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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811991/systematic-review-of-the-outcomes-of-surgical-treatment-of-prostate-metastases-to-the-spine
#1
REVIEW
Michelle J Clarke, Camilo A Molina, Daryl R Fourney, Charles G Fisher, Ziya L Gokaslan, Meic H Schmidt, Laurence D Rhines, Michael G Fehlings, Ilya Laufer, Shreyaskumar R Patel, Y Raja Rampersaud, Jeremy Reynolds, Dean Chou, Chetan Bettegowda, Ehud Mendel, Michael H Weber, Daniel M Sciubba
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. OBJECTIVE: Surgical decompression and reconstruction of symptomatic spinal metastases has improved the quality of life in cancer patients. However, most data has been collected on cohorts of patients with mixed tumor histopathology. We systematically reviewed the literature for prognostic factors specific to the surgical treatment of prostate metastases to the spine. METHODS: A systemic review of the literature was conducted to answer the following questions: Question 1...
August 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810614/evolution-of-correlation-between-helicobacter-pylori-infection-and-autoimmune-liver-disease
#2
Xin-Guo Peng, Yu-Yuan Li, Hui-Ting Chen, Yan Zhou, Jian-Guo Ma, Hong-Min Yin
The present study was planned to evaluate correlation between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and autoimmune liver disease (AILD). A total of 60 patients diagnosed with AILD in Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical College were continuously enrolled in the present study. HP infection was detected by 13C-urea breath test. The levels of anti-myeloperoxidase were tested by ELISA. The positive rate of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (SMA) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA) were tested by indirect immunofluorescence...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810143/genomic-evolution-of-breast-cancer-metastasis-and-relapse
#3
Lucy R Yates, Stian Knappskog, David Wedge, James H R Farmery, Santiago Gonzalez, Inigo Martincorena, Ludmil B Alexandrov, Peter Van Loo, Hans Kristian Haugland, Peer Kaare Lilleng, Gunes Gundem, Moritz Gerstung, Elli Pappaemmanuil, Patrycja Gazinska, Shriram G Bhosle, David Jones, Keiran Raine, Laura Mudie, Calli Latimer, Elinor Sawyer, Christine Desmedt, Christos Sotiriou, Michael R Stratton, Anieta M Sieuwerts, Andy G Lynch, John W Martens, Andrea L Richardson, Andrew Tutt, Per Eystein Lønning, Peter J Campbell
Patterns of genomic evolution between primary and metastatic breast cancer have not been studied in large numbers, despite patients with metastatic breast cancer having dismal survival. We sequenced whole genomes or a panel of 365 genes on 299 samples from 170 patients with locally relapsed or metastatic breast cancer. Several lines of analysis indicate that clones seeding metastasis or relapse disseminate late from primary tumors, but continue to acquire mutations, mostly accessing the same mutational processes active in the primary tumor...
August 14, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808044/germline-mutation-contribution-to-chromosomal-instability
#4
REVIEW
Sock Hoai Chan, Joanne Ngeow
Genomic instability is a feature of cancer that fuels oncogenesis through increased frequency of genetic disruption, leading to loss of genomic integrity and promoting clonal evolution as well as tumor transformation. A form of genomic instability prevalent across cancer types is chromosomal instability, which involves karyotypic changes including chromosome copy number alterations as well as gross structural abnormalities such as transversions and translocations. Defects in cellular mechanisms that are in place to govern fidelity of chromosomal segregation, DNA repair and ultimately genomic integrity are known to contribute to chromosomal instability...
September 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800954/a-tim-3-oligonucleotide-aptamer-enhances-t-cell-functions-and-potentiates-tumor-immunity-in-mice
#5
Tal Gefen, Iris Castro, Darija Muharemagic, Yvonne Puplampu-Dove, Shradha Patel, Eli Gilboa
T cell immunoglobulin-3 (TIM-3) is a negative regulator of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secreting CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cytotoxic cells. Recent studies have highlighted the role of TIM-3 as an important mediator of CD8(+) T cell exhaustion in the setting of chronic viral infections and cancer. In murine tumor models, antibody blockade of TIM-3 with anti-TIM-3 antibodies as monotherapy has no or minimal antitumor activity, suggesting that TIM-3 signaling exerts an accessory or amplifying effect in keeping immune responses in check...
August 8, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800914/aneuploidy-police-detect-chromosomal-imbalance-triggering-immune-crackdown
#6
Emma V Watson, Stephen J Elledge
Aneuploidy is ubiquitous in cancer and plays a pivotal, early role in tumor evolution. It must therefore be avoided, and two recent papers highlight the roles of p53, senescence, and the immune system in preventing the outgrowth of aneuploid clones in tissue culture. These mechanisms are likely to synergize to maintain diploid cell populations.
