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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743542/the-endocannabinoid-system-expression-in-the-female-reproductive-tract-is-modulated-by-estrogen
#1
J Maia, M Almada, A Silva, G Correia-da-Silva, N Teixeira, S I Sá, B M Fonseca
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in several physiological events that resulted in a growing interest in its modulation. Moreover, the uterine levels of anandamide (AEA), the major endocannabinoid, must be tightly regulated to create proper embryo implantation conditions. However, there are no evidences about the regulation of AEA in uterus by estrogen. Thus, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether estradiol benzoate (EB) and tamoxifen (TAM) administration to ovariectomized (OVX) rats can induce changes in the expression of cannabinoid receptors and AEA-metabolic enzymes in uterus by evaluating gene transcription and protein levels by qPCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696810/mitochondrial-dna-variations-are-associated-with-recurrent-pregnancy-loss
#2
Ali Azadi, Dong Joo Seo, Hannaneh Jafari Sasansara, Michael Van Haute
Cases with three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions before the 20th week of gestation are termed as recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Problems in implantation of the foetus and any retarded growth of the foetus in the uterus can be correlated to RPL. Possible causes of RPL would include the genetic variations in the regulatory enzymes of the crucial metabolic pathways, clotting factors, hormones and hormone receptors. This defect of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is recognized as a major cause of human disease...
July 11, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555957/diethylhexyl-phthalate-magnifies-deposition-of-14-c-bisphenol-a-in-reproductive-tissues-of-mice
#3
Evan D Borman, Nicholas Vecchi, Tyler Pollock, Denys deCatanzaro
Endocrine disrupting chemicals are found in diverse common products, including cosmetics, food packaging, thermal receipt paper and plastic containers. This exposes most people in developed countries through ingestion, skin absorption and inhalation. Two ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) can interact in disrupting blastocyst implantation in inseminated females. We hypothesized that DEHP might increase the bioavailability of BPA in tissues by competing for metabolic enzymes...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336389/metformin-ameliorates-uterine-defects-in-a-rat-model-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#4
Yuehui Zhang, Min Hu, Fanci Meng, Xiaoyan Sun, Hongfei Xu, Jiao Zhang, Peng Cui, Njomeza Morina, Xin Li, Wei Li, Xiao-Ke Wu, Mats Brännström, Ruijin Shao, Håkan Billig
Adult rats treated concomitantly with insulin and human chorionic gonadotropin exhibit endocrine, metabolic, and reproductive abnormalities that are very similar to those observed in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. In this study, we used this rat model to assess the effects of metformin on PCOS-related uterine dysfunction. In addition to reducing androgen levels, improving insulin sensitivity, and correcting the reproductive cycle, metformin treatment induced morphological changes in the PCOS-like uterus...
April 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760751/phospholipid-profile-and-distribution-in-the-receptive-oviduct-and-uterus-during-early-diestrus-in-cattle
#5
Katia Roberta A Belaz, Alessandra Tata, Moana R França, Maressa I Santos da Silva, Pedro Henrique Vendramini, Anna Maria A P Fernandes, Fábio L D'Alexandri, Marcos N Eberlin, Mario Binelli
Phospholipid metabolism and signaling influences on early pregnancy events in cattle are unknown. This study aimed to characterize global phospholipid composition of oviduct and uterus during early diestrus in a model of contrasting embryo receptivity. Beef cows were treated to ovulate a larger (LF-LCL group, associated with greater receptivity) or smaller (SF-SCL group) follicle and, consequently, to present greater or smaller plasma concentrations of estradiol during proestrus-estrus, as well as progesterone during early diestrus...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758953/absorption-and-distribution-of-estradiol-from-male-seminal-emissions-during-mating
#6
Denys deCatanzaro, Tyler Pollock
Estradiol-17β (E2) plays critical roles in female maturation, sexual receptivity, ovulation and fertility. In many mammals, contact with males can similarly affect these female parameters, whereas male excretions contain significant quantities of E2 We administered radiolabeled estradiol ([(3)H]E2) to male mice in doses representing a small fraction of their endogenous E2 These males were paired with sexually receptive females, and radioactivity was traced into the females' systems. In Experiment 1, males were given [(3)H]E2 at 24 and 1 h before mating...
December 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638325/triclosan-elevates-estradiol-levels-in-serum-and-tissues-of-cycling-and-peri-implantation-female-mice
#7
Tyler Pollock, Lucas J Greville, Brandon Tang, Denys deCatanzaro
Triclosan, an antimicrobial agent added to personal care products, can modulate estrogenic actions. We investigated whether triclosan affects concentrations of exogenous and endogenous estradiol. Female mice were given injections of triclosan followed by 1μCi tritium-labeled estradiol. Mice given daily 2-mg triclosan doses (57.9mg/kg/dose) showed significantly elevated radioactivity in tissues and serum compared to controls. A single dose of 1 or 2mg triclosan increased radioactivity in the uterus in both cycling and peri-implantation females...
