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Dissociative disorders

Rebecca L Barlow, Martin Gorges, Alfie Wearn, Heiko G Niessen, Jan Kassubek, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
Background: Low dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) shell is associated with highly-impulsive behavior in rats, as measured by premature responses in a cued attentional task. However, it is unclear whether dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb is equally linked to intolerance for delayed rewards, a related form of impulsivity. Methods: We investigated the relationship between D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb and impulsivity in a delay-discounting task (DDT) where animals must choose between immediate small-magnitude rewards and delayed larger-magnitude rewards...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Safwat Y Diab, Sanna Isosävi, Samir R Qouta, Saija Kuittinen, Raija-Leena Punamäki
BACKGROUND: Women at pre partum and post partum are especially susceptible to war trauma because they struggle to protect their infants from danger. Trauma research suggests increased problems in maternal mental health and infant development. Yet many cognitive-emotional processes affect the trauma survivors' mental health, such as post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition. The aim of this study was to examine whether a mother's high post-traumatic growth and optimal post-traumatic cognition could protect their own mental health and their infant's stress regulation from the effects of traumatic war experiences...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Aiko Machiya, Sho Tsukamoto, Satoshi Ohte, Mai Kuratani, Mai Fujimoto, Keigo Kumagai, Kenji Osawa, Naoto Suda, Alex N Bullock, Takenobu Katagiri
Various substitution mutations in ALK2, a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), have been identified in patients with genetic disorders such as fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) and heart defects. In this study, we characterized the ALK2 mutants R258G, G328V and F246Y, which were identified in patients with severe FOP, DIPG and unusual hereditary skeletal dysplasia, respectively. Both R258G and G328V were gain-of-function mutations, but F246Y was equivalent to wild-type ALK2...
March 15, 2018: Bone
Francesca Zanderigo, Spiro Pantazatos, Harry Rubin-Falcone, R Todd Ogden, Binod Thapa Chhetry, Gregory Sullivan, Maria Oquendo, Jeffrey M Miller, J John Mann
Serotonin 1A (5-HT1A ) receptors mediate serotonin trophic role in brain neurogenesis. Gray matter volume (GMV) loss and 5-HT1A receptor binding alterations have been identified in major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we investigated the relationship between 5-HT1A receptor binding and GMV in 40 healthy controls (HCs) and, for the first time, 47 antidepressant-free MDD patients using Voxel-Based Morphometry and [11 C]WAY100635 Positron Emission Tomography. Values of GMV and 5-HT1A binding (expressed as BPF , one of the types of binding potentials that refer to displaceable or specific binding that can be quantified in vivo with PET) were obtained in 13 regions of interest, including raphe, and at the voxel level...
March 17, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Peter Weber, Rahel Erlacher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Ashley A Yttredahl, Erin McRobert, Benjamin Sheler, Brian J Mickey, Tiffany M Love, Scott A Langenecker, Jon-Kar Zubieta, David T Hsu
INTRODUCTION: Responding adaptively to one's social environment is a key factor predicting the course of major depressive disorder (MDD). Socially rejecting events can exacerbate, whereas socially accepting events can ameliorate depressive symptoms. The neural responses to rejection and acceptance in MDD are relatively unexplored. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure neural responses to romantic rejection and acceptance in women diagnosed with current MDD (n = 19) and a matched group of healthy controls (HCs) (n = 19)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Fabien Cignetti, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Aurelie Fontan, Marianne Jover, Marie-Odile Livet, Catherine Hugonenq, Frédérique Audic, Brigitte Chabrol, Christine Assaiante
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Feedforward and online controls are two facets of predictive motor control from internal models, which is suspected to be impaired in learning disorders. We examined whether the feedforward component is affected in children (8-12 years) with developmental dyslexia (DD) and/or with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) compared to typically developing (TD) children. METHODS: Children underwent a bimanual unloading paradigm during which a load supported to one arm, the postural arm, was either unexpectedly unloaded by a computer or voluntary unloaded by the subject with the other arm...
March 13, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Julian D Ford, Ruby Charak, Crosby A Modrowski, Patricia K Kerig
Polyvictimization (PV) has been shown to be associated with psychosocial and behavioral impairment in community and high risk populations, including youth involved in juvenile justice. However, the mechanisms accounting for these adverse outcomes have not been empirically delineated. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociation are documented sequelae of PV and are associated with a wide range of behavioral/emotional problems. This study used a cross-sectional research design and bootstrapped multiple mediation analyses with self-report measures completed by a large sample of justice-involved youth (N = 809, ages 12-19 years old, 27% female, 46...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Maj Hansen, Philip Hyland, Cherie Armour, Tonny E Andersen
Numerous studies investigating dissociative posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD) have emerged. However, there is a lack of studies investigating D-PTSD following a wider range of traumatic exposure. Thus, the present study investigates D-PTSD using latent class analysis (LCA) in sub-acute patients of whiplash and associated risk factors. The results of LCA showed a three-class solution primarily distributed according to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and thus no indication of D-PTSD...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Stoyan Popkirov, Vera Flasbeck, Uwe Schlegel, Georg Juckel, Martin Brüne
Frontal EEG asymmetry (FEA) has been studied as both state and trait parameter in emotion regulation and affective disorders. Its significance in borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains largely unknown. Twenty-six BPD patients and 26 healthy controls underwent EEG before and after mood induction using aversive images. A slight but significant shift from left- to right-sided asymmetry over prefrontal electrodes occurred across all subjects. In BPD baseline FEA over F7 and F8 correlated significantly with childhood trauma and functional neurological "conversion" symptoms as assessed by respective questionnaires...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Rachel R Horsley, Tomáš Páleníček, Jan Kolin, Karel Valeš
Short-term moderate doses of serotonergic and dissociative hallucinogens can be useful in the treatment of anxiety. Recently, a trend has developed for long-term intermittent 'microdosing' (usually one-tenth of a 'full' active dose), with reports of long-lasting relief from anxiety and related disorders; however, there is no scientific evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic microdosing nor to show its lasting effects. The objective of this study was to test for lasting effects on anxiety in rats after microdosing with ketamine or psilocin...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Gordon Parker, Stacey McCraw, Adam Bayes
OBJECTIVES: To determine if differing developmental factors show specificity to differing manifestations of borderline personality disorder (BPD). METHODS: A clinical sample of 73 females diagnosed with BPD undertook a psychiatrist interview and completed self-report questionnaires, including the semi-structured Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (DIPD-IV) assessing for BPD status. A set of negative and potentially traumatic developmental factors were included in the assessment...
