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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922249/severe-hyperphosphatemia-after-oral-laxative-administration-in-a-7-year-old-patient
#1
Çağlar Ödek, Tanıl Kendirli, Ayhan Yaman, Eda Didem Kurt-Şükür, Onur Telli, Berk Burgu, Z Birsin Özçakar
Sodium phosphate based laxatives are commonly used for constipation and pre-procedural bowel cleansing. Phosphate intoxication related with these preparations is well recognized. Herein, we present a case of severe hyperphosphatemia and seizure in a 7-year-old male patient after administration of an oral sodium phosphate based laxative. At the time of admission, serum phosphorus level was 25.6 mg/dl. Aggressive fluid therapy was started. Although serum phosphorus level decreased to 20.9 mg/dl eight hours after admission, hemodialysis was performed because of the preexisting renal disease and declined glomerular filtration rate...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921290/-bath-salts-the-new-york-city-medical-examiner-experience-a-3-year-retrospective-review
#2
Stephen J deRoux, William A Dunn
"Bath salts" are synthetic derivatives of cathinones, compounds found in the leaves of Catha edulis, which possesses amphetamine-like properties. At the New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner, we conducted a 3-year retrospective analysis of deaths in which cathinones were detected. Two categories emerged; those in which cathinones were a contributory cause of death (15 cases) and those in which they were an incidental finding (15 cases). Of the former group, 13 were associated with additional intoxicants; two deaths were attributed solely to cathinone intoxication, both survived 10 h: a man whose postmortem blood methylone concentration was 0...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920421/a-missing-guide-wire-after-placement-of-peripherally-inserted-central-venous-catheter
#3
Muhammad Kashif, Hafiz Hashmi, Preeti Jadhav, Misbahuddin Khaja
BACKGROUND Central venous catheterization is a common tool used in critically ill patients to monitor central venous pressure and administer fluids and medications such as vasopressors. Here we present a case of a missing guide wire after placement of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC), which was incidentally picked up by bedside ultrasound in the intensive care unit.  CASE REPORT A 50-year-old Hispanic male was admitted to the intensive care unit for alcohol intoxication. He was managed for septic shock and required placement of a peripherally inserted central line in his left upper extremity for antibiotics and vasopressor administration...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919469/dangerous-intoxication-after-oral-ingestion-of-poppers-alkyl-nitrites-two-case-reports
#4
Stéphanie Pain, François Chavant, Bernard Fauconneau, Jérémy Guenezan, Nicolas Marjanovic, Jean-Yves Lardeur, Bertrand Brunet, Marie-Christine Perault-Pochat
"Poppers" (alkyl nitrites) were made famous in the 1960s as a party drug and are still used today. They are highly volatile, sweet-smelling liquids commonly administered by inhalation. However, sometimes, they can be consumed by oral ingestion resulting in greater toxicity. They are used for their vasodilator effects but these volatile nitrites can also cause methemoglobinemia. Methemoglobinemia is a rare pathology that results from the oxidation of iron in the hemoglobin molecule. Oxidation of iron switches it from the ferrous to the ferric state and impedes the ability of hemoglobin to carry oxygen...
December 2, 2016: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918873/loperamide-the-poor-man-s-methadone-brief-review
#5
Cornel N Stanciu, Samantha A Gnanasegaram
Loperamide is widely available as an inexpensive, over-the-counter remedy commonly used for management of diarrhea. Although an opioid, at therapeutic doses it acts primarily on the gastrointestinal tissues; however, larger than recommended amounts facilitate central nervous system (CNS) penetration. Such high doses of loperamide have recently gained popularity among users of opioids to manage withdrawal symptomatology and, less frequently, to achieve psychoactive effects. Chronic loperamide use can result in development of tolerance and, upon abrupt cessation of use, withdrawal...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916846/dehydropyrrolizidine-alkaloid-toxicity-cytotoxicity-and-carcinogenicity
#6
REVIEW
Bryan L Stegelmeier, Steven M Colegate, Ammon W Brown
Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA)-producing plants have a worldwide distribution amongst flowering plants and commonly cause poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of DHPA metabolism, toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions, and routes of exposure, and pathogenesis of acute poisoning. Intoxication is generally caused by contaminated grains, feed, flour, and breads that result in acute, high-dose, short-duration poisoning. Acute poisoning produces hepatic necrosis that is usually confirmed histologically, epidemiologically, and chemically...
