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Early intervention psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580702/-methods-to-improve-suicidal-adolescents-compliance-to-care-after-emergency-discharge-a-literature-review
#1
J Lachal, S Grandclerc, M Spodenkiewicz, M R Moro
OBJECTIVES: Suicidal adolescents admitted in an Emergency Department (ED) present a high risk of suicidal reattempts. Poor observance of follow-up in this particular group imped the efficacity of the treatment. We propose to summarize the international literature on ED interventions promoting suicidal adolescents' adherence to care. METHOD: We carried out a comprehensive review of papers listed in PubMed, PsycInfo, and CINHAL databases using keywords about adolescence, suicide, and ED...
March 23, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574736/commentary-randomized-controlled-trials-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-state-of-the-field-and-challenges-for-the-future
#2
Emily Simonoff
This issue of the Journal includes two articles summarizing the evidence from clinical trials aimed at improving symptoms of autism. French and Kennedy (Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2018, xx, xxxx) systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed at an "early intervention" and focus on trials including children with or at risk of autism under age 6 years. Although no type of intervention were excluded from their review, none of the included 48 RCTs employed pharmacological modalities and the overwhelming majority tested psychological/behavioural interventions aimed at modifying aspects of observed behaviours that are abnormal in children with autism...
April 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564636/help-seeking-patterns-in-women-with-postpartum-severe-mental-illness-a-report-from-southern-india
#3
Harish Thippeswamy, Geetha Desai, Prabha Chandra
Postpartum severe mental illness (SMI) often presents with risks to mother-infant dyad and requires early assessment and interventions. The access to psychiatric care in low and middle income countries is complex. Help-seeking patterns in women with postpartum SMI has not been studied adequately. Hence, the present study was undertaken to examine the help-seeking pattern and reasons for delay in seeking psychiatry services among postpartum women with SMI. Successive patients with a diagnosis of postpartum SMI were recruited over a period of 2 years...
March 21, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497708/telepain-primary-care-chronic-pain-management-through-weekly-didactic-and-case-based-telementoring
#4
Diane M Flynn, Linda H Eaton, Honor McQuinn, Ashley Alden, Alexa R Meins, Tessa Rue, David J Tauben, Ardith Z Doorenbos
Chronic pain is a significant problem among military personnel and a priority of the military health system. The U.S. Army Surgeon General's Pain Management Task Force recommends using telehealth capabilities to enhance pain management. This article describes the development and evaluation of a telehealth intervention (TelePain) designed to improve access to pain specialist consultation in the military health system. The study uses a wait-list controlled clinical trial to test: 1) effectiveness of the intervention, and 2) interviews to assess barriers and facilitators of the intervention implementation...
December 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485233/a-survey-of-recognition-and-treatment-of-at-risk-mental-state-by-japanese-psychiatrists
#5
Naohisa Tsujino, Hiromi Tagata, Yoko Baba, Akiko Kojima, Taiju Yamaguchi, Naoyuki Katagiri, Takahiro Nemoto, Masafumi Mizuno
AIM: The importance of early intervention in psychiatry is widely recognised among psychiatrists. However, it is unknown whether precise knowledge of at-risk mental state has been disseminated. With this survey, we aimed to reveal how Japanese psychiatrists diagnosed patients with at-risk mental state and prescribed treatment strategies for them. METHODS: Using fictional case vignettes, we conducted a questionnaire survey of psychiatrists (n = 1,399) who worked in Tokyo...
February 27, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431144/paradigm-shift-purity-progress-and-the-origins-of-first-episode-psychosis
#6
Suze G Berkhout
First-episode psychosis has garnered significant attention and resources within mental health services in North America, Europe and Australia/New Zealand since the 1990s. Despite this widespread embrace, little scholarship exists that examines underlying concepts, ideologies and imagery embedded within the early intervention paradigm. In this paper, I offer a sociohistorical analysis of the emergence of first-episode psychosis and early intervention as entities in psychiatry, drawing on contemporary philosophical thought to explore various concepts embedded in them...
February 3, 2018: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415803/ethical-considerations-in-bipolar-disorders
#7
S Richa, R Chammay, A Dargél, C Henry, M Masson
The implications of biomedical ethics principles extend to both medical care and biomedical research. They are particularly relevant for psychiatry in which pathologies are often chronic and disabling. Bipolar disorders impact the ability to make judgements and to take decisions during mood episodes and remain a stigmatised condition. Early interventions, even those in the prodromal phase, pose ethical questions for both clinicians and researchers. The degree of patients' autonomy in their clinical care must also now be considered from a biomedical ethics perspective...
