164284/uncommon-observation-of-bifocal-giant-subchondral-cysts-in-the-hip-diagnostic-role-of-ct-arthrography-and-mri-with-pathological-correlation
#5
Pauline Gonzalez-Espino, Maïté Van Cauter, Louis Gossing, Christine C Galant, Souad Acid, Frederic E Lecouvet
Subchondral cysts (or geodes) are common in osteoarthritis (OA), usually in association with other typical signs, i.e., joint space narrowing, subchondral bone sclerosis, and osteophytosis. However, large lesions without the typical signs of OA or lesions located outside the weight-bearing areas are unusual and may be confused for other conditions, in particular, those of tumoral origin. We report the findings in a 48-year-old man who had been complaining of left buttock pain for 3 years, getting worse over the last year, and an evolutive limited range of motion of the hip...
November 21, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162647/a-unifying-biology-of-sex-steroid-induced-apoptosis-in-prostate-and-breast-cancers
#6
Philipp Y Maximov, Balkees Abderrahman, Ramona F Curpan, Yousef A Hawsawi, Ping Fan, V Craig Jordan
Prostate and breast cancer are the two cancers with the highest incidence in men and women, respectively. Here we focus on the known biology of acquired resistance to antihormone therapy of prostate and breast cancer and compare laboratory and clinical similarities in the evolution of the disease. Laboratory studies and clinical observations in prostate and breast cancer demonstrate that cell selection pathways occur during acquired resistance to antihormonal therapy. Following sex steroid deprivation, both prostate and breast cancer models show an initial increased acquired sensitivity to the growth potential of sex steroids...
November 21, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159802/adenovirus-vector-based-prime-boost-vaccination-via-heterologous-routes-induces-cervicovaginal-cd8-t-cell-responses-against-hpv16-oncoproteins
#7
Nicolas Çuburu, Selina Khan, Cynthia D Thompson, Rina Kim, Jort Vellinga, Roland Zahn, Douglas R Lowy, Gert Scheper, John T Schiller
Recent advances in immunotherapy against cancer underscore the importance of T lymphocytes and tumor microenvironment, but few vaccines targeting cancer have been approved likely due in part to the dearth of common tumor antigens, insufficient immunogenicity and the evolution of immune evasion mechanisms during the progression to malignancy. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the primary etiologic agents of cervical cancer and progression from persistent HPV-infection to cervical intraepithelial lesions and eventually cancer requires persistent expression of the oncoproteins E6 and E7...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158931/atypical-distant-metastasis-of-breast-malignant-phyllodes-tumors-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Tiphaine de Foucher, Hélène Roussel, Mikael Hivelin, Léa Rossi, Caroline Cornou, Anne-Sophie Bats, Myriam Deloménie, Fabrice Lécuru, Charlotte Ngô
Malignant phyllodes tumors (MPT) are rare breast neoplasms. Preoperative diagnosis is often challenging due to the unspecific clinical, radiological, and histological characteristics of the tumor. Dissemination pathways are local with chest wall invasion, regional with lymph nodes metastasis, and distant, hematogenous, mostly to the lungs, bones, and brain. Distant metastasis (DM) can be synchronous or appear months to years after the diagnosis and initial management. The current report describes the case of a 57-year-old woman presenting with a giant/neglected MPT of the breast, with no DM at initial staging, treated by radical modified mastectomy...
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158608/a-fully-coupled-space-time-multiscale-modeling-framework-for-predicting-tumor-growth
#9
Mohammad Mamunur Rahman, Yusheng Feng, Thomas E Yankeelov, J Tinsley Oden
Most biological systems encountered in living organisms involve highly complex heterogeneous multi-component structures that exhibit different physical, chemical, and biological behavior at different spatial and temporal scales. The development of predictive mathematical and computational models of multiscale events in such systems is a major challenge in contemporary computational biomechanics, particularly the development of models of growing tumors in humans. The aim of this study is to develop a general framework for tumor growth prediction by considering major biological events at tissue, cellular, and subcellular scales...