October 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348627/functional-expression-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-on-mast-cells-populating-human-endometriotic-tissues
#8
Laura Mariuzzi, Rossana Domenis, Maria Orsaria, Stefania Marzinotto, Ambrogio P Londero, Michela Bulfoni, Veronica Candotti, Andrea Zanello, Maurizio Ballico, Maria C Mimmi, Angelo Calcagno, Diego Marchesoni, Carla Di Loreto, Antonio P Beltrami, Daniela Cesselli, Giorgia Gri
Endometriosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue outside the uterus. A diffuse infiltration of mast cells (MCs) is observed throughout endometriotic lesions, but little is known about how these cells contribute to the network of molecules that modulate the growth of ectopic endometrial implants and promote endometriosis-associated inflammation. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor known to respond to environmental toxins and endogenous compounds, is present in MCs...
September 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26987819/uterine-prx2-restrains-decidual-differentiation-through-inhibiting-lipolysis-in-mice
#9
Yufei Jiang, Shuangbo Kong, Bo He, Bingyan Wang, Haibin Wang, Jinhua Lu
Uterine decidualization, characterized as extensive stromal cell proliferation, differentiation and polyploidization, is a crucial event for successful pregnancy and is tightly regulated by many different molecules and pathways. Prx2, an evolutionarily conserved homeobox transcription factor expressed in both embryos and adults, plays an important role during mesenchymal cell differentiation. However, it remains unclear what the exact function of Prx2 is in the uterine stromal cells, one type of mesenchymal cells...
August 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26776288/-pregnancy-associated-hormones-and-fetal-maternal-relations
#10
REVIEW
E Gailly-Fabre, V Kerlan, S Christin-Maitre
Pregnancy is an immunological paradox that implies that a semi-allogeneic fetus is not rejected by the maternal immune system, from implantation of the embryo to delivery. Progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), contribute to the transformation of immune cells in a transient tolerance state, necessary to the maintenance of pregnancy. The effects of pregnancy hormones depend probably of their maternal plasma level. hCG is dangerous at high concentrations because it can stimulate autoantibodies production, whereas in physiological concentrations, hCG, P4 and E2 upregulate immune response expanding regulatory T and B cells, allowing the fetus to grow within the maternal uterus in a protective environment...
October 2015: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26450499/pregnancy-recognition-and-implantation-of-the-conceptus-in-the-mare
#11
REVIEW
Claudia Klein
Few, if any, biological processes are as diverse among domestic species as establishment of early pregnancy, in particular maternal recognition of pregnancy. Following fertilization and initial development in the mare oviduct, selective transport of the embryo through the uterotubal junction driven by embryo-derived PGE2 occurs. Upon arrival in the uterus, an acellular glycoprotein capsule is formed that covers the embryo, blastocyst, and conceptus (embryo and associated extraembryonic membranes) between the second and third weeks of pregnancy...
2015: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26290006/maternal-n-carbamylglutamate-supplementation-during-early-pregnancy-enhances-embryonic-survival-and-development-through-modulation-of-the-endometrial-proteome-in-gilts
#12
Jinlong Zhu, Xiangfang Zeng, Qian Peng, Shenming Zeng, Haiyi Zhao, Hexiao Shen, Shiyan Qiao
BACKGROUND: Early pregnancy loss is a major concern in humans and animals. N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) has been found to enhance embryonic survival during early pregnancy in rats. However, little is known about the key factors in the endometrium involved in the improvement of embryonic implantation and development induced by maternal NCG supplementation. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to investigate whether NCG supplementation during early gestation enhanced embryonic survival and development in gilts and to uncover the related factors using the approach of endometrium proteome analysis with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)...
October 2015: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25609213/amino-acid-metabolism-in-intestinal-bacteria-and-its-potential-implications-for-mammalian-reproduction
#13
REVIEW
Zhaolai Dai, Zhenlong Wu, Suqin Hang, Weiyun Zhu, Guoyao Wu
Reproduction is vital for producing offspring and preserving genetic resources. However, incidences of many reproductive disorders (e.g. miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction, premature delivery and lower sperm quality) have either increased dramatically or remained at high rates over the last decades. Mounting evidence shows a strong correlation between enteral protein nutrition and reproduction. Besides serving as major nutrients in the diet, amino acids (AA) are signaling molecules in the regulation of diverse physiological processes, ranging from spermatogenesis to oocyte fertilization and to embryo implantation...
May 2015: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25596750/local-uterine-ang-1-7-infusion-augments-the-expression-of-cannabinoid-receptors-and-differentially-alters-endocannabinoid-metabolizing-enzymes-in-the-decidualized-uterus-of-pseudopregnant-rats
#14
K Bridget Brosnihan, Victor M Pulgar, Patricia E Gallagher, Liomar A A Neves, Liliya M Yamaleyeva
BACKGROUND: Endocannabinoids (ECs) are important contributors to implantation and decidualization and are suppressed in early pregnancy. Elevated levels of anandamide (AEA), the endogenous ligand for the CB1 and CB2 receptors (R), interfere with receptivity of the blastocyst. Ang-(1-7) is down-regulated in the implantation site (IS) in normal pregnancy at day 7 of gestation. We determined the effects of intra-uterine angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] (24 microg/kg/h) or vehicle given into the left uterine horn on the ECs in the decidualized uterus...
