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preeclampsia prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147891/long-term-presence-of-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-autoantibody-reduces-aldosterone-production-by-triggering-ca-2-overload-in-h295r-cells
#1
Jinghui Lei, Suli Zhang, Pengli Wang, Yang Liao, Jingwei Bian, Xiaochen Yin, Ye Wu, Lina Bai, Feng Wang, Xiaoli Yang, Huirong Liu
Preeclamptic women are reported to have inadequate plasma volume expansion coupled with a suppressed secretion of aldosterone; however, the specific mechanism of preeclampsia remains unclear. We demonstrated that the presence of long-term angiotensin II type 1 receptor autoantibody (AT1-AA) reduces aldosterone production by triggering a Ca(2+) overload in H295R cells. AT1-AA was discovered in preeclamptic women and reported to activate AT1R, and consequently elevate intracellular Ca(2+). We found that AT1-AA significantly prolonged the time of intracellular Ca(2+) elevation...
November 16, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139276/preventing-stroke-and-assessing-risk-in-women
#2
Tracey Keteepe-Arachi, Sanjay Sharma
Ischaemic stroke is rare in premenopausal women but risk increases with advancing age and doubles in the ten years following the menopause. Up to the age of 75 years men have a 25% higher risk of suffering a stroke compared with women. However, the increased life expectancy of women ultimately results in a higher overall incidence. Twice as many women die from stroke compare with breast cancer. Women with cerebrovascular disease are more likely to present with atypical symptoms than men. Altered mental status (including unresponsiveness, confusion and behavioural change) is the most common nonconventional symptom, and is reported by 23% of women compared with 15% of men...
March 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138036/aspirin-for-the-prevention-of-preterm-and-term-preeclampsia-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Stephanie Roberge, Emmanuel Bujold, Kypros H Nicolaides
BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials have reported contradictory results concerning the effect of aspirin in the prevention of preeclampsia both in terms of the gestational age at the onset of treatment and the dose of the drug. The controversy may be resolved by a meta-analysis that includes several recently published trials and particularly the large Combined Multimarker Screening and Randomized Patient Treatment with Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention (ASPRE) trial and by examining whether there is a difference of the effect of aspirin on preterm vs...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130759/preeclampsia-in-pregnancies-complicated-by-sle-nephritis-prophylactic-treatment-with-multidisciplinary-approach-are-important-keys-to-prevent-adverse-obstetrics-outcomes
#4
Federico Mecacci, Serena Simeone, Calogero Lino Cirami, Mauro Cozzolino, Caterina Serena, Marianna Pina Rambaldi, Pamela Gallo, Lorenzo Emmi, Daniele Cammelli, Giorgio Mello, Marco Matucci Cerinic
INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) commonly affects women of childbearing age. Hypertension, antiphospholipid syndrome and lupus nephritis are risk factors for adverse maternal/fetal outcome. The aim of this retrospective cohort study is to compare pregnancy outcomes in patients with and without SLE nephritis, using a multidisciplinary approach and a broad prophylaxis protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected from 86 pregnancies complicated by SLE...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125378/type-of-obstetric-anesthesia-administered-and-complications-in-women-with-preeclampsia-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#5
Soha Sobhy, Kuhan Dharmarajah, David Arroyo-Manzano, Ramesan Navanatnarajah, James Noblet, Javier Zamora, Shakila Thangaratinam
BACKGROUND: Delivery is often expedited with cesarean section, necessitating anesthesia, to prevent complications in women with preeclampsia. Anesthesia-associated risks in these women from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are not known. METHODS: We searched major databases (until February 2017) for studies on general vs. regional anesthesia in women with preeclampsia. We summarized the association between outcomes and type of anesthesia using a random effects model and reported as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs)...
November 2017: Hypertension in Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114367/the-comparison-of-anti-seizure-and-tocolytic-effects-of-phenytoin-and-magnesium-sulphate-in-the-treatment-of-eclampsia-and-preeclampsia-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#6
Maryam Khooshideh, Majid Ghaffarpour, Sama Bitarafan
Background: To date, magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is the treatment of choice for prevention of seizure in eclampsia and preeclampsia. However, there are some limitations in the administration of MgSO4 due to its tocolytic effects. The aim of this study was to compare the anticonvulsant and tocolytic effects of MgSO4 and another drug, phenytoin, in patients with eclampsia and preeclampsia. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on pregnant women hospitalised with eclampsia or preeclampsia, during 2014-2016...