June 15, 2017: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156805/circulating-tumor-dna-shows-variable-clonal-response-of-breast-cancer-during-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#10
Ji-Yeon Kim, Donghyun Park, Dae-Soon Son, Seok Jin Nam, Seok Won Kim, Hae Hyun Jung, Yeon Jeong Kim, Gahee Park, Woong-Yang Park, Jeong Eon Lee, Yeon Hee Park
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) correlates with tumor burden and provides early detection of treatment response and tumor genetic alterations in breast cancer (BC). In this study, we aimed to identify genetic alterations during the process of tumor clonal evolution and examine if ctDNA level well indicated clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and BC recurrence. We performed targeted ultra-deep sequencing of plasma DNAs, matched germline DNAs and tumor DNAs from locally advanced BC patients. Serial plasma DNAs were collected at diagnosis, after the 1(st) cycle of NAC and after curative surgery...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156716/using-droplet-digital-pcr-to-analyze-mycn-and-alk-copy-number-in-plasma-from-patients-with-neuroblastoma
#11
Marco Lodrini, Annika Sprüssel, Kathy Astrahantseff, Daniela Tiburtius, Robert Konschak, Holger N Lode, Matthias Fischer, Ulrich Keilholz, Angelika Eggert, Hedwig E Deubzer
The invasive nature of surgical biopsies deters sequential application, and single biopsies often fail to reflect tumor dynamics, intratumor heterogeneity and drug sensitivities likely to change during tumor evolution and treatment. Implementing molecular characterization of cell-free neuroblastoma-derived DNA isolated from blood plasma could improve disease assessment for treatment selection and monitoring of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. We established droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) protocols for MYCN and ALK copy number status in plasma from neuroblastoma patients...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156680/vemurafenib-resistance-via-de-novo-rbm-genes-mutations-and-chromosome-5-aberrations-is-overcome-by-combined-therapy-with-palbociclib-in-thyroid-carcinoma-with-braf-v600e
#12
Zeus A Antonello, Nancy Hsu, Manoj Bhasin, Giovanni Roti, Mukta Joshi, Paul Van Hummelen, Emily Ye, Agnes S Lo, S Ananth Karumanchi, Christine R Bryke, Carmelo Nucera
Purpose: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most frequent endocrine tumor. BRAF(V600E) represents the PTC hallmark and is targeted with selective inhibitors (e.g. vemurafenib). Although there have been promising results in clinical trials using these inhibitors, most patients develop resistance and progress. Tumor clonal diversity is proposed as one mechanism underlying drug resistance. Here we have investigated mechanisms of primary and secondary resistance to vemurafenib in BRAF(WT/V600E)-positive PTC patient-derived cells with P16(-/-) (CDKN2A(-/-))...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156643/melanoma-genetic-abnormalities-tumor-progression-clonal-evolution-and-tumor-initiating-cells
#13
REVIEW
Ugo Testa, Germana Castelli, Elvira Pelosi
Melanoma is an aggressive neoplasia issued from the malignant transformation of melanocytes, the pigment-generating cells of the skin. It is responsible for about 75% of deaths due to skin cancers. Melanoma is a phenotypically and molecularly heterogeneous disease: cutaneous, uveal, acral, and mucosal melanomas have different clinical courses, are associated with different mutational profiles, and possess distinct risk factors. The discovery of the molecular abnormalities underlying melanomas has led to the promising improvement of therapy, and further progress is expected in the near future...
November 20, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155337/photodynamic-therapy-in-fibrosarcoma-balb-c-animal-model-observation-of-the-rebound-effect
#14
Etcheverry María Eugenia, Pasquale Miguel Ángel, Gutiérrez Anabella, Bibé Solange, Ponzinibbio Carlos, Poteca Horacio, Garavaglia Mario
In vivo spectrofluorometric analysis during photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a fundamental tool to obtain information about the drug bleaching kinetics. Using a portable spectrofluorometer with an excitation source emitting at 400nm wavelength and a spectral analyzer ranging from 500nm to 800nm, the evolution of the meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl) chlorin (m-THPC) photosensitizer fluorescence spectrum at the tumoral tissue of BALB/c murines with fibrosarcoma located at their flank was followed up. Ex vivo fluorescence measurements of the tumor and skin were also performed with the aim of better characterizing the in vivo signal at different parts of the tumor...
