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Dissociative disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547925/blockade-of-the-dissociation-of-nmmhc-iia-from-tnfr2-by-d39-a-saponin-from-liriope-muscari-suppresses-tissue-factor-expression-and-venous-thrombosis
#1
Ke-Feng Zhai, Jin-Rong Zheng, You-Mei Tang, Fang Li, Yan-Ni Lv, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Zhen Gao, Jin Qi, Bo-Yang Yu, Jun-Ping Kou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Non-muscular myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC IIA) has been demonstrated to play a key role in tissue factor (TF) expression and venous thrombosis. However, whether natural products could inhibit thrombosis via NMMHC IIA remains unclear. In this study, we identified that a representative natural saponin D39 from Liriope muscari showed anti-thrombotic activity by targeting NMMHC IIA. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: TF expression and activity in endothelial cells were analysed in vitro by western blot and simplified chromogenic assays...
May 26, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545341/interidentity-amnesia-in-dissociative-identity-disorder
#2
John Morton
INTRODUCTION: Patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder (DID) usually present with alternative personality states (alters) who take separate control of consciousness. Commonly, one alter will claim they have no awareness of events which took place when another alter was in control. However, some kinds of material are transferred across the alter boundary. Huntjens et al. devised an objective method of demonstrating such transfer. METHODS: In the main study, following Huntjens et al...
May 25, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540038/effectiveness-of-paliperidone-depot-injection-in-seriously-violent-men-with-comorbid-schizophrenia-and-dissocial-personality-disorder-in-a-uk-high-security-hospital
#3
Anna-Marie Mortlock, Fintan Larkin, Callum C Ross, Nitin Gupta, Samrat Sengupta, Mrigendra Das
BACKGROUND: High-security hospital patients are often complex in presentation and are characterized by treatment resistance, medication nonadherence and history of violence. Paliperidone is licensed both as an oral and depot antipsychotic medication in the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical trials have shown that paliperidone depot is well tolerated with similar efficacy to risperidone depot but with additional practical advantages. Whilst data exist for the effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate (PP), there are no studies involving patients in forensic settings or those with comorbid personality disorder...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537850/predictors-of-clinical-outcomes-in-sexually-abused-adolescents
#4
Lotem Tocker, Galit Ben-Amitay, Netta Horesh-Reinman, Michal Lask, Paz Toren
This cross-sectional, case control study examines the association between child sexual abuse and interpersonal and intrapersonal outcomes among 54 adolescents, examining specific clinical measures (depression, anxiety, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder, attachment patterns, self-esteem, self-disclosure, and family environment characteristics). The research results point to a correlation between sexual abuse and higher levels of the clinical measures. In addition, a correlation was found between sexual abuse and level of avoidant attachment, self-esteem, and family environment characteristics...
May 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535406/anhedonia-predicts-poor-psychosocial-functioning-results-from-a-large-cohort-of-patients-treated-for-major-depressive-disorder-by-general-practitioners
#5
F Vinckier, D Gourion, S Mouchabac
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia is a core symptom of major depression and a key prognostic factor that is often poorly explored in clinical trials of major depressive disorder (MDD). Beyond symptomatic remission, psychosocial functioning also reveals difficulty in achieving remission in patients with MDD. The main objective of this study was to explore the interrelationships between social functioning and anhedonia on a longitudinal basis. METHODS: In total, 1570 outpatients treated for MDD with agomelatine were included...