January 17, 2015: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25528731/systems-genetics-view-of-endometriosis-a-common-complex-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Vladislav S Baranov, Tatyana E Ivaschenko, Thomas Liehr, Maria I Yarmolinskaya
Endometriosis is a condition in which cells derived from the endometrium grow outside the uterus, e.g. in the peritoneum (external genital endometriosis). As these cells are under the influence of female hormones, major symptoms of endometriosis are pain, especially during the cycle, and infertility. Numerous hypotheses for the formation of endometriosis can be found in the literature, but there is growing evidence of serious genetic contributions to endometriosis susceptibility. The involvement of genes, steroid hormone metabolism, immunological reactions, receptor formation, inflammation, proliferation, apoptosis, intercellular adhesion, cell invasion and angiogenesis as well as genes regulating the activity of aforementioned enzymes have been suggested...
February 2015: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25438102/oestrogen-regulates-bone-resorption-and-cytokine-production-in-the-maxillae-of-female-mice
#16
Soraia Macari, Letícia F Duffles, Celso M Queiroz-Junior, Mila F M Madeira, George J Dias, Mauro M Teixeira, Raphael E Szawka, Tarcília A Silva
Oestrogen plays major role in bone metabolism/remodelling. Despite of well-established effect of oestrogen deficiency on long bones, it remains unclear whether alveolar bone is affected. We aimed to determine the effect of oestrogen-deficiency in the alveolar bone microarchitecture. C57BL6/J and Balb/c mice were ovariectomized and implanted with oil-(OVX) or 17β-estradiol (E2)-containing (OVX+E2) capsules. Ovary-intact mice were used as controls. The dose of E2 replacement was selected based on trophic effects on the uterus and femur bone loss...
February 2015: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25179715/genetic-regulation-of-recurrent-spontaneous-abortion-in-humans
#17
REVIEW
Daniel Vaiman
Recurrent pregnancy loss, defined as a pregnancy failure occurring before 24 weeks of gestation more than two or three times according to most definitions, is a fertility defect encountered in 1-5% of the patients. This defect is of course of multifactorial origin. Among the possible origins of recurrent pregnancy loss are uterine structural defaults, defective ploidy control of the embryo, defective immunological dialog between the embryo (or the fetus) and the uterus sometimes in relation with immunological disorders (such as autoimmune diseases), thrombophilia, and free radical metabolism imbalance...
January 2015: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24850415/microrna-200a-locally-attenuates-progesterone-signaling-in-the-cervix-preventing-embryo-implantation
#18
Hirofumi Haraguchi, Tomoko Saito-Fujita, Yasushi Hirota, Mahiro Egashira, Leona Matsumoto, Mitsunori Matsuo, Takehiro Hiraoka, Kaori Koga, Naoko Yamauchi, Masashi Fukayama, Amanda Bartos, Jeeyeon Cha, Sudhansu K Dey, Tomoyuki Fujii, Yutaka Osuga
Although cervical pregnancy and placenta previa, in which the embryo and placenta embed in or adjacent to the cervix, are life-threatening complications that result in massive bleeding and poor pregnancy outcomes in women, the incidence of these aberrant conditions is uncommon. We hypothesized that a local molecular mechanism is normally in place to prevent embryo implantation in the cervix. The ovarian hormones progesterone (P(4)) and estrogen differentially direct differentiation and proliferation of endometrial cells, which confers the receptive state for implantation: P(4) dominance causes differentiation of the luminal epithelium but increases stromal cell proliferation in preparation of the uterus for implantation...
July 2014: Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24695544/adipokines-and-the-female-reproductive-tract
#19
REVIEW
Maxime Reverchon, Christelle Ramé, Michael Bertoldo, Joëlle Dupont
It is well known that adipose tissue can influence puberty, sexual maturation, and fertility in different species. Adipose tissue secretes molecules called adipokines which most likely have an endocrine effect on reproductive function. It has been revealed over the last few years that adipokines are functionally implicated at all levels of the reproductive axis including the gonad and hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Many studies have shown the presence and the role of the adipokines and their receptors in the female reproductive tract of different species...
2014: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24036251/vegfr-3-neutralization-inhibits-ovarian-lymphangiogenesis-follicle-maturation-and-murine-pregnancy
#20
Joseph M Rutkowski, Jong Eun Ihm, Seung Tae Lee, Witold W Kilarski, Veronique I Greenwood, Miriella C Pasquier, Alexandra Quazzola, Didier Trono, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Melody A Swartz
Lymphatic vessels surround follicles within the ovary, but their roles in folliculogenesis and pregnancy, as well as the necessity of lymphangiogenesis in follicle maturation and health, are undefined. We used systemic delivery of mF4-31C1, a specific antagonist vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3) antibody to block lymphangiogenesis in mice. VEGFR-3 neutralization for 2 weeks before mating blocked ovarian lymphangiogenesis at all stages of follicle maturation, most notably around corpora lutea, without significantly affecting follicular blood angiogenesis...
November 2013: American Journal of Pathology
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