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Early intervention psychiatry

D Leguay
This article attempts to identify and put into perspective the different approaches that could globally prevent the suffering induced by schizophrenia, from the detection of early psychosis to the impact on individual and family functioning and emotional health. Schizophrenia causes, at the community level, a number of difficult consequences and associated costs, which likely could be reduced if specific strategies, already known and documented internationally, were applied. Two areas not explored in this article: the role of medication and the issue of suicide prevention...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Elizabeth L Turner, Siham Sikander, Omer Bangash, Ahmed Zaidi, Lisa Bates, John Gallis, Nima Ganga, Karen O'Donnell, Atif Rahman, Joanna Maselko
BACKGROUND: The negative effects of perinatal depression on the mother and child start early and persist throughout the lifecourse (Lancet 369(9556):145-57, 2007; Am J Psychiatry 159(1):43-7, 2002; Arch Dis Child 77(2):99-101, 1997; J Pak Med Assoc 60(4):329; J Psychosoma Res 49(3):207-16, 2000; Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 14(1):1-27, 2011). Given that 10-35 % of children worldwide are exposed to perinatal depression in their first year of life (Int Rev Psychiatry 8(1):37-54, 1996), mitigating this intergenerational risk is a global public health priority (Perspect Public Health 129(5):221-7, 2009; Trop Med Int Health 13(4):579-83, 2008; Br Med Bull 101(1):57-79, 2012)...
2016: Trials
A J Shackman, A S Fox, J A Oler, S E Shelton, T R Oakes, R J Davidson, N H Kalin
Children with an anxious temperament are prone to heightened shyness and behavioral inhibition (BI). When chronic and extreme, this anxious, inhibited phenotype is an important early-life risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders, depression and co-morbid substance abuse. Individuals with extreme anxious temperament often show persistent distress in the absence of immediate threat and this contextually inappropriate anxiety predicts future symptom development. Despite its clear clinical relevance, the neural circuitry governing the maladaptive persistence of anxiety remains unclear...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Vincent Laprevote, Ulrike Heitz, Paolo Di Patrizio, Erich Studerus, Fabienne Ligier, Thomas Schwitzer, Raymund Schwan, Anita Riecher-Rössler
Chronic psychosis, as for instance schizophrenia, usually begins in young adulthood and may cause severe disability. It causes a mean loss of life expectancy of 22 years. Actual models of psychosis do not trace the beginning of psychosis to the first franc psychotic episode only, but to earlier symptoms. In a classical health system only considering the first psychotic episode, the mean duration of untreated illness (DUI) can last several years. Yet this DUI has a direct impact on the prognosis of the disease...
August 20, 2016: La Presse Médicale
Gwénäelle Andro
The perinatal psychology and psychiatry unit of Caen university hospital has put in place two systematic intervention protocols relating to pregnancy: teenage pregnancy and denial of pregnancy. Professionals are particularly concerned with teenagers with a history of early emotional deprivation and mistreatment, with the spectre of repetition. A partnership with a motherhood centre helps all concerned to work together to build resilience.
July 2016: Soins. Pédiatrie, Puériculture
Martin Fuchs, Georg Kemmler, Hans Steiner, Josef Marksteiner, Christian Haring, Carl Miller, Armand Hausmann, Kathrin Sevecke
BACKGROUND: Mental illness is a common phenomenon at all ages. Various independent studies have shown that psychopathology is often expressed on a continuum from youth to adulthood. The aim of our study was to demonstrate a) the frequency of admission of former child and adolescent psychiatry inpatients (CAP-IP) to adult inpatient mental health facilities, and b) a potential longitudinal diagnostic shift. This is the first Austrian study designed to shed light on these issues. METHODS: Nearly 1000 inpatient cases at a specialized child and adolescent care center were analyzed...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Laura A Kaehler, Mary Jacobs, Deborah J Jones
There is a shift in evidence-based practice toward an understanding of the treatment elements that characterize empirically supported interventions in general and the core components of specific approaches in particular. The evidence base for behavioral parent training (BPT) and the standard of care for early-onset disruptive behavior disorders (oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder), which frequently co-occur with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, are well established, yet an ahistorical, program-specific lens tells little regarding how leaders, University of Oregon Medical School, shaped the common practice elements of contemporary evidence-based BPT...
September 2016: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
Johanne Olivia Grønne Kühl, Thomas Munk Laursen, Anne Thorup, Merete Nordentoft
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to examine changes over time in the incidence of broad and narrow schizophrenia spectrum disorders in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. METHODS: Patients were classified as incident schizophrenia if registered with a first time in- or outpatient contact with relevant diagnostic codes in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register between 2000 and 2012. Their history of contacts was traced back to 1969. Broad schizophrenia included schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, persistent delusional disorder, acute and transient psychotic disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and other nonorganic and unspecified psychotic disorders, (ICD 10 codes F20-F29)...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is now a large volume of evidence to support the view that the immune system is a key communication pathway between the gut and brain, which plays an important role in stress-related psychopathologies and thus provides a potentially fruitful target for psychotropic intervention. The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem with a diverse range of organisms and a sophisticated genomic structure. Bacteria within the gut are estimated to weigh in excess of 1 kg in the adult human and the microbes within not only produce antimicrobial peptides, short chain fatty acids, and vitamins, but also most of the common neurotransmitters found in the human brain...