February 4, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353178/impulsivity-in-early-psychosis-a-complex-link-with-violent-behaviour-and-a-target-for-intervention
#8
V Moulin, P Golay, J Palix, P S Baumann, M-M Gholamrezaee, A Azzola, J Gasser, K Q Do, L Alameda, P Conus
BACKGROUND: Violent behaviour (VB) occurs in first episode of schizophrenia and can have devastating impact both on victims and patients themselves. A better knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of VB may pave the way to preventive treatments. OBJECTIVES: 1) To explore the nature of the link between impulsivity and VB in early psychosis (EP) patients; 2) To explore the interactions between impulsivity and substance abuse, insight, and positive symptoms, the main dynamic risk factors of VB described to date...
March 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311665/hippocampal-dysfunction-in-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia-a-selective-review-and-hypothesis-for-early-detection-and-intervention
#9
J A Lieberman, R R Girgis, G Brucato, H Moore, F Provenzano, L Kegeles, D Javitt, J Kantrowitz, M M Wall, C M Corcoran, S A Schobel, S A Small
Scientists have long sought to characterize the pathophysiologic basis of schizophrenia and develop biomarkers that could identify the illness. Extensive postmortem and in vivo neuroimaging research has described the early involvement of the hippocampus in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In this context, we have developed a hypothesis that describes the evolution of schizophrenia-from the premorbid through the prodromal stages to syndromal psychosis-and posits dysregulation of glutamate neurotransmission beginning in the CA1 region of the hippocampus as inducing attenuated psychotic symptoms and initiating the transition to syndromal psychosis...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072182/social-challenges-of-contemporary-psychiatry
#10
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022840/irritable-temperament-and-lifetime-psychotic-symptoms-as-predictors-of-anxiety-symptoms-in-bipolar-disorder
#11
Gianluca Serafini, Pierre A Geoffroy, Andrea Aguglia, Giulia Adavastro, Giovanna Canepa, Maurizio Pompili, Mario Amore
PURPOSE: Affective temperaments, hopelessness, alexithymia, and anxiety/agitation symptoms may play a significant role in the psychopathological characteristics of bipolar disorder (BD). Here, we aimed to investigate the eventual association between the mentioned explanatory variables and anxiety/agitation symptoms in BD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited at the Section of Psychiatry, Department of Neuroscience, University of Genoa (Italy), 92 BD inpatients having a mean age of 52 (±13...
January 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984077/broad-clinical-high-risk-mental-state-charms-methodology-of-a-cohort-study-validating-criteria-for-pluripotent-risk
#12
Jessica A Hartmann, Barnaby Nelson, Rachael Spooner, G Paul Amminger, Andrew Chanen, Christopher G Davey, Meredith McHugh, Aswin Ratheesh, Devi Treen, Hok Pan Yuen, Patrick D McGorry
AIM: The development of the ultra-high risk (UHR) criteria for psychosis created a new paradigm for the prevention research in psychiatry. Since (1) prevention research faces the challenge of achieving adequate statistical power when focusing on single low-incidence syndromes and (2) early clinical phenotypes are overlapping and non-specific, this study broadens the UHR state beyond psychosis as an outcome. The CHARMS (clinical high at-risk mental state) study aims to prospectively validate a set of trans-diagnostic criteria to identify help-seeking young people at risk of developing a range of serious mental illnesses...
October 5, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949105/-early-intervention-for-emerging-mental-illness-in-young-adults-the-geneva-model
#13
Orianne Dorsaz, Maryse Badan Bâ, Fabrice Chantraine, Logos Curtis
Mental illness often emerges in young adulthood, usually before the age of 25 years. Early detection and intervention have a positive impact on the evolution of mental illness and quality of life. Specific interventions for this age group are recommended with a focus on ease of access to health care, adaptation to problems facing the young adult, using an integrated medical psycho-social approach. Furthermore, for this population, determination of a specific medical diagnosis does not seem essential, the concept of early stages of mental illness with less specific symptoms often being more useful...