March 8, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532347/strabismus-and-the-oculomotor-system-insights-from-macaque-models
#6
Vallabh E Das
Disrupting binocular vision in infancy leads to strabismus and oftentimes to a variety of associated visual sensory deficits and oculomotor abnormalities. Investigation of this disorder has been aided by the development of various animal models, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. In comparison to studies of binocular visual responses in cortical structures, investigations of neural oculomotor structures that mediate the misalignment and abnormalities of eye movements have been more recent, and these studies have shown that different brain areas are intimately involved in driving several aspects of the strabismic condition, including horizontal misalignment, dissociated deviations, A and V patterns of strabismus, disconjugate eye movements, nystagmus, and fixation switch...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527315/longitudinal-decline-in-speech-production-in-parkinson-s-disease-spectrum-disorders
#7
Sharon Ash, Charles Jester, Collin York, Olga L Kofman, Rachel Langey, Amy Halpin, Kim Firn, Sophia Dominguez Perez, Lama Chahine, Meredith Spindler, Nabila Dahodwala, David J Irwin, Corey McMillan, Daniel Weintraub, Murray Grossman
We examined narrative speech production longitudinally in non-demented (n=15) and mildly demented (n=8) patients with Parkinson's disease spectrum disorder (PDSD), and we related increasing impairment to structural brain changes in specific language and motor regions. Patients provided semi-structured speech samples, describing a standardized picture at two time points (mean±SD interval=38±24months). The recorded speech samples were analyzed for fluency, grammar, and informativeness. PDSD patients with dementia exhibited significant decline in their speech, unrelated to changes in overall cognitive or motor functioning...
May 17, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526931/reduced-amygdala-reactivity-and-impaired-working-memory-during-dissociation-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#8
Annegret Krause-Utz, Dorina Winter, Friederike Schriner, Chui-De Chiu, Stefanie Lis, Philip Spinhoven, Martin Bohus, Christian Schmahl, Bernet M Elzinga
Affective hyper-reactivity and impaired cognitive control of emotional material are core features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). A high percentage of individuals with BPD experience stress-related dissociation, including emotional numbing and memory disruptions. So far little is known about how dissociation influences the neural processing of emotional material in the context of a working memory task in BPD. We aimed to investigate whole-brain activity and amygdala functional connectivity (FC) during an Emotional Working Memory Task (EWMT) after dissociation induction in un-medicated BPD patients compared to healthy controls (HC)...
May 19, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525735/structure-based-rational-design-of-self-inhibitory-peptides-to-disrupt-the-intermolecular-interaction-between-the-troponin-subunits-c-and-i-in-neuropathic-pain
#9
Junmin Yu, Shilei Wang, Junjie Yu, Chuansheng Liu, Fenghe Xu, Shijie Wang, Yusheng Yi, Yanwei Yin
The troponin (Tn) is a ternary complex consisting of three subunits TnC, TnI and TnT; molecular disruption of the Tn complex has been recognized as an attractive strategy against neuropathic pain. Here, a self-inhibitory peptide is stripped from the switch region of TnI interaction interface with TnC, which is considered as a lead molecular entity and then used to generate potential peptide disruptors of TnC-TnI interaction based on a rational molecular design protocol. The region is a helical peptide segment capped by N- and C-terminal disorders...
May 3, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525601/too-fast-or-too-slow-time-and-neuronal-variability-in-bipolar-disorder-a-combined-theoretical-and-empirical-investigation
#10
Georg Northoff, Paola Magioncalda, Matteo Martino, Hsin-Chien Lee, Ying-Chi Tseng, Timothy Lane
Time is an essential feature in bipolar disorder (BP). Manic and depressed BP patients perceive the speed of time as either too fast or too slow. The present article combines theoretical and empirical approaches to integrate phenomenological, psychological, and neuroscientific accounts of abnormal time perception in BP. Phenomenology distinguishes between perception of inner time, ie, self-time, and outer time, ie, world-time, that desynchronize or dissociate from each other in BP: inner time speed is abnormally slow (as in depression) or fast (as in mania) and, by taking on the role as default-mode function, impacts and modulates the perception of outer time speed in an opposite way, ie, as too fast in depression and too slow in mania...