July 13, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Natália Bezerra Mota, Mauro Copelli, Sidarta Ribeiro
The early onset of mental disorders can lead to serious cognitive damage, and timely interventions are needed in order to prevent them. In patients of low socioeconomic status, as is common in Latin America, it can be hard to identify children at risk. Here, we briefly introduce the problem by reviewing the scarce epidemiological data from Latin America regarding the onset of mental disorders, and discussing the difficulties associated with early diagnosis. Then we present computational psychiatry, a new field to which we and other Latin American researchers have contributed methods particularly relevant for the quantitative investigation of psychopathologies manifested during childhood...
June 2016: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Bernadett Szita, Zoltán Hidasi
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are enigmatic disorders at the interface of neurology and psychiatry. Seizures resemble epileptic seizures but are not associated with electrical discharges in the brain. Symptoms typically start in early adulthood and women are far more affected than men. Video-EEG is widely considered to be the gold standard for diagnosis. Still psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are often misdiagnosed and treated as epilepsy for years that is burdensome to patients and costly to the healthcare system...
May 15, 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Inez Myin-Germeys, Annelie Klippel, Henrietta Steinhart, Ulrich Reininghaus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss feasibility, content, and where possible efficacy of ecological momentary interventions (EMIs) in psychiatry. EMIs adopt mobile devices, such as personal digital assistants or smartphones, for the delivery of treatments in the daily life of patients. We will discuss EMIs in the field of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression disorder, as well as one generic, transdiagnostic EMI. RECENT FINDINGS: The few studies that are available all underscore feasibility and acceptability of mobile health approaches in patients with severe mental illness...
July 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Mamiko Koshiba, Genta Karino, Koki Mimura, Shun Nakamura, Kunio Yui, Tetsuya Kunikata, Hideo Yamanouchi
Educational treatment to support social development of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an important topic in developmental psychiatry. However, it remains difficult to objectively quantify the socio-emotional development of ASD children. To address this problem, we developed a novel analytical method that assesses subjects' complex behaviors using multivariate analysis, 'Behavior Output analysis for Quantitative Emotional State Translation' (BOUQUET). Here, we examine the potential for psycho-cognitive ASD therapy based on comparative evaluations of clinical (human) and experimental (animal) models...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Clancy Blair, C Cybele Raver
We review some of the growing evidence of the costs of poverty to children's neuroendocrine function, early brain development, and cognitive ability. We underscore the importance of addressing the negative consequences of poverty-related adversity early in children's lives, given evidence supporting the plasticity of executive functions and associated physiologic processes in response to early intervention and the importance of higher order cognitive functions for success in school and in life. Finally, we highlight some new directions for prevention and intervention that are rapidly emerging at the intersection of developmental science, pediatrics, child psychology and psychiatry, and public policy...
April 2016: Academic Pediatrics
Frédéric Paul, Catherine Marimoutou, Vincent Pommier de Santi, Patrick Clervoy
During the 20th century, the management of war-related psychological trauma shifted from neurology to psychiatry. After September 11, 2001, the French forces participated in a multinational force deployed in Afghanistan to fight against terrorism. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) became a priority. We report the daily work of the psychiatrists involved in this mission and the organization developed to psychologically support wounded military personnel. The doctrine of early intervention psychiatrization and the technique of collective debriefing are the key points of this procedure...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Melvyn W B Zhang, Roger C M Ho
E-health, and in particular smartphone-based technology, is increasingly becoming commonplace in healthcare. While psychiatry has tapped onto these innovations for conditions, such as affective disorders, and schizophrenia and psychosis, the usage of these technologies in addiction is limited. Addiction psychiatry could harness the potential of smartphone technologies. Given the increasing incidences of substance-related problems globally, and along with the normalization of the general public's perspectives toward substances, and also in consideration of unwillingness for at-risk individuals in seeking help, the authors hope to illustrate how these issues could potentially be solved using E-health and technological innovations...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Amresh Shrivastava, Avinash Desousa
Understanding of psychopathology of mental disorder is evolving, particularly with availability of newer insight from the field of genetics, epigenetics, social, and environmental pathology. It is now becoming clear how biological factors are contributing to development of an illness in the face of a number of psychosocial factors. Resilience is a psychobiological factor which determines individual's response to adverse life events. Resilience is a human capacity to adapt swiftly and successfully to stressful/traumatic events and manage to revert to a positive state...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Eila Repo-Tiihonen, Tero Hallikainen
Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children...
2016: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
Anja Gysin-Maillart, Simon Schwab, Leila Soravia, Millie Megert, Konrad Michel
BACKGROUND: Attempted suicide is the main risk factor for suicide and repeated suicide attempts. However, the evidence for follow-up treatments reducing suicidal behavior in these patients is limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP) in reducing suicidal behavior. ASSIP is a novel brief therapy based on a patient-centered model of suicidal behavior, with an emphasis on early therapeutic alliance...
March 2016: PLoS Medicine
Niklas Granö, Marjaana Karjalainen, Klaus Ranta, Maija Lindgren, Mikko Roine, Sebastian Therman
The aim of the present study was to compare change in functioning, affective symptoms and level of psychosis-risk symptoms in symptomatic adolescents who were treated either in an early intervention programme based on a need-adapted Family- and Community-orientated integrative Treatment Model (FCTM) or in standard adolescent psychiatric treatment (Treatment As Usual, TAU). 28 pairs were matched by length of follow-up, gender, age, and baseline functioning. At one year after the start of treatment, the matched groups were compared on change in functioning (GAF-M), five psychosis-risk dimensions of the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS), and self-reported anxiety, depression, and hopelessness symptoms (BAI, BDI-II, BHS)...
March 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
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