July 6, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113524/how-does-preeclampsia-affect-neonates-highlights-in-the-disease-s-immunity
#7
Lina R Marins, Leonardo B Anizelli, Ana L Sarquis, Mariana D Romanowski
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia (PE) is the primary obstetrical cause in one to four perinatal deaths. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia is not fully known, a proinflammatory immune state prevails and can disrupt fetal hematopoiesis. Some of the effects on the newborn include neonatal thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, a reduction in T regulatory cells and an increased cytotoxic natural killer cell profile. METHOD: Electronic databases were searched, and defined criteria were applied to select articles for review...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111423/maternal-cardiovascular-dysfunction-in-women-with-early-onset-preeclampsia-and-late-onset-preeclampsia-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Sindhura Vaddamani, Anish Keepanasseril, Ajith Ananthakrishna Pillai, Binay Kumar
OBJECTIVES: To compare the cardiovascular changes associated with early onset (EOPE) and late onset (LOPE) subtypes of preeclampsia. METHODS: A prospective matched cross-sectional study involving 50 women each with early and late onset subtypes of preeclampsia conducted in a tertiary hospital in South India. Cardiac function and remodelling were assessed by conventional 2D, M-mode and doppler echocardiography. RESULTS: Women with EOPE had a significantly more altered left ventricular (LV) geometry, global LV diastolic dysfunction, impairment in myocardial contractility (40% vs...
October 25, 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103803/cd39-and-cd73-activity-are-protective-in-a-mouse-model-of-antiphospholipid-antibody-induced-miscarriages
#9
Anushka N Samudra, Karen M Dwyer, Carly Selan, Susanna Freddi, Lisa Murray-Segal, Mandana Nikpour, Michael J Hickey, Karlheinz Peter, Simon C Robson, Maithili Sashindranath, Peter J Cowan, Harshal H Nandurkar
OBJECTIVE: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder of young adults associated with devastating pregnancy complications (recurrent miscarriages, preeclampsia and low birth weight) and vascular complications including thrombosis. The key components implicated in pathogenesis of APS are the complement cascade and tissue factor (TF) activity causing inflammation and coagulation. Purinergic signalling involving catabolism of ATP to adenosine by cell-surface enzymes CD39 and CD73 has anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093983/the-importance-of-magnesium-in-clinical-healthcare
#10
REVIEW
Gerry K Schwalfenberg, Stephen J Genuis
The scientific literature provides extensive evidence of widespread magnesium deficiency and the potential need for magnesium repletion in diverse medical conditions. Magnesium is an essential element required as a cofactor for over 300 enzymatic reactions and is thus necessary for the biochemical functioning of numerous metabolic pathways. Inadequate magnesium status may impair biochemical processes dependent on sufficiency of this element. Emerging evidence confirms that nearly two-thirds of the population in the western world is not achieving the recommended daily allowance for magnesium, a deficiency problem contributing to various health conditions...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082364/effect-of-metformin-on-maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-pregnant-obese-non-diabetic-women-a-meta-analysis
#11
Ahmed Elmaraezy, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Amany Emara, Omar Elshahat, Hussien Ahmed, Magdy I Mostafa
BACKGROUND: Metformin reduces maternal and neonatal weight gain in gestational diabetes mellitus; however, this effect is poorly investigated in non-diabetic women. OBJECTIVE: We performed this meta-analysis to investigate the effect of metformin intake during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes in obese non-diabetic women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL for eligible randomized controlled trials addressing the efficacy of metformin in pregnant obese non-diabetic women...
August 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067442/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-in-trophoblasts-and-abnormal-activation-in-preeclampsia-review
#12
Zhan Zhang, Xiaofang Wang, Linlin Zhang, Ying Shi, Jinming Wang, Huan Yan
Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the most common types of hypertensive disease and occurs in 3‑4% of pregnancies. There are a number of theories on the pathogenesis of PE. Abnormal differentiation of the placenta may lead to failure of trophoblast migration, shallow placenta implantation and placental ischemia/hypoxia, followed by the subsequent occurrence of PE. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a canonical Wnt‑signaling pathway that regulates several biological processes, including proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057843/calcium-and-vitamin-d-supplementation-for-prevention-of-preeclampsia-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Win Khaing, Sakda Arj-Ong Vallibhakara, Visasiri Tantrakul, Orawin Vallibhakara, Sasivimol Rattanasiri, Mark McEvoy, John Attia, Ammarin Thakkinstian
Vitamin D supplementation effects with or without calcium in pregnancy for reducing risk of preeclampsia and gestational or pregnancy induced hypertension are controversial. Literature was systematically searched in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from inception to July 2017. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in English were selected if they had any pair of interventions (calcium, vitamin D, both, or placebo). Systematic review with two-step network-meta-analysis was used to indirectly estimate supplementary effects...