May 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515474/blunted-ambiguity-aversion-during-cost-benefit-decisions-in-antisocial-individuals
#11
Joshua W Buckholtz, Uma Karmarkar, Shengxuan Ye, Grace M Brennan, Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Antisocial behavior is often assumed to reflect aberrant risk processing. However, many of the most significant forms of antisocial behavior, including crime, reflect the outcomes of decisions made under conditions of ambiguity rather than risk. While risk and ambiguity are formally distinct and experimentally dissociable, little is known about ambiguity sensitivity in individuals who engage in chronic antisocial behavior. We used a financial decision-making task in a high-risk community-based sample to test for associations between sensitivity to ambiguity, antisocial behavior, and arrest history...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512561/bone-marrow-homing-and-engraftment-defects-of-human-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#12
REVIEW
Giovanni Caocci, Marianna Greco, Giorgio La Nasa
Homing of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to their microenvironment niches in the bone marrow is a complex process with a critical role in repopulation of the bone marrow after transplantation. This active process allows for migration of HSC from peripheral blood and their successful anchoring in bone marrow before proliferation. The process of engraftment starts with the onset of proliferation and must, therefore, be functionally dissociated from the former process. In this overview, we analyze the characteristics of stem cells (SCs) with particular emphasis on their plasticity and ability to find their way home to the bone marrow...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511823/dissociation-and-conversion-symptoms-in-dermatology
#13
Madhulika A Gupta, Branka Vujcic, Aditya K Gupta
Dissociation and conversion (defined as the somatic component of dissociation) can play an important mediating role in the exacerbation of the stress-reactive dermatoses (eg, psoriasis, idiopathic urticaria, atopic dermatitis), dermatoses that are exacerbated by excessive scratching (eg, lichen simplex chronicus, prurigo nodularis) and koebnerization, and the self-induced dermatoses (dermatitis artefacta, acne excoriée, skin picking disorder, trichotillomania, onychotillomania/onychophagia). Dissociative symptoms often coexist with obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the more severe cases of the self-induced dermatoses...
May 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511822/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-and-the-dermatology-patient
#14
Madhulika A Gupta, Patricia Jarosz, Aditya K Gupta
Dermatologic symptoms can be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in several situations: (1) as features of some core PTSD symptoms, such as intrusion symptoms manifesting as cutaneous sensory flashbacks, as autonomic arousal manifesting as night sweats and idiopathic urticaria, and as dissociation manifesting as numbness and dermatitis artefacta; (2) the cutaneous psychosomatic effects of emotional and physical neglect and sexual abuse (eg, infantile eczema, cutaneous self-injury, and body-focused repetitive behaviors such as trichotillomania and skin picking disorder) and eating disorders, which can have dermatologic effects; (3) the direct effect of physical or sexual abuse or catastrophic life events (eg, earthquakes) on the skin; and (4) as a result of significant alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympatho-adrenal medullary axes, which can affect neuroendocrine and immune functions, and can lead to exacerbations of stress-reactive inflammatory dermatoses such as psoriasis, chronic urticaria, and atopic dermatitis...
May 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509664/reliability-of-the-dissociative-trance-disorder-interview-schedule-a-preliminary-report
#15
Colin A Ross, Eli Somer, Caitlin Goode
One hundred inpatients in a hospital-based Trauma Program in the United States were interviewed with the Dissociative Trance Disorder Interview Schedule (DTDIS). There were no significant differences for the DTDIS total score or any of the subscale scores on test-retest: all t values comparing the two administrations of the DTDIS were below 0.7, and all p values were above 0.5. Cronbach's alpha for the US sample was .966 and for the Israeli sample it was .971. The findings indicate that the DTDIS has good reliability and may be suitable for use in cross-cultural research, however the results require replication by independent researchers in a variety of cultures and languages, and in both clinical and non-clinical samples...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505586/oscillatory-magnetic-brain-activity-is-related-to-dissociative-symptoms-and-childhood-adversities-a-study-in-women-with-multiple-trauma
#16
I Schalinski, J K Moran, T Elbert, V Reindl, C Wienbruch
BACKGROUND: Individuals with trauma-related disorders are complex and heterogeneous; part of this complexity derives from additional psychopathology like dissociation as well as environmental adversities such as traumatic stress, experienced throughout the lifespan. Understanding the neurophysiological abnormalities in Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) requires a simultaneous consideration of these factors. METHODS: Resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were obtained from 41 women with PTSD and comorbid depressive symptoms, and 16 healthy women...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504853/deriving-icd-11-personality-disorder-domains-from-dsm-5-traits-initial-attempt-to-harmonize-two-diagnostic-systems
#17
B Bach, M Sellbom, M Kongerslev, E Simonsen, R F Krueger, R Mulder
OBJECTIVE: The personality disorder domains proposed for the ICD-11 comprise Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Dissociality, Disinhibition, and Anankastia, which are reasonably concordant with the higher-order trait domains in the Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders. METHOD: We examined (i) whether designated DSM-5 trait facets can be used to describe the proposed ICD-11 trait domains, and (ii) how these ICD-11 trait features are hierarchically organized...