November 29, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915193/metabolic-fate-and-detectability-of-the-new-psychoactive-substances-2-4-bromo-2-5-dimethoxyphenyl-n-2-methoxyphenyl-methyl-ethanamine-25b-nbome-and-2-4-chloro-2-5-dimethoxyphenyl-n-2-methoxyphenyl-methyl-ethanamine-25c-nbome-in-human-and-rat-urine-by-gc-ms
#7
Achim T Caspar, Simon D Brandt, Andreas E Stoever, Markus R Meyer, Hans H Maurer
25B-NBOMe and 25C-NBOMe are potent 5-HT2A receptor agonists that have been associated with inducing hallucinogenic effects in drug users and severe intoxications. This paper describes the identification of their metabolites in rat and human urine by liquid chromatography (LC)-high resolution (HR)-MS/MS, the comparison of metabolite formation in vitro and in vivo and in different species, the general involvement of human cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoenzymes on their metabolism steps, and their detectability by standard urine screening approaches (SUSAs) using GC-MS, LC-MS(n), or LC-HR-MS/MS...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915097/effects-of-chronic-lead-exposure-on-bone-mineral-properties-in-femurs-of-growing-rats
#8
Pedro Álvarez-Lloret, Ching Ming Lee, María Inés Conti, Antonela Romina Terrizzi, Santiago González-López, María Pilar Martínez
Lead exposure has been associated with several defective skeletal growth processes and bone mineral alterations. The aim of the present study is to make a more detailed description of the toxic effects of lead intoxication on bone intrinsic material properties as mineral composition, morphology and microstructural characteristics. For this purpose, Wistar rats were exposed (n=12) to 1000ppm lead acetate in drinking water for 90days while control group (n=8) were treated with sodium acetate. Femurs were examined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Computed Tomography (μCT)...
November 30, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914583/injuries-from-all-terrain-vehicles-an-opportunity-for-injury-prevention
#9
Emily C Benham, Samuel W Ross, Mariana Mavilia, Peter E Fischer, A Britton Christmas, Ronald F Sing
BACKGROUND: Patient demographics, behavior, and injury patterns were assessed to inform preventative efforts for reduced incidence of all-terrain vehicle (ATV) trauma. METHODS: ATV-related injuries treated at a Level I trauma center from 2008 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient outcomes and incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were compared by helmet use and alcohol intoxication. RESULTS: Helmet data were available for 304 patients of 404 patients included; of these, 75 (24...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912193/comparative-tissue-distribution-and-excretion-study-of-alkaloids-from-herba-ephedrae-radix-aconiti-lateralis-extracts-in-rats
#10
Mengyue Ren, Shuai Song, Dedong Liang, Weiting Hou, Xiaomei Tan, Jiabo Luo
Herba Ephedrae-Radix Aconiti Lateralis, composed of Ephedrae (Mahuang in Chinese) and Radix Aconiti Lateralis (Fuzi in Chinese), is a classical herbal combination proven to be effective in treating common cold, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis. Alkaloids, bioactive components of the herbal extract, have been associated with many side effects. Nine alkaloids, including norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine, were simultaneously quantified within 14...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911891/severe-carbamazepine-intoxication-in-children-analysis-of-a-40-case-series
#11
Mehmet Acikgoz, M Sukru Paksu, Ahmet Guzel, Abdurrahman Alacam, Fatma Alacam
BACKGROUND We compared the factors that might impact the severity and the prognosis of carbamazepine (CBZ) intoxication in children, as well as the efficacy levels of the treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS Demographic information and clinical and laboratory findings for 40 patients were evaluated retrospectively. Predictive parameters for the development of serious complications were studied. RESULTS Median age of patients was 14 years; 65% of the patients were female. The most common pathological clinical finding and laboratory abnormality were inability to awaken the patient and hyperglycemia (45% and 60%, respectively)...
December 2, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911474/is-chelation-therapy-efficient-for-the-treatment-of-intravenous-metallic-mercury-intoxication
#12
Daniela Pelclova, Stepanka Vlckova, Ondrej Bezdicek, Manuela Vaneckova, Pavel Urban, Petr Ridzon, Pavel Diblik, Tomas Navratil, Pavlina Klusackova, Kamil Vlcek, Olga Benesova, Pavel Trestik, Jiri Homolka, Sergey Zakharov
The efficacy of treatment for intravenous elemental mercury intoxication has not been fully studied with regard to clinical outcomes, and treatment recommendations vary. We treated a 41-year-old man with a history of drug abuse and depression who attempted suicide using 1 mL (13.53 g) metallic Hg i.v. He was admitted to the hospital two months later for dyspnoea and thoracic pain and was diagnosed with pneumonia. Hg deposits were seen in the lungs and extra-pulmonary organs. His blood level (372 μg/L) exceeded the population level of 5 μg/L by more than 70-fold...
