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Dissociative disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918372/enhanced-visible-light-photocatalytic-nitrogen-fixation-over-semicrystalline-graphitic-carbon-nitride-oxygen-and-sulfur-co-doping-for-crystal-and-electronic-structure-modulation
#1
Xiangwen Feng, Huan Chen, Fang Jiang, Xin Wang
Oxygen and sulfur co-doped semicrystalline graphitic carbon nitride (HGCNOS) was synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal method and applied in visible-light photocatalytic nitrogen fixation. Remarkably, HGCNOS exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity than pristine graphitic carbon nitride (GCN). Oxygen doping caused semicrystalline structure, making exciton dissociated at the order-disorder interfaces of HGCNOS and releasing more electrons and holes. Furthermore, the conduction band position of HGCNOS was elevated by sulfur doping, promoting the reduction ability of HGCNOS...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917190/posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-and-dissociation-between-childhood-trauma-and-two-different-types-of-psychosis-like-experience
#2
Ji Young Choi
This study examined the roles of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and dissociation in the relationship between childhood trauma and two different types of psychosis-like experience, including persecutory ideation and aberrant experience, in non-psychotic psychiatric patients. From August 2015 to August 2016, among psychiatric out patients seeking treatment at the Department of Psychiatry at a major teaching medical hospital in Seoul, Korea, 169 patients who had never been diagnosed with a psychotic disorder, including schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, and/or depressive disorder with psychotic features, completed the Korean Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Korean version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the modified Korean version of the Peritraumatic Dissociation Experiences Questionnaire, and the Korean Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)...
September 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916266/grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-stat3-regulates-the-eif2%C3%AE-phosphorylation-through-interaction-with-pkr
#3
Liqiang Wang, Zhen Wu, Qingli Huang, Keyi Huang, Guoqin Qi, Chuxin Wu, Huiling Mao, Xiaowen Xu, Haizhou Wang, Chengyu Hu
In mammals, STAT3 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) plays an important role in growth, multiplication, differentiation and participates in inflammation, tumorigenesis, metabolic disorders and immune response. STAT3 is a protein that shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Compared to the STAT3 in cell nucleus, we did not know the function of STAT3 in cytoplasm for a long time. Some recent studies have shown that cytoplasmic STAT3 regulates autophagy through the interaction with the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), which plays an important role in cellular antiviral response...
September 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915146/engendered-responses-to-and-interventions-for-shame-in-dissociative-disorders-a-survey-and-experimental-investigation
#4
Martin J Dorahy, Julia Gorgas, Lenaire Seager, Warwick Middleton
This study examined shame and responses to it in adult dissociative disorder (DD; n = 24) and comparison psychiatric (n = 14) samples. To investigate how helpful different therapeutic responses are after shame disclosures in therapy, participants heard two vignettes from "mock" patients disclosing a) shame and b) surprise. Participants rated the helpfulness of five potential responses. Interventions covered withdrawing from the affect (withdrawal focused) to feeling it (feeling focused), with other interventions on cognitions (cognitive focused), management strategies (management focused), and previous experiences (history focused)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911803/sensory-overload-and-imbalance-resting-state-vestibular-connectivity-in-ptsd-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#5
Sherain Harricharan, Andrew A Nicholson, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Richard W J Neufeld, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: The vestibular system integrates multisensory information to monitor one's bodily orientation in space, and is influenced by interoceptive awareness. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves typically alterations in interoceptive and bodily self-awareness evidenced by symptoms of hyperarousal, as well as of emotional detachment, including emotional numbing, depersonalization, and derealization. These alterations may disrupt vestibular multisensory integration between the brainstem (vestibular nuclei) and key vestibular cortical regions (parieto-insular vestibular cortex, prefrontal cortex)...
September 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903059/cognitive-flexibility-in-neurological-disorders-cognitive-components-and-event-related-potentials
#6
REVIEW
Florian Lange, Caroline Seer, Bruno Kopp
Performance deficits on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in patients with prefrontal cortex (PFC) lesions are traditionally interpreted as evidence for a role of the PFC in cognitive flexibility. However, WCST deficits do not occur exclusively after PFC lesions, but also in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. We propose a multi-component approach that can accommodate this pattern of omnipresent WCST deficits: the WCST is not a pure test of cognitive flexibility, but relies on the effective functioning of multiple dissociable cognitive components...
