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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145065/gestational-differences-in-murine-placenta-glycolytic-metabolism-and-pregnancy-parameters
#1
Renee E Albers, Christopher A Waker, Chanel Keoni, Melissa R Kaufman, Michael A Bottomley, Sarah Min, David R Natale, Thomas L Brown
The placenta is a complex and essential organ composed largely of fetal-derived cells, including several different trophoblast subtypes that work in unison to support nutrient transport to the fetus during pregnancy. Abnormal placental development can lead to pregnancy-associated disorders that often involve metabolic dysfunction. The scope of dysregulated metabolism during placental development may not be fully representative of the in vivo state in defined culture systems, such as cell lines or isolated primary cells...
November 4, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144883/what-was-once-essential-may-become-detrimental-the-mediating-role-of-depersonalization-in-the-relationship-between-childhood-emotional-maltreatment-and-psychological-distress-in-adults
#2
Aoife Ó Laoide, Jonathan Egan, Kristin Osborn
Depersonalization (DP) is a dissociative phenomenon, characterised by feeling "unreal" or detached from one's own emotions, thoughts and behaviour (APA, 2013). It is considered a defense mechanism, employed in response to overwhelming events, whereby thoughts and emotions are suppressed in order to enhance the individual's' capacity to function in traumatic environments. DP has been found to co-occur with anxiety and depressive disorders and childhood emotional maltreatment (EM) has been identified as an important predisposing factor...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143699/are-there-distinct-cognitive-and-motivational-sub-groups-of-children-with-adhd
#3
Rikke Lambek, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Rosemary Tannock, Anne Virring Sørensen, Dorte Damm, Per Hove Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is proposed to be a neuropsychologically heterogeneous disorder that encompasses two distinct sub-groups, one with executive function (EF) deficits and one with delay aversion (DA). However, such claims have often been based on studies that have operationalized neuropsychological deficits using a categorical approach - using intuitive but rather arbitrary, clinical cut-offs. The current study applied an alternative empirical approach to sub-grouping in ADHD, latent profile analysis (LPA), and attempted to validate emerging subgroups through clinically relevant correlates...
November 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141785/environmental-adversities-and-psychotic-symptoms-the-impact-of-timing-of-trauma-abuse-and-neglect
#4
Inga Schalinski, Susanne Breinlinger, Vanessa Hirt, Martin H Teicher, Michael Odenwald, Brigitte Rockstroh
BACKGROUND: Trauma and adverse childhood experiences (ACE) occur more often in mental illness, including psychosis, than in the general population. Individuals with psychosis (cases) report a higher number and severity (dose) of adversities than healthy controls. While a dose-dependent increase of adversities has been related to more severe psychopathology, the role of type and timing is still insufficiently understood on the exacerbation of positive and negative psychotic symptoms. Moreover, dissociative symptoms were examined as potential mediator between adversities and severity of psychotic symptoms...
November 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138643/interactions-of-desmethoxyyangonin-a-secondary-metabolite-from-renealmia-alpinia-with-human-monoamine-oxidase-a-and-oxidase-b
#5
Narayan D Chaurasiya, Francisco León, Yuanqing Ding, Isabel Gómez-Betancur, Dora Benjumea, Larry A Walker, Stephen J Cutler, Babu L Tekwani
Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae), a medicinal plant of tropical rainforests, is used to treat snakebites and other injuries and also as a febrifuge, analgesic, antiemetic, antiulcer, and anticonvulsant. The dichloromethane extract of R. alpinia leaves showed potent inhibition of human monoamine oxidases- (MAOs-) A and B. Phytochemical studies yielded six known compounds, including pinostrobin 1, 4'-methyl ether sakuranetin 2, sakuranetin 3, pinostrobin chalcone 4, yashabushidiol A 5, and desmethoxyyangonin 6...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138063/polyrotaxane-based-systemic-delivery-of-%C3%AE-cyclodextrins-for-potentiating-therapeutic-efficacy-in-a-mouse-model-of-niemann-pick-type-c-disease
#6
Atsushi Tamura, Nobuhiko Yui
Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a fatal metabolic disorder characterized by the lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol. Although 2-hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) promotes the excretion of cholesterol and prolongs the life span in animal models of NPC disease, it requires extremely high dose. We developed acid-labile β-CD-based polyrotaxanes (PRXs) comprising multiple β-CDs threaded along a polymer chain capped with acid-cleavable stopper molecules for potentiating therapeutic efficacy of β-CD in NPC disease...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134717/superior-colliculus-resting-state-networks-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#7
Isadora Olivé, Maria Densmore, Sherain Harricharan, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth Lanius
OBJECTIVES: The innate alarm system (IAS) models the neurocircuitry involved in threat processing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we investigate a primary subcortical structure of the IAS model, the superior colliculus (SC), where the SC is thought to contribute to the mechanisms underlying threat-detection in PTSD. Critically, the functional connectivity between the SC and other nodes of the IAS remains unexplored. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted a resting-state fMRI study to investigate the functional architecture of the IAS, focusing on connectivity of the SC in PTSD (n = 67), its dissociative subtype (n = 41), and healthy controls (n = 50) using region-of-interest seed-based analysis...