December 2, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910004/dabigatran-overdose-a-case-report-of-acute-hepatitis-extracorporeal-treatment
#13
Mariagrazia Porru, Antonella Mameli, Maria E Cianchetti, Mario Musu, Paola Schirru, Maria F Ruberto, Doris Barcellona, Francesco Marongiu
Dabigatran is an oral, direct thrombin inhibitor approved by international regulatory agencies for stroke prevention in patients with paroxysmal or persistent non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation (AF). The benefits of dabigatran are widely described, but its use in the geriatric population is not without risk. Chronic kidney disease is a common comorbidity with AF, and thus frequent checks of renal function in elderly patients are recommended. We report a case of dabigatran intoxication in an elderly man affected by heart failure and worsening renal function, who developed acute hepatitis and coma, which was successfully treated with continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909964/oxidative-stress-and-biochemical-markers-of-endothelial-dysfunction-and-organ-damage-under-conditions-of-experimental-nonferrous-metal-intoxication
#14
F S Dzugkoeva, I V Mozhaeva, S G Dzugkoev, O I Margieva, A I Tedtoeva, M A Otiev
Chronic nickel intoxication caused by parenteral nickel chloride administration (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) to Wistar rats led to ROS generation inducing LPO in erythrocyte membranes and homogenates of renal, liver, and myocardial tissue. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was inhibited, while catalase activity and ceruloplasmin concentration increased. LPO and its products disrupted nitric oxide production and reduced its bioavailability, which led to the development of endothelial dysfunction and impaired microcirculatory hemodynamics...
December 2, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909597/lithium-intoxication-accompanied-by-hyponatremia
#15
Özlem Korkmaz Dilmen, İsmail Hacı, Alim Ekinci, Mois Bahar
Lithium is frequently used in the management of bipolar affective disorders. It has a narrow therapeutic index and can cause acute or chronic intoxication. Toxic symptoms may be present even when concentrations are within the recommended therapeutic range. We believe that lithium intoxication is a very important issue for a physician. In this report, we aimed to evaluate the pathophysiological view of two chronic lithium intoxication cases accompanied by hyponatremia.
August 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908221/dasatinib-prevent-hepatic-fibrosis-induced-by-carbon-tetrachloride-ccl4-via-anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-mechanism
#16
Adel Mohammadalipour, Jamshid Karimi, Iraj Khodadadi, Ghasem Solgi, Mohammad Hashemnia, Nasrin Sheikh, Majid Bahabadi
OBJECTIVES: Dasatinib, a potent and broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of this agent against CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis and oxidative status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental fibrosis was induced in Wistar male rats by 12 weeks of CCl4 administration (i.p.). During the last 8 weeks of injection, rats were gavaged daily with Dasatinib (10 mg/kg)...
December 1, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905388/-prognostic-biochemical-markers-of-thrombolytic-therapy-in-ischemic-stroke
#17
O A Kicherova, L I Reikhert, V G Skorikova, S A Semeshko
AIM: To assess prognostic value of endothelial dysfunction, endogenous intoxication and oxidative stress in the acute period of ischemic stroke (II) at the stage of making a decision on using thrombolytic therapy (TLT) as well during the follow-up in order to personalize treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 57 patients stratified into control group 1 (n=29) and TLT group (n=28). Contents of C-reactive protein (Nsrb), matrixmetalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) erythrocyte lipid peroxidation products were measured in the blood of patients...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905373/-enteral-distress-syndrome-in-surgery-definition-pathogenesis-diagnosis
#18
A P Vlasov, V A Trofimov, T I Grigor'eva, V A Shibitov, P A Vlasov
It was performed a comprehensive experimental and clinical study of functional and metabolic status of the intestine in acute peritonitis, pancreatic necrosis, acute intestinal obstruction. We obtained objective data of impaired barrier function based on levels of toxins in arterial and mesenteric venous blood. Association of organ and organismic homeostatic changes was revealed. It was proved an important role of membrane-destabilizing processes in intestinal epithelium as a cause of enteral insufficiency...
2016: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903992/a-brief-review-on-toxic-alcohols-management-strategies
#19
Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Nasim Zamani
The information on burden of alcohol abuse in Iran is scarce. However, the available data show that mortality rates and frequency of its use have increased in the Iranian community. In particular, Iran occupies the 1st rank in the number of outbreak incidents and victims of toxic alcohols such as methanol in the Middle East. Mortality and morbidity of toxic alcohols are high if prompt diagnosis and treatment are not initiated rapidly. On-time diagnosis, proper case finding, and standard treatment have an essential role to reduce mortality and morbidity of toxic alcohols particularly blindness and other physical and psychological disabilities...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900576/time-course-behavioral-safety-and-protective-efficacy-of-centrally-active-reversible-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-in-cynomolgus-macaques
#20
Lindsey R Hamilton, Steven C Schachter, Todd M Myers
Galantamine hydrobromide and (-)huperzine A, centrally active reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, are potentially superior to the current standard, pyridostigmine bromide, as a pretreatment for organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve agent intoxication. Galantamine, huperzine, and pyridostigmine were compared for time course of acetylcholinesterase inhibition in 12 cynomolgus macaques. Although both galantamine and huperzine shared a similar time course profile for acetylcholinesterase inhibition, huperzine was 88 times more potent than galantamine...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
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