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Dissociative disorders

Emi Nakajima, Ryan D Walkup, Thomas R Shearer, Mitsuyoshi Azuma
PURPOSE: Corneal sensation, cell proliferation, and wound healing all depend on adequate corneal innervation. Disruption of corneal innervation can lead to dry eye and delayed wound healing. Our studies in rats and rabbits show that the substituted fluorobenzamide drug FK962 accelerates the extension of neuronal processes and recovery of corneal sensitivity. The purpose of the present study was 1) to determine whether FK962 induces sprouting and elongation of neurites in cultured monkey trigeminal ganglion cells, and 2) to investigate the involvement of the neurotrophic peptide GDNF in FK962-induced neurite elongation...
October 24, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
C Grillon, O J Robinson, K O'Connell, A Davis, G Alvarez, D S Pine, M Ernst
BACKGROUND: Laboratory tasks to delineate anxiety disorder features are used to refine classification and inform our understanding of etiological mechanisms. The present study examines laboratory measures of response inhibition, specifically the inhibition of a pre-potent motor response, in clinical anxiety. Data on associations between anxiety and response inhibition remain inconsistent, perhaps because of dissociable effects of clinical anxiety and experimentally manipulated state anxiety...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Lucie Gailledrat, Morgane Rousselet, Jean-Luc Venisse, Sylvain Lambert, Bruno Rocher, Manon Remaud, Alice Guilleux, Anne Sauvaget, Emeline Eyzop, Marie Grall-Bronnec
Concerns about body shape and weight are core diagnostic criteria for eating disorders although intensity varies between patients. Few studies have focused on the clinical differences relative to the intensity of these concerns. Nonetheless, they might have a prognostic value. This study was aimed at identifying the characteristics associated with marked body shape concerns in patients with an eating disorder. Data was collected from a systematic and standardized clinical assessment of outpatients seeking treatment in our department for eating disorders...
2016: PloS One
Şermin Yalın Sapmaz, Dilek Ergin, Nesrin Şen Celasin, Handan Özek Erkuran, Duygu Karaarslan, Siğnem Öztekin, Bengisu Uzel Tanrıverdi, Ertuğrul Köroğlu, Ömer Aydemir
The goal of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the DSM-5 Dissociative Symptoms Severity Scale-Child Form. The scale was prepared by translating and then back translating the DSM-5 Dissociative Symptoms Severity Scale. The study groups included one group of 30 patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder who were treated in a child and adolescent psychiatry unit and a second group of 83 healthy volunteers from middle and high schools in the community. For assessment, the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (ADES) was used in addition to the DSM-5 Dissociative Symptoms Severity Scale...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Nurul Iman A Kameel, Adawiyah Suriza Shuib, Saad Tayyab
Acid denaturation of champedak galactose-binding (CGB) lectin was studied in the pH range, 7.0-1.0 using intrinsic fluorescence and ANS fluorescence measurements. The lectin remained stable up to pH 5.0 and showed local disordering in the vicinity of the protein fluorophores within the pH range, 5.0-3.5. Decrease in the pH from pH 3.5 to pH 2.5 led to structural transition, marked by the decrease in the intrinsic fluorescence and increase in the ANS fluorescence signals. This can be ascribed to the dissociation of the tetrameric lectin into monomeric forms...
October 19, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
Sanjay Kisan Metkar, Agnishwar Girigoswami, Ramachandran Murugesan, Koyeli Girigoswami
A transition of amyloidogenic protein by alternative folding pathway under certain conditions leads to the formation of protease resistant amyloid fibrils, having predominantly cross β structure. These amyloids are related to various neurodegenerative diseases and clearance of such amyloids may be a therapeutic approach for amyloid-related diseases. Insulin, that can form amyloids, is widely used as a model amyloidogenic protein for the study of various amyloid related diseases. In this study, insulin amyloids were formed in vitro and the potential of Serratiopeptidase (SP), a fibrinolytic-like serine protease, towards the dissociation of insulin amyloids was explored...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Rafaële J C Huntjens, Ineke Wessel, Brian D Ostafin, Paul A Boelen, Friederike Behrens, Agnes van Minnen
This study examined the content of self-defining autobiographical memories in different identities in patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) and comparison groups of patients with PTSD, healthy controls, and DID simulators. Consistent with the DID trauma model, analyses of objective ratings showed that DID patients in trauma identities retrieved more negative and trauma-related self-defining memories than DID patients in avoidant identities. Inconsistent with the DID trauma model, DID patients' self-rated trauma-relatedness of self-defining memories and future life goals did not differ between trauma identities and trauma avoidant identities...