September 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901713/neural-correlates-of-interoception-effects-of-interoceptive-focus-and-relationship-to-dimensional-measures-of-body-awareness
#7
Emily R Stern, Stephanie J Grimaldi, Alexandra Muratore, James Murrough, Evan Leibu, Lazar Fleysher, Wayne K Goodman, Katherine E Burdick
Interoception has been defined as the sensing of the physiological condition of the body, with interoceptive sensibility (IS) characterizing an individual's self-reported awareness of internal sensation. IS is a multidimensional construct including not only the tendency to be aware of sensation but also how sensations are interpreted, regulated, and used to inform behavior, with different dimensions relating to different aspects of health and disease. Here we investigated neural mechanisms of interoception when healthy individuals attended to their heartbeat and skin temperature, and examined the relationship between neural activity during interoception and individual differences in self-reported IS using the Multidimensional Scale of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA)...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899586/dissociative-sensibility-disorders-a-retrospective-case-series-and-systematic-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
Peter Weber, Rahel Erlacher
CONTEXT: Dissociative disorders present a huge challenge in clinical settings. In contrast to other dissociative symptoms, dissociative sensibility disorders are rarely focused on. OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical characteristics and outcomes of dissociative sensibility disorders in children and adolescents, and to review the use of diagnostic procedures. DATA SOURCES: For the review, a literature search used Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and PubPsych (to 02/2015) and the reference lists of the studies identified...
September 1, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893930/how-human-amygdala-and-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-may-drive-distinct-defensive-responses
#9
Floris Klumpers, Marijn C W Kroes, Johanna Baas, Guillén Fernández
The ability to adaptively regulate responses to the proximity of potential danger is critical to survival and imbalance in this system may contribute to psychopathology. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is implicated in defensive responding during uncertain threat anticipation whereas the amygdala may drive responding upon more acute danger. This functional dissociation between the BNST and amygdala is however controversial, and human evidence scarce. Here we utilized data from two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (N=108 males & N=70 (45 females)) to probe how coordination between the BNST and amygdala may regulate responses during shock anticipation and actual shock confrontation...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893534/solution-structure-of-the-n-terminal-domain-of-mediator-subunit-med26-and-molecular-characterization-of-its-interaction-with-eaf1-and-taf7
#10
Zoé Lens, François-Xavier Cantrelle, Riccardo Peruzzini, Xavier Hanoulle, Frédérique Dewitte, Elisabeth Ferreira, Jean-Luc Baert, Didier Monté, Marc Aumercier, Vincent Villeret, Alexis Verger, Isabelle Landrieu
MED26 is a subunit of Mediator, a large complex central to the regulation of gene transcription by RNA Polymerase II (RNA Pol II). MED26 plays a role in the switch between the initiation and elongation phases of RNA Pol II-mediated transcription process. Regulation of these steps requires successive binding of MED26 N-Terminal domain (NTD) to TBP-associated factor 7 (TAF7) and EAF1 (Eleven-nineteen lysine-rich in leukemia-Associated Factor 1). In order to investigate the mechanism of regulation by MED26, MED26-NTD structure was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), revealing a 4-helix bundle...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890198/crosstalk-between-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-oxidative-stress-in-schizophrenia-the-dawn-of-new-therapeutic-approaches
#11
REVIEW
Shivangi Patel, Dilip Sharma, Kiran Kalia, Vinod Tiwari
Disruption of oxidant/anti-oxidant ratio as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. These stresses can lead to impairments in brain functions progressively leading to neuronal inflammation followed by neuronal cell death. Moreover, the cellular stresses are interlinked leading us to the conclusion that protein misfolding, oxidative stress and apoptosis are intricately intertwined events requiring further research into their mechanistic and physiological pathways...
September 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888350/anterior-cingulate-cortex-grey-matter-volume-abnormalities-in-adolescents-with-ptsd-after-childhood-sexual-abuse
#12
Mirjam A Rinne-Albers, J Nienke Pannekoek, Marie-José van Hoof, Natasja D van Lang, Francien Lamers-Winkelman, Serge A Rombouts, Nic J van der Wee, Robert R Vermeiren
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) substantially increase the risk of later psychiatric and somatic pathology. While neurobiological factors are likely to play a mediating role, specific insights are lacking. The scarce neuroimaging studies in traumatised pediatric populations have provided inconsistent results, potentially due to the inclusion of different types of trauma. To further improve our understanding of the neurobiology of pediatric psychotrauma, this study seeks to investigate abnormalities in grey matter volume (GMV) in a homogeneous group of adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the relationship between GMV and symptom severity...
September 6, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885864/examining-trauma-and-readiness-to-change-among-women-in-a-community-re-entry-program
#13
Michael Killian, Andrea N Cimino, Natasha S Mendoza, Randy Shively, Kami Kunz
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs) are common among women who are incarcerated. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between trauma and readiness to change substance use behaviors. METHODS: This study used data from 103 participants enrolled in a residential re-entry program for women with SUDs and trauma history. Women reporting clinically elevated Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) subscale scores were compared to those without elevated scores on the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) readiness to change instrument...