August 8, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796931/modeling-phenotypes-of-malignant-gliomas
#7
REVIEW
Oltea Sampetrean, Hideyuki Saya
Malignant gliomas are primary tumors of the central nervous system characterized by diffuse infiltration into the brain and a high recurrence rate. Advances in comprehensive genomic studies have provided unprecedented insight into the genetic and molecular heterogeneity of these tumors and refined our understanding of their evolution from low to high grade. However, similar levels of phenotypic characterization are indispensable to understanding the complexity of malignant gliomas. Experimental glioma models have also achieved great progress in recent years...
August 10, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796095/intracanalicular-vestibular-schwannomas-initial-clinical-manifestation-imaging-classification-and-risk-stratification-for-management-proposal
#8
Elias Younes, Marion Montava, Mathilde Bachelard-Serra, Laurent Jaloux, Florent Salburgo, Jean Pierre Lavieille
INTRODUCTION: There is no consensus about the use of observation as a therapeutic modality for intracanalicular vestibular schwannoma (ICVS). The objective of this study was to describe tumor evolution, its correlation with initial size, stage of vestibular schwannoma, clinical presentation and to propose a risk classification for tumor growth with a therapeutic decision algorithm. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with ICVS were followed prospectively from 2010 to 2015...
August 8, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795553/-chronic-demyelinating-polyradiculoneuropathy-revealing-a-solitary-plasmacytoma-of-the-right-iliac-bone
#9
J Oumerzouk, A Bourazza
Solitary bone plasmacytoma (pso) is a rare tumor, made of malignant plasma cells observed in a single bone, and without systemic proliferation. We report the case of a 33 year-old man who was admitted with chronic demyelinating sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Immunoelectrophoresis with immunofixation of serum proteins showed a monoclonal peak igg with lambda light chain and the workup was in favour of right hipbone secreting solitary plasmacytoma. The patient was treated with radiotherapy and steroids, and the evolution has been marked by a partial recovery of the motor deficit...
July 2017: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783172/p38-delta-mapk-promotes-breast-cancer-progression-and-lung-metastasis-by-enhancing-cell-proliferation-and-cell-detachment
#10
M Wada, D Canals, M Adada, N Coant, M F Salama, K L Helke, J S Arthur, K R Shroyer, K Kitatani, L M Obeid, Y A Hannun
The protein p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) delta isoform (p38δ) is a poorly studied member of the MAPK family. Data analysis from The Cancer Genome Atlas database revealed that p38δ is highly expressed in all types of human breast cancers. Using a human breast cancer tissue array, we confirmed elevation in cancer tissue. The breast cancer mouse model, MMTV-PyMT (PyMT), developed breast tumors with lung metastasis; however, mice deleted in p38δ (PyMT/p38δ(-/-)) exhibited delayed primary tumor formation and highly reduced lung metastatic burden...
August 7, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782484/gene-expression-meta-analysis-of-potential-metastatic-breast-cancer-markers
#11
R Bell, R Barraclough, O Vasieva
Breast cancer metastasis is a highly prevalent cause of death for European females. DNA microarray analysis has established that primary tumors, which remain localized, differ in gene expression from those that metastasize. The aim of the project was to validate suggested prognostic and therapeutic markers using meta-analysis of data on gene expression in metastatic and primary breast cancer tumors combined from 12 studies available from the Genevestigator database. Our analysis suggested that transcriptional expression of the COX2 gene is significantly downregulated in metastatic tissue compared to normal breast tissue, but is not downregulated in primary tumors compared with normal breast tissue and may be used as a differential marker in metastatic breast cancer diagnostics...
August 7, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780131/commentary-on-clonal-evolution-of-chemotherapy-resistant-urothelial-carcinoma-faltas-bm-prandi-d-tagawa-st-molina-am-nanus-dm-sternberg-c-rosenberg-j-mosquera-jm-robinson-b-elemento-o-sboner-a-beltran-h-demichelis-f-rubin-ma-nat-genet-2016-oct-17-http-dx-doi
#12
Byron H Lee
Chemotherapy-resistant urothelial carcinoma has no uniformly curative therapy. Understanding how selective pressure from chemotherapy directs the evolution of urothelial carcinoma and shapes its clonal architecture is a central biological question with clinical implications. To address this question, we performed whole-exome sequencing and clonality analysis of 72 urothelial carcinoma samples, including 16 matched sets of primary and advanced tumors prospectively collected before and after chemotherapy. Our analysis provided several insights that are as follows: (1) chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma is characterized by intrapatient mutational heterogeneity, and most mutations are not shared; (2) both branching evolution and metastatic spread are very early events in the natural history of urothelial carcinoma; (3) chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma is enriched with clonal mutations involving L1 cell-adhesion molecule and integrin signaling pathways; and (4) APOBEC-induced mutagenesis is clonally enriched in chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma and continues to shape the evolution of urothelial carcinoma throughout its lifetime...