March 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Patricia Santofimia-Castaño, Bruno Rizzuti, Olga Abián, Adrián Velázquez-Campoy, Juan L Iovanna, José L Neira
BACKGROUND: NUPR1 is a multifunctional intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) involved, among other functions, in chromatin remodelling, and development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). It interacts with several biomolecules through hydrophobic patches around residues Ala33 and Thr68. The drug trifluoperazine (TFP), which hampers PDAC development in xenografted mice, also binds to those regions. Because of the large size of the hot-spot interface of NUPR1, small molecules could not be adequate to modulate its functions...
March 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Louis Sass, Juan P Borda, Luis Madeira, Elizabeth Pienkos, Barnaby Nelson
The self-disorder model offers a unifying way of conceptualizing schizophrenia's highly diverse symptoms (positive, negative, disorganized), of capturing their distinctive bizarreness, and of conceiving their longitudinal development. These symptoms are viewed as differing manifestations of an underlying disorder of ipseity or core-self: hyper-reflexivity/diminished-self-presence with accompanying disturbances of "grip" or "hold" on reality. Recent revision to this phenomenological theory, in particular distinguishing primary-vs-secondary factors, offers a bio-pheno-social model that is consistent with recent empirical findings and offers several advantages: (1) It helps account for the temporal variations of the symptoms or syndrome, including longitudinal progression, but also the shorter-term, situationally reactive, and sometimes defensive or quasi-intentional variability of symptom-expression that can occur in schizophrenia (consistent with understanding some aspects of ipseity-disturbance as dynamic and mutable, involving shifting attitudes or experiential orientations)...
February 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Masaya Misaki, Raquel Phillips, Vadim Zotev, Chung-Ki Wong, Brent E Wurfel, Frank Krueger, Matthew Feldner, Jerzy Bodurka
Altered resting-state functional connectivity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests neuropathology of the disorder. While seed-based fMRI connectivity analysis is often used for the studies, such analysis requires defining a seed location a priori , which restricts search scope and could bias findings toward presupposed areas. Recently, a comprehensive exploratory voxel-wise connectivity analysis, the connectome-wide association approach, has been introduced using multivariate distance matrix regression (MDMR) for resting-state functional connectivity analysis...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Jan Ilhan Kizilhan
Research into the psychological consequences of rape on women in war and warlike situations is limited. The aims of this study were (a) to describe the prevalence and the nature of PTSD symptoms among Yazidi women reporting rape during IS captivity, (b) to describe comorbidity of other psychological disorders, and (c) to examine the risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder.The study included 296 Yazidi women survivors of rape and has been conducted in Germany since January 2016 as part of a special-quota project in the German region of Baden-Wuerttemberg, designed to support the women and children who have escaped after being held hostage by IS...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Ania Justo, Alicia Risso, Andrew Moskowitz, Anabel Gonzalez
This article describes the conclusions of an investigation done with 120 Spanish patients: the finding of a new psychopathological profile within a subgroup of patients suffering from schizophrenia. The patients were evaluated through different questionnaires about sociodemographic data, traumatic events, the severity index (both clinical and psychopathological), self-esteem and consciousness of the illness. From the scores obtained on a scale of dissociative experiences, they were classified into two groups: high dissociative symptomatology or HD, and low dissociative symptomatology or LD...
March 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
R J T Mocking, J Assies, H G Ruhé, A H Schene
Continuous research into the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and schizophrenia, suggests an important role for metabolism. This narrative review will provide an up-to-date summary of how metabolism is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of these psychiatric disorders. We will focus on (I) the important role of fatty acids in these metabolic alterations, (II) whether fatty acid alterations represent epiphenomena or risk factors, and (III) similarities and dissociations in fatty acid alterations between different psychiatric disorders...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Michele Torrisi, Adriana Piccolo, Rosaria De Luca, Matteo Berenati, Antonella Olivo, Giuseppa Maresca, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Disorder of consciousness (DOC) can be either an acute and reversible condition or a chronic condition, including vegetative state or minimally conscious state. Herein, we describe a patient who has unexpectedly recovered consciousness after being in a misdiagnosed vegetative state for a long period. A 63-year-old woman was admitted to our rehabilitation center in vegetative state (Coma Recovery Scale-Revised score, 6) and treated with a standard rehabilitation program, including physical therapy and multisensory stimulation, besides psychoactive drugs...
April 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Sang-Woo Lee, Seung-Jae Lee
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a disorder of reversible vasogenic brain edema which mainly involves the parieto-occipital lobes in various clinical settings. The main mechanism is known to be cerebral autoregulation failure and endothelial dysfunction leading to the disruption of the blood-brain barrier. We report the case of a 47-year-old woman with PRES which involved the brain stem and thalami, sparing the cerebral hemispheres. She was admitted to the emergency room because of acute-onset confusion...
January 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
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