September 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884713/-mental-disorders-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-a-differentiated-approach-to-the-study-of-nozogeny
#14
O V Shushpanova
AIM: To study mental disorders in patients with breast cancer (BC) at different stages of the disease taking into account premorbid characteristics and psychosomatic correlations in their development. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 82 patients with histologically confirmed BC. The first group consisted of 30 patients (mean age 49.7±11.1 years) with the first established diagnosis of BC and mental disorders caused by somatic disease (ICD-10 F40-F48, stress-related neurotic and somatoform disorders)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880713/sexual-violence-as-a-key-contributor-to-poor-mental-health-among-japanese-women-subjected-to-intimate-partner-violence
#15
Tomoko Honda, Karen Wynter, Jinko Yokota, Thach Tran, Yuri Ujiie, Madoka Niwa, Michi Nakayama, Fumie Ito, Yoshiharu Kim, Jane Fisher, Toshiko Kamo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health among Japanese women and to explore to what extent sexual IPV is an important contributor to the severity of mental health problems in comparison with physical and psychological IPV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of the medical records of participants during psychiatric consultation at the Institute of Women's Health, Tokyo Women's Medical University, including 62 women who experienced IPV without sexual violence and 83 women who experienced IPV with sexual violence...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876969/noncognitive-behavioral-changes-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-implications-of-neuroimaging-findings
#16
Jeff Victoroff, Feng V Lin, Kerry L Coburn, Samuel D Shillcutt, Valerie Voon, Simon Ducharme
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is commonly associated with noncognitive behavioral changes (NCBCs). The authors systematically reviewed whether neuroimaging has helped with understanding the pathophysiology, diagnosis, or management of NCBCs associated with AD, including depression, aggression or agitation, anxiety, apathy, psychosis, and sleep disorder. The authors identified dissociable neural substrates with multimodal imaging: depression implicates the lateral and superior prefrontal cortex; apathy and agitation implicate the dorsal anterior cingulate; psychosis implicates right lateralized frontal and medial temporal areas; and anxiety implicates mesial temporal regions...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875484/women-s-auto-biography-and-dissociative-identity-disorder-implications-for-mental-health-practice
#17
Kendal Tomlinson, Charley Baker
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is an uncommon disorder that has long been associated with exposure to traumatic stressors exceeding manageable levels commonly encompassing physical, psychological and sexual abuse in childhood that is prolonged and severe in nature. In DID, dissociation continues after the traumatic experience and produces a disruption in identity where distinct personality states develop. These personalities are accompanied by variations in behaviour, emotions, memory, perception and cognition...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871346/-differential-diagnosis-of-dissociative-seizures
#18
REVIEW
A Joos, K Baumann, C E Scheidt, C Lahmann, R König, H-J Busch, A Schulze-Bonhage
Patient history taking and semiology provide seminal clues to the diagnosis of dissociative seizures. Openness and alertness of the treating physician are essential. Video-electroencephalogram(EEG)-based analyses of the events are crucial to establish the correct diagnosis, particularly in complex cases. The patient-doctor relationship is of particular importance in order to successfully motivate the patient for psychotherapeutic treatment. Coexisting psychiatric morbidity as well as other functional somatic symptoms must be actively explored...
September 4, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871288/error-specific-cognitive-control-alterations-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#19
James F Cavanagh, Alexandria Meyer, Greg Hajcak
BACKGROUND: Trait anxiety is reliably associated with enhanced neural responses following errors: meta analyses have described how the electrophysiological response to errors known as the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) is increased in anxious individuals, particularly in relation to worry. The ERN has been related to a broader class of control signals, particularly via a common theta band denominator, but it is unknown whether worry relates to these alternative medial frontal metrics...
July 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871117/conjoint-and-dissociated-structural-and-functional-abnormalities-in-first-episode-drug-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#20
Weina Wang, Youjin Zhao, Xinyu Hu, Xiaoqi Huang, Weihong Kuang, Su Lui, Graham J Kemp, Qiyong Gong
Published MRI evidence of structural and resting-state functional brain abnormalities in MDD has been inconsistent. To eliminate interference by repeated disease episodes and antidepressant treatment, we conducted the first multimodal voxel-wise meta-analysis of studies of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in first-episode drug-naive MDD patients, using the Seed-based d Mapping method (SDM). Fifteen VBM data sets and 11 ALFF data sets were included. SDM-based multimodal meta-analysis was used to highlight brain regions with both structural and functional abnormalities...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
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