November 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128558/effects-of-35-carbon-dioxide-co2-inhalation-in-patients-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-cross-over-trial
#8
Michael Kellner, Christoph Muhtz, Sven Nowack, Irina Leichsenring, Klaus Wiedemann, Alexander Yassouridis
BACKGROUND: In patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) two open pilot studies about the effects of 35% carbon dioxide (CO2) exist. One shows an augmented panicogenic and anxiogenic response (Muhtz et al., 2011), the other does not (Talesnik et al. 2007). We further characterized the CO2 reactivity in PTSD using for the first time placebo-controlled and double-blind conditions. METHODS: In 20 patients with PTSD we assessed panic, anxiety, dissociative and PTSD symptoms after a single vital capacity inhalation of 35% CO2 compared to a placebo gas condition in a within-participant cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind and randomized design...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117869/frequency-of-use-of-the-international-classification-of-diseases-icd-10-diagnostic-categories-for-mental-and-behavioural-disorders-across-world-regions
#9
Y Faiad, B Khoury, S Daouk, M Maj, J Keeley, O Gureje, G Reed
AIMS: The study aimed to examine variations in the use of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10) diagnostic categories for mental and behavioural disorders across countries, regions and income levels using data from the online World Psychiatric Association (WPA)-World Health Organization (WHO) Global Survey that examined the attitudes of psychiatrists towards the classification of mental disorders. METHODS: A survey was sent to 46 psychiatric societies which are members of WPA...
November 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110341/hemin-and-bile-pigments-are-the-secondary-structure-regulators-of-intrinsically-disordered-antimicrobial-peptides
#10
Ferenc Zsila, Tünde Juhász, Szilvia Bősze, Kata Horváti, Tamás Beke-Somfai
The interaction of protoporphyrin compounds of human origin with the major bee venom component melittin (26 a.a., Z +6) and its hybrid derivative (CM15, 15 a.a., Z +6) were studied by a combination of various spectroscopic methods. Throughout a two-state, concentration-dependent process, hemin and its metabolites (biliverdin, bilirubin, bilirubin ditaurate) increase the parallel β-sheet content of the natively unfolded melittin, suggesting the oligomerization of the peptide chains. In contrast, α-helix promoting effect was observed with the also disordered but more cationic CM15...
November 7, 2017: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092782/psychopathological-constellation-in-patients-with-pnes-a-new-hypothesis
#11
Iolanda Martino, Antonella Bruni, Angelo Labate, Roberta Vasta, Antonio Cerasa, Giuseppe Borzì, Pasquale De Fazio, Antonio Gambardella
Depression symptoms have often reported in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), although the underlying psychopathological symptomatology has been poorly understood. Our aim was to compare constellations of psychological and behavioral disturbance in PNES with respect to patients with mild-major depressive disorder (MDD), hypothesizing that the construct of depression might be different in the two groups. Ten patients with PNES and ten sex-/age-matched patients with mild-MDD newly-diagnosed, were enrolled in this study...
October 29, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083550/dynamic-control-of-rsk-complexes-by-phosphoswitch-based-regulation
#12
Gergő Gógl, Beáta Biri-Kovács, Ádám Levente Póti, Henrietta Vadászi, Bálint Szeder, Andrea Bodor, Gitta Schlosser, András Ács, Lilla Turiák, László Buday, Anita Alexa, László Nyitray, Attila Reményi
Assembly and disassembly of protein-protein complexes needs to be dynamically controlled and phosphoswitches based upon linear motifs are crucial in this process. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) recognizes a linear binding motif at the C-terminal tail (CTT) of ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), leading to phosphorylation and subsequent activation of RSK1. The CTT also contains a classical PDZ domain binding motif which binds RSK substrates (e.g. MAGI-1). We show that autophosphorylation of the disordered CTT promotes the formation of an intramolecular charge clamp, which efficiently masks critical residues and indirectly hinders ERK binding...
October 30, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080475/an-electrophysiological-investigation-of-reinforcement-effects-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-dissociating-cue-sensitivity-from-down-stream-effects-on-target-engagement-and-performance
#13
Georgia Chronaki, Fruzsina Soltesz, Nicholas Benikos, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke
OBJECTIVE: Neural hypo-sensitivity to cues predicting positive reinforcement has been observed in ADHD using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Here we report the first study using an electrophysiological analogue of this task to distinguish between (i) cue related anticipation of reinforcement and downstream effects on (ii) target engagement and (iii) performance in a clinical sample of adolescents with ADHD and controls. METHODS: Thirty-one controls and 32 adolescents with ADHD aged 10-16 years performed the electrophysiological (e)-MID task - in which preparatory cues signal whether a response to an upcoming target will be reinforced or not - under three conditions; positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement (response cost) and no consequence (neutral)...