August 2, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776669/hypomethylation-mediated-h19-overexpression-increases-the-risk-of-disease-evolution-through-the-association-with-bcr-abl-transcript-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#13
Jing-Dong Zhou, Jiang Lin, Ting-Juan Zhang, Ji-Chun Ma, Xi-Xi Li, Xiang-Mei Wen, Hong Guo, Zi-Jun Xu, Zhao-Qun Deng, Wei Zhang, Jun Qian
Previous study has revealed that H19 expression is required for efficient tumor growth induced by BCR-ABL in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Herein, we further determined H19 expression and its clinical implication in patients with CML. H19 expression and methylation were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR, and then clinical implication of H19 expression was further analyzed. H19 expression was significantly up-regulated in CML patients (P < 0.001)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774341/modeling-tumor-cell-adaptations-to-hypoxia-in-multicellular-tumor-spheroids
#14
REVIEW
Stephen Riffle, Rashmi S Hegde
Under hypoxic conditions, tumor cells undergo a series of adaptations that promote evolution of a more aggressive tumor phenotype including the activation of DNA damage repair proteins, altered metabolism, and decreased proliferation. Together these changes mitigate the negative impact of oxygen deprivation and allow preservation of genomic integrity and proliferative capacity, thus contributing to tumor growth and metastasis. As a result the presence of a hypoxic microenvironment is considered a negative clinical feature of many solid tumors...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774266/evolution-of-the-p53-mdm2-pathway
#15
Emma Åberg, Fulvio Saccoccia, Manfred Grabherr, Wai Ying Josefin Ore, Per Jemth, Greta Hultqvist
BACKGROUND: The p53 signalling pathway, which controls cell fate, has been extensively studied due to its prominent role in tumor development. The pathway includes the tumor supressor protein p53, its vertebrate paralogs p63 and p73, and their negative regulators MDM2 and MDM4. The p53/p63/p73-MDM system is ancient and can be traced in all extant animal phyla. Despite this, correct phylogenetic trees including both vertebrate and invertebrate species of the p53/p63/p73 and MDM families have not been published...
August 3, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765516/next-generation-sequencing-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-recent-findings-and-new-horizons
#16
REVIEW
Ana E Rodríguez-Vicente, Vasilis Bikos, María Hernández-Sánchez, Jitka Malcikova, Jesús-María Hernández-Rivas, Sarka Pospisilova
The rapid progress in next-generation sequencing technologies has significantly contributed to our knowledge of the genetic events associated with the development, progression and treatment resistance of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Together with the discovery of new driver mutations, next-generation sequencing has revealed an immense degree of both intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity and enabled us to describe marked clonal evolution. Advances in immunogenetics may be implemented to detect minimal residual disease more sensitively and to track clonal B cell populations, their dynamics and molecular characteristics...
July 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763836/-early-imaging-diagnosis-of-primary-liver-cancer
#17
L L Long, P Peng, Z K Huang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver, and in the process of HCC development, early identification and timely treatment can significantly improve patient survival rate. Imaging techniques play an important role in the monitoring of chronic liver diseases, evolution of cirrhotic nodules, and early diagnosis of HCC. Multi-phase or dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reflect the changes in blood supply during the evolution of liver cirrhotic nodules...
May 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763337/folliculotropic-metastatic-melanoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Elizabeth L McKinnon, Kelly L West, Russell A Ball, Nathan Wright, Raymond L Barnhill
Folliculotropic metastasis of cutaneous melanoma is rare, with only 5 published case reports in the English language literature since it was first described in 2009. We report a 41-year-old man with a primary cutaneous melanoma of the right upper preauricular region with metastatic spread to the parotid gland and pulmonary lymph nodes. Excision of the primary lesion was performed and immunotherapy was initiated. Sixteen months later, the patient presented with 2 new lesions of the left forehead and left neck...
July 24, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763018/maternal-immunization-new-perspectives-on-its-application-against-non-infectious-related-diseases-in-newborns
#19
REVIEW
Federica Riccardo, Aline Réal, Claudia Voena, Roberto Chiarle, Federica Cavallo, Giuseppina Barutello
The continuous evolution in preventive medicine has anointed vaccination a versatile, human-health improving tool, which has led to a steady decline in deaths in the developing world. Maternal immunization represents an incisive step forward for the field of vaccination as it provides protection against various life-threatening diseases in pregnant women and their children. A number of studies to improve prevention rates and expand protection against the largest possible number of infections are still in progress...
August 1, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756993/conditional-selection-of-genomic-alterations-dictates-cancer-evolution-and-oncogenic-dependencies
#20
Marco Mina, Franck Raynaud, Daniele Tavernari, Elena Battistello, Stephanie Sungalee, Sadegh Saghafinia, Titouan Laessle, Francisco Sanchez-Vega, Nikolaus Schultz, Elisa Oricchio, Giovanni Ciriello
Cancer evolves through the emergence and selection of molecular alterations. Cancer genome profiling has revealed that specific events are more or less likely to be co-selected, suggesting that the selection of one event depends on the others. However, the nature of these evolutionary dependencies and their impact remain unclear. Here, we designed SELECT, an algorithmic approach to systematically identify evolutionary dependencies from alteration patterns. By analyzing 6,456 genomes from multiple tumor types, we constructed a map of oncogenic dependencies associated with cellular pathways, transcriptional readouts, and therapeutic response...
August 14, 2017: Cancer Cell
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