October 11, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Matilde M Vaghi, Petra E Vértes, Manfred G Kitzbichler, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Febe E van der Flier, Naomi A Fineberg, Akeem Sule, Rashid Zaman, Valerie Voon, Prantik Kundu, Edward T Bullmore, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: A recent hypothesis has suggested that core deficits in goal-directed behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are caused by impaired frontostriatal function. We tested this hypothesis in OCD patients and control subjects by relating measures of goal-directed planning and cognitive flexibility to underlying resting-state functional connectivity. METHODS: Multiecho resting-state acquisition, combined with micromovement correction by blood oxygen level-dependent sensitive independent component analysis, was used to obtain in vivo measures of functional connectivity in 44 OCD patients and 43 healthy comparison subjects...
August 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
J Soler, P Ferentinos, C Prats, S Miret, M Giralt, V Peralta, L Fañanás, M Fatjó-Vilas
INTRODUCTION: This study explored schizotypy as a familial liability marker for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) by examining: 1) the aggregation of schizotypy in families with a SSD patient, 2) whether familial resemblance of schizotypy is associated with ridge dissociations (RD), another SSD liability marker, 3) whether schizotypy aggregation patterns influence patients' psychopathology. METHODS: The sample comprised 30 SSD patients and 82 healthy first-degree relatives...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
P Sławuta, G Sapikowski, B Sobieraj
: Buffer systems of blood and tissues, which have the ability to bind with and give up hydrogen ions, participate in maintaining the acid-base balance (ABB) of the organism. According to the classic model, the system of carbonic acid and bicarbonates, where the first component serves the role of an acid and the second a base, determines plasma pH. The so-called Stewart model, which assumes that ions in blood serum can be separated into completely dissociated - nonbuffer and not dissociated - buffer ions which may give up or accept H+ions, also describes the ABB of the organism...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Pedro Pallangyo, Isaac Mawenya, Paulina Nicholaus, Henry Mayala, Amida Kalombola, Godwin Sharau, Naiz Majani, Mohamed Janabi
BACKGROUND: Congenital complete heart block is a life-threatening condition which is highly associated with autoimmune and connective tissue disorders. Presence of maternal autoantibodies for associated conditions increases the risk of delivering a child with congenital complete heart block, however, less than a half of all women with such antibodies are symptomatic even after delivery. Mortality rate is highest during the neonatal period (45 %) and about two-thirds of all cases will require permanent pacing at some point in their lives...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Susana Vacas, Vincent Degos, Mervyn Maze
BACKGROUND: Sleep is integral to biologic function, and sleep disruption can result in both physiological and psychologic dysfunction including cognitive decline. Surgery activates the innate immune system, inducing neuroinflammatory changes that interfere with cognition. Because surgical patients with sleep disorders have an increased likelihood of exhibiting postoperative delirium, an acute form of cognitive decline, we investigated the contribution of perioperative sleep fragmentation (SF) to the neuroinflammatory and cognitive responses of surgery...
October 11, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Narayan D Chaurasiya, Vedanjali Gogineni, Khaled M Elokely, Francisco León, Marvin J Núñez, Michael L Klein, Larry A Walker, Stephen J Cutler, Babu L Tekwani
Calea urticifolia (Asteraceae: Asteroideae) has long been used as a traditional medicine in El Salvador to treat arthritis and fever, among other illnesses. The chloroform extract of the leaves of C. urticifolia showed potent inhibition of recombinant human monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and -B). Further bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of a flavonoid, acacetin, as the most prominent MAO inhibitory constituent, with IC50 values of 121 and 49 nM for MAO-A and -B, respectively. The potency of MAO inhibition by acacetin was >5-fold higher for MAO-A (0...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
Scott A Norris, H A Jinnah, Alberto J Espay, Christine Klein, Norbert Brüggemann, Richard L Barbano, Irene Andonia C Malaty, Ramon L Rodriguez, Marie Vidailhet, Emmanuel Roze, Stephen G Reich, Brian D Berman, Mark S LeDoux, Sarah Pirio Richardson, Pinky Agarwal, Zoltan Mari, William G Ondo, Ludy C Shih, Susan H Fox, Alfredo Berardelli, Claudia M Testa, Florence Ching-Fen Cheng, Daniel Truong, Fatta B Nahab, Tao Xie, Mark Hallett, Ami R Rosen, Laura J Wright, Joel S Perlmutter
BACKGROUND: Clinical characteristics of isolated idiopathic cervical dystonia such as onset site and spread to and from additional body regions have been addressed in single-site studies with limited data and incomplete or variable dissociation of focal and segmental subtypes. The objectives of this study were to characterize the clinical characteristics and demographics of isolated idiopathic cervical dystonia in the largest standardized multicenter cohort. METHODS: The Dystonia Coalition, through a consortium of 37 recruiting sites in North America, Europe, and Australia, recruited 1477 participants with focal (60...