November 16, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153851/apobec-enzymes-as-targets-for-virus-and-cancer-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Margaret E Olson, Reuben S Harris, Daniel A Harki
Human DNA cytosine-to-uracil deaminases catalyze mutations in both pathogen and cellular genomes. APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H restrict human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection in cells deficient in the viral infectivity factor (Vif), and have the potential to catalyze sublethal levels of mutation in viral genomes in Vif-proficient cells. At least two APOBEC3 enzymes, and in particular APOBEC3B, are sources of somatic mutagenesis in cancer cells that drive tumor evolution and may manifest clinically as recurrence, metastasis, and/or therapy resistance...
November 14, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153095/circulating-cell-free-dna-mutation-patterns-in-early-and-late-stage-colon-and-pancreatic-cancer
#16
Eveline E Vietsch, Garrett T Graham, Justine N McCutcheon, Aamir Javaid, Giuseppe Giaccone, John L Marshall, Anton Wellstein
Cancer is a heterogeneous disease harboring diverse subclonal populations that can be discriminated by their DNA mutations. Environmental pressure selects subclones that ultimately drive disease progression and tumor relapse. Circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) can be used to approximate the mutational makeup of cancer lesions and can serve as a marker for monitoring disease progression at the molecular level without the need for invasively acquired samples from primary or metastatic lesions. This potential for molecular analysis makes ccfDNA attractive for the study of clonal evolution and for uncovering emerging therapeutic resistance or sensitivity...
December 2017: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152135/evaluation-of-pre-analytical-conditions-and-comparison-of-the-performance-of-several-digital-pcr-assays-for-the-detection-of-major-egfr-mutations-in-circulating-dna-from-non-small-cell-lung-cancers-the-circan_0-study
#17
Jessica Garcia, Eric Dusserre, Valérie Cheynet, Pierre Paul Bringuier, Karen Brengle-Pesce, Anne-Sophie Wozny, Claire Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Gilles Freyer, Marie Brevet, Léa Payen, Sébastien Couraud
Non invasive somatic detection assays are suitable for repetitive tumor characterization or for detecting the appearance of somatic resistance during lung cancer. Molecular diagnosis based on circulating free DNA (cfDNA) offers the opportunity to track the genomic evolution of the tumor, and was chosen to assess the molecular profile of several EGFR alterations, including deletions in exon 19 (delEX19), the L858R substitution on exon 21 and the EGFR resistance mutation T790M on exon 20. Our study aimed at determining optimal pre-analytical conditions and EGFR mutation detection assays for analyzing cfDNA using the picoliter-droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) assay...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149612/cancer-evolution-no-room-for-negative-selection
#18
Samuel F Bakhoum, Dan A Landau
In this issue of Cell, Martincorena et al. and Campbell et al. interrogated the selection dynamics during tumor evolution using large-scale genomics datasets. They found that somatic mutations in cancer are largely neutral, highlighting a near-complete absence of negative selection. Neutral evolution enables tolerance of hypermutation, which defines a surprisingly large fraction of adult cancer.
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149403/structure-function-relationship-of-tctp
#19
Beatriz Xoconostle-Cázares, Roberto Ruiz-Medrano
The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a small, multifunctional protein found in most, if not all, eukaryotic lineages, involved in a myriad of key regulatory processes. Among these, the control of proliferation and inhibition of cell death, as well as differentiation, are the most important, and it is probable that other responses are derived from the ability of TCTP to influence them in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. In the latter, an additional function for TCTP stems from its capacity to be secreted via a nonclassical pathway and function in a non-cell autonomous (paracrine) manner, thus affecting the responses of neighboring or distant cells to developmental or environmental stimuli (as in the case of serum TCTP/histamine-releasing factor in mammals and phloem TCTP in Arabidopsis)...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147628/trial-watch-adoptively-transferred-cells-for-anticancer-immunotherapy
#20
REVIEW
Carole Fournier, François Martin, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Lionel Apetoh
Immunotherapies aimed at strengthening immune effector responses against malignant cells are growing at exponential rates. Alongside, the impressive benefits obtained by patients with advanced melanoma who received adoptively transferred tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have encouraged the scientific community to pursue adoptive cell transfer (ACT)-based immunotherapy. ACT involves autologous or allogenic effector lymphocytes that are generally obtained from the peripheral blood or resected tumors, expanded and activated ex vivo, and administered to lymphodepleted patients...
2017: Oncoimmunology
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