September 20, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941093/staging-in-bipolar-disorder-from-theoretical-framework-to-clinical-utility
#14
Michael Berk, Robert Post, Aswin Ratheesh, Emma Gliddon, Ajeet Singh, Eduard Vieta, Andre F Carvalho, Melanie M Ashton, Lesley Berk, Susan M Cotton, Patrick D McGorry, Brisa S Fernandes, Lakshmi N Yatham, Seetal Dodd
Illness staging is widely utilized in several medical disciplines to help predict course or prognosis, and optimize treatment. Staging models in psychiatry in general, and bipolar disorder in particular, depend on the premise that psychopathology moves along a predictable path: an at-risk or latency stage, a prodrome progressing to a first clinical threshold episode, and one or more recurrences with the potential to revert or progress to late or end-stage manifestations. The utility and validity of a staging model for bipolar disorder depend on its linking to clinical outcome, treatment response and neurobiological measures...
October 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859565/neuroplasticity-and-the-brain-connectome-what-can-jean-talairach-s-reflections-bring-to-modern-psychosurgery
#15
Pierre Bourdillon, Caroline Apra, Marc Lévêque, Fabien Vinckier
Contrary to common psychosurgical practice in the 1950s, Dr. Jean Talairach had the intuition, based on clinical experience, that the brain connectome and neuroplasticity had a role to play in psychosurgery. Due to the remarkable progress of pharmacology at that time and to the technical limits of neurosurgery, these concepts were not put into practice. Currently, these concepts are being confirmed by modern techniques such as neuroimaging and computational neurosciences, and could pave the way for therapeutic innovation in psychiatry...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855962/does-child-and-adolescent-mental-health-in-service-training-result-in-equivalent-knowledge-gain-among-cadres-of-non-specialist-health-workers-in-uganda-a-pre-test-post-test-study
#16
Angela Akol, Joyce Nalugya, Sylvia Nshemereirwe, Juliet N Babirye, Ingunn Marie Stadskleiv Engebretsen
BACKGROUND: Early identification and management of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) disorders helps to avert mental illness in adulthood but a CAMH treatment gap exists in Uganda. CAMH integration into primary health care (PHC) through in-service training of non-specialist health workers (NSHW) using the World Health Organisation (WHO) Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) Intervention Guide (IG) is a strategy to address this gap. However, results of such training are not supported by information on training development or delivery; and are undifferentiated by NSHW cadre...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801755/a-cross-national-comparison-of-violence-among-young-men-in-china-and-the-uk-psychiatric-and-cultural-explanations
#17
Jeremy Coid, Junmei Hu, Constantinos Kallis, Yuan Ping, Juying Zhang, Yueying Hu, Laura Bui, Simone Ullrich, Paul Bebbington
PURPOSE: Public health psychiatry has a key role in violence prevention. Cross-national comparisons of violence and associated psychiatric morbidity can indicate targets for preventive interventions. METHOD: Data on young adult men in households, 18-34 years, were drawn from the Second Men's Modern Lifestyles survey in Great Britain (n = 2046) and from a corresponding survey in Chengdu, China (n = 4132), using a translated questionnaire. Binary logistic regression models were carried out to estimate the cross-national differences for different types of violence and to identify explanatory variables...
October 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723956/psychosis-risk-research-versus-daily-prognosis-uncertainties-a-qualitative-study-of-french-youth-psychiatrists-attitudes-toward-predictive-practices
#18
Laelia Benoit, Marie Rose Moro, Bruno Falissard, Nicolas Henckes
BACKGROUND: Over the last twenty years, predicting psychosis has become a priority of both research and policies. Those approaches include the use of the At Risk Mental State category (ARMS) and of standardized predictive tools. In comparison to most developed countries, early interventions programs are only little developed in France. However, cases of young patients presenting unclear symptoms that might be a beginning psychosis or might as well reflect some adolescent unease are commonplace in psychiatry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675999/subduing-the-green-eyed-monster-bridging-the-psychopharmacological-and-psychosocial-treatment-perspective-in-understanding-pathological-jealousy
#19
Farah Deena Abdul Samad, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Nurul Hazwani Hatta
Human being is not spared from a broad-ranged emotional state, including being jealous. Jealousy has both affective-cognitive and behavioural-evaluative dimension where the person perceives, or experiences a real threat on a valued relationship. As this complex emotion becomes irrational and not amenable to reason, it later transforms into a dangerously 'green-eyed monster'. This perilous situation which is viewed as pathological jealousy is a form of delusion, which is maintained by a fixed and false reasoning in an originally entrusted intimate relationship...
July 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641817/-preventing-violence-in-schizophrenia-with-cognitive-remediation
#20
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
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