October 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Giacomo Vivanti, Heather J Nuske
We explore three challenges that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) poses to our understanding of the processes underlying early attachment. First, while caregiver-infant attachment and later social-affiliative behavior share common biobehavioral mechanisms, individuals with ASD are able to form secure attachment relationships, despite reduced social-emotional reciprocity and motivation for social interaction. Therefore, disruptions in social affiliation mechanisms can co-exist with secure caregiver-infant bonding...
October 14, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Stephanie Cosentino, Carolyn Zhu, Elodie Bertrand, Janet Metcalfe, Sarah Janicki, Sarah Cines
Disordered awareness of memory loss (i.e., anosognosia) is a frequent and clinically relevant symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The metacognitive errors which characterize anosognosia in AD, however, have not been fully articulated. The current study examined metamemory performance as a function of clinically defined awareness groups using different task conditions to examine the extent to which specific metacognitive deficits (i.e., detecting, integrating, or being explicitly aware of errors) contribute to anosognosia in AD (n = 49)...
August 13, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Guy Herv Eacute, Hedeel Guy Evans, Roshini Fernado, Chandni Patel, Fatme Hachem, David R Evans
Elevated hydrostatic pressure was used to probe conformational changes of Aquifex aeolicus dihydroorotase (DHO) which catalyzes the third step in de novo pyrimidine biosynthesisis. The isolated protein, a 45 kDa monomer, lacks catalytic activity but becomes active upon formation of a dodecameric complex with aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATC). X-ray crystallographic studies of the isolated DHO and of the complex showed that association induces several major conformational changes in the DHO structure. In the isolated DHO, a flexible loop occludes the active site blocking the access of substrates...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Abigail Benn, Emma S J Robinson
RATIONALE: Atomoxetine is a noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor licensed for the treatment of adult and childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although atomoxetine has established efficacy, the mechanisms which mediate its effects are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the role of cortical versus sub-cortical noradrenaline by using focal dopamine beta hydroxylase-saporin-induced lesions, to the prefrontal cortex (n = 16) or nucleus accumbens shell (n = 18)...
October 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Leticia Ramírez-Lugo, Ana Peñas-Rincón, Sandybel Ángeles-Durán, Francisco Sotres-Bayon
: The ability to select an appropriate behavioral response guided by previous emotional experiences is critical for survival. Although much is known about brain mechanisms underlying emotional associations, little is known about how these associations guide behavior when several choices are available. To address this, we performed local pharmacological inactivations of several cortical regions before retrieval of an aversive memory in choice-based versus no-choice-based conditioned taste aversion (CTA) tasks in rats...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Julian D Ford, Andres R Schneeberger, Irina Komarovskaya, Kristina Muenzenmaier, Dorothy Castille, Lewis A Opler, Bruce Link
A new clinician rating measure, the Symptoms of Trauma Scale (SOTS) was administered to adult psychiatric outpatients (46 men, 47 women) with severe mental illness (SMI) who reported a history of trauma exposure and were recently discharged from inpatient psychiatric treatment. SOTS composite severity scores for DSM-IV and DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), complex PTSD (cPTSD), and total PTSD/cPTSD severity had acceptable internal consistency reliability. SOTS scores' construct and convergent validity was supported by correlations with self-report measures of childhood and adult trauma history, and PTSD, dissociation, and anger symptoms...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
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