May 15, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500272/probing-the-lithium-response-pathway-in-hipscs-implicates-the-phosphoregulatory-set-point-for-a-cytoskeletal-modulator-in-bipolar-pathogenesis
#18
Brian T D Tobe, Andrew M Crain, Alicia M Winquist, Barbara Calabrese, Hiroko Makihara, Wen-Ning Zhao, Jasmin Lalonde, Haruko Nakamura, Glenn Konopaske, Michelle Sidor, Cameron D Pernia, Naoya Yamashita, Moyuka Wada, Yuuka Inoue, Fumio Nakamura, Steven D Sheridan, Ryan W Logan, Michael Brandel, Dongmei Wu, Joshua Hunsberger, Laurel Dorsett, Cordulla Duerr, Ranor C B Basa, Michael J McCarthy, Namrata D Udeshi, Philipp Mertins, Steven A Carr, Guy A Rouleau, Lina Mastrangelo, Jianxue Li, Gustavo J Gutierrez, Laurence M Brill, Nikolaos Venizelos, Guang Chen, Jeffrey S Nye, Husseini Manji, Jeffrey H Price, Colleen A McClung, Hagop S Akiskal, Martin Alda, De-Maw M Chuang, Joseph T Coyle, Yang Liu, Yang D Teng, Toshio Ohshima, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Richard L Sidman, Shelley Halpain, Stephen J Haggarty, Yoshio Goshima, Evan Y Snyder
The molecular pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BPD) is poorly understood. Using human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to unravel such mechanisms in polygenic diseases is generally challenging. However, hiPSCs from BPD patients responsive to lithium offered unique opportunities to discern lithium's target and hence gain molecular insight into BPD. By profiling the proteomics of BDP-hiPSC-derived neurons, we found that lithium alters the phosphorylation state of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2)...
May 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496951/can-aptameric-ligands-specific-to-plasma-coagulation-factor-vii-bind-the-recombinant-form-with-high-affinity-affinity-measurement-by-fluorescence-method
#19
Maryam Tabarzad, Marzieh Jafari, Nastaran Nafissi-Varcheh
BACKGROUND: Among diverse protein purification systems, affinity chromatography is the most attractive one in the purification process of coagulation factors. Coagulation factor VII is a plasma serine protease that has a significant role in natural human hemostasis and its recombinant form such as AryoSeven(™), has been applied in clinical treatment of bleeding disorders. Immunoaffinity chromatography is the purification method of choice that is currently applied in the development of coagulation factor VIIa products...
April 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496375/revisiting-the-etiological-aspects-of-dissociative-identity-disorder-a-biopsychosocial-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Vedat Şar, Martin J Dorahy, Christa Krüger
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a chronic post-traumatic disorder where developmentally stressful events in childhood, including abuse, emotional neglect, disturbed attachment, and boundary violations are central and typical etiological factors. Familial, societal, and cultural factors may give rise to the trauma and/or they may influence the expression of DID. Memory and the construction of self-identity are cognitive processes that appear markedly and centrally disrupted in DID and are related to its etiology...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
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