October 18, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080235/cortical-thickness-alterations-linked-to-somatoform-and-psychological-dissociation-in-functional-neurological-disorders
#14
David L Perez, Nassim Matin, Benjamin Williams, Kaloyan Tanev, Nikos Makris, W Curt LaFrance, Bradford C Dickerson
BACKGROUND: Links between dissociation and functional neurological disorder (FND)/conversion disorder are well-established, yet the pathophysiology of dissociation remains poorly understood. This MRI study investigated structural alterations associated with somatoform and psychological dissociation in FND. We hypothesized that multimodal, paralimbic cingulo-insular regions would relate to the severity of somatoform dissociation in patients with FND. METHODS: FreeSurfer cortical thickness and subcortical volumetric analyses were performed in 26 patients with motor FND and 27 matched healthy controls...
October 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079343/from-meaning-to-categorization-the-hierarchical-recruitment-of-brain-circuits-selective-for-action-verbs
#15
Riccardo Dalla Volta, Pietro Avanzini, Doriana De Marco, Maurizio Gentilucci, Maddalena Fabbri-Destro
Sensorimotor and affective brain systems are known to be involved in language processing. However, to date it is still debated whether this involvement is a crucial step of semantic processing or, on the contrary, it is dependent on the specific context or strategy adopted to solve a task at hand. The present electroencephalographic (EEG) study is aimed at investigating which brain circuits are engaged when processing written verbs. By aligning event-related potentials (ERPs) both to the verb onset and to the motor response indexing the accomplishment of a semantic task of categorization, we were able to dissociate the relative stimulus-related and response-related cognitive components at play, respectively...
October 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076084/dissecting-regulatory-mechanisms-using-mouse-fetal-liver-derived-erythroid-cells
#16
Skye C McIver, Kyle J Hewitt, Xin Gao, Charu Mehta, Jing Zhang, Emery H Bresnick
Multipotent hematopoietic stem cells differentiate into an ensemble of committed progenitor cells that produce the diverse blood cells essential for life. Physiological mechanisms governing hematopoiesis, and mechanistic aberrations underlying non-malignant and malignant hematologic disorders, are often very similar in mouse and man. Thus, mouse models provide powerful systems for unraveling mechanisms that control hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) function in their resident microenvironments in vivo...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074966/mutation-specific-mechanisms-of-hyperactivation-of-noonan-syndrome-sos-molecules-detected-with-single-molecule-imaging-in-living-cells
#17
Yuki Nakamura, Nobuhisa Umeki, Mitsuhiro Abe, Yasushi Sako
Noonan syndrome (NS) is a congenital hereditary disorder associated with developmental and cardiac defects. Some patients with NS carry mutations in SOS, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPase RAS. NS mutations have been identified not only in the GEF domain, but also in various domains of SOS, suggesting that multiple mechanisms disrupt SOS function. In this study, we examined three NS mutations in different domains of SOS to clarify the abnormality in its translocation to the plasma membrane, where SOS activates RAS...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065958/dissociation-of-objective-and-subjective-daytime-sleepiness-and-biomarkers-of-systemic-inflammation-in-sleep-disordered-breathing-and-systolic-heart-failure
#18
Reena Mehra, Lu Wang, Noah Andrews, W H Wilson Tang, James B Young, Shahrokh Javaheri, Nancy Foldvary-Schaefer
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Subjective versus objective sleepiness in heart failure (HF) remains understudied; therefore, we sought to examine the association of these measures and interrelationships with biochemical markers. METHODS: Participants with stable systolic HF recruited from a clinic-based program underwent attended polysomnography, Multiple Sleep Latency Testing, questionnaire data collection including Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and morning phlebotomy for biochemical markers...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063485/the-dissociative-subtype-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-research-update-on-clinical-and-neurobiological-features
#19
Jytte van Huijstee, Eric Vermetten
Recently, a dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been included in the DSM-5. This review focuses on the clinical and neurobiological features that distinguish the dissociative subtype of PTSD from non-dissociative PTSD. Clinically, the dissociative subtype of PTSD is associated with high PTSD severity, predominance of derealization and depersonalization symptoms, a more significant history of early life trauma, and higher levels of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, PTSD patients with dissociative symptoms exhibit different psychophysiological and neural responses to the recall of traumatic memories...
October 21, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061112/iron-regulatory-protein-irp-iron-responsive-element-ire-signaling-pathway-in-human-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Zhi Dong Zhou, Eng-King Tan
The homeostasis of iron is vital to human health, and iron dyshomeostasis can lead to various disorders. Iron homeostasis is maintained by iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) and the iron-responsive element (IRE) signaling pathway. IRPs can bind to RNA stem-loops containing an IRE in the untranslated region (UTR) to manipulate translation of target mRNA. However, iron can bind to IRPs, leading to the dissociation of IRPs from the IRE and altered translation of target transcripts. Recently an IRE is found in the 5'-UTR of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and α-synuclein (α-Syn) transcripts...
October 23, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
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