October 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049209/pravastatin-for-prevention-of-hellp-syndrome-a-case-report
#14
Lucia Anna Otten, Katrin van der Ven, Marietta Kühr, Ulrich Gembruch, Waltraut Maria Merz
RATIONALE: Pravastatin has emerged for prevention and treatment of preeclampsia; no reports are available on pravastatin and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets) syndrome. PATIENT CONCERNS: The first pregnancy necessitated termination of pregnancy at gestational age (GA) 20+5 for HELLP. Intrauterine fetal death at GA 22+5 occurred in the second pregnancy, whilst on temporizing management of HELLP. DIAGNOSES: Severe, recurrent early-onset HELLP syndrome...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048755/nifedipine-prevents-apoptosis-of-alcohol-exposed-first-trimester-trophoblast-cells
#15
Alan D Bolnick, Jay M Bolnick, Hamid-Reza Kohan-Ghadr, Brian A Kilburn, Michael Hertz, Jing Dai, Sascha Drewlo, D Randall Armant
BACKGROUND: Maternal alcohol abuse leading to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) includes fetal growth restriction (FGR). Ethanol induces apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cells, possibly disrupting placentation and contributing to FGR in FASD. Ethanol facilitates apoptosis in several embryonic tissues, including human trophoblasts, by raising intracellular Ca(2+) . We previously found that acute ethanol exposure increases trophoblast apoptosis due to signaling from both intracellular and extracellular Ca(2+) ...
October 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046976/the-complement-system-and-preeclampsia
#16
REVIEW
Jean F Regal, Richard M Burwick, Sherry D Fleming
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preeclampsia affects 3-4% of pregnancies with few treatment options to reduce maternal and fetal harm. Recent evidence that targeting the complement system may be an effective therapeutic strategy in prevention or treatment of preeclampsia will be reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in humans confirm the safety and efficacy of C5 blockade in complement-mediated disorders of pregnancy, including preeclampsia. Animal models mimic the placental abnormalities and/or the maternal symptoms which characterize preeclampsia...
October 18, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046520/the-impact-of-salt-intake-during-and-after-pregnancy
#17
Kei Asayama, Yutaka Imai
Although high blood pressure before pregnancy is associated with a risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, no convincing evidence has been produced to show that dietary salt reduction helps in the prevention and treatment of hypertension during pregnancy. Thus the current guidelines do not recommend a sodium restriction during pregnancy to prevent gestational hypertension and the development of preeclampsia. However, the long-term impact of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy for life-threatening diseases later in life is a critical issue...
October 19, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045342/hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-and-postpartum-readmission-in-the-united-states-national-surveillance-of-the-revolving-door
#18
Mulubrhan F Mogos, Jason L Salemi, Kiara K Spooner, Barbara L McFarlin, Hamisu H Salihu
OBJECTIVES: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) represent the most common cause of maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. Yet, the prevalence and cost of postpartum (42-day) readmission (PPR) among HDP-complicated pregnancies in the United States remains unknown. This study provides national prevalence and cost estimates of HDP, and examine factors associated with potentially preventable PPR following HDP-complicated pregnancies. METHOD: The 2013 and 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Databases were used to investigate HDP and PPR among delivery hospitalizations to women aged 15-49 years...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042488/natural-killer-cells-mediate-pathophysiology-in-response-to-reduced-uterine-perfusion-pressure
#19
Jamil Elfarra, Lorena M Amaral, Maggie McCalmon, Jeremy D Scott, Mark W Cunningham, Ashley Gnam, Tarek Ibrahim, Babbette LaMarca, Denise C Cornelius
Preeclampsia is associated with hypertension, small-for-gestational-age babies and increased cytolytic natural killer (NK) cells. The specific role of cytolytic NK cells in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia has not been clearly defined. We hypothesized that Reduced Uterine Perfusion Pressure (RUPP) stimulates proliferation and cytolytic activation of NK cells, and that reducing NK cells in RUPP would prevent hypertension, intrauterine growth restriction, and inflammation in response to placental ischemia...
October 17, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039130/aspirin-for-prevention-of-preeclampsia
#20
A Atallah, E Lecarpentier, F Goffinet, M Doret-Dion, P Gaucherand, V Tsatsaris
Aspirin is currently the most widely prescribed treatment in the prevention of cardiovascular complications. The indications for the use of aspirin during pregnancy are, however, the subject of much controversy. Since the first evidence of the obstetric efficacy of aspirin in 1985, numerous studies have tried to determine the effect of low-dose aspirin on the incidence of preeclampsia, with very controversial results. Large meta-analyses including individual patient data have demonstrated that aspirin is effective in preventing preeclampsia in high-risk patients, mainly those with a history of preeclampsia...
October 16, 2017: Drugs
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